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S. No.

Topic Material Used

1 Synthesis of
nanocrystalline cobalt zinc
ferrites by sol-gel auto Zinc nitrate
CoxZn1-xFe2O4 [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
combustion method and [Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
study of their properties. [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
[C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2

2 Sol-Gel Synthesis and

Characterization of Zinc
Substituted Cobalt Ferrite
CoxZn1-xFe2O4 Magnetic Zinc nitrate
Nanoparticles. [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
[Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
[Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
[C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2
3 Synthesis, structural
investigation and magnetic
properties of Zn2+ Zinc nitrate
substituted cobalt ferrite [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
CoxZn1-xFe2O4 nano [Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
particles prepared by the [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
solgel auto combustion [C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2
technique. H2O4]

4 Microstructural and
antibacterial properties of Zinc nitrate
zinc-substituted cobalt [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
ferrite nano powders [Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
Synthesized by sol-gel. [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
[C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2
5 Effect of Zn Substitution on
the Magnetic Properties of Zinc nitrate
Cobalt Ferrite Nano [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
Particles Prepared Via Sol- [Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
Gel Route. [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
[C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2
6 Study of magnetic
properties of mixed Cobalt- Zinc nitrate
Zinc Ferrites synthesized by [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
solid state reaction [Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
technique [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
[C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2

7 Effect of zinc
concentration on the
structural and magnetic Zinc nitrate
properties of mixed CoZn [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
ferrites nano particles [Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
synthesized by sol/gel [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
method [C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2
8 Structural, morphological
Zinc nitrate
and magnetic properties of
[Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
nano-crystalline zinc
substituted cobalt ferrite [Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
system. [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],ethylene glycol
[C2H6O2] and oxylic acid [C2

9 Microwave Hydrothermal
Synthesis of Nanophase
Ferrites. Zinc nitrate
[Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt nitrate
[Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric nitrate
10 Simple Synthesis and
Characterization of Cobalt
Ferrite Nanoparticles by a Zinc nitrate
Thermal Treatment [Zn(NO3)2.6H2O],Cobalt
Method. nitrate[Co(NO3)2.6H2O],Ferric
nitrate [Fe(NO3)3.9H2O],Poly
vinyl pyrrolidone(PVP)
Literature survey on Synthessis of Cobalt using Sol-Ge

Application and Use Experimental Det


Electrophotography, photoprinting, Yes Yes No No Yes No

capacitors, protective coatings, anti-
microbial, and conductive thin-films in
LCDs, solar cells, and blue laser

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Nanosized ferrites may have

extraordinary electric and magnetic
properties that are comparatively
different from microstructured
materials, tailoring them to modern
technologies, as well as providing
novel applications such as ferrofluids,
magnetic drug delivery, high density
information storage, photocatalysis,
gas sensors, etc.
Ferrospinel compounds are extensive Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
used in a wide range of applications
from low to high permeability devices
including electronics, ferrofluid,
magnetic drug delivery microwave
devices and high density information
storage devices.

Cobalt-zinc ferrites are stable Yes No Yes Yes Yes No

inexpensive magnetic semiconductors,
which are widely used in electronics
and telecommunication.
The magnetic character of the Yes No No Yes Yes No
nanoparticles used in medical,
electronic and recording industries.
Yes No No Yes Yes No

The ferrite nanoparticles are having Yes No No Yes No Yes

large number of applications in
different areas such as biomedical,
ferrofluid, magnetic media,
microwave, magnetocaloric
refrigeration and gas sensors.
The magnetic character of the Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
nanoparticles used in medical,
electronic and recording industries.

The high surface reactivity, high Yes No No Yes Yes No

chemical and thermal stability of MgO
makes it a promising material for the
application in sensors, catalysis, paint
and additives etc.

Nanoparticles have attracted a great

attention because of their unique
physical and chemical properties such
as high strength with good thermal
conductivity, higher damping property
and mechanical stability.
Nanoparticles of magnetic ceramic Yes No No Yes Yes No
materials are also widely used as
contrasting agents in magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI), replacement
of radioactive materials used as tracers
and delivery of drugs to specific areas
of the body.
of Cobalt using Sol-Gel Method.

Experimental Details
VSM FTIR UV PL TG/DSC Nano-Particles
No No No No No Yes

Yes No No No No No
Yes No No No No No

Yes No No No No No
Yes No No No No No
No Yes No No No No

Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

No No No No No No

No Yes No No Yes No
Yes No No No No No
Result and Discussion Conclusion Reference

Size of nanoparticles was found Size of nanoparticles was found to S.R.Kulal et al. in MSAIJ, 7(5)
to be 28-32 nm and was formed be 28-32 nm and was formed by 2011.
by calcination at 9500C for 6 calcination at 9500C for 6 hours.

EDS analysis of the nanomaterial

confirms that the material is
composed of Co, Zn, O and Fe
without any impurity.

Particle size obtained from TEM

analysis was found to be in good
agreement with the value
obtained from XRD pattern

The zinc substituted cobalt The particle size from 16nm to M.Ranjani et al. in .ISSN: 2278-
ferrite nanoparticle phase 11nm. 0181 IJERT V5 June 2016
formation was confirmed by x-
ray diffraction pattern.
The morphology of the prepared The EDS shows the presence of
samples was studied using Co, Fe, Zn, and O. The magnetic
scanning electron microscope properties are measured by
(SEM). vibrating sample magnetometer

The increase in lattice constant FTIR spectrum shows two A.V.Raut et al. in Journal of
(8.383 8.43070.002) and X- absorptions bands near 400cm_1 Magnetism and Magnetic
ray density (5.2915.346 g/cm3) and 600cm_1 characterizing the Materials 358 359(2014)8792.
with increase in Zn2+ ferrite nature of the sample.
concentration is in reported

The decrease in various The increase in lattice constant

magnetic parameters like (8.383 8.43070.002) and X-ray
(Ms65.628 emu/g, Mr density (5.2915.346 g/cm3) with
71.929emu/g, Hc1116.9Oe) increase in Zn2+ concentration is
with increasing zinc in reported range.
concentration is observed.

