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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jcsr

solid slabs

Safat Al-deen a , Gianluca Ranzi a, , Zora Vrcelj b

a

School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

b

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Article history: This paper presents an experimental study aimed at the evaluation of the long-term behaviour of

Received 2 July 2010 composite steelconcrete beams designed with partial shear connection formed by a steel joist and a

Accepted 5 November 2010 solid concrete slab. Three full-scale simply supported beams with identical spans and cross-sections were

prepared and tested. These specimens were designed as secondary beams of a typical composite flooring

Keywords: system based on Australian guidelines with the lowest permitted level of degree of shear connection of

Composite beam

0.5. They were cast simultaneously to enable comparisons with respect to pouring and loading conditions.

Creep

Partial shear interaction

One beam was cast un-propped and was kept unloaded for the whole duration of the long-term tests to

Shrinkage measure shrinkage effects. The remaining two beams, cast under un-propped and propped conditions,

Serviceability respectively, were subjected to a sustained uniformly distributed load. Standard short-term and long-

term tests were carried out to obtain the relevant material properties of both the steel and the concrete.

Short-term and long-term push-out tests were carried out to obtain information on the response of

the shear connectors. The experimental results were modelled by means of the finite element method.

The time-dependent behaviour was depicted using a step-by-step procedure, while the steel joist and

reinforcement were assumed to remain linear elastic. Two constitutive relationships were adopted for

the shear connection, i.e., a linear-elastic one, and a new time-dependent one, to account for the long-

term effects produced in the complex stress state of the concrete surrounding the shear connectors. The

latter representation is intended to fall within the framework of simplified approaches suitable for design

applications. Considerations of the accuracy of the numerical predictions are presented based on the two

shear connection models.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

which the serviceability limit state governs the design due to

Composite steelconcrete beams represent an economical excessive deflections, which occur due to creep and shrinkage of

structural solution for building and bridge applications. The the concrete. When dealing with the time-dependent behaviour

composite action is provided by the presence of mechanical of concrete, there are two main factors to be addressed: (i) the

devices. These are commonly specified in the form of shear definition of adequate constitutive relationships (i.e., a material

connectors, which are welded to the top flange of the steel joist property problem); and (ii) the use of methods of analysis capable

and embedded in the concrete slab during casting. This structural of handling the structural response over time (i.e., a structural

solution is efficient when subjected to sagging moments, taking analysis problem) [1,2].

advantage of the ability of concrete and steel to perform well in Early work on the modelling of composite beams highlighted

compression and tension, respectively. the importance of accounting for the deformability of the shear

Modern building construction adopted in Australia tends to connectors within the framework of partial interaction theory;

produce design solutions in which serviceability is often the see, e.g., [3]. This initial formulation is usually referred to as the

governing limit state in composite floor systems, either due to Newmark model. Since then, extensive work has been carried out

excessive total or incremental deflections, or due to undesired relying on this model or extending its applicability. For example,

some of these studies have focussed on the linear-elastic response

of composite beamcolumns (e.g., [46]), the shear deformability

Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 2 9351 5215; fax: +61 2 9351 3343. of the steel joist (e.g., [7,8]), the derivation of analytical and

E-mail addresses: gianluca.ranzi@sydney.edu.au, G.Ranzi@civil.usyd.edu.au numerical models to predict the time-dependent behaviour of

(G. Ranzi). composite members (e.g., [913]) and related finite element (FE)

0143-974X/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.11.001

S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321 309

Fig. 1. Details of the cross-section and of the beam layout for CB1, CB2 and CB3.

guidelines [46]. Their steel section and slab geometry were

determined based on an extensive parametric study carried out

on typical Australian composite floor systems, varying member

dimensions, and using a degree of partial shear connection

of 0.5, as favoured in modern design. The selected cross-

section is representative of a typical 8 m long secondary beam

spaced at 2.8 m with a slab thickness of 125 mm (Fig. 1). A

310UB40 Australian standard open section was used for the

steel joist. 19 mm diameter headed studs were installed at a

spacing of 500 mm (Fig. 1). The height of the shear connectors

after installation was 95 mm. Four layers of Australian N12

reinforcement at 200 mm spacing were placed with a cover of

25 mm (Fig. 1). The detailing adopted reflects common Australian

Fig. 2. Location of dial gauges for deflection and slip readings. practice.

