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Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Compact Spiral-Shaped

Microstrip Resonators
Chien-Hsiang Huang#, Hsiao-Chun Li, Chien-Hsun Chen , and Tzyy-Sheng Horng
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan
#
d9131820@student.nsysu.edu.tw

Introduction

With the rapid growth of wireless and mobile communications, bandpass filters (BPFs) are
highly demanded in many communication systems. In the current development of various
bandpass filters, planar filters, which can be fabricated using printed circuit technology, are
suitable for commercial applications. Modern wireless systems require the use of more than
one frequency band. For example, conventional wireless local area networks (WLAN)
systems were required to integrate IEEE 802.11b/g (2.4/2.45 GHz) and IEEE 802.11a (5.2
5.8 GHz) specifications. If a dual-band system formed as a composite of two single-band
systems, it is often very costly and occupies more areas than an integrated system. The
challenges to design a dual-band BPF are to achieve compact size and low insertion loss
simultaneously.

In past, the dual-band BPF consisted of two circuits that were individually designed for each
band. Unfortunately, this approach needs extra impedance matching networks for diplexer-
like structure and results in a large circuit size. On another way, the design of dual-band BPF
was usually developed by using a cascade of open-stub structure to achieve a dual-band
response [1]. However, this approach increases the circuit complexity and size. Recent
development of the dual-band BPF is popularly based on stepped impedance resonator (SIR)
structures with various impedance ratios which were commonly used to shift or suppress the
higher order non-periodical resonant frequencies [2]. However, poor insertion loss in these
two passbands is introduced due to the large discontinues appearing in the configuration of
SIR. The proposed filter was also designed by using half-wavelength resonator of uniform
spiral-shaped microstrip line and fabricated to demonstrate for the compactness and excellent
performance.

Spiral Shaped Half-wavelength Resonator

For a filter design, the resonator is the basic component and necessary to be selected proper
types used in filter circuit. As mentions for some crucial considerations, the reduction of
circuit size is the primary importance. Figure 1(a) and Figure 1(b) show the conventional
open-loop resonator and proposed spiral-shaped resonator, respectively. In geometry, the size
of the latter has been reduced than the former due to its increasing mutual capacitance and
inductance, leading to shorter metal length for a given operating frequency [3]. Figure 2
shows the input phase response of half-wavelength uniform straight transmission-line
resonator, open-loop resonator and spiral-shaped resonator. From results of Figure 2, it can be
obviously found that the fundamental resonating frequency of three various resonators are
simultaneously designed at 2.4 GHz, and the second, third order resonating frequency of the
uniform transmission-line resonator and open-loop resonator are both equal to 4.8 and 7.2
GHz, respectively. The interesting thing is that the 2nd and 3rd order resonating frequency of
spiral-shaped resonator shown in Figure 2 is located at 5.2 and 6.5 GHz, respectively. By the
property of non-periodical resonating frequency for spiral-shaped resonator, it can be used
effectively into designing the dual-band BPF, which first center frequency and second center

978-1-4244-2642-3/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE


frequency of passband is 2.45 GHz for IEEE WLAN 802.1lb/g and 5.2 GHz for IEEE WLAN
802.lla applications, respectively.

Filter Design Procedure

To demonstrate the proposed spiral-shaped resonator concept on dual-band BPF design, the
3rd order Chebyshev function filter with a 0.1 dB ripple level and the fractional bandwidth )
of 10% is designed at the center frequency of 2.45 GHz for first passband and 5.2 GHz for
second passband, respectively. The overall configuration of the proposed filter is illustrated in
Figure 3 and composed of three identical half-wavelength spiral-shaped resonators. Thus, the
coupling coefficients Mij between resonator i and resonator j, and the external input/output
quality factor Qei/Qeo can be calculated as follows:


M 12 = = 0.09 (1)
g1g 2

M 23 = = 0.09 (2)
g 2 g3
g g
Qei = 0 1 = 10.3 (3)

g3 g 4
Qeo = = 10.3 (4)

where gis are filter prototype parameters [4], [5]. Figure 4 shows the simulated coupling
coefficients versus the distances between the adjacent resonators. Figure 5 illustrates the
simulated external quality factor against the tapped line position. In order to increasing the
selectivity of filter, some cross-coupled filters, which can be realized an elliptic or a quasi-
elliptic function response, are good helps for increasing selectivity [6]. However, main
drawback of these types of filters is the degeneration of stopband or poor out-of-band
rejection. As described in [7], it was known that the tapped-line input/output coupling can
generate transmission zeros. Effectively, with this configuration, multiple attenuation poles
can be easily created near the passband. To study and utilize this phenomenon, numerical EM
simulations of 3-D full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS were carried out on the proposed 3rd
order spiral-shaped resonators dual-band BPF. Figure 6 shows the simulation responses with
extra two transmission zeros nearby the first and second passband of dual-band BPF,
respectively. From these curves, it can be found that the advantage of the proposed dual-band
BPF is that the extra transmission zeros can be easily controlled by the tapped-line coupling
input/output position t illustrated in Figure 3 and help to maintain high performance of the
selectivity.

