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Printed in Great Britain Q 1989 Perganm Press plc

PEISHI CHEN and DAVID C. T. PEI

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3GI

Abstract-A drying model is proposed which may be used to describe drying behavior of hygroscopic and

non-hygroscopic materials. The constant rate, the first falling rate and the second falling rate periods in

drying are addressed separately. The concept of bound water conductivity is introduced. Movement of

bound water and its contribution to moisture transfer within hygroscopic materials are discussed. The

bound water conductivity is found to be affected by moisture content as well as desorption isotherms of

the drying material. The major internal moisture transfer mechanisms are considered to be capillary flow

of free water in the wet region and movement of bound water and vapor transfer in the sorption region.

The convective heat and mass transfa coe&ients are assumed to vary with the surface free water content

in the first falling rate period. Three systems with different hygroscopic properties, wool, brick and corn

kernels, are chosen to evaluate the validity of this model. The moving finite element method is used to

solve the differential equations numerically. The predicted drying curves and the temperature and moisture

distributions compare favorably with reported experimental results.

mechanism model. A model was proposed for hygro-

DRYINGis one of the most ener~-intensive processes scopic materials based on Krischer and Kasts analysis

in industry. In order to improve process performance in ref. [12], assuming that, for moisture content

and energy utilization, new technologies such as flu- greater than the maximum sorptive value, the vapor

idized bed and spouting bed drying, freeze drying, pressure in the gas phase is equal to the saturated

spray drying and dielectrically-assisted convective value. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation is used for

drying have been applied. Therefore, it was desired to coupling phase equilibrium. In the sorption region,

develop an accurate mathematical model of sufficient the desorption isotherms obtained from exper-

generality to evaluate relative performance of various iments are used to determine the vapor pressure.

drying processes in materials having diverse moisture However, in both models, the following factors were

transport properties. not considered :

Several theoretical models have been proposed in

(1) the influence of moisture content on each mech-

the study of drying processes [l, 21. In the classical

anism ;

liquid diffusion model proposed by Sherwood [j, 41,

(2) the importance of movement of bound water

Ficks law is assumed to be valid, and the gradient of

and desorption isotherm in drying hygroscopic

liquid content is considered to be the driving force for

materials.

moisture transfer. However, the agreement between

theoretical and experimental moisture content profiles Luikov [13] developed a uniquely different

was not satisfactory ; as pointed out by Ceaglske and approach to the repre~n~tion of the sim~taneous

Hougen [SJ, the term liquid diffusion is constrained heat and moisture transfer in drying processes, which

and may sometimes be misleading. is based on irreversible thermodynamics. A difficulty

King [6] proposed a vapor diffusion model for dry- with this formulation is that a number of transfer

ing of food materials, assuming that vapor diffusion mechanisms are lumped together, masking the indi-

is the only mechanism of internal moisture transfer, vidual differences between mechanisms, and the

and that the relationship between the sorptive moist- dependence of each on different controlling variables.

ure and the partial vapor pressure in the gas phase In order to describe the simultaneous heat and

is described by desorption isotherms. Based on the moisture transfer during the falling rate period in

evaporation~ondensation theory proposed by Henry drying of capiIla~-porous bodies, Luikov 1141 pro-

[7], Harmathy [8] developed a model of simultaneous posed a two-zone model. This model assumes the

heat and mass transfer during the pendular state existence of a receding evaporation front which sep-

of liquid within porous materials. The equations de- arates the material into a moist zone and an evap-

rived are the same as those of the vapor diffusion oration zone, each with different moisture transfer

model. coefficients. Based on Luikovs two-zone model and

In drying of a wet porous material, internal liquid the assumption that, in the evaporation zone, moist-

moisture transport is mainly by capillary flow [S, 9, ure transfer is in vapor form only, some solutions for a

IO]. By considering that moisture can migrate sim- porous half space system were obtained by Mikhailov

ultaneously in the forms of capillary flow and vapor WI.

297

HT32:2-c

298 P. CHEN and D. C. 7. PEI

NOMENCLATURE

constants, equation (1) [-] u moisture content [kg kgfsolid) 3

specific heat capacity [J kg- K- 1 t fluid velocity [m s- I.

bound water conductivity [ms_ 1

capillary conductivity [m* s- 1

Greek symbols

vapor ditlusion coefficient [m s- 1

thermal diffusivity [m s 1

vapor transfer coefficient, equation (20)

; parameter, equation (12)

[ms_]

Y pore volume density function [rn-- 1

Eli activation energy of movement of bound E voidage, porosity [-]

water [kJ kg- mall 1

n,, nh parameters, equations (22) and (23) [--I

h convective heat transfer coefficient 0 r, 8, parameters, equation (2 I )

[Wm-2K-] 2 mean free path of water molecules [m]

convective mass transfer coefhcient viscosity fkg m- s- 1

P

[m s-- 1 density [kg m- ]

P

Ah heat of evaporation [kJ kg- 1 (r surface tension [N me- 1

Jl. free water flux [kgm-s 1 Z tortuosity factor of capillary paths [-]

k thermal conductivity [W m- i K- 1 relative humidity [-I.

