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Coupled elastoplastic damage model for unsaturated rocks

Y. Jia, X.C. Song, G. Duveau & J.F. Shao


LML, UMR CNRS, PolytechLille, France

ABSTRACT: This paper presents an elastoplastic model for unsaturated rocks. A short resume of experimental
investigations is presented in the first part. Based on experimental data and micromechanical considerations,
a general constitutive model for the poromechanical behavior of saturated and unsaturated rocks is presented.
The proposed model is formulated within the thermodynamic framework of porous media and aimed to describe
the main features observed in experimental data, in particular elastic degradation due to microcracks, coupling
between plastic deformation and induced damage, influence of water saturation on plastic flow and damage
evolution. The model is then applied to describe the behavior of an argillite in various conditions. Finally, the
performance of model is examined by comparing numerical simulation with test data.

1 INTRODUCTION is observed. This degradation of elastic properties can


be considered as a consequence of damage induced
This work has been preformed in the framework of by microcracks. Thus the basic behaviour of mate-
feasibility study of underground storage of radioactive rial can be characterized by important plastic stains,
wastes coordinated by the French Agence National de coupled with an induced damage due to microcracks.
Gestion des Dchets Radioactifs (ANDRA). Thanks Additionally the plastic behavior is strongly pressure
to its good geological properties (without major frac- sensitive and exhibits a transition from volumetric
tures), very low permeability and high mechanical compressibility to dilatancy.
strength; the argillite is chosen as one of possible In order to study the influence of water content
geometrical barriers. An underground laboratory is on mechanical behavior of argillite, several groups of
being constructed in the layer of argillite to per- samples were submitted to a constant relative humid-
form in situ thermo-hydromechanical experiments. In ity in order to reach desired water saturation degree.
this context, rocks are submitted to various coupled Three different ranges of water saturation degree were
perturbations such as mechanical loading, hydraulic selected. Four triaxial compression tests were real-
flow, desaturation and resaturation, and temperature ized for each range. The experimental data show
variation etc. In such a multidisciplinary research that the macroscopic failure stress decreases and the
project, one of the essential tasks is to physically argillite become more ductile when the water saturated
understand and mathematical describe the mechan- degree increase. Moreover, the initial elastic modu-
ical behavior of material in coupled conditions. As lus increases with the water saturation degree while
a part of these tasks, the purpose of our work is to Poissons ratio slightly decreases. As indicated in the
propose a constitutive model for the description of experimental tests, the moisture content has a sig-
hydromechanical behavior of argillite in isothermal nificant influence on the mechanical behavior of the
condition. argillite. The main factor of the dependency is the vari-
ation of capillary pressure during drying and wetting.
Then the proposed model should describe coupled
2 SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA hydromechanical responses in such specific struc-
tures. An elastoplastic damage model for unsaturated
Experimental tests have been conducted on argillite rocks should be formed.
in various loading conditions. The basic mechanical
behavior of this rock shows two basic phenomena.
First, large residual strains are obtained in all the tests 3 CONSTITUTIVE MODEL
including the uniaxial test. In connection with micro-
scopic analysis of argillite, such irreversible strains In this section, an elastoplastic damage model is for-
are essentially related to plastic deformation. Sec- mulated to describe mechanical behavior of saturated
ondly, a progressive decrease of the elastic stiffness and partially saturated rock. Under the assumption

