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Best Practice

SABP-A-052 11 January 2015


Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee

Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities


(EUIs)

Developed by:
Faisal Al-Musa & Ayman Youssef
Energy Systems Division
Process & Control Systems Department

Previous Issue: New Next Planned Update: TBD

Primary Contact: Ayman Youssef (yousseax) on phone +966-13-8808097

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2015. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 3
2. Purpose and Scope ...................................................................................... 3
3. Definitions ................................................................................................... 3
4. Conflicts with Other Standards .................................................................... 4
5. References and Related Documents ............................................................ 4
6. General ....................................................................................................... 5
7. Data Availability and Quality ....................................................................... 5
8. EUI Calculation ............................................................................................ 6
9. EUI Determination Methodologies .............................................................. 7
9.1 New Buildings ........................................................................................ 7
9.2 Existing Buildings ................................................................................... 8
9.2.1 Buildings with Power Meters ....................................................... 8
9.2.2 Buildings without Power Meters ................................................. 8
9.2.2.1 Energy Modeling ........................................................... 9
9.2.2.2 Load Estimation ............................................................. 9
10. Benchmarking ........................................................................................... 10
10.1 Benchmarking for New buildings:....................................................... 10
10.2 Benchmarking for Existing buildings: ................................................. 10
11. EUI Targets ................................................................................................ 11
12. EUI influencing factors ............................................................................... 13

Appendix ........................................................................................................ 14

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Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

1. Introduction
Energy consumption in both industrial and non-industrial areas is a significant operating cost for
Saudi Aramco (SA), which is estimated at approximately 281 MBDoe in 2014. Energy efficiency
within the industrial sector is not only something Saudi Aramco has been working on for a number
of years, it is an area where it is a world leader. It is the energy in non-industrial sector that is
consumed in houses, buildings and community services (CS), which has been given less attention
over the years despite being a major component of Kingdom-wide demand.

The Companys energy management program is overseen by the Energy Management Steering
Committee (EMSC). One of the key elements in the EMSCs strategy is to develop and monitor
effective Energy Intensity KPIs (EIKPIs) for all facilities, and to regularly report the results to
management. This document introduces guidelines for establishing an Energy Use Intenstity
(EUI) at Saudi Aramcos non-industrial buildings. These guidelines have been established to
assist operating facilities in deploying a departmental level EUI (by building type) in alignment
with the Corporate Energy Management Program.

2. Purpose and Scope


The purpose of this document is to describe proven best practices, consistent with guidelines
endorsed by the EMSC, to develop and deploy an integrated system of KPIs for all facilities.
This document provides the basis for developing non-industrial KPIs (i.e., EUIs), the
methodology for calculating them, and examples of final output. It also outlines the expected
EUI for the major types of buildings, and it illustrates how these EUIs can be implemented to
set EUI reduction targets. It is intended as an aid to energy engineers and energy coordinators
who are involved in the subject of buildings EUIs (e.g., CS, IT and Hospitals).

3. Definitions
ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers.

Best Practice: A process or method that, when correctly executed, leads to enhanced system
performance.

ECM: Energy Conservation Measure.

EEM: Energy Efficiency Measure.

Energy: Usable energy that can be converted into Work to drive the process. Energy in
typical Saudi Aramco buildings includes purchased/generated electricity and Liquefied
Petroleum Gas (LPG).

Energy Use Intensity (EUI): an expression of building energy use in terms of net energy
divided by gross floor area. Also known as energy utilization index.

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Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

Gross Floor Area for Non-Residential Buildings: The sum of the floor areas of all the spaces
within the building, including halls and other circulation areas, any common areas such as
kitchens, break rooms, storage areas, equipment rooms, interior parking garages, administrative
areas, elevators, stairwells, and atria (including only the base floor area that it occupies).
Also included are basements, interior shafts (by floor), mezzanine and intermediate-floored tiers,
and 7.50 ft. or greater head height penthouses. It is measured from the exterior faces of exterior
walls or from the centerline of walls separating buildings. It excludes crawl spaces, covered
walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces, pipe trenches, exterior terraces or
steps, chimneys, roof overhangs, exterior parking garages, surface parking, and similar features.

