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# Comparison Of Traditional And Modern

Methods
For
Piping Flexibility
In
Petroleum Refinery Applications
INTRODUCTION :-
The purpose of the study is to analyze an L-shaped flexibility both
in the traditional and modern methods.

## The piping system should absorb the thermal expansion without

creating a higher load on the equipment.

## Therefore flexibility configuration is provided in order to relive the

pipe from critical stresses .
Problem Statement :-
Problem considered here faced in a process piping industry
Pertaining to the refinery. Data refers to a piping system wherein
line between A and C needs to absorb the expansion from
70f to 650f. The length of the leg AB = 30 feet.
The Aim is
1 Determine the length of leg BC.
2. Determination of Forces and Moments and stresses
in the piping system
Pipe size : 10 NPS Schedule 40 ( OD= 10.75 in ID= 10.02 in )
Material of construction : A53 grade B.
1. Simplest Idealization comparable to analytical
method due to M W Kellogg
2.Nowadays three dimensional FE Models are
also possible but they are time consuming
and not comparable to analytical method
Fig. Idealized Configuration 3. Elbow is represented as a sharp corner .
of the piping system for
analysis
The main aim is:
1. To find the length of the leg BC sufficient enough to absorb the thermal
expansion.
2. To determine the forces and moments experienced at equipment locations A
and C.
3. Calculate the forces and moments by FEA and
4. present a comparison of the results
SOLUTIONS
We will present two methods

And

## 2. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD : Applications well known in other

fields such as automobile, aerospace, etc but not much in process and
Petroleum refineries as most of it is coded design.
SOLUTION :-1

M.W.KELLOG METHOD
This method has been developed by the stress analysis group engineers in M W Kellogg
company and has ben widely used by engineers. This has been the standard classical
workhorse for several years and is very simple and easy to use.

## Let us compute the parameter

Fig.
Graph for determining the height
of expansion loop

Note :
1. SA = Allowable Stress range = 1.25 Sc +
0.25 Sh as per Code 31.3
2. L = 30 ft
3. e = thermal expansion of carbon steel =
4.6 in /100 ft.

## We have used US units as it is common in

the process industry .
We get K = 0.53
And hence the length of leg BC is 15.9 ft .
=

## Fig: Graph for determining multiplying factors for

Forces & Moments

Fxa= -106.A1.Ie/L2
Fya= 106.A2.Ie/L2
MZa= 106.A3.Ie/L
MZc= -106.A3.Ie/L
M W Kellogg Calculations
We get K = and from this the leg length BC= ft .
The formulas for Forces and Moments developed give us the values
from the graph as
SOLUTION :-2
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

The finite element method plays a very important role in the product design

and is widely used in almost all the fields. The method originated from

## mathematicians for partial differential equations.

Fig. Typical frame element with nodal degrees
of freedom
1 = Axial Displacement at node A
2 = Lateral / Vertical Displacement at node A.
3 = Slope at node A
4 = Axial Displacement at node B
5 = Lateral / Vertical Displacement at node B
6 = Slope at node B
For an L-shaped configuration, we can represent the structure
by two elements as above shown in Fig. No. 5
and the stiffness matrix associated with the element is given by the
following matrix.

## Fig. Analysis of L shaped flexibility

configuration through frame elements.
[K] =

## In this matrix A= Piping Cross-sectional area (in2),

E = Youngs Modulus (psi),L = Length of the element (in) and I = Moment of Inertia (in4)
i.e. F = AET where A is cross sectional area of pipe and E is Youngs Modulus of elasticity
RESULTS:-
We now give a comparison table of the classical and FEA methods in Table

## Sr. No. Method Results

1. M W KELLOG Fxa= -6398 lbf , Fya= 2376 lbf ,
Mza=30166 lbf.ft , Mzc= -65816 lbf ft

## 2 FEA Fxa= -5679 lbf , Fya= 1987 lbf ,

Mza=28150 lbf.ft ,Mzc = -62754 lbf ft
.

## Fxa= Force in x direction at equipment A Fya= Force in y direction at equipment C

Mza = Moment about z direction at equipment A Mzc = Moment about z direction at equipment C .
CONCLUSION :-
1. M.W. Kellogg gives us slightly higher values than FEM.
2. This means that classical methods tend to give us a
slightly overconservative design .
3. This also means that more of FEA is to be used in piping
and pressure vessels .
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