497
Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
of small strains, the following partition rules are induced damage, these parameters are further func-
assumed: tions of plastic deformations and damage variable. In
the case of porous media saturated by three fluid phase
(liquid water, vapour and dry air), Biot coefficients bi
and Nij are functions of the liquid saturation degree Slq ,
the derivative of water retention curve, the volumet-
3.1 Non-linear poroelastic behavior ric compressibility of constituents, and the porosity of
The rock is considered as a porous medium composed the porous media. Suitable experimental tests should
of a deformable matrix, and can be saturated by a be performed for the determination of these parame-
compressible liquid (subscript lq) in equilibrium with ters. Due to thermodynamic equilibrium between the
its vapor (subscript vp).The vapor forms an ideal gas liquid water and its vapour, the vapour pressure can
mixture (subscript gz) with the dry air (subscript da). be related to the liquid pressure by using the Kelvins
Darcys law and Ficks law are respectively used for relation:
the conduction of liquid and the diffusion of the
vapor in the gas mixture. The present study is limited
to isothermal conditions. Three general conservation
equations concern respectively: the momentum of the
multiphase medium, the dry air mass and the water
where p0vp and p0lq are reference pressures for the vapor
species mass (liquid and vapor). Before describing the
plastic deformation and damage evolution, the poro- and the liquid, respectively, in thermodynamic equi-
ol
elastic behavior of partially saturated media should be librium. Mvp , R and T are the molar mass of vapor, the
defined. The non-linear isotropic poroelastic consti- universal gas constant and the absolute temperature.
tutive equation for partially saturated media (Coussy In the ideal gas mixture, the total gas pressure ver-
1995, Coussy et al. 1998) can be written incrementally ifies pgz = pvp + pda . Therefore, the gas pressure and
as (, = lq, vp, da, summation on ): the liquid pressure can be used as two independent state
variables of partially saturated media. The constitutive
equations (1a) can be written as follows:

where b is the intrinsic Biots coefficient. These equa-


tions can also be expressed in terms of the capillary
pressure, defined as pcp = pgz plq :

By comparing the non-linear poroelastic theory with


the classical Biots model for saturated medium, it is
where m , sij , eij , v , pi , mi , i denote, respectively, the
possible to extend the concept of effective stress tensor
mean stress, the deviatoric stress tensor, the deviatoric
to poroelastic behavior of partially saturated media.
strain tensor, the volumetric strain, the partial pres-
sure, the fluid mass variation and the volumetric mass
of the ith fluid phase. K0 and K are the drained and 3.2 Poroplastic behavior
undrained bulk moduli.G is the shear modulus. bi is
Like most rocks, the plastic deformation depends on
the Biots coefficient related to the fluid phase i. Mij
pore pressures (gas and liquid) in saturated and par-
represent the Biot moduli between the fluid phase i and
tially saturated condition. These pressure should be
j. By inverting equation (3), the fluid mass variations
considered as independent forces, like stress tensor, in
can be expressed in terms of elastic strains and partial
the formulation of yield function and plastic poten-
pressures:
tial. However, by taking a similar way to saturated
porous media, the stress equivalence principle pro-
vides a useful way to extend plastic models for dry
materials to partially saturated materials. In this prin-
ciple, a suitable effective stress tensor is defined for
where Nij are the dual coefficients to the Biot mod- the formulation of plastic functions. Various forms of
uli Mij . In the general case, the poroelastic parameters such a effective stress tensor may be proposed. From
bi , (or Mij ) are functions of partial pressures, tempera- the theoretical point of view, the existence and valid-
ture and elastic strains. For elastoplastic materials with ity of effective stresses is still an open topic for the

498
Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
plastic modeling of saturated and partially saturated locus on the deviatoric plane. Various forms are avail-
porous media (Schrefler and Gawin 1996; Lydzba and able in literature (see for example Van Eekelen 1980).
Shao 2000). In this model, an effective stress ten- However, for the reason of simplicity, we have taken
sor is defined for partially saturated media from the g() = 1.Rc is the uniaxial compression strength of
extension of the classic Terzaghi effective stress for material. The parameter Cs denotes the coefficient of
saturated media: cohesion of material.
The plastic strain hardening is presented by the
increasing function p of the generalized plastic distor-
tion p . According to the experimental data obtained
on the argillite (Chiarelli, 2000), the following form is
Further, argillite is a friction cohesion material. In
used:
this work, we put the emphasis on the poromechanical
behavior and plastic damage coupling. The description
of plastic behavior is simplified and only the major fea-
tures are taken into account. The material is weakened
by a set of microcracks. The damage induces the redis-
tribution of stresses inside intact material bounds. The
plastic deformation is then coupled with the damage
evolution. Using the framework of continuum dam-
age mechanics, the conception of effective stress for where B is a parameter controlling the rate of plas-
damaged materials is used to describe this coupling. tic hardening. The hardening function p varies from
In isotopic case, the effective stress for non saturated 0 to 1. The function p is introduced to describe
damaged rocks is defined by: strong pressure sensitivity of argillite, which is con-
trolled by the parameter 1 . For most geomaterials
under compressive stresses, a non-associated plastic
flow rule should be used in order to correctly capture
the transition from plastic compressibility to dilatancy.
According to the previous work by Pietruszczak et al.
(1998), the following logarithmic function is used as
plastic potential:

