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High Electrical Potential

Electrons
+ -

X-ray
Generator or
Radioactive
Source
Creates
Radiation

Radiation
Penetrate
the Sample

Exposure Recording
Device

0 2 4 6 8 10
Definisi

Non Destructive Test; NDT


adalah pengujian
material yang dilakukan
tanpa harus merusak
bagian konstruksi
(produk, material) atau
obyek yang diuji untuk
mengetahui cacat baik
cacat luar maupun cacat
dalam.
• Hasil pemeriksaan produk mengenai jenis
cacat, bentuk, tempat yang diteliti, keadaan
produk dan lain-lainnya harus dicatat secara
tepat, dan langkah selanjutnya bagi produk
yang lulus pemeriksaan, tingkat kualitasnya
harus dicatat dan hasil pencatatan tersebut
harus diberikan sebagai umpan balik pada
bagian perencanaan teknik.
• Bagian perencanaan teknik mengadakan
pengaturan kualitas menurut data tersebut dan
dilaksanakan untuk pencegahan cacat-cacat.
Untuk memelihara dan menyempurnakan data
tersebut agar selalu dapat menyiapkan standar
pemeriksaan yang lebih sempurna.
Tujuan dan Peranan
Pengujian
• untuk menjamin mutu (kualitas) dan kepercayaan terhadap
kontruksi (produk, material), yaitu dengan cara
memisahkan produk yang gagal.
• penekanan biaya dengan mengetahui lebih dulu produk
yang cacat, yaitu penerimaan bahan baku dan bahan yang
diproses dari proses awal sampai akhir bahwa produk yang
cacat diketahui seawal mungkin.
• penyempurnaan teknik, yaitu menyisihkan produk yang
cacat dilakukan lebih awal dan langkah selanjutnya tingkat
kualitas dapat dipelihara dengan memeriksa data secara
kolektif, sehingga kualitas dan teknik pembuatan dapat
disempurnakan.
Peranan pengujian atau pemeriksaan dapat
dikelompokkan menjadi tiga kelas, yaitu pengujian
untuk :

• Keperluan pembuat; untuk menunjang usaha-usaha


perbaikan kepercayaan, kualitas produk (material),
perbaikan teknik pembuatan, dan pengurangan biaya
pembuatan.
• Keperluan pemakai; untuk kepastian kualitas saat
pembelian, kepastian dan ketahanan kulaitas selama
penggunaan, dan cara untuk memilih pembuat dan
membandingkan hasil.
• Keperluan masyarakat; untuk penilaian terhadap
kualitas produk (material), jaminan untuk keamanan
masyarakat.
Untuk menjamin kualitas dan kepercayaan,
pengujian atau pemeriksaan harus dilakukan
secara terus menerus sejak dari tahap
perencanaan sampai dengan tahap pemakaian.
Tahap-tahap yang harus dilakukan antara lain:

• Pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk penjajagan.


• Pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk penelitian dan
pengembangan.
• Disain meliputi:
– pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pemilihan
bahan
– pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pembuat
– pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk penentuan
persyaratan disain
• Material : pengujian atau pemeriksaan penerimaan.
• Pembuatan meliputi :
• pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk cara
pemrosesan
• pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pemilihan
kondisi proses
• pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pengawasan
kualitas
• pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk proses
produksi
• Penggunaan meliputi :
• pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk
penerimaan
• pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk
perawatan
Persiapan Sebelum Pengujian
• Kepastian dari standar yang digunakan.
Di dalam pengujian atau pemeriksaan terdapat bermacam-
macam standar dengan spesifikasi yang berbeda-beda.
Berhubung dengan hal tersebut, maka sebelum pengujian
dilaksanakan harus ditentukan lebih dulu standar yang
akan digunakan termasuk tahun penerbitannya.

• Kepastian tentang jadwal dan lingkungan pemeriksaan.