account for shear-lag effects (e.g., [21,22]) and their FE applications

(e.g., [14,23]), nonlinear material properties (e.g., [2428]), the All specimens were heavily instrumented to maximise the

nonlinear response in hogging moment regions (e.g., [29,30]), information gained from these experiments. Dial gauges were

the occurrence of vertical separation between the slab and steel used for deflection and slip readings, while the strain values were

joist (e.g., [31]), the behaviour of timber composite solutions measured using strain gauges and Demec targets. The deflections

(e.g., [32,33]), making use of thermal prestressing (e.g., [34]), the were monitored at the quarter points of the beams (Fig. 2)

derivation of analytical models for the partial interaction analysis using dial gauges labelled as DG-1, DG-2 and DG-3. The relative

of multi-layered members (e.g., [35,36]), and the buckling or longitudinal movement between concrete and steel was measured

using six dial gauges at the beams ends (i.e., end slip) and at the

nonlinear geometric composite response (e.g., [4,3638]).

locations of the last two connectors near the supports (Fig. 2).

Despite the extensive analytical and numerical work carried out

These were labelled as SL-1 and SL-6 for the end slip readings and

in the last two decades on the long-term behaviour of composite

as SL-2 to SL-5 for the remaining ones. The strain readings were

members, only very limited benchmarking experimental data are

monitored at three cross-sections along the beam length located

currently available in the literature [3944]. In this context, this

at its quarter points. Considering the likelihood of strain gauges to

paper aims at providing new long-term experimental data to be

become unstable over time, strain gauges and Demec targets were

used for benchmarking purposes. A companion paper describes

placed at each strain measurement point. Their arrangements at

the ultimate tests of these samples to evaluate the influence

the three monitored cross-sections are shown in Fig. 3.

of time effects on its ultimate response [45]. Three full-scale

composite members were designed and prepared in accordance

with Australian guidelines [46], therefore possessing realistic 2.3. Long-term testing procedure

dimensions for both the concrete slab and the steel beam. A

CB1 and CB2 were cast using un-propped construction to ensure

0.5 degree of shear connection was adopted to reflect modern

the self-weight of the joist (0.4 kN/m) and slab (6 kN/m) to

trends in which lower values are commonly specified in building

be carried by the steel alone, therefore enabling the hardened

applications. A new casting arrangement was developed as part

concrete to be subjected to shrinkage only. With this approach, it

of this study, with the scope of isolating the effects of creep

was assumed that no creep developed in the concrete slab due to

and shrinkage in the long-term beam tests. For the first time,

the self-weight of the composite beam. The significance to support

a push-out steelconcrete sample was subjected to a sustained

industry practice in carrying out experimental work using un-

load and its deformations were monitored over time. To account

propped construction was highlighted in [47]. In this study, this

for the time-dependent behaviour of the shear connection, a new

was achieved using a specifically designed steel framing system to

constitutive relationship is proposed for the interface response.

support the timber formwork and wet concrete from the web of

After the description of the experiments, the measured results are

the joist, as depicted in Fig. 4. The details of the steel frame are

compared against those calculated numerically using the finite

provided in Fig. 5(a). With this approach, the timber joists were

element method.

removed once the concrete hardened, after which the steel frames

were easily unbolted from the steel joist and taken off from the

2. Experimental programme specimen. This process was possible thanks to the use of a packing

system consisting of thin steel plates of 11.5 mm thickness placed

2.1. Test specimens between the timber joists and supporting steel frames. During their

placement, these plates were greased on both their top and bottom

Three identical simply supported composite beams were sides. Before removing the timber joists, these plates were taken

prepared and tested as part of this experimental programme. off from the supporting system. The vertical legs of these thin

These specimens, referred throughout this paper as CB1, CB2 and C-shaped plates (Fig. 5(b)) provided the necessary grip to allow

310 S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321

(a) Cross-section at mid-span. (b) Cross-sections at first and third quarter span.

formwork and connected to

the web of the steel joist

support block

formwork

steel joist

(a) Schematic.

Fig. 4. Steel framing system to support the timber formwork and the wet concrete from the steel joist for un-propped construction.

splice connection

supporting

supporting frame frame side 1

side 2

packing

formwork end plate

timber

packing steel joist connection

joist

to web

(a) Cross-sectional schematic. (b) Details of the packing system used between timber joists and supporting

steel frames.

