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Ca = seismic coefficient
May be used for the ff. structures: For building in Zone 4 the design base shear must be
greater than :
1. All structures regular or irregular in Occupancy IV and
V in Seismic Zone 2.
2. Regular Structures under 75 m height with lateral
force resistance provided by systems listed in Table 208-
3. Irregualr structures not more than five stories or 20m
in height. Where :
Nv = Near-Source Factor
3. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20
m in height. Building Period T,
4. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported
on a rigid lower portion where both of the structure
considered separately can be classified as being regular,
the average story stiffness of the upper portion and the
period of the entire structure is not greater than 1.1 Where :
times the period of upper portion considered as a Ct = numerical coefficient
Ct = 0.0853 for steel moment-resisting frame
separate structure fixed at the base.
Ct = 0.0731 for for reinforced concrete moment-
resisting frame
Standard Method
Ct = 0.0488 for all other buildings
Design Base Shear V
Distribution of Lateral Force Fx
The design base shear is specified by the formula:

Where :
Fx = force at each level
Ft = additional force considered concentrated at the top
Where :
T = fundamental period of the structure in the direction The extra force at the top is:
under consideration
I = seismic importance factor
Cv = seismic coefficient
W = seismic dead load
R = structural system coefficient

The design base shear need not exceed:

The remaining portion of the total base shear (V - Ft) is
distributed over the height, including the top, by the
formula :

And cannot be less than:

Simplified Method Reliability / Redundancy Factor

May be used for the following structures of Occupancy

Category IV or V:

1. Building of any occupancy (including single-family

dwellings) not more than three stories in height
excluding basements that use light-frame construction. Where :
AB = ground floor area of the structure
2. Other buildings not more than the two stories in
rmax = maximum element-story shear ratio
height excluding basements.
Design Base Shear V For shear walls,

The design base shear is specified by the formula:

Where :
Vs = wall shear
lw = wall length under consideration
Where :
Ca = seismic coefficient For moment frames,
W = seismic dead load
R = structural system coefficient

Lateral Force Fx on each level

Where :
V = design shear
n = number of columns in the direction under

For special moment-resisting frames, except when used

Wx = Weight on each level in dual system, shall not exceed 1.25

Story Shear Vx and Overturning Moment Mx, Maximum inelastic response displacement, M
The story shear at level x is the sum of all the story
forces at and above that level:

Where :
s = story drift

For structures with a period less than 0.7 seconds, the

The overturning moment at a particular level Mx is the maximum story drift is limited to:
sum of the moments of the story forces above, about
that level.

For structures with a period greater than 0.7 seconds:

Where :
h = storey height