Pengujian atau pemeriksaan produk menyesesuaikan
jadwal proses produksi yang dibuat agar tidak
menghambat seluruh pekerjaan dengan memperhitungkan
kemungkinan adanya pekerjaan yang tidak memenuhi
syarat yang akan memerlukan waktu tambahan untuk
memperbaiki. Supaya tidak mengganggu pelaksanaan
pemeriksaan, maka lingkungan pemeriksaan juga harus
dipastikan lebih dahulu, agar pemeriksa dapat melakukan
tugasnya dengan baik dan aman.
Persiapan Sebelum Pengujian
(lanjutan)
• Pemilihan pemeriksa dan alat yang digunakan.
Pemeriksaan sangat tergantung dari pemeriksa, metoda
pemeriksaan, dan alat yang digunakan, oleh karena itu
harus didasarkan pada spesifikasi dan standar yang ada.

• Persiapan benda uji.


Sebelum melakukan pemeriksaan produk, harus
ditentukan lebih dahulu cara-cara pengujian yang akan
digunakan dengan memperhatikan perencanaan dan
fungsi produk. Untuk penanganan produk hasil
pemeriksaan, perlu dipelajari tentang cacat maupun letak
cacat di dalam produk, dan dipersiapkan benda uji sesuai
dengan persyaratan yang diperlukan, serta alat uji harus
dikalibrasi terlebih dahulu sebelum digunakan.
NDT terhadap lasan, pada
dasarnya memiliki 2 fungsi:
• Quality control, yang memonitor welder
dan peralatan, kualitas, dan logam dasar
yang dipergunakan.
• Diterima atau diafkir suatu hasil lasan
yang disesuaikan dengan fungsinya.

Tujuan utama Inspeksi las melalui NDT adalah


keberadaan diskontinuitas. Sehingga
diskontinuitas tersebut harus dideteksi,
diidentifikasi, dicari lokasinya, ukurannya
dan orientasinya.
Pertimbangan Pemilihan Metoda NDT
pada Struktur Lasan:
• Karakteristik diskontinuitas
• Persyaratan mekanika perpatahan
• Ukuran komponen
• Kemampuan dibawanya peralatan
• Kendala-kendala lainnya:
– Jalan masuk ke lokasi inspeksi
– Geometri struktur (datar, lengkung, tebal, tipis, dll)
– kondisi permukaan (halus, tidak beraturan, dll)
– Mode inspeksi (preservice, in-service, kontinyu,
periodik, sesaat)
– Lingkungan (tidakj bersahabat, dibawah air, dll)
– Waktu yang tersedia untuk inspeksi (cepat, intensif)
– kehandalan
– Aplikasi gabungan metoda pengujian
– Harga
Metoda NDT:

Visual
Five Most Common NDT
Methods
• Visual
• Liquid Penetrant
• Magnetic
• Ultrasonic
• X-ray
Visual Inspection
Most basic and common
inspection method.

Tools include
fiberscopes,
borescopes, magnifying
glasses and mirrors.

Portable video inspection


unit with zoom allows
inspection of large tanks
and vessels, railroad tank
cars, sewer lines.
Robotic crawlers permit
observation in hazardous or
tight areas, such as air
ducts, reactors, pipelines.
Visual inspection is useful
for checking the following:

Dimensional accuracy of
weldments
Conformity of welds to size
and contour requirements
Acceptability of weld
appearance with regard to
surface roughness, weld
spatter, and cleanness
• (a) Mirror on stem: may be flat for normal view
Presence of surface flaws or concave for limited magnification.
such as unfilled craters, • (b) Hand magnifying glass (magnification
pockmarks, undercuts, usually 2–3´).
overlaps, and cracks. • (c) Illuminated magnifier; field of view more
restricted than D (magnification 5–10´).
• (d) Inspection glass, usually fitted with a scale
for measurement; the front surface is placed in
• contact with the work (magnification 5–10´).
• (e) Borescope or intrascope with built-in
illumination (magnification 2–3´).
• Gage for visual inspection of a
fillet weld at a 90° intersection.
Similar gages can be made for
other
• angles. Dimension given in
inches
Appearance Standards.