Fig. 5. Details and geometry of the steel frames to achieve un-propped construction.

their removal. This process enabled one to free the timber joists after this could the timber joists be removed. Without the use

from the load induced by the self-weight of the concrete, and only of this packing system, the removal of the timber joists would

S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321 311

concrete blocks

supporting

frame of the

concrete blocks

(a) Schematic.

Table 1 Table 2

Summary of construction methods and loading conditions for beams CB1, CB2 and Summary of concrete strength measured from cylinder tests at 29 days from casting.

CB3.

Cylinder test Concrete strength (MPa) Average concrete strength (MPa)

Beam Construction Sustained self-weight Sustained external load

method (No/Yes) (kN/m) CC1 27.6

27.7

CC2 27.8

CB1 Un-propped No 0

CB2 Un-propped No 13.4

CB3 Propped Yes 13.4 The external sustained load was applied using 12 concrete

blocks with dimensions 1200 mm 1200 mm 280 mm arranged

have been extremely difficult, if not prevented, by the hardened in four groups (Fig. 6). The supporting frame of each group of blocks

concrete. had four legs, producing a total of 16 point loads over the whole

CB1 was kept unloaded for the whole duration of the long- member length, representative of a uniformly distributed load

term experiments to measure the effects of shrinkage. At 29 days (Fig. 7). With this load arrangement, no direct pressure was applied

after the concrete pour, a sustained external load, equivalent to over the connector, which has been shown in [48] to be important

13.4 kN/m, was applied to CB2 by placing concrete blocks on the when testing beams formed with deep trapezoidal sheeting.

slab of the specimen. Consequently, its long-term behaviour was

affected by shrinkage and by creep due to the sustained external 2.4. Material properties

load. CB3 was poured under propped conditions. The props were

removed just before applying the external sustained load (identical

2.4.1. Instantaneous concrete properties

to CB2) at 29 days. In the case of CB3, the self-weight and the

external sustained load were resisted by the whole composite Two concrete cylinder tests, referred to as CC1 and CC2, were

member. A summary of the construction methodologies and of the carried out at 29 days. A summary of the results is reported in

sustained loads resisted by the specimens during the long-term Table 2, and the stressstrain curves are shown in Fig. 8. The

tests is provided in Table 1. cylinders were 300 mm high with a diameter of 150 mm. The

Before pouring, the top flanges of the steel beams were greased elastic modulus was 25 500 MPa.

thoroughly to minimise the possible occurrence of bonding

between concrete and steel. The external sustained loads were 2.4.2. Concrete shrinkage

removed after 461 and 222 days from casting for CB2 and CB3, The free shrinkage of the concrete was observed using three

respectively. concrete cylinders (with diameter 150 mm and height 300 mm)

312 S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321

Fig. 7. Layout of point loads produced by the supporting frames of the concrete block.

Fig. 10. Total deformation measured on the concrete cylinders under sustained

loads.

Fig. 8. Concrete stressstrain curves from cylinder tests carried out at 29 days from

casting.

2.4.3. Concrete creep

Six standard concrete cylinders (150 mm diameter and 300 mm

height) were used to measure the occurrence of creep. These were

grouped into two sets of three concrete cylinders each, referred

to in the following as CT1 and CT2, respectively. CT1 and CT2

were loaded at day 29 with sustained loads producing stresses of

7.5 MPa and 5.75 MPa, respectively. The total strain was measured

over time with Demec targets placed with a 100 mm gauge length,

as reported in Fig. 10. The creep coefficients (t , 29) calculated

at a generic instant in time t for a load applied at 29 days after

casting were obtained from the total strain and shrinkage readings

as follows:

c tot sh

(t , 29) = = 1, (1)

Fig. 9. Shrinkage deformations measured on the concrete cylinders and slabs. i i i

where tot is the total strain (Fig. 10), i represents the instanta-

and one shrinkage slab (with dimensions 1200 mm 1200 mm neous strain, c is the creep strain, and the shrinkage strain is de-

125 mm). The concrete cylinders were instrumented using Demec noted by sh (Fig. 9). The calculated creep coefficients are shown

targets with a gauge length of 100 mm. The shrinkage slab in Fig. 11, in which very good agreement is shown for the results

was made of plain concrete (i.e., no reinforcement) and had the obtained at the two stress levels.