9

K permeability [m]

f-6 single phase permeability of porous

material [m 1 Subscripts

relative permeability [-] 0 initial

Kr

m ratio of the diffusion coefficients of air I wet region

and water vapor [-_I 2 sorption region

evaporation rate [kg m- s- f a air

WA

h4 molecular weight b bound water

NU Nusselt number, hR/k, [--_I C capillary, critical

P pressure [N m -_*] eq equilibrium

capillary pressure, Pg - P, [N m- 1 gas phase

PC

vapor pressure [N m -] : heat

PI

Pr Prandtl number, k,cpa/pa [-_I ir irreducible

heat source [w m- 1 L liquid moisture, free water

q

m mass

r, R radius [m]

R gas constant [kJ kg- mall K- 1 ms maximum sorptive

Rt? Reynolds number, Ra,p,jpC1,[-_I S water saturated

S pore saturation [-_I V vapor

W water, wet bulb.

S(t) position of receding evaporation front

[ml

Sh Sherwood number, h,RjD, [--] Superscript

time [s] * vapor saturated.

Szentgyorgyi and Molnar [16] proposed a two-zone scopic properties influence the contribution of each

model based on the diffusion model. By assuming that mechanism and consequently affect the drying rate.

a constant moisture content is equal to that in sorption In general, moisture transport in the dry zone is not

equilibrium with the drying medium in the dry zone, simple, and the moisture content in each zone is not

a solution was obtained. A fairly satisfactory approxi- constant. Furthermore, for porous materials, the con-

mation of temperature distribution was predicted, as vective mass transfer coefficient varies with the surface

compared with the experimental results. moisture content 121, 221.

Most of the models described above have not been The convective heat and mass transfer coefficients

able to predict drying rates and the dist~bution of at the surface are important parameters in drying

temperature and moisture content for both hygro- processes ; they are functions of velocity and physical

scopic and non-hygroscopic materials over a wide properties of the drying medium 1231,and in general,

range of boundary conditions and drying regimes. can be expressed in the form

This is because, the moisture transport in materials is

caused by a variety of mechanisms [ 1, 17-201, each of Nu = a Reh Pr (1)

which is prevalent under different conditions. The

local moisture content, temperature and the hygro- Sh = a Reh SC (2,

A mathematical model of drying processes 299

with low initial moisture content such as food prod-

ucts, predicted values are often not in good agreement

with experimental results [22]. Van Brake1 and

Heertjes [22] proposed an effective area model to inter-

pret this phenomenon. For a fully wetted surface, the

areas for heat and mass transfer are virtually the same,

so that the surface temperature is close to the wet-

bulb temperature ; for a partly wetted surface, the

effective area for mass transfer decreases with the

surface moisture content.

Suzuki and Maeda [21] proposed a model for the

convective mass transfer coefficient which assumed

that evaporation takes place from a discontinuous wet

surface consisting of dry and wet patches. The ratio

of the wet area to the total surface area decreases with

decreasing moisture content. However, it is not clear

how the fraction of wet area varies with the surface

moisture content. Moreover, for hygroscopic

materials, when the fraction of wet area at the surface

approaches zero or the surface moisture content is

equal to the maximum sorptive value, the evaporation

FIG. I. Drying model.

rate at the surface may not be equal to zero.

In the present study, a mathematical model for

drying processes is developed, which considers all the bound water and vapor transfer. If the initial moisture

major internal moisture transfer mechanisms and the content of the porous material is high enough, the

properties of the material to be dried, including surface is covered with a continuous layer of free water

whether it is hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic. The and evaporation takes place mainly at the surface.

convective heat and mass transfer coefficients are Internal moisture transfer is mainly attributable to

assumed to vary with the surface moisture content. A capillary flow of free water through the voids. There-

moving finite-element method is used to solve the fore, the drying rate is determined by external con-

differential equations numerically. ditions only, i.e. the temperature, humidity and flow

rate of the convective medium, and a constant drying

rate period will be observed. As drying proceeds, the

PRESENT DRYING MODEL

fraction of wet area decreases with decreasing surface

Drying involves simultaneous heat and mass trans- moisture content, so that the mass transfer coefficient

fer in a multiphase system. The drying materials may decreases. In order to predict how the wet area frac-

be classified into hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic tion varies with surface moisture content, it is necess-

materials. For non-hygroscopic porous materials, ary to introduce percolation theory [25].

pores of different sizes form a complex network of According to percolation theory, when water passes

capillary paths. The water inside the pores that con- through randomly distributed paths in a medium,

tribute to flow is called free water. However, the water there exists a percolation threshold, which usually

inside very fine capillaries is difficult to replace by air. corresponds to a critical free water content. When the

This portion of water is known as the irreducible free water content is greater than the critical, the water

water content. Here, it is defined as bound water. The phase is continuous. For a two-dimensional porous

structure of many food products is basically arrays of medium, this critical value is about 50% of the satu-

cells [19]. Although the cells are very similar in nature, rated free water content and for a three-dimensional

the tissue can differ widely in porosity and bulk prop- porous medium it is around 30%.