Gross Floor Area for Residential Buildings: The sum of the floor areas of all the conditioned
(heated and/or cooled) spaces within the building, including conditioned garages, basements,
and attics. It is measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the centerline of
walls separating buildings. It excludes crawl spaces, covered walkways, open roofed-over
areas, porches and similar spaces, exterior terraces or steps and roof overhangs.

4. Conflicts with Other Standards


SAES-N-004 titled Design and Installation of Building Thermal Envelope is addressing EUIs
benchmarking values for new buildings. When conflict exists, SAES-N-004 supersedes.

5. References and Related Documents


o Saudi Aramco References
- SAES-A-503 Energy Efficiency for Non-Residential Buildings
- SAES-A-504 Energy Efficiency for Residential Buildings
- INT-10 Saudi Aramco Energy Conservation Policy Statement
- Energy Management Steering Committee (EMSC) Charter
- SAER-6595 Saudi Arabian Climate Zone Map for Building Energy Code
Compliance
- SAER-6446 Method of Estimating Energy Use Intensity for Existing Buildings
- Lead-By-Example internal reports, audits and presentations

o International References
- ASHRAE 100 Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings
- HOK Group Inc. Sustainable Planning Guidelines for Urban Planning for Saudi
Arabia 2013 report
- Energy Star Portfolio Manager http://www.energystar.gov/buildings/facility-
owners-and-managers/existing-buildings/use-portfolio-manager/identify-your-
property-type
- Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), 2003
http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/
- Energy Efficiency Guide for Existing Commercial Buildings: The business Case for
Building Owners and Managers, ASHRAE and USGBC

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Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

- AIA, 2030 Challenge. http://www.aia.org/about/initiatives/AIAB079544


- KAUST: KICP Study Report - Green Building Industry in Saudi Arabia & GCC
Region: Technology, Market and Business Opportunities

6. General
The concept of EUIs for monitoring non-industrial facilities energy efficiency is important
since the absolute energy consumption does not usually reveal useful information about the
efficiency of use. In this case, the EUI concept will help in the following situations:

Benchmarking, which could be historical, competitive, or absolute


Energy Efficiency Improvement

Historical benchmarking is when the current energy efficiency is compared to previous energy
efficiency for the same building, usually at some baseline period in time.

Competitive benchmarking is when the building performance is compared against the


performance of other similar building types.

Absolute benchmarking is when the building energy efficiency is compared against a


theoretical design target.

Energy benchmarking determines if building's energy performance is getting better or worse in


comparison to itself, other buildings in a portfolio, and/or its peers. The most widely accepted
benchmark for EUIs are listed in the reference section. By making building energy
benchmarking a routine practice the following can be realized:

Identifying poorly performing buildings


Lowering operating costs
Investing strategically in energy efficiency and track effectiveness of the improvements
Establishing a baseline for measuring improvement in energy consumption
Enhancing and creating competition through comparison with like buildings; and
Participating in green building certification programs and other environmental
initiatives

7. Data Availability and Quality


The most important factors affecting the application of EUIs are the annual energy
consumption and the gross floor area. Accuracy of these values is crucial in calculating
realistic benchmarks.

Comment:
Incomplete net energy data and/or wrong building floor areas can result in misleading
conclusions and wrong decision-making.

Page 5 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

8. EUI Calculation
The EUI formula can be defined as follows;

Energy Use Intensity = [Energy In Energy Out] in kWhe/ Gross Floor Area in m2 or
EUI = E annual / Agross
Where;
E annual = Net energy consumption kWhe
A gross = Total Area m2
Energy In: Electricity and/or LPG consumed
Energy Out: Electricity generated whether consumed internally or sent to grid (e.g., solar)

Comment:
Electricity is measured in Kilowatt hours (kWh). Fossil fuels such as LPG and Natural gas
are measured in joules (J). As units of energy can be converted from one to another, the
total energy use can be represented in kilowatt hour equivalents (kWhe).