same thickness as that used for the concrete in the beam. After A new loading rig was designed and fabricated to apply a

curing, it was placed on 16 equally spaced steel balls to enable constant sustained load to the cylinders. The overall layout of

it to shrink freely without any restraint. The thin side edges of this rig is depicted in Fig. 12. This rig has the advantage of

the shrinkage slab were carefully sealed with plastic to prevent being able to apply a constant sustained load over a period of

moisture exchange and to simulate the continuity condition which several months without requiring human control. The principle

would occur in a typical floor slab. Shrinkage measurements at the basis of the system is very simple, as it relies on hanging

started after 8 days from casting, the day at which the curing of all a dead load from a small-diameter hydraulic actuator (Jack A

concrete samples was terminated. Two sets of Demec points with in Fig. 12) which produces a certain pressure in the hydraulic

gauge length of 200 mm were used for shrinkage measurements system. As this system is connected to an actuator with a larger

of the shrinkage slabs. Fig. 9 shows the shrinkage strains measured diameter (Jack B at Fig. 12), the actual force induced by the latter

from the three cylinders and the concrete slab, which show very is greater than the force produced by the dead load; this increase

good agreement with each other. is, theoretically, proportional to the increase in actuator area. It

S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321 313

out tests. Short-term slip measurements were taken at shear

connector locations using linear variable differential transducers

(LVDTs), as illustrated in Fig. 15(a). Short-term push-out tests

were performed at different instants in time. Measured loadslip

curves are shown in Fig. 17, and details are summarised in Table 4.

The long-term push-out test was performed using the same dead

loading system already described for the creep tests of the concrete

cylinders (Fig. 12). The layout of the sustained loading frame is

detailed in Fig. 16. Unlike in the instantaneous push-out test,

roller supports were placed at the base of the sample to ensure

maximum mobility of the sample during testing. This was achieved

by placing six round steel bars of 25 mm diameter under each

slab. This was carried out to maximise the possible deformations

that the sample could undergo during testing to enhance possible

Fig. 11. Concrete creep coefficients for two levels of sustained loads applied at 29 critical pronounced deformations which might have taken place

days from casting. over time. It is worth noting that the fixity of these supports

could be easily modified by simply removing these bars. Slip

is worth highlighting that the fine tuning of this rig took several measurements were taken using dial gauges at the locations of the

shear connectors, as shown in Fig. 16(a). The long-term push-out

months, due to issues which arose from leakage of the hydraulic

test specimen was subjected to a total sustained load of 130 kN at

system and from the thermal expansions and contractions of

29 days from casting, equivalent to about 30% of the capacity of

the oil. The final system was working very well with maximum

one shear connector (the latter being obtained on the same day of

variations recorded by means of a load cell of 2% of the applied load. loading from the results of the short-term push-out test). The slip

measurements recorded over time are shown in Fig. 18, where a

2.4.4. Steel section positive reading depicts the case in which the steel joist undergoes

Standard tensile coupon tests were carried out to evaluate the a downward movement with the slab remaining in its position. An

material properties of the flanges and webs of the steel joists, steel unloaded push-out sample was instrumented and its slip readings

reinforcement and shear studs. Their results are summarised in measured over time to monitor the occurrence of shrinkage

Table 3, and the corresponding stressstrain curves are presented (assuming creep effects due to its self-weight to be negligible).

in Fig. 13.

2.5. Temperature and humidity measurements

2.4.5. Shear connectors Readings of temperature and humidity were recorded at two-

The behaviour of the shear connection was evaluated by hour intervals for the whole duration of the long-term tests. The

means of short-term and long-term push-out tests. The testing mean temperature observed was 21 C and daily average readings

arrangement was based on the recommendations of Eurocode are shown in Fig. 19(a), clearly highlighting the seasonal trend.

4 [49], adopting a slab thickness of 125 mm, 310UB40 for the Average daily readings of relative humidity (RH) are shown in

steel section [50], and 12 mm diameter reinforcing bars, with Fig. 19(b); the RH values varied between 35% and 80%, with a mean

concrete cover of 25 mm, as used for the beam samples (Fig. 14). of 70% RH.

concrete

cylinder

Jack A

dead

weight

self-resisting

Jack B frame

Fig. 12. Layout of the testing rig to apply sustained loads to the concrete cylinders.