where H (v ) is the Heaviside function. This function


is introduced to account for unilateral effect due to
The variable P 0 defines the intersection point between
closure of microcracks. We notice that the initial bulk The compressibil-
the potential locus and axis P.
modulus is entirely recovered after closure of micro-
ity/dilatancy transition occurs on the locus where
cracks while the shear module remains damaged. Two
parameters and characterize degradation of elastic
g
P
= 0. For the sake of simplicity, a linear function
properties due to damage. On the basis of experimental is used:
data from argillites and adaptation of the plastic model
proposed by Pietruszczak et al. (1998) for concrete, the
yield surface is described by the following non-linear The constant gives the slope of transition locus.
function: The plastic flow rule is given by:

The loading-unloading condition is defined by:

3.3 Damage characterization



where q being the deviatoric stress, p the effective Like most geomaterials, induced damage is gen-
mean stress of damaged material and the Lodes erally anisotropic due to oriented distribution of
angle. The function g() defines the dependency of microcracks. However, for the sake of simplicity, we
plastic yield on the third stress invariant. Its partic- assume an isotropic distribution of microcracks for
ular form can be identified from experimental yield the argillite. The scale damage variable is then related

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
to the microcrack density defined by d = Na3 / 60
3-1(MPa)
where being the representative volume element
failure surface
(RVE), N the number of cracks in each orientation 50
and a the radius of penny shaped cracks. The charac-
terization of damage evolution is based on the damage 40
model proposed by Mazars (1984). Moreover, the con-
tribution of plastic deformation to damage evolution C/D transition line
should be taken into account. It is assumed that the 30
damage evolution depends on both elastic strain and
plastic strain. The damage criterion is then expressed 20
as follows:
10
-m(MPa)
0
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50

Figure 1. Illustration of failure surface and compress-


ibility/dilatancy line for argillite during drained triaxial
compression tests.

Table 1. Representative values of parameters for the


argillite.

Elastic parameter Plastic parameter Damage parameter


where D is defined as the driving force for damage
evolution. D0 is the initial damage threshold. A1 and E = 7400 MPa Rc = 25.5MPa A1 = 0.97
= 0.17 A = 3.25 B1 = 2.0
B1 control the damage evolution rate. The function d
Cs = 0.1 D0 = 1.0E 4
is introduced to account for the pressure dependency B = 7.0E 4 2 = 1.0
of damage. In the case of non-viscous dissipation, = 1.3 = 1.0
the damage evolution law is derived from the damage = 1.0 = 1.0
criterion:

elastic constants are determined from the linear part


of stressstrain curves of the first loading-unloading
cycle. For most rocks, the elastic parameters vary with
The loading unloading condition for damage is given the confining pressure and the water saturation degree.
by the so called Kuhn-Tucker relations: The variation is not detailed here because the emphasis
is put on the plasticity and damage. The parameterRc is
identified by the peak stress in the stressstrain curve
of uniaxial compression test. The two parameters
(A, Cs ) characterizing the failure surface are fitted
from peak stresses obtained in triaxial compression
By using the plastic flow rule, the damage evolution tests. The plastic hardening parameterBcan be iden-
law and the constitutive equations for dry materials, tified by drawing p versus the generalized plastic
the drained tangent elastic stiffness tensor of damaged shear stain p . By identifying the stress point where
material can be determined. the plastic volumetric strain rate is close to zero on
stressstrain curves, the parameter is obtained. Base
on the experimental data, the threshold of damage d0 is
4 PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION fitted as the initial value of equivalent strain D when
the damage occurs in the material. In order to deter-
The proposed model contains 14 parameters: two mine the parameter A1 and B1 , the evolution of damage
elastic parameters for intact material (E, ), six according to equivalent strain D is necessary.A simple
parameters for characterization of plastic behavior compression test can be used to identify this evo-
(A, Rc , Cs , B, , 1 ), and six parameters for damage lution. The corresponding compressibility dilatancy
characterization (A1 , B1 , d0 , 2 , , ). All the para- transition line and failure surface are illustrated in
meters of model can be identified from a series of Figure 1.
triaxial compression tests with different confining In Table 1, the representative values of model are
pressures and uniaxial compression test. The initial presented for the argillite in saturated condition.