erties. The intercellular spaces, like the voids in porous Regardless of the rate of internal moisture transfer,

materials, are interconn~ted and filled with air and a so long as the free water content at the surface is less

certain amount of free water. The cells themselves also than the critical, the surface will form discontinuous

contain water, which is also defined here as bound wet patches. Thus, the mass transfer coefficient

water. The cellular membrane is considered to behave decreases with the surface free water content and the

like a perfect semi-permeable membrane and may act first falling rate period starts. In the first falling rate

as capillary paths for bound water to migrate [24]. period, a new energy balance will be reached at the

The physical configuration for the present model is surface, accompanied by a sIowly rising surface tem-

shown in Fig. 1. When a porous material is exposed perature. Free water still exists at the surface, the

to a convective surface condition, three main mech- dry patches still contain bound water, and the vapor

anisms of internal moisture transfer are assumed to pressure at the surface is determined by the Clausius-

prevail, capillary flow of free water, movement of Clapeyron equation.

300 P. Cna~ and D. C. T. PEI

When the surface moisture content reaches its laries may be assumed to follow the Hagen-Poiseuille

maximum sorptive value, no free water exists. The law [23]

surface temperature will rise rapidly, signaling the

start of the second falling rate period, during which a

receding evaporation front often appears, dividing

the system into two regions, the wet region and the The total mass flow rate of free water can then be

sorption region. Inside the evaporation front, the expressed in terms of the local velocity and cor-

material is wet, i.e. the voids contain free water and responding capillary radius, r,, which is defined as the

the main mechanism of moisture transfer is capillary radius of the largest capillary in which free water

flow. Outside the front, no free water exists. All water exists, i.e.

is in the sorptive or bound water state and the main

mechanisms of moisture transfer are movement of

bound water and vapor transfer. Evaporation takes

place at the front as well as in the whole sorption

region, while vapor flows through the sorption region

to the surface. where y(r) is the pore volume density function, defined

With the above definitions of the constant rate, as

first falling rate and second falling rate periods, the

characteristics of most drying processes can be

described mathematically.

Since the internal moisture transport mechanisms, The relationship between the pore saturation and the

the desorption isotherms, and the convective heat and pore density function is

mass transfer coefficients are all important factors in

the model, they will be discussed in turn. c

r@fdr 1

j_

s=;,__ =_ y(r) dr (8)

Capifkiry flow cf freewater rma ,?s lw

In porous materials, voids provide capillary paths r y(r) dr

Jr,,,

for free water to flow. The driving force for capillary

flow is tension gradient or pressure gradient. The per- where rmax is the overall largest capillary in the porous

tinent expression [9,10] for capillary IIow of free water material. Comparing equations (4) and (5) with equa-

is given by tion (7}, iu, may be expressed as

J,,. = -p,:(VP,-VP,-p,g).

(3) KL = K&

=

sII. $

g; ~(4 dr

ln,,n (9)

as

(1) the material is macroscopically homogeneous ;

(2) the flow in the capillary paths is laminar ;

(3) there is no significant temperature gradient;

(4) the effect of the gas phase pressure and gravity

The pore volume density function can be obtained

force are negligible.

from the relationship between capillary pressure and

Thus, equation (3) can be simplified as pore saturation of a porous medium. Solving equa-

tions (8) and (9) using the correlation of pore volume

density obtained from the experimental results of

Chatzis [27], a relationship between pore saturation

and relative permeability can be obtained which is

As pointed out by Miller and Miller [26], for homo-

very close to the empirical correlation

geneous media and negligible gravity forces, tension

is proportional to moisture content. It appears that

Krischer and Kasts equation for liquid flow [1 l] may (111

be valid

Therefore, equation (11) can be used to predict the

J,_ = -poDLVU (5) relative permeability, K,. For water, cr./.uis a linear

function of temperature [ 171, which can be expressed

where p0 is the bulk density of dry material.

Since the permeability K, depends on the pore as

structure of the material and the interaction between ff

water and the solid skeleton, it is difficult to find a - = 1.604T-394.3(mss). (12)

p

theoretical form to relate & and the capillary con-

ductivity D,_. However, the velocity of flow in capil- The value of &(r,) in equation (IO) might be constant

A mathematical model of drying processes 301

or a function of free water content. Consequently, the ductivity depends on the microscopic structure of the

following form is obtained to predict the capillary material and is of the order of lo- m* s- [18, 201.

conductivity of free water for non-hygroscopic Therefore, in the wet region, it can be neglected com-

materials : pared with the capillary conductivity of free water.