Example:
A building of a 900 m2 gross floor area consumed 100,000 kWh of electricity and 1000 Liter of
LPG in 2012. No renewable energy is available on site. Calculate the EUI?

Answer:
Calculate the LPG consumption in kWhe;
1000 L x 48 (MJ/Kg) x 0.55 (Kg/L) x 1/3.6 (kWhe/MJ) = 7333 kWhe
Calculating the total Energy In:
Energy In = 100,000 + 7333 = 107,333 kWhe
EUI = 107,333 (kWhe) / 900 (m2) = 119 kWhe/ m2 per year

Caution:
The way EUI is calculated places smaller houses at a disadvantage when compared to larger
houses as the energy consumption is divided by the area. It is crucial to compare similar sized
buildings when assessing building performance using EUI as a benchmark. For example a
330 m2 bedroom townhouse which consumes 49,500 kWhe would have EUI of 150, while a
2,200 m2 six bedroom villa (located in the same climate zone) which consumes 235,000 kWhe
would have EUI of 106. The relationship between urban density and energy consumption is
important. It is also important to remember that energy use will be affected by climate more
so in the residential realm than commercial buildings. Residential buildings are enclosure-
dominated" i.e., total energy use is affected by the weather more than commercial buildings.
However, this can be addressed by using regional EUI values.

Page 6 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

2
Figure 1 - Example of Residential Units: (Left) 330 m Bedroom Townhouse with EUI of 150
2
and (Right) 2200 m Six Bedroom Villa with EUI of 106

9. EUI Determination Methodologies

EUI for new and existing buildings can be determined using different methodologies.
Moreover, for existing buildings, the method will differ based on power meter availability.
Below are the details for each method and Figure 3 shows a flow chart which summarizes these
methods.

9.1 New Buildings


For new buildings, energy modeling using an approved software package, such as Energy Plus or
eQUEST is used to assess expected EUI during the design stage. There are hundreds of energy
modeling tools and methods that are used worldwide to predict building energy consumption
from its plans and specifications (e.g., building dimensions, orientation, envelop material
properties, lights, people, equipment, ventilation rates, and occupancy schedules). The EUI for a
new building can then be obtained from the energy model based on the final design compared to
a simulation of a similar building, but with minimum code-compliant features.

Of the many different inputs, modes, and settings that energy modeling software allows, one
can expect that as more information is entered into the model, the more precise the results are
likely to be. However, this can only be the case if the data entered accurately represents the
building design, internal loads, operation, and times of use/occupancy. Some of the inputs,
modes, and settings that have the greatest impact on the EUI are listed below. Figure 2 depicts
a typical output file results from an energy modeling software.

Geographic weather data


Lighting, internal loads and Ventilation rates/standards used
AC Systems/Zones/Room relationships
Infiltration values/methods
Occupancy and Equipment set point and Schedules
Envelop thermal transmission as well as U values and solar heat gain coefficients for
fenestration

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Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

Figure 2 - Energy Modeling Example

9.2 Existing Buildings

For existing buildings, the building could be with or without power meter.

9.2.1 Buildings with Power Meters

EUI calculation is simple since the energy consumed can be taken directly from the meter
readings. The EUI is simply the annual energy consumption divided by the gross floor area.
Consumption should be any 12 consecutive months of normal operation in 18 months period to
avoid any irregularities in energy consumption data.

9.2.2 Buildings without Power Meters


This case is encountered in the majority of SA buildings. In such a case, there are two methods
to calculate the EUI, namely Energy Modeling and Load Estimation.

Comment:
There is one unique situation where one metered substation feeds several buildings.
Refer to SAER-6646 for information on this particular situation.