For cobalt ferrites, SEM

micrograph produced number of
pores with smaller lump size.

The antibacterial activity of zinc- Zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite Noppakun Sanpo et al. in Journal
substituted cobalt ferrite nano powders formed a cubic of Applied Physics 112, 084333
nanopowders against E. coli was spinel structure and exhibited (2012).
higher than S. aureus. Irregular morphology with a
crystallite size in the range of 40
50 nm.
The specimens had a spinel Hence, powders of cobalt-zinc
cubic structure of the spatial ferrites synthesized with the help
group Fd3m. The average of the SGAC method contain
particle dimensions in the nanoparticles that are in the
examined ferrites decrease with supermagnetic state at the
the growth of the Zn2+ cation measurement temperature.

The vibra-tional mode of The saturation magnetization first Sonal Singhal et al. in J.
tetrahedral clusters (564-588 cm- increases from CoFe2O4 to Electromagnetic Analysis &
1) is higher as compared to that Co0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 and then shows Applications, 2010, 2, 376-381.
of octahedral clusters (425-442 a decreasing behavior till
cm-1), which is attributed to the ZnFe2O4.
shorter bond lengths of
tetrahedral clusters.

An increasing growth of grain This behaviour could be attributed

size is also observed with to the formation of the
increasing annealing . magnetically dead layer at the
surface of the magnetic

Single phase structure of these Calculation of the magnetically

ferrites was confirmed using X- dead layer. The hysteresis studies
ray diffraction (XRD). showed superparamagnetic
Transmission Electron behaviour at room temperature.
Microscope (TEM) showed that
the particle size of the samples
in the range of (5.710.6 nm).
All the samples under The value of saturation Leena Jaswal et al. in Integr. Res.
investigation have a spinel magnetization in 125.5 emu/g for Adv., 2014, 1(1), 5-7
structure with single phase in X- Co0.7Zn0.3 Fe2O4 and Co0.2
Ray diffraction analysis. Zn0.8Fe2O4 for 30.2 emu/g.

The values of MS increases with The presence of constituent

increase in Cobalt content. phases in CoZnFe2O4 is confirmed
by X-Ray Diffraction.

Curie temperature increases with The particle size, morphology and

increase in Cobalt content. percentage of composition
elements are measured by
employing Transmission Electron
Microscopy (TEM).

i decreases with increasing

substitution of Cobalt content

The coercivity shows a The maximum increase in the M. Ben Ali et al. in Journal of
significant decrease from value of Magnetisation due to the Magnetism and Magnetic
2000Oe to 170Oe with increase in the amount of zinc Materials398(2016)2025.
increasing the zinc amount while (20.77 wt%) attained 70.87% .
the saturation magnetization
increases with the addition of a
small concentration of Zinc.

The substitution of cobalt by

zinc shows an increase in
saturation magnetization up to It was found that the particles
reach 74.67emu/g for x=0.3 . size calculated from XRD
results were between 1128 nm.
The magnetic properties of the
prepared samples have been
determined at room temperature
using a vibrating sample
magnetometer (VSM)
The maximum increase in both The maximum increase in the N.M. Deraz et al. in Journal of
the unit cell volume and value of Magnetisation due to the Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis
molecular weight of the increase in the amount of zinc 94 (2012) 4147.
investigated CoZn ferrites due (20.77 wt%) attained 70.87% .
to Zn substitution attained 1.07
and 2.74%.

The average crystallite size SEM and EDX measurements

decreases as the substitution of showed the chemical composition.
Co by Zn species increases.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and In this synthesis of ZnFe2O4

transmission electron nanoparticles by co-precipitation
microscope (TEM) analyses route in the range 828 nm. The
confirmed the formation of size of the particles was measured
single-phase cobalt ferrite both by XRD and TEM and was
nanoparticles in the range 828 found in good agreement with
nm depending upon the each other.The size of the particles
annealing temperature of the appeared to increase linearly with
samples during the synthesis. annealing temperature most
probably due to the coalescence
that increases with increasing
temperature of annealing.

Powder XRD results of TEM analysis revealed that Sridhar Komarneni et al. in J. Am.
samples synthesized under Nano phase ferrites ~520 nm in Ceram. Soc., 81 [11] 304143
various conditions clearly size. (1998).
showed that phase-pure
ferrites were obtained.

Hematite was the crystalline

phase under both microwave
hydrothermal and conventional-
hydrothermal conditions.
The FESEM images shows as
grown magnesium oxide nano
particles at room temperature.
The particles appear spherical in
shape, and agglomerated.

Calcination at 823 and 923 K The XRD studies of the solgel Mahmoud Goodarz Naseri et al.
completely removed the organic synthesized ZnFe2O4 showed that in Hindawi Publishing
compounds and nitrate ions. it has the inverse spinel structure Corporation
and the X-ray data agreed well Journal of Nanomaterials
with the reported data. Volume 2010, Article ID 907686.

The magnetic studies showed Particle sizes of 12.539nm

that the saturation, were obtained with calcination
magnetization, and remanent temperatures between 623 and 923
magnetization of the cobalt K, as confirmed by TEM and XRD
ferrite nanoparticles increased as analyses.
temperature increased
while the coercivity field and
remanence ratio increased, until
they achieved a maximum value
and then decreased.

All the characteristic peaks of

NiFe2O4 are present in the
diffraction pattern.

The various magnetic properties

like saturation magnetization and
coercivity are estimated from the
hysteresis curve.