However, in the sorption region, both movement of

D, = (1.604T-394.3)jK, bound water and vapor transfer play important roles

(13)

in moisture transfer. The transport equation for

bound water may be expressed as

and similarly, for hygroscopic materials

Jb = -,,+P = -+P,. (14)

D, = (1.604T- 394.3)j?K,,

Since the bound water in the sorption region is in

equilibrium with vapor in the gas phase, equation (14)

Movement of bound water may be written as

Movement of bound water, sometimes known as

liquid moisture transfer near dryness or sorption

diffusion, has been studied by a number of inves-

Jb = +P~~VU= -pOD,VU (15)

tigators [17-20,24,28]. It has been shown that liquid

moisture transfer still exists in the sorption region and where Db is an Arrhenius-type function of tem-

is a strong function of free water content. Whitaker perature [17, 301. Thus the bound water conductivity

[20,29] studied gas phase convective transport in the may be written as

dry region which contains irreducible water and con-

cluded that there could be a liquid moisture flux in that

region. Bramhall [28] proposed a sorption diffusion

model for the wood drying process which assumed where Ed is defined as the activation energy of move-

that, when the adsorbed water molecules receive ment of bound water. Experimental data in the litera-

enough energy to break the sorptive bonds, they may ture [28,30] show that the activation energy of bound

leave and migrate until captured by other sites. The water movement is different from the vaporization

energy is then received by other molecules and the heat of free water because the sorption characteristics

process is repeated. He also tried to show that the of the material influence the movement of bound

activation energy of sorption diffusion is the same as water. Recently, Okazaki and co-workers [31, 321

the evaporation heat of water. studied moisture transfer mechanisms in sorptive

Movement of bound water however cannot be sim- porous materials by including the effect of condensate

ply defined as a diffusion process, which often creates flow in fine capillaries, which may also be regarded as

confusion in the analysis of liquid moisture transfer bound water. It is hard to tell whether the water in

in drying processes. Moreover, the bound water con- fine capillaries in a porous material comes from con-

ductivity measured is strongly inlIuenced by moisture densation or from connected fine capillaries, but it is

content. Therefore, movement of bound water may clear that movement of bound water plays an impor-

rather be due to flow along very fine capillaries or tant role in moisture transfer in the sorption region.

through cellular membranes.

In the present study, for moisture transfer in the Vapor flow

sorption region, the following assumptions are made : During a drying process, water vapor flows through

(1) bound water exists in any hygroscopic porous the voids of a porous material by convection and

material ; for food products, the bound water refers diffusion. The equations for vapor flow and airflow

to the cellular water [17, 19, 241, and for granular may be written as

porous material, it refers to the water in the dead

PvMw K D,M,

ends, or very fine capillaries ; J, = -VP+- (17)

RT pg RT VP,

(2) liquid transfer in the sorption region is defined

as movement of bound water, as shown in Fig. 2; for J = (P-P&K&

food products the bound water moves through the a mD,MV(P-PJ (18)

RT zvp+ RT

semi-permeable membranes along the array of the

cellular structure, and for granular porous materials where m is the ratio of air and vapor diffusion

the bound water moves along very fine capillaries ; coefficients. Two kinds of diffusion may be important

(3) movement of bound water may have the charac- in drying processes, molecular diffusion and Knudsen

teristics of capillary flow, with the driving force being diffusion. When the capillary size is large in com-

gas phase pressure or vapor pressure gradient ; parison with the mean molecular free path of water

(4) the bound water conductivity is a strong func- vapor, 1, molecular diffusion prevails, and

tion of moisture content.

D, = SD,,.

At room temperature, the bound water con- z

302 P. CHEN and D. C. T. PEI

When the capillary size is equal to or smaller than 1, sorption region, if the local temperature is low; i.c.

Knudsen diffusion predominates, and P, cc P, the gas phase pressure gradient is small and

the contribution of convection to the vapor transfer

D, = EDK. is small. However, if the temperature approaches the

z

boiling temperature of water, the contribution of con-

By assuming the airflow is negligible, the approxi- vection to vapor transfer becomes significant.

mate relationship between gas phase pressure drop Sorption equilibrium

and vapor pressure drop can be obtained The interaction between bound water and solid

material can be expressed by a sorption equilibrium

(19) curve, which shows the relationship between the

amount of adsorbed or bound water and relative

Substituting equation (19) into equation (17) humidity at a certain temperature. In drying

processes, desorption isotherms are often used, as

shown in Fig. 3.

VP In region A, water is more tightly bound to solid

and in region B water is more loosely bound. The

higher the curve, the stronger the water-solid inter-

action, the more the bound water in solid.

EM,

= _iTVP,. (20) Several correlations for desorption isotherms have

been proposed. The most applicable to food products

In most convective drying processes, the tem- are the modified Henderson equation [34], and Chung

perature gradient in the wet region is small and vapor and Pfosts equation [35]. In the present study, the

flow is much less than flow of free water [33]. In the modified Henderson equation is used

A mathematical model of drying processes 303

w

FIG. 3. Desorption isotherms.

PV

J/=-= l-exp(-B,U$) (21)

p,*

temperature.