314 S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321

Table 3

Summary of the material properties measured from tensile steel coupon tests.

Sample Coupon ID Yield stress (MPa) Average yield stress (MPa) Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) Average ultimate tensile strength (MPa)

310UB40flange 2 323.20 324.27 482.30 490.43

310UB40web 3 325.10 498.20

Studs 4 346.40 518.44

5 347.30 351.67 516.80 517.47

6 359.80 517.16

N12 reinforcing bars 7 595.20 664.10

8 590.80 591.10 662.70 662.69

9 587.30 661.28

Table 4

Summary of push-out test results.

Specimen

PT01 PT02 PT03 PT04 PT05

Time of testing after concrete casting (days) 29 551 551 552 552

Previously subjected to a sustained load for the duration of the long-term tests (yes/no) No Yes No No No

Applied sustained load in kN (if applicable) 130

Time of application of the sustained load after concrete casting expressed in days (if applicable) 29

Time of removal of the sustained load expressed in days (if applicable) 461

Max strength (kN) 111.97 116.57 122.02 131.7 128.2

Initial slope of the Load-slip curve (kN/mm) 200 360 320 360 280

for CB2 and CB3 were 15.14 mm and 22.94 mm, respectively.

3.1. Deflection The difference in these value was due to the fact that CB2 was

subjected to the external sustained load (13.4 kN/m), while CB3

The mid-span total deflections measured over time for the supported both its full self-weight and the external sustained load

three beams are shown in Fig. 20. These readings included (19.8 kN/m). Despite the fact that the concrete component of

the instantaneous, the creep and shrinkage components. The CB3 was more heavily loaded than the one of CB2, the actual

deflections for CB1 and CB2 measured at the time of pouring were creep deflection coefficients, calculated as the ratio of the creep

nearly identical, and represent the deformation due to the self- deflection vc over the instantaneous one vi , were nearly identical,

weight of the steel beam and of the wet concrete just after casting. highlighting the validity of the linear creep assumptions in this

S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321 315

(a) Schematic of the short-term push-out test. (b) Short-term push-out test.

Fig. 15. Instrumentation, loading arrangement and set-up for the short-term push-out tests.

case (Fig. 21). The deflection recorded for beam CB1, constructed Measurements for CB1 were negative due to shrinkage, i.e., the

under un-propped conditions, was assumed to be representative concrete slab shortened over its length. For CB2 and CB3, the main

of shrinkage effects only. The creep deflections of CB2 and CB3 slip variations took place at the time of loading, after which no

were calculated by subtracting their instantaneous deflections and significant differences were observed. As slip caused by creep is

shrinkage deflections (where the latter was assumed to be equal to opposite in direction to slip caused by shrinkage, it is reasonable

the deflection of CB1) from their total deflections. to conclude that for test specimen CB3 the slip values produced by

shrinkage and creep were of similar magnitudes as the total slip

3.2. Slip measured did not vary over time. In the case of CB2, the total slip

measurement reduced slightly with time. This is still acceptable

Fig. 22 shows the slip values recorded for the whole duration as, while the shrinkage slip is assumed to be the same for both

of the test at the shear connectors nearest to the beam supports. CB2 and CB3, the actual creep affecting CB2 is smaller than the one

316 S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321

Jack B Jack A

dead

weight

dial gauge

self-

resisting

frame

(a) Schematic of the long-term push-out test. (b) Long-term push-out test.

Fig. 16. Instrumentation, loading arrangement and set-up for the long-term push-out test.

strain readings at the bottom side of the slab. Significant long-

term deformations took place after the application of the sustained

external load in the slab and top steel flange when compared to its

instantaneous values. This trend was not observed for the bottom

steel flange, in which case only minor variations were recorded

with time, of the order of approximately 0.3 of their instantaneous

values.

4. Numerical modelling

Fig. 17. Loadslip curves measured from the short-term push-out tests.

