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MO Figure


1998 Nature Publishing Group Averof, M. Evolutionary biology: Origin of the spider's
head. Nature 395, 436437 (1998) doi:10.1038/26613. Used with permission.
Figure 1
Arthropods are the sister group
to nematode worms.
Most diverse group of animals
More than 1 million described species
~80% of all animal species
~30% are beetles
Diverse body plans and niches
Segmented bodies
Tagmosis (each segment has a specialized
Appendages with joints
Variety of traits to increase oxygen consumption
Figure 2

Growth can go through:

Complete metamorphosis from a larval form to a very different adult form.

Incomplete metamorphosis with gradual transitions among life stages.


The exoskeleton is composed of protein and chitin

Secreted by the exoskeleton
Protects against predators
Provides rigid attachment sites for muscles, but are thin
and flexible at joints to increase the range of movement
of the appendages
Provides a watertight covering
The exoskeleton is heavy, and its weight increases
exponentially as the animal grows
Figure 3


Shedding of inflexible exoskeleton so that growth can


Following molting, exoskeleton is soft, allowing quick

growth before it hardens.

Vulnerable to
predators during
this time.

Paul Whitten/Science Source.

Figure 4

Arthropods are
exceptionally diverse.

Likely that less than

half of the species that
exist are described.
Figure 5

Hexapoda: insects, Collembola and Diplura

Three tagmata:
Head (with compound eyes)
Thorax (with 6 legs and wings)
Abdomen (reproduction and respiration)

Insects are
diverse in form
and function.

a) USDA, b) FWS, c) CDFA, d) Stephen Ausmus/USDA.

Head, the front segment, contains the sensory and
feeding structures
Abdomen, the rear segment, contains the digestive
Thorax, between the head and abdomen, the site for
attachment for locomotion structures
abdomen head

compound eye
wing mouth parts
Figure 6

Chelicerates: spiders, mites, scorpions

Two tagmata
Cephalothorax (head and thorax with 8 legs)

Chelicerae mouthparts (pierce prey and insert digestive


(a) Fabio Pupin/FLPA/Science Source. (b) Crown Copyright courtesy of

Central Science Laboratory/Science Source.
Figure 7

Crustaceans: shrimp, crabs, lobsters, etc.

Three tagmata
Head (antennae and mandibles)
Thorax (legs for walking)
Abdomen (swimmerets for swimming)

Courtesy of NOAA Research. Some rights reserved.

Figure 8

Myriapoda: centipedes and millipedes

Two tagmata
Head (antennae and simple eyes, mandibles)
Elongated abdomen with many segments (and legs)

(a) Chris Hellier/Science Source. (b) Tom McHugh/Science Source.

Figure 9

Trilobites: Once diverse group that went extinct at the

Permian-Triassic boundary (well fossilized)

Three tagmata
Head (antennae, compound eyes)
Thorax (segmented appendages)

Dirk Wiersma/Science Source.

Gas Exchange
Efficient gas exchange is required to supply adequate
oxygen to muscles
In aquatic arthropods, gas exchange is accomplished by
In terrestrial arthropods, gas exchange is performed
either by lungs or by tracheae
Most arthropods possess well-developed sensory and
nervous systems
Arthropod sensory systems often include compound
eyes, which have multiple light detectors and acute
chemical and tactile senses
The arthropod nervous system consists of a brain
composed of fused ganglia
The well-developed nervous system, combined with
sophisticated sensory abilities, has permitted the
evolution of complex behaviors in many arthropods

Insects are divided into several dozen groups; three of

these groups include
1. Butterflies and moths
2. Bees, ants, and wasps
3. Beetles
Butterflies and Moths

This is the most conspicuous and best-studied group of

Butterflies fly during the day; moths fly at night
The evolution of butterflies and moths has been closely
tied to the evolution of flowering plants, which depend on
these flying insects for pollination
Bees, Ants and Wasps

This group of insects is equipped with a stinger that

extends from the abdomen and can be used to inject
venom into the victim of a sting
Representatives of this group (e.g., bees and ants) have
complex social behavior in which individuals specialize
in particular tasks such as foraging, defense,
reproduction, or rearing larvae

One-third of all known insect species are beetles

They have a hard, protective, exoskeletal
structure that covers their wings
Representatives may be destructive agricultural
pests or predators that are used to control other
insect pests

Most arachnids are predatory meat eaters

The arachnids include spiders, mites, ticks, and
Arachnids lack antennae
Arachnids have eight walking legs
Most arachnids are carnivorous (feed on blood or
predigested prey)
Some arachnids, such as spiders and scorpions, inject
paralyzing venom into prey