As discussed earlier, the convective mass transfer

coefficient varies with the fractional wet area at the

surface. If the free water content at the surface is

greater than about 30% of the saturated free water where qh and &,, are constants for a given material,

content, the surface water layer remains continuous, their values must be determined by experiment.

and the drying rate remains constant. For lower free

water contents, the continuous film layer breaks into

~s~ontinuous wet patches, the mass transfer MATHEMATICAL FORMU~TION

coefficient decreases, and the drying rate falls. For

In the present drying model, the wet region

high intensity drying, the evaporation rate at the sur-

(0 c r < s(t)) and the sorption region (S(t) < r < R)

face will be greater than the internal liquid flow

are considered respectively in mathematical for-

required to maintain a continuous surface layer; in

mulation.

this case, the value of the critical moisture content

increases, and the continuous film layer becomes dis-

continuous soon after the drying process starts. Wet region

Consequently, no obvious constant rate period will In the wet region, the main mechanism of moisture

be observed 1221. transfer is capillary flow of free water. The driving

According to the experimental results of Nissan and force for capillary flow is the capillary pressure gradi-

co-workers [36,37], it appears that the convective heat ent. The very small amount of water evaporated in

transfer coefficient also decreases in the first falling the wet region is also considered. Consequently, the

rate period. In the present study, the convective heat liquid moisture transfer equation can be obtained

transfer coefficient is also considered as a function of from the mass balance in the liquid phase

the free water content at the surface, and the con-

vective heat and mass transfer coefhcients are simply (24)

assumed to vary linearly with the free water content

in the first falling rate period where m,, denotes the evaporation rate in the wet

304 P. CHEN and D. C. T. PEI

be written as

The left-hand side of the equation may be neglected. It should be noted that the convective heat transfer

The heat transfer equation can also be written from coefficients, h and h,, are functions of velocity and

energy conservation considerations, and the con- properties of the flowing medium. During the con-

vective term may be neglected stant rate period, they may be determined by the

classical correlations. In the first falling rate period,

(pr,)?$ = V(k,VT,)-~~A~ +q, they are further affected by the free water content at

the surface. Equations (22) and (23) may be used to

determine the values of h and h,.

= V(ksVT,)+q, (26) In the second falling rate period, the evaporation

front recedes from the surface and divides the material

into the wet region and the sorption region. The free

moisture content at the receding evaporation front is

where q, is the heat source term For dielectric heating zero? and the moisture content is thus equal to the

in the wet region; it may be assumed to be pro- maximum sorptive value. The following moving

portional to the moisture content [3X]. If there is no boundary conditions are obtained from the mass and

soluble substance in the water, the vapor pressure in heat balances at the evaporation front, i.e. at r = S(t)

the wet region can be calculated from the Clausius-

Clapeyron equation. T, = T,, il, = U2 = I/,,,, (33)

Sorption region

In the sorption region, the main mechanisms of

moisture transport are movement of bound water and

vapor transfer. From mass and energy conservation,

respectively, the moisture and heat transfer equations

in the sorption region can be written as where U,,,, is the maximum sorptive moisture content.

Usually, the substantial derivative of moisture content

^ I

p+ = pOV(DbVw2)-me (27)

of the evaporation front can thus be determined by

in the sorption region. The evaporation term can be

(36)

obtained from the vapor transfer equation

These moving boundary equations are the coupling

equations for the heat and mass transfer in the two

regions.

Model application

neglected. In the sorption region, the desorption iso-

When a very wet porous material is dried by a

therm couples the moisture contents in the solid and

convective medium, three drying rate periods are often

gas phases. Therefore, the desorption isotherms are

observed, the constant rate period, the first falling

the determinants of the moisture distribution in the

rate period and the second falling rate period. In the

sorption region. In the present model, the desorption

constant rate period and the first falling rate period,

isotherm is correlated by the modified Henderson

the material remains wet, and the model of the wet

equation [34f, i.e. equation (21).

region only is used. Since evaporation takes place

almost entirely at the surface, the drying rate is con-

Boundary conditions trolled by the convective heat and mass transfer. If

Due to symmetry of the material, the boundary the temperature gradient within the material is neg-

conditions at the center, or r = 0, are ligible, the surface temperature is almost constant and

au, - its value is very close to the wet bulb temperature of

aT,

0, - = 0. (30) the flowing air. Therefore, the following relationship

ar &

determines the surface temperature in the constant

The boundary conditions at the surface, or r = R, are rate period :

A mathematical model of drying processes 305

h(z-,- T*) = hm~~~(P~~-P*). (37) transient proMems [41, 421; in the present study, it

was used and expanded to solve the drying problem.

When the free water content at the surface is less Elements can be built in finer structure in areas adjac-

than the critical value (30% of the saturated free water ent to the moving boundary to enhance the accuracy.

content), the first falling rate period starts, and equa-

tions (22) and (23) are used to determine the con- Drying of wool

vective heat and mass transfer coefficients. In this Nissan and co-workers [36, 371 performed exper-

period, the surface temperature rises slowly, and may iments on the drying of wool bobbins in an air tunnel.

also be determined by equation (37). The wool, composed of bulk yam in a hairy felted

When the free water content at the surface reaches cloth wound on Bake&e bobbins was dried by a hot

zero, the second falling rate period starts and the two- air stream paraliel to the axis of the cylinder. The wool

region model is used. During the second falling rate package had a 15 cm length, 7.36 cm o.d. and 1.58 cm

period, the evaporation front recedes from the i.d. The drying conditions and the physical properties

surface, and evaporation takes place mainly at the are listed in Table 1.

evaporation front as well as in the sorption region. As The hygroscopic nature of wool has been studied

the amount of water evaporating from the surface by Walker [43]. The reported data are correlated in

decreases quickly, the surface temperature rises much the form of equation (21)

faster than that in the first falling rate period.