The finite element method has been used in this study to model

the behaviour of CB1, CB2 and CB3 observed during the long-

term experiments. For this purpose, the 10DOF (degree of freedom)

finite element depicted in Fig. 24 has been used, previously shown

in [51,52] to be an efficient and robust element for this kind of

simulation. This approach relies on an analytical model derived for

a prismatic steelconcrete composite beam, as shown in Fig. 25. In

its undeformed state, the composite beam occupies the cylindrical

region generated by translating its cross-section A, with regular

boundary A, along a rectilinear axis orthogonal to the cross-

section and parallel to the Z axis of an orthonormal reference

system {O; X , Y , Z }; i, j, k are the unit vectors of axes X , Y , Z . The

composite cross-section domain is formed by the slab, referred

to as A1 , and by the steel beam, referred to as A2 . The two

components of the composite cross-section, A1 and A2 , are assumed

Fig. 18. Loadslip curves measured from the long-term push-out tests.

to be symmetric about the YZ plane. Loads are symmetric with

respect to the YZ plane, which represents the plane of bending.

influencing CB3 (because the sustained load for CB2 was smaller No torsion or out-of-plane flexure is considered. The behaviour

than the one for CB3). Because of this, the negative shrinkage of both the slab and the steel joist is described based on the

slip slightly overcame the positive slip induced by creep for CB2 EulerBernoulli beam model, i.e., small displacements and strains,

(Fig. 22). plane sections perpendicular to the beam axis remain plane, rigid

and perpendicular to the beam axis after deformation. A perfect

3.3. Strain measurements bond occurs between the reinforcement and the concrete. The

composite action between the two components is provided by

Total strain readings were recorded throughout the long-term a continuous deformable interface along a rectilinear line at

tests at different locations of the cross-section. Measurements the interface between the two layers, whose domain consists of

taken place at mid-span at the top and bottom faces of the slab the points in the YZ plane with y = ysc and z [0, L], ysc

as well as at the top and bottom flanges of the steel joist are being defined in Fig. 25. The connection is assumed to permit

plotted in Fig. 23. Over time, the neutral axis of the three specimens only discontinuities parallel to the beam axis; thus no vertical

S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321 317

separation can occur between the two layers. With the 10DOF FE

formulation, linear polynomials have been used to approximate

the axial displacements of both the slab and the joist, and a cubic

representation has been adopted for the deflection, as detailed for

example in [51,52].

on the integral-type creep law [1,2] has been approximated, subdi-

viding the time domain into discrete times t0 , t1 , t2 , . . . , ti , . . . , tk ,

by means of the step-by-step procedure based on the trapezoidal

rule [1,2]:

k

Fig. 20. Total mid-span deflections measured for CB1, CB2 and CB3.

1

ck = shk = c (t0 )J (tk , t0 ) +

[J (tk , ti )

i=1

2

dependent and stress-independent strains, shk is the shrinkage

strain, c (ti ) is the concrete stress calculated at time ti , and J (tk , ti )

is the creep function, which is defined as the strain at time tk caused

by a constant unit stress acting from time ti to time tk .

It is also assumed that the time-dependent behaviour of the

concrete is described by Eq. (2) in both compression and tension.

This is acceptable for stress levels in compression less than about

one half of the compressive strength of the concrete, and for tensile

stresses less than about one half of the tensile strength of the

concrete, as recommended by [2]. For the purpose of the proposed Fig. 21. Creep deflection coefficients for beams CB2 and CB3.

comparisons, the creep values have been calculated relying on the

format provided by [1] and modified to match the creep properties

of Fig. 11. The free shrinkage values adopted in the simulations are

based on Fig. 9.

It is assumed that the steel joist and the reinforcing bars

behave in a linear-elastic fashion with elastic moduli Es and Er ,

respectively, equal to 200 GPa.

Two constitutive relationships have been used for the shear

connection. One is based on the linear-elastic assumptions, and is

defined as

time measured from casting, u1 (z ; t ) and u2 (z ; t ) represent the

Fig. 22. Experimental slip measurements at the shear connectors nearest to the

axial displacements at two arbitrary reference levels located in supports for CB1, CB2 and CB3.

the slab and the joist, respectively, v (z ; t ) is the rotation along

the member length, h defines the distance between two arbitrary

reference levels in the slab and the joist, and the connection the corresponding slip s(z ; t ). A second constitutive relationship is

stiffness k relates the longitudinal force per unit length q(z ; t ) to proposed here, and it accounts for the time-dependent behaviour

318 S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321

Fig. 23. Strains measured at the mid-span for CB1, CB2 and CB3.