Workmanship standard for visual comparison during inspection of


single-V-groove welds and fillet welds. Dimensions given in inches
Liquid Penetrant Inspection
• A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics
is applied to the surface of the part and allowed
time to seep into surface breaking defects.
• The excess liquid is removed from the surface
of the part.
• A developer (powder) is applied to pull the
trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it
on the surface where it can be seen.
• Visual inspection is the final step in the
process. The penetrant used is often loaded
with a fluorescent dye and the inspection is
done under UV light to increase test
sensitivity.
Magnetic Particle Inspection

The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye
pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are
attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an
indication directly over the discontinuity. This indication can be
visually detected under proper lighting conditions.
Radiography
The radiation used in radiography
testing is a higher energy (shorter
High Electrical Potential
wavelength) version of the
electromagnetic waves that we
see as visible light. The radiation can Electrons
come from an X-ray generator or a + -
radioactive source.
X-ray Generator
or Radioactive
Source Creates
Radiation

Radiation
Penetrate
the Sample

Exposure Recording Device


Film Radiography
The part is placed between the
radiation source and a piece of film.
The part will stop some of the
radiation. Thicker and more dense
area will stop more of the radiation.
The film darkness
(density) will vary with
the amount of radiation
X-ray film reaching the film
through the test object.
= less exposure
= more exposure
Top view of developed film
Radiographic Images
Ultrasonic Inspection (Pulse-Echo)
High frequency sound waves are introduced into a
material and they are reflected back from surfaces or
flaws.
Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time, and
inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen
f
showing the depth of features that reflect sound.

initial
pulse

back surface
echo
crack
echo

crack

0 2 4 6 8 10 plate

Oscilloscope, or flaw
detector screen
Sound beam path in a flat testpiece being
ultrasonically inspected with a shear
wave from an angle-beam transducer,
showing the skip distance between the
nodes where the beam reflects from the
surfaces
Three positions of the contact type of
transducer along the zigzag scanning path
used during ultrasonic inspection of welded
joints. The movement of the sound beam
path across the weld is shown on a section
taken along the centerline of the transducer
as it is moved from the far left position in
the scanning path (a), through an
intermediate position (b), to the far right
position (c).
Ultrasonic scanning procedures to
detect longitudinal and transverse
discontinuities in welds that (a)
are not ground flush and (b) are
ground flush
Ultrasonic scanning procedure
for full-penetration groove weld
(a) and double-fillet welds (b) in
corner joints
Discontinuity Signals

Transducer scanning positions for distinguishing between weld metal flaws


that are (a) vertically oriented and (b) in an inclined position
Common Application of NDT
• Inspection of Raw Products
• Inspection Following
Secondary Processing
• In-Services Damage
Inspection
Inspection of Raw Products
• Forgings,
• Castings,
• Extrusions,
• etc.
Inspection Following
Secondary Processing
• Machining
• Welding
• Grinding
• Heat treating
• Plating
• etc.
Inspection For
In-Service Damage

• Cracking
• Corrosion
• Erosion/Wear
• Heat Damage
• etc.
Power Plant Inspection
Periodically, power plants are
shutdown for inspection.
Inspectors feed eddy current
probes into heat exchanger
tubes to check for corrosion
damage.

Pipe with damage Probe

Signals produced
by various
amounts of
corrosion
thinning.
Wire Rope Inspection
Electromagnetic devices
and visual inspections are
used to find broken wires
and other damage to the
wire rope that is used in
chairlifts, cranes and other
lifting devices.
Storage Tank Inspection
Robotic crawlers
use ultrasound to
inspect the walls of
large above ground
tanks for signs of
thinning due to
corrosion.

Cameras on
long
articulating
arms are used
to inspect
underground
storage tanks
for damage.
Aircraft Inspection
• Nondestructive testing is used
extensively during the
manufacturing of aircraft.
• NDT is also used to find cracks
and corrosion damage during
operation of the aircraft.
• A fatigue crack that started at
the site of a lightning strike is
shown below.
Jet Engine Inspection
• Aircraft engines are overhauled
after being in service for a period
of time.
• They are completely disassembled,
cleaned, inspected and then
reassembled.
• Fluorescent penetrant inspection
is used to check many of the parts
for cracking.
Pressure Vessel Inspection
The failure of a pressure vessel
can result in the rapid release of
a large amount of energy. To
protect against this dangerous
event, the tanks are inspected
using radiography and
ultrasonic testing.
Rail Inspection
Special cars are used to
inspect thousands of miles
of rail to find cracks that
could lead to a derailment.
Bridge Inspection
• The US has 578,000
highway bridges.
• Corrosion, cracking and
other damage can all
affect a bridge’s
performance.
• The collapse of the Silver
Bridge in 1967 resulted in
loss of 47 lives.
• Bridges get a visual
inspection about every 2
years.
• Some bridges are fitted
with acoustic emission
sensors that “listen” for
sounds of cracks growing.
Pipeline Inspection
NDT is used to inspect pipelines
to prevent leaks that could
damage the environment. Visual
inspection, radiography and
electromagnetic testing are some
of the NDT methods used.