Sometimes the initial moisture content of the

JI = $ = 1-exp(-(154.5-0.359T)U~4~s-o~oo8r~).

material is equal to or less than the maximum sorption

moisture content and no constant rate period will (38)

appear, such as in many grain drying processes. In

that case, the model of the sorption region only is Equations (13) and (16) were used to determine the

used. capillary conductivity of free water in the wet region

and the bound water conductivity in the sorption

region. The heat and mass transfer coefficients in the

Freeze drying process

i&t falling rate period may be determined by the

The freeze drying process with dielectric heating

following equations :

appears to be a promising technique to accelerate the

drying rate. Dielectric power is more effective for sub- U(R) - Kn,

limating and thus overcoming the heat transfer barrier h = ho 0.60+0.40 u _ u (3%

c Ins

of the dry or sorption region. Some theoretical analy-

sis of microwave heating freeze drying was studied by

WR) - urns

Ang et al. 1391and Ma and Peltre [40]. h, = h,, 0..50+0.50 v,_ v,, . (40)

According to the present study, microwave heating

freeze drying is just a special case of the drying By using the moving finite element method, the

problem. The moving boundary in freeze drying is the numerical solutions of this problem were obtained.

sublimation front, which separates the system into Figure 4 shows the variation of moisture content with

two regions, the frozen region and the dry or sorption time. The computed results show that the drying pro-

region. Drying takes place at the sublimation front cess can be divided into the heating-up period, the

and in the sorption region. In the frozen region, the constant rate period, the first falling rate period and

moisture is in the solid state, therefore the moisture the second falling rate period. The first falling rate

content remains constant. period starts at 60 min, when the free water content

at the surface equals 30% of the saturated free water

content or U(R) = U,.

NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS AND COMPARISON

When the free water content at the surface equals

WITH EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

zero, that is at about 110 min, the second falling rate

In order to test the validity of the mathematical period starts, and the two-region drying model is used.

model, three materials with different sorption prop- The predicted moisture and temperature distributions

erties were chosen for comparison: wool bobbins, are plotted in Figs. 5 and 6, and compared with the

brick slabs and corn kernels. Brick is a non-hygro- experimental data. As can be seen from Fig. 5, the

scopic porous material, while wool and corn kernels predicted moisture dist~bution at 60 min agrees well

are hygroscopic materials with different structures. In with the data. However, the predicted moisture dis-

most cases, the initial moisture content is equal to or tribution at the beginning of the second falling rate

less than the maximum sorption value and according period does not. This is because, at the beginning of

to the present model, no constant rate period will be the second falling rate period, the free water content

observed. Furthermore, the desorption isotherms of at the surface is zero, or the surface moisture content

these materials are documented, which makes its poss- is equal to the maximum sorptive value, which is

ible to accurately simulate the drying processes. difficult to measure at the real surface. It might only

The finite element method with Galerkin for- be observed when a thin surface layer is dried and the

306 P. CHEN and D. C. T. PEI

c 0.76 0.435 0.12

2 1.25+4.18 U 0.75+4.1g u 1.46+ 3.97 U

0.05+0.18 U 0.50f0.58 u 0.07+0.65 U

/r& 4.0 x lo- ) 7.8 x IO- 9

D,, 0.062 0.098 0.0001

E,lR 4830 5200 3900

U 1.14 0.09

Drying conditions

T,(C) 78.5 80 71

1S, 5.25 5.0 2.33

* 0.03 0.093 0.118

11 64.8 75 33

h "I" 0.065 0.083 0.026

2.64 0.168 0.31

18 25 20

moisture content is equal to the maximum sorptive Since the maximum sorption moisture content is very

value. The predicted moisture distribution at 130 min low (about 0.015), brick is usually regarded as a non-

agrees well with the measured distribution at the hygroscopic material.

beginning of the second falling rate period. In Fig. 6, The convective heat and mass transfer coefficients

it can be seen that the predicted temperature dis- in the first falling rate period may have the following

tribution agrees well with the experimental data. relationship with the free water content at the surface :

Przesmycki and Strumillo [44] studied the drying C ms

of brick and clay slabs. The brick slab had an area of

20 cm2 and a thickness of 5 cm. They also proposed (43)

a three-zone model including a wet zone, an evap-

oration zone and a dry zone. However, there was no The numerical solutions for brick slabs are shown

information on how the positions of the two moving

boundaries were determined and when the first or

second falling rate periods were supposed to start.

The drying conditions and the physical properties

i:-:_

of brick are listed in Table 1. The data of the desorp-

tion isotherm of brick were given by Haertling [45],

which may be correlated as

U, = 0.0105~0~2+0.0125exp(20~-20). (41)

I t = 0 min

G.

