EnergyEfficiency
Dense or Massive MIMO or Both?
Conclusion
Social
Exabyte/month networks
Video
30 streaming
3.2 GB/person/month
25 Next killer app
Gaming
20
15 410 MB/person/month
Different Standards
 2G (GSM), 3G (UMTS), 4G (LTE/LTEA)
More and more focus on data traffic
Contemporary networks
Relatively efficient at high user load
Very inefficient at low user load
Future networks
Must be more energy efficient,
irrespective of current load
Network densification:
More service antennas per km2
 Important factors:
Interference from other cells depend on spectrum license
Different cost and backhaul conditions
10000
Real BS deployment
Advantages
 Shorter distances: Major reductions in propagation losses
 Can be applied along with any transmission protocol
 Cells can be turned on/off without destroying coverage
Disadvantages
 Cell edge conditions are not improved (interference limited)
 Hard to coordinate transmissions across cells
 Deploy more BSs per km2 very expensive?
Colocated Deployment
 1D, 2D, or 3D arrays
Distributed Deployment
 Remote radio heads
N Wc
 Signal remains: a
N N =  N P E NN  = 1
W
N Wc
 Interference vanishes: a
N P = a
N P
a
E[NN PN ] = 0
W
N a Wc
 Noise vanishes: a
N = N E[a
NN N ] =0
W
W c
Asymptotically noise/interferencefree communication: _N N
LineofSight Propagation
 Uniform linear array
 Random user angles
a
N P 
P
1
 observations: N P P P
P
a
N P
Stronger signal
Suppressed noise
 What is a
N P ?
Channel Measurements
a
N P 
P
1 P
Source: X. Gao, O. Edfors, P a
N P
F. Rusek, and F. Tufvesson,
N P P P
Linear PreCoding
Performance in Measured
VeryLarge MIMO
Channels, VTC 2011.
Different scenarios:
Determine how quickly interference is suppressed
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 26
MIMO Transmission
Same principles for uplink
LineofSight NonLineofSight
Channels determined by angles Rich multipath propagation
12 parameters to estimate per user parameters to estimate per user
Precoding = Beamforming Precoding Beamforming
Coherence Blocks
 Fixed channel responses
 Coherence time: m s
 Coherence bandwidth: m Hz
 Depends on mobility and environment
 Block length: = m m symbols
 Typically: [100,10000]
Advantages
 Better energy focusing (transmit power per user can scale as 1/ )
 Improved cell edge conditions (only desired signals are amplified)
 Multiple users share the loadindependent costs per BS
Disadvantages
 More transceiver hardware per BS
 Reduction in transmit power is modest
 TDD protocols needed to enable precoding for large
Questions?
Known as
Multiuser MIMO
(massive if very
many antennas)
LineofSight
 Adapt signal phases at antennas
 Steer beam towards receiving user
 Not laser beams: interuser interference
NonLineofSight
 Multipath propagation
 Add components coherently
FlatFading Channels
 Channel between BS and User : h W N P
 Rayleigh fading: ~ (, )
 Channel variances : Random variables, pdf ()
Uplink Transmission
()
 User transmits signal with power  P = p [Joule/channel use]
 Received signal at BS:
Signals from other users
= + + (interference)
N,
Signal of User
Noise ~ (, P )
 Recover by receive combining as a
:
P P
()
a
()
p  a

P
SINR = P P =
P a
+ a
p()
 a P P
 +
P
FlatFading Channels
 Channel between BS and User : h W N P
 Rayleigh fading: ~ (, )
 Channel variances : Random variables, pdf ()
Downlink Transmission
()
 BS transmits to User with power  P = p [Joule/channel use]
 Spatial directivity by precoding vector
 Received signal at User :
Signals from other users
a + (interference)
= a +
N,
Signal to User
Noise ~ (0, P )
 Recover at User :
()
() p a P
v  /
P
SINR = () a
P
p  v  / + P P
 Gives equations:
() P
p  a P
 = (2
/
1)( p a
+ P P
) for = 1, ,
A A
v v
p = (2/ 1)( p + P) for = 1, ,
A A
 Linear equations in transmit powers Solve by Gaussian elimination!
Total Transmit Power [Joule/s] for = A
v
for =
Uplink energy/symbol: P a where , =
(P/ N) A
Downlink energy/symbol:
P N
v
A
for
Same total power: = P a N = P a a  A
Minimize Maximize
interference signal
A
v
for = N
for = Property
(P/ N) A
 Hence: , = A
= (P/ N) A
of Wishart
v
 0 for matrices
for
 A
N
= tr a Call this
(depends on cell)
Power Amplifiers
 Amplifier efficiencies: () , () (0,1]
( ) () N Summary:
 Average inefficiency: () + ( ) =
Summary: + D + D
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 45
Detailed Power Consumption Model (2)
Signal Processing
 Channel estimation and precoding/combining
 Efficiency: , arithmetic operations / Joule
Pu() WA u()A
Channel Estimation: +
 Once in uplink/downlink per coherence block
 Pilot signal lengths: () , () for some () , () 1
u u PW
Linear Processing (for = ):
+ 1
 Compute precoding/combining vectors once per coherence block
 Use same vectors for all (1 + /) symbols
3 for MR
P
 Types of precoding: = 3 + + /3 for ZF
(3 P + + /3) for MMSE
= Number of iterations
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 46
Detailed Power Consumption Model (3)
Backhaul Signaling: +
 = Loadindependent backhaul power
 = Energy for sending data over backhaul / bit
Fixed power
A Generic Power Model
P P
( + )
+ , + ,N + N, + N,N + P, + , + P,N + 1
Observations
 Polynomial in and Increases faster than linear with
 Depends on cell geometry only through
maximize 1
log P (1 + ( ))
, , P
+ , + ,N + 1 log P (1 + ( ))
Questions?
Optimization of EnergyEfficiency:
Fixed Regular Deployment
Our Goal
 Optimize number of antennas
For ZF processing:
 Optimize number of active users Analytically solvable!
 Optimize the (normalized) transmit power
Outline
 Optimize each variable separately
 Devise an alternating optimization algorithm
QuasiConcave Function ()
Theorem 1 (Optimal )
EE is quasiconcave w.r.t. and maximized by
(A / , ) N
N
, + 1
=
Observations
 Increases with circuit coefficients independent of (e.g., , )
 Decreases with circuit coefficients multiplied with (e.g., , 1/ )
 Independent of cost of coding/decoding/backhaul
 Increases with power approx. as (almost linear)
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 56
Optimal Transmit Power
Theorem 2 (Optimal )
EE is quasiconcave w.r.t. and maximized by
(W)( , , W ) N
N
A
1
=
More circuit power
Observations More transmit power
 Increases with all circuit coefficients (e.g., , , , 1/ )
 Independent of cost of coding/decoding/backhaul
 Increases with approx. as
W
(almost linear) Power/antenna
W N
decreases
W
Theorem 3 (Optimal )
EE is quasiconcave w.r.t.
Observations
 Increases with fixed circuit power (e.g., )
 Decreases with circuit coefficients multiplied with or ( , , 1/ )
Joint EE Optimization
 EE is a function of , , and
 Theorems 13 optimize one parameter, when the other two are fixed
 Can we optimize all of them?
Theorem 4 Disclaimer
The algorithm convergences and should be integers
to a local optimum to the Theorems 1 and 3 give real numbers
joint EE optimization problem Take one of the closest integer points
Main Characteristics
 Circular cell with radius 250 m
 Uniform user distribution
 Uncorrelated Rayleigh fading
 Typical 3GPP pathloss model
Optimum
= 165
= 104
= 0.87
User rates:
64QAM
Massive
MIMO!
Many users
and antennas
suppresses
interference
Optimum =3
= 145
= 95
= 0.91
User rates:
64QAM
MMSE is
Not Optimal!
Optimal linear
processing
but too costly
computations
Optimum
= 81
= 77
= 0.24
User rates:
2PSK
Observation
Lower EE
than with ZF
Also Massive
MIMO setup
Low rates
Simulations
Depends on
parameters
Download
Matlab code to
try other
values!
M K
Assumptions
All cells look the same
Jointly optimized
All cells transmit in parallel
Fractional pilot reuse:
Divide cells into clusters
Uplink pilot length ()
for () {1,2,4}
InterCell Interference
 & = Channel attenuation between a random user in cell and BS
)
 = & is relative severity of intercell interference
))
( )
= log P 1 +
1
* + 1 + * + 1 + (1 + *A )
P
) )
where * = & + and *A = & +
)) ))
 Overly high rates not possible (but singlecell solution didnt give that)
 Clustering (fractional pilot reuse) might be good to reduce interference
Optimum
= 123
= 40
= 0.28
() = 4
User rates:
4QAM
Massive
MIMO!
Many BS
antennas
Note that
/ 3
Controlling intercell
interference is very
important!
Area Throughput
We only optimized EE
Power per
antenna
decreases
Questions?
Optimization of EnergyEfficiency:
Heterogeneous Deployment
InterCell Interference
 Symmetric: All cells equally exposed
Easy to define pilot reuse patterns
Overly symmetric deployment
 Asymmetric: Interference variations
Hard to pick pilot reuse patterns
Pessimistic Approach
Some abstraction needed for analysis!
Hard to deploy intricate interference control
Good to design networks without relying on it
Tractable analysis with stochastic deployment?
Independent stochastic deployment
Propagation Model
 Channel from User in cell to BS :
& ~ (, & )
 Pathloss: &
= N distance km 8
Duality Theorem
The uplink rates are achievable in the downlink using same total power
Same precoding/combining vectors, but different power allocation
Provable with perfect CSI (as earlier) but also in general networks
EE Maximization Problem
maximize D
, , , , *
subject to SINR =
Optimization Variables:
 = Number of BS antennas
 = Number of users per cell
 = Normalized transmit power
 = BS density Unique feature of this
 = Pilot reuse factor ( 1) stochastic framework
Observations
 Increases with , but decreases with or
 Independent of and hardware characteristics
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 81
Optimizing BS Density
Impact of BS Density
 Rate R is independent of , due to power control
 Transmit power scales as /8/P
Simulation
Different BS densities
All other variables optimized
Observations
Lower bound is tight
Higher EE with lower
EE increases with
Saturation Property
EE saturates at = 10 (few hundred meters between BSs)
Satisfied in urban deployments already today!
We can safely let in the analysis
MN = W P MP = 1 + P
where A
+ + and
(8P) 8 N 8P 8P
FM G W
 Feasible if 1 MA G
> 0: < M F
MA
( 1)
WF F
 Example: = 200 and = 3 give 400 (more than 256QAM)
Theorem 7 (Optimal )
EE is quasiconcave w.r.t. and maximized by
(, )P +, N,N + , (N, + ,N ) ,
=
N,N + (N, + ,N )
WQ Q(XYM ) AQ
N (?SA) A
where =
? S ?SA
M N A
Z G
?SA
Observations
 Increases with fixed circuit power (e.g., )
 Decreases with circuit coefficients multiplied with or ( , , 1/ )
 Independent of cost of coding/decoding/backhaul
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 86
Optimizing Number of Antennas
Theorem 8 (Optimal )
EE is quasiconcave w.r.t. and maximized by
, + N,
N + P + N P + NP P + 1 N + P P + N P P + PP
,N + N,N
=
1
G N G G PG P
where = (8N), N = (8P) A
+
8N
+
8P
, P = 1 +
8P
.
Observations
 Increases with circuit coefficients independent of (e.g., , )
 Decreases with circuit coefficients multiplied with (e.g., , 1/ )
 Independent of cost of coding/decoding/backhaul
 Increases with due to interference suppression
Simulation
Optimized , ,
SINR constraint: = 3
Observations
Optimal: = 89, = 10
Massive MIMO with
reuse factor 7
Other (, ) around the
optimum are also good
Dominating Parts
Power of BS transceivers: ,N
Fixed power consumption: ,
User Density
Can we Optimize this Density?
 So far: and design variables
Increase: No, cannot create users
 Density: users per km2
Decrease: Yes, by scheduling
 Heterogeneous user distribution
100000
10
Optimized M and K
2
Low User Density MIMO: M=89, K=10
SIMO: M=10, K=1
0
Many cells with 1
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10
UE density () [UE/km2]
Intuition:
 Smaller cells: Greatly improves SNR, but no interference improvement
 More antennas/users per cell: Suppress interference
Share circuit power cost among users
Future Work
 Other processing schemes and point distributions
 Coordinated resource management, multitier networks
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 92
Part 4
Questions?
Optimization Resources
 Resource bundle:
 Example: power, resource blocks, network architecture, antennas, users
 Feasible allocation:
P P , , b b . Solution:
Pareto Boundary
A set
Improve a metric
 Solution: A scalar number Degrading
another metric
 Cons: Is there a prime metric?
How to select constraints?
A Posteriori Approach
Generate region (computationally demanding!)
Look at region and select operating point
Highly Relatively
conflicting aligned
Aggregate
Examples: Sum performance: metric
Proportional fairness:
Harmonic mean:
Fairness
Maxmin fairness: of metrics
Resource bundle:
500
20 W
D
= + , + N, + ,N +
Fixed power
Amplifier Circuit power
(10 W) Compute
efficiency per antenna
(0.31) (1 W) ZF precoding
Circuit power
(2.3 D 10# D P )
per user
(0.3 W)
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 102
Example: Results
1. Average user rate
3. Energyefficiency
Observations
Different number
of users
Observations
MultiObjective Optimization
 Rigorous way to study problems with
multiple performance metrics
Further Reading
Questions?
MultiObjective Optimization
 Framework to jointly optimize energyefficiency and other 5G metrics
Optimizing 5G Networks for EnergyEfficiency 108
References
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multiuser MIMO systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 14361449, 2013
13. G. Miao, Energyefficient uplink multiuser MIMO, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.
12, no. 5, pp. 23022313, 2013.
14. E. Bjrnson, M. Kountouris, and M. Debbah, Massive MIMO and small cells: Improving
energy efficiency by optimal softcell coordination, in Proc. Int. Conf. Telecommun.
(ICT), 2013
15. D. Feng, C. Jiang, G. Lim, L. J. Cimini, G. Feng, and G. Y. Li, A survey of energy
efficient wireless communications, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 1, pp.
167 178, 2013
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system multiple access mobile networks, in Proc. IEEE Online GreenComm, 2013.
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