Page 8 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

9.2.2.1 Energy Modeling


Refer to the method described under Section 9.1.
9.2.2.2 Load Estimation
This method involves counting the total connected loads and the maximum expected demand
on each load. Individual loads have certain diversity in terms of the maximum power demand
and the time of use in any given period of time. The details of this methodology can be found
in many literatures and ready-to-use web-based calculators. However, general information
including load types and factor influencing them are presented below. Depending on building
type, some or all of the following loads maybe found.

Lighting: Interior (general, task, exits, and stairwells), exterior (decorative, parking lot,
security), normal, and emergency.

Appliances: Business and copying machines and receptacles for vending machines.

Space conditioning: Heating, cooling, cleaning, pumping, and air-handling units.

Plumbing and sanitation: Water pumps, hot water heaters, sump and sewage pumps,
incinerators, and waste handling.

Fire protection: Fire detection, alarms, and pumps.

Transportation: Elevators, dumbwaiters, conveyors, escalators, and moving walkways.

Data processing: Desktop computers, central processing and peripheral equipment, and
uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, including related cooling.

Food preparation: Cooling, cooking, special exhausts, dishwashing, disposing, etc.

Special loads: Equipment and facilities in mercantile buildings, restaurants, theaters, recreation and
sports complexes, religious buildings, airports, health care facilities, laboratories, and so forth.

Miscellaneous loads: Security, central control systems, communications, audio-visual,


recreational, fitness equipment, incinerators, shredding devices, waste compactors, shop and
maintenance equipment.

Factors influencing electrical load includes the following;


Humane factors: Number, type and size of peoples electrical equipment.
Time use factor: Hourly, daily, weekly and annual usage times.
Climate factors: Outdoor temperature, wind speed and direction, sun radiation etc.
Other electric loads: Electric loads are sometimes influenced by each other.

Page 9 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

10. Benchmarking
Benchmarking against similar buildings in terms of type, function and climate is an excellent
approach to establish a baseline EUI. US database for similar climate zone and the information
gathered from the Lead-By-Example program will be utilized for benchmarking existing
buildings.

Comment:
Saudi Arabia has three climate zones. Zone 1, which contains almost all Saudi Aramco
buildings, is considered in this document. Values for Zones 2 & 3 will be considered for
future updates when enough representative data are available.

10.1 Benchmarking for New Buildings


As per SAES-N-004 Design and Installation of Building Thermal Envelope, the maximum
Energy Use Intensity (EUI) for residential and non-Residential buildings shall be as follows:

Table 1 - EUIs for New Buildings

EUI
Building Type
(kWhe /m2)
Residential Home 120

Office Building 250

Hospital 530

10.2 Benchmarking for Existing Buildings


Information gathered from the Lead-By-Example program for similar climate zones in Saudi
Arabia will be utilized.

Table 2 - EUIs for Existing Buildings

EUI
Building Type
(kWhe /m2)
Residential Home 300

Office Building 500

Hospital 770

Page 10 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

11. EUI Targets


The table below shows the recommended potential EUI targets which are calculated based on
the Lead-By-Example program as well as international best practices (ASHRAE). EUI targets
should be planned by each department on several years by implementing ECMs/EEMs as
applicable. For maintaining and reporting EUI target, sample forms are provided in the
Appendix section.

Table 3 - EUI Reduction Targets for Existing Buildings

EUI % Reductions
Building Type
(kWhe /m2)
Residential Home 160 47%

Office Building 325 35%

Hospital 550 28%

Page 11 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

Building EUI
Determination

New Building Existing Building

Meter
Conduct energy Yes readings
Find EUI available
modeling

No

Energy
Yes modeling
Find EUI Improve model input Benchmark
option
(ECM/EEM) with Table 2
available

No

Benchmark with Conduct energy audit /


SAES-N-004 load estimation

Comply with No Comply with No Perform


SAES-N-004 Table-3 ECM/EEM

Yes Yes

Figure 3 - EUI Determination


Methodologies
End

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Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