- COMPUTED RESULT

DATA OF NISSAN

0

Ri*

r

t bin)

FIG. 4. Drying curve of wool. FIG. 5. Moisture distribution of wool during drying.

A mathematical model of drying processes 307

.s

350 LT. ----DATA OF PRZESMYCKI (19E5)

A DATA OF NISSAN (1959)

R = 3.60 cm

+, = 0.79 cm /

---x----D-- --c

340-

I l t=Ol I

300

0 I 2 3 4 5

(cm) X

FIG. 8. Temperature distribution of brick during drying.

t=Omin

I I I I I I I I

0 Rin of internal moisture transfer. Furthermore, since the

r corn kernels are so small, they may be regarded as

FIG. 6. Temperature distribution of wool during drying. spherical.

The physical properties and the drying conditions

are listed in Table 1 [48, 50, 511; the sorption curve

in Figs. 7-9. Figure 7 indicates the variation of the for yellow corn kernels was correlated from the data

average moisture content with time; the predicted of Rodriguez-Arias [52]

result shows a very short constant rate period (about

15 min). The second falling rate period starts at 78

rj = 5 = 1-exp(-(0.43T-75.0)~,3~18-0~0037T)).

min. The predicted temperature distribution at differ-

ent times agrees well with the data, as shown in Fig. (44)

8. No data on moisture distributions were reported.

Considering only the sorption region, the numerical

solutions for drying of individual or thin layers of

Drying of corn kernels

corn kernels in two different air conditions were

The drying of individual or thin layers of corn

obtained, as shown in Figs. 10-12. The present model

kernels has been studied by many investigators [46-

gives an excellent prediction of the drying curves

50]. In most of the experimental studies, the initial

reported in the literature [45, 471. In grain drying

moisture content of the corn kernels is equal to or less

processes, the problem of shrinkage often exists to

than the maximum sorptive value. Thus, only the

sorption region is involved and so no constant rate

period will be observed. Therefore, movement of

0.30

bound water and vapor flow are the main mechanisms - coM~uTE0 RESULTS

T, = 353 K H =9.3%

0.25 - v,= 5m s-1

0.20

- COMPUTED RESULTS 1

DATA OF PRZESMYCKI

0.16 To = 353 K

va = 5 m s-

T --- - PRZESMYCKIS MODEL

;i

$j 0.12

B

,f 0.18

0.00; I I I I I 0 I 2 3 4

4 8 12 16 20

t (h) (cm) X

FIG. 7. Drying curve of brick. FIG. 9. Moisture distribution of brick during drying.

308 P. CHEN and D. C. T. PEI

)- 320 c

t=o

293 I I I

t(h) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.0

FIG. 10. Drying curve of corn kernels. r/R

FIG. 12. Temperature distribution of corn kernels during

some extent. If the rate of shrinkage is known, the drying.

moving velocity of the outer surface can be taken

into account. This can also be handled by the present content, the second falling rate period starts. During

drying model. the second falling rate period, a receding evaporation

front divides the material into wet and sorption

CONCLUSIONS regions, and the hygroscopic properties of the

(1) A generalized mathematical model of drying material will contribute to the drying rate.

processes is proposed. It has been successfully used to (2) The mechanism of moisture transfer in the sorp-

describe the drying behavior of several non-hygro- tion region has been postulated as movement of

scopic and hygroscopic materials. If the initial moist- bound water. In the sorption region, the local vapor

ure content is high enough, a constant rate period pressure is related to the desorption isotherms, and

will be observed. When the free water content at the therefore movement of bound water is also affected

surface reaches the critical, i.e. 30% of the saturated by the hygroscopic properties of the drying material.

free water content, the continuous water layer at the The bound water conductivity may be determined by

surface breaks into wet patches and the first falling equation (16).

rate period starts. When the free water content at the (3) The convective heat and mass transfer

surface is equal to zero, or the surface moisture con- coefficients vary with the free water content at the

tent is equal to the maximum sorptive moisture surface. Considering the effect of percolation thres-

hold, a criterion of the free water content is defined,

0.5 which has the value of about 30% of the saturated

- COMPUTED RESULTS free water content. Thus, equations (22) and (23) may

To = 344 K v,, = 2.3 m s- be used to estimate the varying heat and mass transfer

H-11.8% R = 0.41 cm coefficients during the first falling rate period.

0.4

(4) The present drying model has been successfully

t used to simulate the drying processes of brick, wool

and corn kernels. The predicted drying curves and

.-.

\ Smin

-I the temperature and moisture distributions compared

favorably with the reported experimental results.

\

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(1971). sphere, Washington, DC (1983).