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
45 13(Pa) 30 3(MPa)

30 20

Pc = 5MPa 10
15

3(%) 1(%)
3(%) 1(%) 0
0 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
-1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5
Figure 3. Simulation of lateral extension test with an initial
Figure 2a. Simulation of triaxial compression test with confining pressure of 30 MPa.
confining pressure of 5 MPa.
160 1(Pa)
60 13(Pa)

120

40
80

K = 2.2
Pc = 10MPa 40
20

3(%) 1(%)
0
3(%) 1(%) -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 Figure 4. Simulation of a proportional compression test
with a stress ration K = 2.2.
Figure 2b. Simulation of triaxial compression test with
confining pressure of 10 MPa. experimental data are shown in Figure 2a and 2b for
two different confining pressures.
5 NUMERICAL SIMULATION There is a good agreement between the numerical
simulations and the experimental data. As the triax-
Argillite samples were drilled from three different ial compression tests have been used to determine
depths in the site of the underground laboratory con- the models parameters, this comparison represents the
ducted by ANDRA in the Eastern France (Chiarelli verification of the consistency of the parameters.
2000). However, the differences of the mechanical In Figure 3, a lateral extension test is simulated.
behaviors between different depths are qualitatively In this test, the sample is first submitted to a hydro-
similar with only small quantitative scatters. There- static stress state, the lateral stress is then decreased
fore, the experimental data from the three depths are by keep the axial stress constant. We can notice a
superposed here to represent the averaged data of quite good agreement between numerical simulation
the argillite. The differences between three depths are and experimental test.
considered as inside the natural uncertainty of exper- A proportional loading test is presented in Fig-
imental data. According to the water continent in situ ure 4. In this test, the axial stress and lateral stress
and the porosity estimation, the argillite samples can are simultaneously increased with a constant ration
be seen as saturated in the initial condition (ANDRA (k = 1 /3 ) Again the simulation is in accordance with
1998). A series of triaxial compression tests have the experimental data. The proposed model is capable
been performed on the samples with natural saturation to correctly describe the basic mechanical behavior of
(Chiarelli 2000). The obtained data have been used for material.
the determination of parameters of the model. By using In order to study the influence of water satura-
the parameters given in Table 1, simulations of triaxial tion degree on the mechanical behavior of argillites,
compression tests are performed. Comparisons with three triaxial compression tests with different water

501
Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
45 (Pa) water saturation degree decreases. However, the mate-
1 3
rial strength becomes more brittle in nature. There is
Slq = 60%
also a good qualitatively agreement between simula-
Slq = 77% tions and experiment data. In a word, the capillary
30 effect on mechanical behavior of argillites seems to
Slq = 100% be correctly described. There are scatters between the
data and simulations, but they can be easily reduced
by using improved description of capillary effects form
15 more completed test data.
Pc = 2MPa

3(%) 1(%)
6 CONCLUSIONS
0
-1 0 1 2 3
A new coupled elastoplastic model is proposed for
Figure 5a. Simulation of a triaxial compression test modeling of poromechanical behavior of partially
(Pc = 2 MPa) with different water saturation degree. saturated rocks. Comparisons between numerical sim-
ulations and test data have been presented for var-
50 ious loading paths in saturated and partially satu-
1 3(Pa)
rated conditions. The model is capable to describe
Slq = 607% main responses of non saturated rocks, for example,
40
Slq = 77% elastoplastic deformation, pressure sensitivity, plastic
compressibility and dilatancy, degradation of elas-
30 Slq = 100% tic properties and the capillary effect. The proposed
model will be extended to involve thermal effects.
20 Some specific in-situ thermo-hydromechanical exper-
iments are expected in the underground research
Pc = 5MPa
laboratory by ANDRA. The proposed model will be
10
checked against the data obtained from these experi-
3(%) 1(%) ments and some improvement can be then performed.
0
-1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5

Figure 5b. Simulation of a triaxial compression test REFERENCES


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of Lille.
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Schrefler B. and Gawin D. (1996). The effective stress prin-
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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK