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ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT - When you want to know what

structure cause the shortening/LLD

- Measurement of the length, for a. For Coxa Vara/Valga; position
edema, inflammation, swelling, of the hip
irregularities, leg-length, atrophy - Landmarks: ASIS to greater
and heel-height trochanter
- Landmarks: Greater Trochanter to
Leg-length measurement Lateral Knee Joint Line
Muscle Bulk measurement c. For Tibial Shaft
Extensor Lag - Landmarks: Medial Knee Joint to
Limb Girth Measurement Medial Malleolus.
Volumetric Measurement
- To check for the length of LE; one True Leg Length: Landmarks
limb from another. used:_______ (in__)
a. True Leg
Length/Anatomical/Structural (L) Differen
- May be because of disease; ce
congenital; Weight-bearing or non- Length 90 87 3
weight bearing. Findings: 3 cm difference, (L) >
- Landmarks: ASIS to Medial Significance: Leg Length Difference
Malleolus may affect patients performance of
- Normal Difference: 1.0-1.5cm
ADLs such as standing and ambulation
- Significant Difference: >1.5cm
- 15-20cm apart 3. MUSCLE BULK MEASUREMENT
b. Apparent Leg Length - To check for muscle atrophy
- Caused by muscle or joint - Measuring the bulkiest part of the
contracture or any pathologic muscle
condition that resulted to leg - Most common points: Usually for
length discrepancy; usually seen in athlete; pts undergone surgery.
Weight-Bearing. - Landmarks for LE
- Landmarks: Umbilicus to Medial a. 20 cm above Medial Joint Line of
Malleolus Knee
- Normal Difference: 1.0-1.5cm b. 10 cm above Medial Joint Line of
- Significant Difference: >1.5cm Knee
- 15-20 cm apart c. 9 cm below fibular head
- Landmarks for UE (BICEPS
NOTE: If obese or higher/larger muscle
bulk: Lateral Malleolus can be used. a. From medial epicondyle of
- Always stabilize the pelvis humerus to the bulkiest part of
(maintain the neutral position) the muscle to circumference.
- For pt. who has scoliosis; supine b. Alternate: Acromion process to
with neutral pelvis the bulkiest part to
- For pt. that cant supine; use circumference.
segmental measurement in sitting. - Landmarks for UE
a. From Medial epicondyle of humerus d. Bend the knees and relax; EYE
to the bulkiest part to LEVEL
circumference e. 2 rulers needed; (1) One heel to
b. Alternate: Lateral Epicondyle of other heel (2) in cm, measure from
humerus to bulkiest part to heel to the ruler.
circumference - (N) Measurement: 1-1.5cm
- For patient with extensor lag, place
NOTES: the knee in extension and hanging
- (N) Difference for (N) especially in ICING because the
Individual: 1-2 cm gravity will put the knee in
- (N) Difference for Athletes: 5-8 extension.
DOCUMENTATION: - Swelling, edema
- Always write the landmark - Measuring the circumference
(palpable one) - If both limbs are swelled; measured
the baseline

(L) Difference
50cm 49cm 1cm
47cm 45cm 2cm UE LANDMARKS
76cm 73cm 3cm
FINDINGS: 1. Acromion process
2. Medial Epicondyle of humerus
- The 1st one to be measure is
the BASELINE 1. Patella
- Unless the patient has a 2. Medial Tibial Plateau
neuromuscular disease wherein 3. Lateral/Medial Malleoli
only one LE has atrophied etc, MOST COMMON POINTS
get the measurement of the
normal limb: baseline - 6 inches below patella
- 2 inches below patella
EXTENSOR LAG - 4 inches below patella
- 6 inches above patella
- Heel height difference
- 9 inches above patella
- Usually caused by tight hamstrings,
contracture, etc. Procedure:
- Can be seen in Pts ACL
reconstruction, surgery and knee UE
problem. - Patient lies in supine
- Lack of motion in knee extension - Measure in cm
especially in the terminal range (0- - Compare with other side
- Procedure LE
a. Put towel on patella - Supine or short sitting
b. Position the patient in prone
c. Neutral pelvis 3 TRIALS THEN GET AVERAGE (cm)
HAND SWELLING - Just distal to navicular tuberosity
- Plantar aspect of foot
FIGURE OF 8 - 5th MTP base
- Used in irregular surfaces/distal - Tibialis Anterior Tendon
exterior such as hands and feet - Distal to tip of medial malleolus
- Distal to tip of lateral malleolus
HAND PROCEDURE - Tibialis Anterior
- Ulnar styloid process OTTAWA ANKLE RULES
- Distal aspect of radial styloid
process Tenderness over lateral malleolus to 6
- 5th MCP Joint Line cm proximally
- Palmar aspect of 2nd MCP Tenderness over medial malleolus to 6
- Back to Ulnar Styloid Process cm proximally
Tenderness over navicular
FEET Tenderness over base of 5th metatarsal
- Tibialis Anterior Tendon