Remote visual inspection using


a robotic crawler.

Magnetic flux leakage inspection.


This device, known as a pig, is
placed in the pipeline and collects
data on the condition of the pipe as it
is pushed along by whatever is being
transported.
Radiography of weld joints.
Macam-macam Jenis Cacat
Macam-macam Jenis Cacat (lanjutan)
COMPARISON OF
VARIOUS NDT
METHODS.
Applications of magnetic particle testing and other methods of testing for surface and
subsurface flaws

• 1. Burst
• NDT methods application and limitations
• Ultrasonic testing method
• Normally used for the detection of internal bursts.
• Bursts are definite breaks in the material and resemble a crack, producing a very sharp reflection
on the scope. 273
• Ultrasonic testing is capable of detecting varying degrees of burst, a condition not detectable by
other NDT methods.
• Nicks, gouges, raised areas, tool tears, foreign material, or gas bubbles on the article may
produce adverse ultrasonic test results.
• Eddy current testing method
• Not normally used. Testing is restricted to wire, rod, and other articles under 1/4 inch (6.35 mm)
diameter.
• Magnetic particle testing method
• Usually used on wrought ferromagnetic material in which the burst is open to the surface or has
been exposed to the surface.
• Results are limited to surface and near surface evaluation.
• Liquid penetrant testing method
• Not normally used. When fluorescent penetrant is to be applied to an article previously dye
penetrant tested, all traces of dye penetrant should first be removed by prolonged cleaning in
applicable solvent.
• Radiographic testing method
• Not normally used. Such variables as the direction of the burst, close interfaces, wrought material,
discontinuity size, and material thickness restrict the capability of radiography.
• 2. Cold shuts
• Liquid penetrant testing method
• Normally used to evaluate surface cold shuts in both ferrous and non-ferrous materials.
• Indications appear as a smooth, regular continuous or intermittent line.
• Certain castings may have surfaces that are blind and from which removal of excess
• penetrant may be difficult.
• The geometric configuration (recesses, orifices, and flanges) of a casting may permit buildup of
wet developer thereby masking any detection of a discontinuity.
• Magnetic particle testing method
• Normally used for the evaluation of ferromagnetic materials.
• The metallurgical nature of 431 corrosion-resistant steel is such that, in some cases,
• magnetic particle testing indications are obtained which do not result from a crack or other
harmful discontinuities. These indications arise from a duplex structure within the material,
wherein one portion exhibits strong magnetic retentivity and the other does not.
• Radiographic testing method
• Cold shuts are normally detectable by radiography while testing for other casting
• discontinuities.
• Cold shuts appear as a distinct dark line, or band, of variable length and width, and definite
smooth outline.
• The casting configuration may have inaccessible areas that can only be tested by
• radiography.
• Ultrasonic testing method
• Not recommended. Cast structure and article configuration do not, as a general rule, lend
themselves to ultrasonic testing.
• Eddy current testing method
• Not recommended. Article configuration and inherent variables restrict the use of this
• method.
• 3. Grinding cracks
• Liquid penetrant testing method
• Normally used on both ferrous and non-ferrous materials for the detection of grinding
• cracks.
• Liquid penetrant indication will appear as irregular, checked, or scattered pattern of fine
• lines.
• Grinding cracks are the most difficult discontinuity to indicate and require the longest
• penetration time.
• Articles that have been degreased may still have solvent entrapped in the discontinuity and
• should be allowed sufficient time for evaporation prior to the application of the penetrant.
• Magnetic particle testing method
• Restricted to ferromagnetic materials.
• Grinding cracks generally occur at right angles to grinding direction, although in extreme
• cases a complete network of cracks may appear, in which case they may be parallel to the
• magnetic field.
• Magnetic sensitivity decreases as the size of grinding cracks decreases.
• Eddy current testing method
• Not normally used for detection of grinding cracks. Eddy current equipment has the
• capability and can be developed for a specific non-ferrous application.
• Ultrasonic testing method
• Not normally used for detection of grinding cracks. Other forms of NDT are more
• economical, faster, and better adapted to this type of discontinuity than ultrasonics.
• Radiographic testing method