the slip that occurred due to creep (due to a sustained force

applied at time 0 ) and the initial slip observed at time 0 ,

and SC (t , 0 ) is the aging coefficient, taken as 0.75 for external

loads [2] and 0.55 when considering shrinkage [49]. Based on the

consideration that the long-term response of the shear connectors

is produced by the complex stress state surrounding the stud, the

proposed expression for SC (t , 0 ) is a function of the concrete

Fig. 24. 10DOF finite element. creep coefficient c (t , 0 ), and is written as

SC (t , 0 ) = SC c (t , 0 ). (5)

q(z ; t ) = ke (z ; t )s(z ; t ) The value for SC has been calibrated against the experimental

k results to be 0.4. This proposed constitutive representation is

= intended to fall within the framework of simplified approaches

1 + SC (t , 0 )SC (t , 0 )

suitable for design applications. In fact, more refined material

[u2 (z ; t ) u1 (z ; t ) + hv (z ; t )], (4) relationships might need to be adopted for an accurate modelling

where ke (z ; t ) is the age-adjusted effective shear connection of the observed structural response, which is outside the scope of

stiffness accounting for creep effects, SC (t , 0 ) represents the the present paper.

Fig. 25. Typical composite beam and cross-section for the FE formulation.

S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321 319

4.3. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results maximum errors of 5.9% (compared with measured data) when

considering creep deflections and of 0.4% for the shrinkage

The numerical results presented in this section have been reading at 461 days from casting. Modelling the composite

obtained by discretising the time domain into 40 time steps based behaviour by means of a shear connection stiffness constant in

on a geometrical sequence [1] and subdividing the member into 20 time (used for FE-1) produces excessive shrinkage deformations

finite elements, more than is necessary based on the conclusions (with an error of 43.2%), due to the higher shrinkage moment

of [51,52]. Considering the fact that the cylinder creep tests (Fig. 11) developed with time, and lower creep displacements (with an

were started at 29 days from casting, only measurements from this error of 51.7%). These discrepancies observed for the creep and

instant in time have been considered in the proposed simulations shrinkage effects considered in isolation tend to reduce when

and comparisons with the experimental results. combined together, since the errors produced in the two cases

Two sets of numerical results have been produced: one based counterbalance each other (Tables 5 and 6). A comparison between

the numerical results and experimental measurements related

on the linear-elastic properties of the shear connectors, using

to the mid-span deflections that have taken place over time is

Eq. (3), and the other based on their time-dependent properties,

presented in Fig. 26, from which it can be observed that the

based on Eqs. (4) and (5). For clarity, these have been referred to as

predictions obtained for FE-2 are better than those for FE-1. The

FE-1 and FE-2, respectively.

distinction between the creep and shrinkage effects was possible

The numerical and experimental results have been compared

thanks to the use of the proposed casting arrangement (Fig. 4).

in Tables 5 and 6, considering the mid-span deflections and

The necessity of including the time-dependent behaviour of the

the end slips, respectively. Their values have been divided into connectors to predict the structural response well is also shown

their instantaneous, creep and shrinkage components to gain by considering the slip results. These readings and numerical

better insight into the structural response. The material properties results are very sensitive to the adopted connection rigidities

adopted for the concrete and the steel joist have been based on and, therefore, provide useful insight into the partial interaction

the standard tests carried out on each of these components, while response. Supposing the shear connection rigidity to remain

the rigidity of the shear connection stiffness of 160 000 kN/m2 constant with time, i.e., for FE-1, the calculated slip values can lead

has been determined based on the instantaneous deflections to significant errors (Table 6), when compared to the experimental

measured for CB2 and CB3 at 29 days from casting. This has been measurements, of the order of 90% and +33% for creep and

carried out based on the consideration that the use of the rigidity shrinkage effects considered separately, respectively. These errors

obtained from the push-out tests (Table 4) in the simulations reduced to 10% and 16%, respectively, in the case of FE-2.

would underestimate the instantaneous deflections. Based on the numerical and experimental results outlined, it

Considering the results reported in Tables 5 and 6 for the is recommended that further experimental studies on full-scale

creep and shrinkage deformations, the use of the age-adjusted samples and push-out specimens need to be carried out to gain

shear connection stiffness (used for FE-2) provides a better better insight into the time-dependent behaviour of the shear

representation of the time-dependent composite behaviour, with connectors.