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Sot. London A171,215-241 (1939). erogeneous materials. In Drying85 (Edited by R. Toei

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(1978). 35. D. S. Chung and H. B. Pfost, Adsorption of water vapor

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310 P. CHEWand D. C. T. PEI

R&sum&-On propose un modtle de sechage qui peut Ctre utilise pour dtcrire le sechage des materiaux

hygroscopiques et non hygroscopiques. Les p&odes de vitesse constante, de premiere diminution et de

seconde diminution dans le &hage sont examinees separiment. On introduit le concept de conductivite

deau free. On discute le mouvement de Ieau Ii&e et sa contribution au transfert ~humidit~ dans les

materiaux hygroscopiques. La conductivite de ieau lice est affect&e par le taux dhumidite et aussi par les

isothermes de d&sorption du matiriau. Les principaux micanismes du transfert interne dhumiditt sont

consider&s dtre lecoulement capillaire de leau libre dam la region mouillee, le mouvement de leau lite et

le transfert de vapeur dam la region de sorption. Les coefficients de convection de chaleur et de masse sont

supposes variables avec le taux deau libre a la surface, dans la piriode de premiere diminution. Trois

systtmes avec differentes proprietes hygroscopiques, bois, brique et grains de mais,sont choisis pour &valuer

la vaiiditi de ce modele. La methode des elements finis mobiles est utilis&e pour resoudre num~riquement

les equations diff~rentielles. Les courbes de sechage et les profils de temperature et ~humidit~ calculis sont

compares favorablement aux resultats experimentaux connus.

Z~rnenf~~-us wird ein Model1 vorgestellt, das zur Beschreibung des Tr~knungsverbaltens von

hygroskopischen und nicht-hygroskopischen Materialien herangezogen werden kann. Die einzelnen

Trocknungsperioden werden getrennt betrachtet. Es wird das Konzept der Leitfahigkeit des gebundenen

Wassers eingefiihrt. Die Bewegung des gebundenen Wassers und sein Beitrag zum Feuchtetransport

innerhalb hygroskopischer Materialien wird diskutiert. Es wird herausgefunden, da8 die LeitBihigkeit

des gebundenen Wassers vom Feuchtegehalt sowie den Desorptionsisothermen des Trocknungsmaterials

beeinflu& wird. Die wichtigsten internen Feuchtetransport-M~hanismen sind : die KapiIlarstromung von

freiem Wasser in der nassen Region und die Bewegung von gebundenem Wasser und Dampf in der

Sorptionsregion. Es wird angenommen, da6 sich der konvektive Warme- und StolBransport mit der freien

Wasseroberflache in der ersten Trocknunnsperiode Indert. Fiir die Validierung des Modells werden drei

Systeme mit unterschiedlichem hygroskop&chem Verhalten-Wolle, Ziegel und-Kornsamen-ausgewahlt.

Zur numerischen Ldsung der Differentialgleichungen wird die Methode der beweglichen finitenElemente

herangezogen. Die berechneten Trocknungskurven und die Temperaturen und Feuchteverteilungen stim-

men recht gut mit vorhandenen experimentellen Ergebnissen iiberein.

puanoB.OTnenbrio pacchtoTpeffbrneppaon nocTonHHoii cropocTu,nepsbIk IIBTO~O& nepaonbr nanaro-

me& ~~0p0~~~cym~~.B~e~eHo~o~KT~eTen~onpoBo~~ocT~ca~3a~Hoir ~0Ab8. O~y~a~Tca~a~~eH~e

CBK3aHHOii BO&l flero BK,IaR B nepeHoc BJEWA B r~~~Kon~qH~x MaTep~anax.Ha~eHo,~To Ha Ten-

,IOnpOBOi(HOCTb CBR3aHHOfi BOiW BJIllSK)TCOZtefDKaHAe BJIZWlI, a TaKme tl30TCpMbI necop6nmi BbICylllH-

Baehtoro Marepeana. C9araerca, 9~0 ocrio~rrbrhin hiexarin3h4ahni nepenoca nnarn XBJ~KIOTCK

xanennapnoe TeYetirie c~o60nnoii ~on.br 80 snann-iol o6nacrn, a rarcme nmrmemie csa3amioii aonbl Ii

nepertoc napa n o6nacrri cop6r.m~. Hpenrronaraercr 83Menemie xo3+#ninrieHroB KonBercrnntroro Tenno-

R Macconepeuoca c nch+enemieM conep~ariua ceo6oneofi Bonbt Ha noeepxHocTs B nepaobi nepllone

nana,ImeiiCKOPOCTH CymKH. &WI OWHKH n,,HfOf,HOCTH &aHHOii MOiWIH BbIEjPi3Hbt TPH CHCTeMbl C pas-

~~~H~M~ r~~~KO~~q~K~M~ CBOkTBtU.Gi: IIR&tCTb, KiipIIEiY H KyKjpy3HCX 3epHO. A~~~H~~a~bH~C

YpaBHCH~K &W.UaiOTCR YEiC,WHHO MeTOLlOM KOHCYHLGX 3JEMeHTOB. f?W7iKTaHHbIC KpEfBble CymKE IIPaCn-

peneJleHNITeMnepaTypbI IIBJIarUyZ,OBneTBOpHTWbHO COtJIaCytoTCZ4 C 3KCIleIL%iMeHTilJlbHbiMH XaHHbIMU.

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