• Not recommended for detection of grinding cracks. Grinding cracks are too tight and small.
• Other NDT methods are more suitable for detection of grinding cracks.
• 4. Heat-affected zone cracking
• Magnetic particle testing method
• Normally used for ferromagnetic weldments.
• Prod burns are very detrimental, especially on highly heat-treated articles. Burns may
• contribute to structural failure of article.
• Demagnetization of highly heat-treated articles can be very difficult due to metallurgical
• structure.
• Liquid penetrant testing method
• Normally used for non-ferrous weldments
• Material that has had its surface obliterated, blurred, or blended due to manufacturing
• processes should not be penetrant tested until the smeared surface has been removed.
• Liquid penetrant testing after the application of certain types of chemical film coatings may
• be invalid due to the covering or filling of the discontinuities.
• Radiographic testing method
• Not normally used for the detection of heat-affected zone cracking. Discontinuity
• orientation and surface origin make other NDT methods more suitable.
• Ultrasonic testing method
• Used where specialized applications have been developed.
• Rigid standards and procedures are required to develop valid tests.
• The configuration of the surface roughness (i.e. sharp versus rounded root radii and the
• slope condition) are major factors in deflecting the sound beam.
• Eddy current testing method
• Although not normally used for the detection of heat-affected zone cracking, eddy current
• testing equipment has the capability of detecting non-ferrous surface discontinuities.
• 5. Laps and seams
• Liquid penetrant testing method
• Compatibility with both ferrous and non-ferrous materials makes fluorescent liquid
• penetrant the first choice.
• Liquid penetrant indications will be circumferential, slightly curved, intermittent or
• continuous indication. Laps and seams may occur individually or in clusters.
• Foreign material may not only interfere with the penetration of the penetrant into the
• discontinuity but may cause an accumulation of penetrant in a non-defective area.
• Surface of threads may be smeared due to rolling operation, thereby sealing off laps and
• seams.
• Fluorescent and dye penetrants are not compatible. Dye penetrants tend to kill the
• fluorescent qualities in fluorescent penetrants.
• Magnetic particle testing method
• Magnetic particle indications of laps and seams generally appear the same as liquid
• penetrant indications.
• Non-relevant magnetic indications may result from threads.
• Questionable magnetic particle indications can be verified by liquid penetrant testing.
• Eddy current testing method
• Not normally used for detecting laps and seams. Article configuration is the restricting
• factor.
• Ultrasonic testing method
• Not recommended for detecting laps and seams. Thread configurations restrict ultrasonic
• capability.
• Radiographic testing method
• Not recommended for detecting laps and seams. Size and orientation of discontinuities
• restricts the capability of radiographic testing.
• 6. Gas porosity
• Radiographic testing method
• Radiography is the most universally used NDT method for the detection of gas porosity in
• weldments.
• The radiographic image of a “round” porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with smooth
• edges, while “elongated” porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with the major axis
• sometimes several times longer than the minor axis.
• Foreign material such as loose scale, flux, or splatter will affect validity of test results.
• Ultrasonic testing method
• Ultrasonic testing equipment is highly sensitive, capable of detecting microseparations.
• Established standards should be used if valid test results are to be obtained.
• Surface finish and grain size will affect the validity of the test results.
• Eddy current testing method
• Normally confined to thin-wall welded pipe and tube.
• Penetration restricts testing to a depth of not more than one quarter inch.
• Liquid penetrant testing method
• Normally confined to in-process control of ferrous and non-ferrous weldments.
• Liquid penetrant testing, like magnetic particle testing, is restricted to surface evaluation.
• Extreme caution must be exercised to prevent any cleaning material, magnetic (iron oxide),
• and liquid penetrant materials from becoming entrapped and contaminating the rewelding
• operation.
• Magnetic particle testing method
• Not normally used to detect gas porosity. Only surface porosity would be evident. Near
• surface porosity would not be clearly defined since indications are neither strong nor
• pronounced.