320 S. Al-deen et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 308321

Table 5

Comparison between the numerical and experimental mid-span deflections.

Loading condition Measured FE-1 (with constant connection FE-2 (with time-dependent

stiffness) connection stiffness)

vmid-span (mm) vmid-span (mm) error (%) vmid-span (mm) error (%)

Shrinkage between 29 and 222 days 4.24 7.11 +67.7% 5.10 +20.3%

Shrinkage between 29 and 461 days 5.05 7.23 +43.2% 5.03 0.4%

Instantaneous external load (13.4 kN/m) at 29 days 15.14 15.34 +1.3% 15.34 +1.3%

Creep due to the sustained external load (13.4kN/m) at 461 days 7.82 3.78 51.7% 7.36 5.9%

Shrinkage and creep due to the sustained external load 12.87 11.01 14.5% 12.39 3.7%

(13.4 kN/m) at 461 days

Instantaneous external load (19.8 kN/m) and beam self-weight at 22.94 22.67 1.2% 22.67 1.2%

29 days

Creep due to the beam self-weight and the sustained external load 9.26 5.14 44.5% 8.13 12.2%

(19.8 kN/m) at 222 days

Shrinkage and creep due to the beam self-weight and the sustained 13.50 12.25 9.3% 13.23 2.0%

external load (19.8 kN/m) at 222 days

Table 6

Comparison between the numerical and experimental end slips.

Loading condition Measured FE-1 (with constant connection FE-2 (with time-dependent

stiffness) connection stiffness)

send (mm) send (mm) error (mm) send (mm) error (mm)

Shrinkage between 29 and 222 days 0.64 0.46 +0.18 0.69 0.05

Shrinkage between 29 and 461 days 0.70 0.47 +0.23 0.81 0.11

Instantaneous external load (13.4 kN/m) at 29 days 0.50 0.67 +0.17 0.67 +0.17

Creep due to the sustained external load (13.4 kN/m) at 461 days 0.60 0.06 0.54 0.55 0.05

Shrinkage and creep due to the sustained external load (13.4 kN/m) 0.10 0.41 0.31 0.26 0.16

at 461 days

Instantaneous external load (19.8 kN/m) and beam self-weight at 29 0.70 0.99 +0.29 0.99 +0.29

days

Creep due to the beam self-weight and the sustained external load 0.65 0.09 0.56 0.59 0.06

(19.8 kN/m) at 222 days

Shrinkage and creep due to the beam self-weight and the sustained 0.01 0.37 0.38 0.10 0.11

external load (19.8 kN/m) at 222 days

adjusted effective shear connection stiffness. This has been shown

This paper has presented the results collected during an to be particularly significant when dealing with creep effects, as the

experimental programme investigating the long-term behaviour use of a constant shear connection stiffness would underestimate

of composite steel concrete beams. For this purpose, the main the deformations of the overall member. On the other hand,

measurements, i.e., deflection, slip and strain readings, obtained in the case of an unloaded member, the effects of shrinkage

from the long-term testing of three 8 m long simply supported calculated using the age-adjusted effective approach yield smaller

beams were reported. Both propped and un-propped conditions deformations. Further experimental work has been recommended

were utilised in the preparation of the specimens. The specimens to gain better insight into the time-dependent behaviour of shear

were designed in accordance with Australian guidelines, adopting connectors.

a degree of shear connection equal to 0.5. Standard short-term

and long-term tests were carried out to obtain the relevant Acknowledgements

material properties of both steel and concrete. Short-term and

long-term push-out tests were carried out to obtain information The work in this article was supported under the Australian

on the response of the shear connectors. Considering the limited Research Councils Discovery Projects funding scheme (project

experimental data available to date for this form of construction, number DP0667127) and by a research grant awarded to the

these results are very useful for benchmarking of numerical second author by the Commonwealth through the AustraliaKorea

models. Foundation of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The

The experimental results were modelled by means of the experimental work was conducted in the J.W. Roderick Materials

finite element method. The time-dependent behaviour of the and Structures Testing Laboratory of the School of Civil Engineering

concrete was modelled by means of the step-by-step procedure, at the University of Sydney. The assistance of the laboratory staff is

while the steel joist and reinforcement were assumed to remain greatly acknowledged.

linear elastic. Two constitutive relationships were adopted for

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