Experimental Measurements

The proposed filters are fabricated on a Roger RT/D 6010 substrate with a dielectric constant
of 10.2, a loss tangent of 0.0028 and thickness of 0.64 mm. The measured and simulated
results of the filter are illustrated in Figure 7. The simulated results and the measured results
in the frequency range of 1 ~ 6 GHz are compared. The measured passband return losses are
both below 18 dB while the passband insertion losses are approximately 1.4 dB and 2.5 dB at
the first and second passband, respectively. It can be also obviously observed that there are
two extra transmission zeros on opposite sides of two passbands due to controlling by the tap
coupling input/output position. As results, these four extra transmission zeros are observed at
approximately 1.8, 3, 4.8, and 5.7 GHz with minimum 30dB rejection. This proposed filter
possesses both good selectivity and out-of-band rejection. Good agreement between
measured and simulated results is obtained. Figure 8 is a photograph of the designed 3rd
Chebyshev dual-band BPF. The size of the proposed filter only occupies the area as small as
13 mm 7 mm.

Conclusion

In this paper, a compact dual-band bandpass filter using spiral-shaped half-wavelength


resonator has been designed and implemented. In addition, for transmission zero generation,
the tapped-line input/output feed mechanism is used in this filter. Based on this architecture,
we can easily achieve a significant size reduction compared with conventional open-loop
resonator BPF. A well agreement between measurement and simulation results has been
obtained. The designed filter is attractive and suitable for applications where the filter area is
very limited.

Acknowledgements: This research was supported in part by he Ministry of Education under


Program of Aim for the Top University Plan, Taiwan, R.O.C., and by the National Science
Council, Taiwan, R.O.C., under Grant 97-2221-E-110-035-MY3 and 97-2622-E-110-007-
CC1.

References

[1] C. M. Tsai, H. M. Lee, and C. C. Tsai, Planar filter design with fully controllable
second passband, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 34293439,
Nov. 2005.
[2] Y. P. Zhang and M. Sun, Dual-band microstrip bandpass filter using stepped-
impedance resonators with new coupling schemes, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.,
vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 37792785, Oct. 2006.
[3] G. Zhang, F. Huang, and M. J. Lancaster, Superconducting spiral filters with quasi-
elliptic characteristic for radio astronomy, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53,
pp. 947951, March 2005.
[4] G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching
Networks, And Coupling Structures, Norwood, Massachusetts: Artech House, 1980, pp.
149-155.
[5] J. S. Hong and M. J. Lancaster, Microstrip Filter for RF/Microwave Using applications,
New York: Wiley, 2001.
[6] J. T. Kuo, M. J. Maa, and P. H. Lu, A microstrip elliptic function filter with compact
miniaturized hairpin resonators, IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 10, no. 3, pp.
9495, March 2000.
[7] J. T. Kuo and E. Shih, Microstrip stepped impedance resonators bandpass filter with an
extended optimal rejection bandwidth, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 51, no.
5, pp. 15541559, May 2003.

Figures
200
Uniform
Open-loop
150

Phase of S 11 (degree)
Spiral
100

50

-50

-100

-150

-200
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
(a) (b) Frequency (GHz)

Figure 1.(a) Open-loop resonator Figure 2. Simulated phase


(b) Proposed spiral-shaped resonator response of S11 for resonators

0.25
Port 1
t M12
M12
M23

Coupling Coefficient
0.2 M23

0.15

0.1

0.05

s1 s2 t 0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Port 2 s (mm)

Figure 3. Geometry of the proposed filter Figure 4. Coupling coefficients

20
t
Magnitude of S21 (dB)

-20
External Q

16 -40

ZP3 ZP4
-60

12 t=0 mm
ZP2 t=1 mm
-80 t=1.5 mm
ZP1 t=2.5 mm

8 -100
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 1 2 3 4 5 6
t (mm) Frequency (GHz)

Figure 5. External quality factor versus Figure 6. Simulation responses of proposed


the tapped line position filter with various tapped line positions

0 0

-10
Insertion Loss (dB)

Return Loss (dB)

-20 -10

-30

-40 -20

-50

-60 -30
Measurement
-70 Simulation

-80 -40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Frequency (GHz)

Figure 7. Simulated and measured Figure 8. Photograph of the fabricated filter


results of dual-band bandpass filter