12. EUI Influencing Factors


There are many factors that contribute to EUI decrease (improvement) or increase
(deterioration). The following are just samples of common factors, which could impact the
EUI positively/negatively:

o Positive factors

Turning off cooling equipment when the building is unoccupied


Installing motion sensors in low occupancy areas
Installing lighting photocells to harvest daylight
Reducing cooling tower fan speed
Reducing light levels by de-lamping
Increasing motor efficiency from standard to premium
Replacing inefficient light (e.g., incandescent to LED)
Using double glazed windows with low-e instead of single glazed
Adding exterior wall insulation.

o Negative factors

Deteriorated exterior wall insulation


Inefficient lamp utilization
Air leakage in walls, windows and doors
improper equipment controls
Poorly maintained equipment

Revision Summary
11 January 2015 New Saudi Aramco Best Practice.

Page 13 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

Appendix

Energy Consumption and Energy Use Intensity (EUI) baseline and targets for 2014-2016

Page 14 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

2014
Energy efficiency Measures (EEM) Savings (kWhe/Year)
Estimated Total Baseline for next
Department Building Area EUI
Consumption 2 Savings year (i.e., 2015)
Name Type (m2) (kWhe/m /year) Measure# 1 Measure# 2 Measure# 3 Measure# n
(kWhe/year) (kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year)

2015
Energy efficiency Measures (EEM) Savings (kWhe/Year)
Estimated Total Baseline for next
Department Building Area EUI
Consumption 2 2 Savings year (i.e., 2016)
Name Type (m ) (kWhe/m /year) Measure# 1 Measure# 2 Measure# 3 Measure# n
(kWhe/year) (kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year)

2016
Energy efficiency Measures (EEM) Savings (kWhe/Year)
Estimated Total Baseline for next
Department Building Area EUI
Consumption 2 2 Savings year (i.e., 2017)
Name Type (m ) (kWhe/m /year) Measure# 1 Measure# 2 Measure# 3 Measure# n
(kWhe/year) (kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year)

Page 15 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

Example (Each department can develop a customized table, if needed):


Provide for Department ABC Energy Consumption and Energy Use Intensities (EUIs) baseline and targets for 2014-2016. Note that only 4 measures
will be implemented.

Energy efficiency Measures (EEM) Savings (kWhe/Year)


Estimated Total Baseline for next
Department Building Area EUI
Consumption 2 2 Savings year (i.e., 2015)
Name Type (m ) (kWhe/m /year) Measure# 1 Measure# 2 Measure# 3 Measure# 4
(kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year)

Home 65000 450 144 1,000 2,200 500 4,000 7,700 57,300
School
ABC Mosque
Hospital
..

Gross floor
area (m2) Add all possible Energy Efficiency Measures (EEM)
that are planned to be implemented in the department
Estimated energy during the three your period.
consumption in
kWhe
Total savings is the summation
Add as many building types as of each EEM saving in this
available under the department specific year.

Page 16 of 17
Document Responsibility: Energy Systems Optimization Standards Committee SABP-A-052
Issue Date: 11 January 2015
Next Planned Update: TBD Non-Industrial Energy Use Intensities (EUIs)

Energy efficiency Measures (EEM) Savings (kWhe/Year)


Estimated Total Baseline for next
Department Building Area EUI
Consumption 2 2 Savings year (i.e., 2016)
Name Type (m ) (kWhe/m /year) Measure# 1 Measure# 2 Measure# 3 Measure# 4
(kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year)

Home 57,300 450 127 700 0 1500 1,900 4,100 53,200


School
ABC Mosque
Hospital
..

Energy efficiency Measures (EEM) Savings (kWhe/Year)


Estimated Total Baseline for next
Department Building Area EUI
Consumption 2 2 Savings year (i.e., 2017)
Name Type (m ) (kWhe/m /year) Measure# 1 Measure# 2 Measure# 3 Measure# 4
(kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year) (kWhe/Year)

Home 53,200 450 118 0 500 800 1,500 2,800 50,400


School
ABC Mosque
Hospital
..

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