Arachnids breathe by using tracheae, lungs, or both

Some have simple image-forming eyes, each with a
single lens
In arachnids, abdominal glands produce protein threads
(silk) that are used to weave webs
Spiders have sensory hairs that are sensitive to touch,
smell, or taste, and aid in detecting predators or prey

Spider Ticks

Crustaceans include crabs, crayfish, lobsters, shrimp,

and barnacles
They possess two pairs of antennae
Most have compound eyes
Most respire by means of gills
Figure 23-27 The diversity of crustaceans

Water flea Sowbug

Hermit crab Barnacles

MO Figure


Courtesy of USFWS.
Primary characteristics
of deuterostomes
Blastopore develops into the anus, and the mouth
develops at the opposite end.

Cleavage during cell division occurs radially, parallel or

perpendicular to the vertical axis.

Undifferentiated embryonic cells are indeterminate and

have the capacity to develop into a complete organism.

The coelom develops from folds of the archenteron.


~85 species, including acorn worms.

Generally live in marine sediments.
Three-part body: proboscis, collar and
Trunk includes respiratory, digestive, and
reproductive systems.
Figure 1


Sea urchins and sea

Often have spiny
nervous system
Tube feet
Radially symmetrical
Stuart Wilson/Science Source.
Figure 2

2006 Nature Publishing Group Raff, R.A. & Byrne, M. The active
evolutionary lives of echinoderm larvae. Heredity 97, 244252 (2006)
doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800866. Used with permission.

Echinoderms (Echinodermata) include sand

dollars, sea urchins, sea stars, sea
cucumbers, and sea lilies
They possess an endoskeleton (internal
skeleton) that sends projections through the
Sea cucumber

Sea urchin Sea star


Echinoderms are bilaterally symmetrical as

larvae and radially symmetrical as adults
They exhibit deuterostome development and are linked by
common ancestry with other deuterostome phyla
The absence of cephalization is consistent with the sluggish
existence of echinoderms

Echinoderms have a unique water-vascular

It consists of the sieve plate, a circular central canal, several
radial canals, and numerous tube feet
The water-vascular system functions in locomotion, respiration,
and food capture
Seawater enters through an opening (sieve plate) on the
animals upper surface
The seawater is conducted through a circular central canal
The canals conduct water to the tube feet, each of which is
controlled by a muscular squeeze bulb known as an ampulla
Figure 23-31 The water-vascular system of echinoderms
sieve plate



tube feet

Sea star body plan

Sea star consuming a mussel


Some echinoderm organ systems are simplified

Echinoderms have a relatively simple nervous system with no
distinct brain
Movements are coordinated by a system consisting of a nerve
ring that encircles the esophagus, radial nerves to the rest of the
body, and a nerve network through the epidermis
Figure 3

Five extant classes of sea stars

~600 species

~2,000 species

~1,800 species

~2,000 species

~1,000 species

*Extinct class
Figure 4

sea stars

Tube feet for Andrew J. Martinez/Science Source.

gripping substrate
and feeding.

Can regrow limbs.

Ophiuroidea: brittle stars
and basket stars


Tube feet are suckerless and not used

for locomotion.

Typically scavenge or filter feed.

Figure 5

Echinoidea: sea urchins and

sand dollars
Ossicles fused
together into a
hollow, rounded

Lack arms but

have moveable
spines and tube

Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers
Usually cylindrical and elongated.

Can be quite large.

Mouth and anus are at opposite ends of the body,

which lies with one side on the sea floor.

Sides along the substrate have tube feet for


Mostly scavengers.

Some found in abundance in deep waters.

Crinoids: sea lilies and feather stars

Poorly known and least diverse.

Sea lilies are sessile filter feeders with

mobile larval stage.

Feather stars crawl on substrate with tube


Were very diverse in fossil record.

Diverse group including vertebrates and some invertebrates
that is characterized by

Embryos with gill slits.

Hollow dorsal nerve cord down the anterior-posterior body

axis; the brain is formed from anterior bulges.

Notochord: a flexible rod that lies ventral to the nerve cord;

calcified to become spine in vertebrates.

Post-anal tail; used for locomotion in fish and serves a

variety of purposes in other groups.
Chordate subgroups
Urochordates tunicates or sea squirts.
Mobile larvae, but most adults are sessile.

Cephalochordates amphioxus or

Vertebrates fish, amphibians, reptiles,

birds, mammals.
Very diverse; ~60,000 species.
Figure 6

Vertebrate phylogeny and key

adaptations for each group