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84 7 Turning

7.9 Failures in turning

Table 7.7 Failures and their causes in turning

7.9.1 Tool failures


Consequence for the tool Cause of the failure Remedy
Tool top chipping (in the Too small wedge angle, results Increase wedge angle or
case of cemented carbide in accumulation of heat affix chamfers to rake
tools) angle and flank faces
Tool vibrations resulting from Clamp at shorter length or
too long clamping select greater shank cross
section
Cemented carbide cut- Vibrations, for example because Readjust backlash in guid-
ting edge is chipping of too much backlash in the ances or bearings
longitudinal guideways or in the
main spindle bearing
Vibrations, for example due to Use another machine with
machine overload greater stiffness
Large flank face wear Tool orthogonal clearance too Increase tool orthogonal
small tool presses clearance
Tool tip is above the centre of Correct tool height
workpiece axis adjustment
thus efficient tool orthogonal
clearance is too small
Tool tip in the case of Cutting speed too high creates Diminish vc
high speed tools fuses too much heat
off Too high sectional area of chip Diminish chip cross
Consequence: too great forces section,above all, reduce
too high heat depth of cut
Strong crater wear Too high cutting speed Diminish vc
Tool life too short Too high cutting speed Diminish vc

7.9.2 Workpiece failures


Consequence for the Cause of the failure Remedy
workpiece
workpiece becomes Workpiece deflects Increase tool cutting-edge
noncircular wrong tool cutting-edge angle angle
Centre in main spindle wob- Check taper in main spindle
bles (runs out) and remove dust
Workpiece inexactly centred Recentre
Longitudinal guidances or Readjust guidances or main
main spindle bearing has too spindle bearing
much backlash
Clamping force deforms Reduce clamping force
tube-shaped workpiece Diminish chip cross section
7.10 Reference tables 85

Consequence for the tool Cause of the failure Remedy


Workpiece surface Vibrations, for example Readjust guidances
becomes wavy because guidance backlash is
too great
Incorrect tool clamping Clamp tool shorter
(vibrations)
Too high metal removal rate Diminish chip cross section
results in vibrations in the or change v
machine
Workpiece deflects Stationary steadyrest incor- Readjust steadyrest jaws
rectly adjusted
Surface roughness too Too high feed and Diminish feed
great obvious grooves too small peak radius Increase peak radius
on the turning tool
Bright stripes on Bright braking due to fused Diminish v
workpiece off tip on the high speed steel
turning tool
Workpiece becomes Centres dont align Readjust tailstock sidewise
conical during turning
between centres

7.10 Reference tables


The recommended values for v15 in the Tables 7.8 and 7.9 are applicable for depths
of cut from ap = 1 to 4 mm. If depth of cut is greater than 4 mm (up to about 10 mm),
it is necessary to reduce these values by about 8 %. Allowable cutting speeds are
valid for a tool life T = 15 min.
These cutting speeds can be transformed to allow for a tool life of T = 8 min, T = 30
min, T = 60 min with the following factors.

v8 = v15 1,25
v30 = v15 0,8
v60 = v15 0,6
Currently, because of the short tool change times for clamp-type tool holders, we
predominantly work with tool life values from:
T= 15 to 30 min.
In many cases, though not exclusively, cam-controlled automatic lathes work with
tool life values from T = 240 to 480 min. Numerically-controlled lathes with short
reset times operate with v15 to v60 values.
Depending on the work required for reset or setup time and the number of work-
pieces to be machined, cutting speeds and thus the tool life values are adapted to the
production conditions.
9.8 Failures in drilling 139

Helical flutes right-handed helix


direct the chips in the direction opposite to that of the feed, backward in the shank
direction. For this reason, right-handed helix taps are used for blind holes. The nor-
mal helix angle is around 15.
Taps with right-handed helical flutes, in which the flutes are particularly wide-
spaced and the helix angle is large (35), are used for deep blind holes. The taps
rake angles range from 3 to 20.
Table 9.12 Tap rake angle
Grey cast Steel Light metal
Material
iron Rm 500 N/mm 2
Rm > 500 N/mm2 (long-chip)
rake angle 3 15 810 20

9.8 Failures in drilling


Table 9.13 Failures and corresponding reasons in drilling

9.8.1 Tool failures


Consequences for the tool Reason for the failure Remedy
Drill hooks in and breaks Point angle too small Select greater point angle
Tang damaged or broken off Drill cone, or cone in Repair cone
the drilling machine
contaminated or damaged
Drill fracture Drill core too weak Use more stable drill
Excessive land wear Unilateral grinding of Grind bit centrically
the bit
Fracture of the drill Feed too high Take smaller feed frequently
flutes clogged remove chips from flutes
Excessive land wear Cutting speed too high Diminish cutting speed
poor cooling improve cooling
Premature dulling of the Cutting speed too high Diminish cutting speed
drill poor cooling enhance cooling
Drill point with temper Cutting speed too high Diminish cutting speed reduce
colour feed at deep holes too feed enhance cooling
high poor cooling

9.8.2 Workpiece failures


Failure in the hole Reason for the failure Remedy
Collars at the holes upper Drill was dull Sharpen tool
side, burr formation at the
lower side burr formation
Wall of the hole very rough Drill was dull Sharpen tool
Hole becomes noncircular Drill has poor guidance Use drill with centre point
in thin-walled workpieces or increase point angle
and sheet metal
11.8 Failures during milling 213

Consequently, the HSS- ES qualities are only used for mills whose diameters are
greater than 20 mm.

Table 11.6 HSS- ES qualities


Material-No. EN 96
1.3202 HS 12-1-4-5
1.3207 HS 10-4-3-10

High speed tools are frequently coated with hard materials (TiC, TiN) to improve
tool life travel.

11.7.8.2 Cemented carbide


For roughing operations, milling cutters with inserted cemented carbide cutting
edges (indexable inserts) are predominantly used.
End mill cutters are generally totally made of cemented carbide, with/ without hard
material coating (TiC, TiN) , characterised by increased tool life travel.

11.8 Failures during milling


Table 11.7
Consequence for the tool Reason for the fault Remedy
Tool life too short (tools Cutting speed too high Reduce v
made of high speed steels) Rake angle too small Check angles
small tool orthogonal
clearance
Cutting edges on the mill Feed sz per Diminish feed sz
break off milling cutter edge too
large
Chip space between the Use tool with other pitch or
cutting edges too small other tool type
Tool climbs during Remove spindle backlash in
down milling the milling machine table
Milling cutters (plain milling Faces of the cutter arbour Exchange locknut and
cutters) are not parallel to the rings and the locknut are cutter arbour rings
milling spindle axis not orthogonal to axis
Milling cutter jams on the Tool orthogonal clearance Increase tool orthogonal
cutting edge back (crest) too small clearance
(plain milling cutter, end mill
cutter)
214 11 Milling

Table 11.7 (continued)


Consequence for the tool Reason for the fault Remedy
Insufficient tool life of cutter Incorrect angles on the tool Grind indexable insert
heads (cemented carbide so that only the chamfers
tips) have a negative rake angle,
whereas the major cutting
edge has a positive rake
angle
Cutter head runs out Check centre for mounting
Indexable inserts made of Chosen cemented carbide Use tougher cemented
cemented carbide break off sort too brittle carbide
on the cutter head
Indexable inserts not cor- Check chucking system on
rectly clamped or bearing the cutter head crest
surfaces not plane
Insufficient surface quality Cutting speed too low Increase v
Feed per cutting edge too Diminish feed
high
Milling cutter chatters Reinforce milling-cutter
(due to vibrations) arbour
Cutting forces too high Decrease sectional area of
chip or increase rake angle
Insufficient workpiece Check clamping
clamping
Surface has equidistant Milling cutter (plain mill- Check milling-cutter arbour
indentations ing cutter, disk milling cut- and clamping element or
ter or end mill) runs out milling cutter shank

11.9 Reference tables


Table 11.8 Diameter and tooth numbers for plain milling cutters made of high speed steel
Type Milling cutter
diameter
in mm
n Milling cutter m 10 20 30 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200
Plain milling cutter DIN 4 4 5 7 8 10 12
884
Shell end mill DIN 841 6 6 7 8 10 12 14
Side and face milling 12 14 14 14 16 18 20
N
cutter DIN 885A
End mill cutter DIN 844 4 4 6 6 8 10
Slotting end mill DIN 2 2 2 2
326D
282 13 Grinding

13.8 Failures during grinding


13.8.1 Parameters influencing the grinding procedure
An optimal grinding result may only be expected if the grinding tool and the condi-
tions (peripheral speed, feed values, infeed) are correctly aligned for the workpiece.
The following Table 13.15 shows the extent to which an alteration of the individual
factors affects the grinding result.

Table 13.15 Parameters influencing grinding and their effects on the grinding result
Alteration Effects on the grinding result
Grinding wheel
Grain size Coarser Higher metal removal rate.
Peak-to-valley height on workpiece increases.
Finer Lower metal removal rate.
Peak-to-valley height on workpiece decreases.
Wheel appears harder and has higher form stability.
Hardness Harder Metal removal rate decreases.
Dull grains break off later or not at all.
Increased heating of the workpiece
(grinding cracks, structural change).
Softer Abrasive grains break off earlier.
Wheel wear increases.
Peak-to-valley height on workpiece increased.
Defects of form increase.
Structure Denser Wheel is harder.
Wheel has higher form stability.
Decreased peak-to-valley height on workpiece.
More open Wheel is softer.
Wheel grinds at lower temperature.
Increased peak-to-valley height on workpiece.
Wheel peripheral speed
Higher Wheel is harder.
Decreased peak-to-valley height on workpiece.
Lower Wheel is softer.
Workpiece speed
Higher Wheel is softer.
Alteration Effect on grinding result
Workpiece form
Small contact zone between wheel Harder wheel required so that abrasive grain does
and workpiece (for example exter- not break off too early.
nal cylindrical grinding)
Large contact zone between wheel Use softer or more open-porous wheel to get close to
and workpiece (for example, in the range of self-sharpening and to limit heating
flat grinding with cup wheel)
Interruptions in Wheel is softer.
the workpiece surface
(excerpt from the records of the Elbe-Schleifmittelwerke)
13.9 Reference tables 283

13.8.2 Table of failures


Table 13.16 Failures during grinding
Effects on the workpiece Failure reason Remedy
Grinding cracks Wheel too hard Softer grinding wheel
Scorch marks infeed too high lower infeed
soft zones or cutting speed too high diminish v
distortion on the workpiece insufficient cooling better cooling
Feed markings Wheel too hard Redress
(in cylindrical grinding Wheel incorrectly dressed,
helix lines on surface) one-sided wheel contact Use softer grinding wheel
Chatter marks Vibrations Softer grinding wheel
Wheel too hard rebalance
or incorrectly balanced check workpiece
workpiece incorrectly mounted mounting
Particles coming off wheel Grains come off the wheel and Improve coolant cleaning
get into the coolant cycle Check grinding wheel
Grinding grooves Wheel too rough Use smaller grain size
Sparking out time too short longer sparking out

13.9 Reference tables


Table 13.1 Accuracy values and allowances during grinding
(see Chapter 13.4 page 245).
Table 13.14 Abrasive, grain size, hardness and structure of the grinding wheels
(see Chapter 13.7.4, page 263)

Table 13.17 Feed values during grinding


Cylindrical grinding with Flat grinding
longitudinal feed (peripheral grinding)
Kind of machining
Feed in longitudinal direction Lateral feed
f in mm/revolution f in mm/stroke
2 3 2 4
Roughing B bis B B bis B
3 4 3 5

1 1 1 2
Finishing B bis B B bis B
4 2 2 3
Precision machining 2,0 mm
B in mm grinding wheel width