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Oppose that change Produce current opposite to the increasing

Electrons The conductivity of the material for magnetic
lines of force
0 eV Decrease by a factor of four
V/m J/Cm N/C 4 x 10-7 H/m
Induces potential 4.5 x 103 N/C
Atom Insulator
Electric lines of force Insulator
Ne = 2n2 The material has high resistance
Magnet Toroid
14.5 x 10 to the 18th coulombs Mass
Degaussing Coercivity
Magnetizing force 1,800 times
Atomic structure Ionization
Unit pole Hall effect
A vector quantity Ferrites
2,000 G Protons
6.050 Faradays second law
Directly proportional to the charge Diamagnetic
Joules Travels from north to south through the
surrounding medium of a bar magnet
A vector quantity Magnetomotive force
Conductance Magnetizing force
Conductance Attracts more
Lesser Reluctivity
Flux 0.00360/C
Current Coercive force
Hydrogen Hydrogen
Higher 2 N/Wb
Permeance Coulombs second law
High permeability 10-10 m
2A 10 Weber
Magnetic flux density Reverses the magnetic polarity
5 x 108, 5, 500 x 106 Weber Valence electrons
Absolute permittivity Neutrons
Ion 1-10
Coulombs first law Reluctance (resistance)
Loadstone (lodestone) Weber (magnetic flux SI system)
eV (energy) Tesla (magnetic flux density)
Coulomb (demonstrated) 14.4 N
More current can pass Neutrons
Gauss (magnetic flux density) 0 (zero)
Magnetomotive force (At) A force set up when current flows through a
Conductor (abundance) 6.25 x 1018 electrons/sec
An element (all atoms are the same) Insulator (widest gap)
At/Wb (unit of reluctance) Quantum (energy to move and electron)
0.4NI Free electrons (electrons at conduction band)
Leakage flux (flux that drifts away) Cation (positive) anion (negative)
Permanent magnet (high retentivity) Electrons (revolve)
Cryogenics (science of physical phenomena) Magnetic axis (straight line)
Permeability (ability to concentrate) Plasma (gases with charged particles)
Electrostatic force (force between two The current carrier in conductors are VALENCE
electrically charged body) ELECTRONS
Permeance (conductance) The rate at which conductor is moved
Non-crystalline or Amorphous Conductor (more free electrons)
8 x 10-19 A force set up when current flow through a
conductor (magnetic field)
Also doubles Ferromagnetic (very high permeabilities)
Soft magnetic materials (easily magnetized) A voltage that opposes the applied EMF
Force (inversely proportional) permeability One circular mil (area of conductor diameter
0.001 inch)
Typical saturation flux density 2 Wb/m2 1.260 gilberts (At)
Electric potential (measure of density) Isotope (is neutral)
Coulombs (Law bodies at rest) Valence band (containing valence electrons)
Magnetic pole (magnetic line of force is Along the surface (all RF current flow)
Weigand effect (rapid switching) Exclusion principle (different set of quantum
Electric flux density Magnetic flux (magnetic lines of force)
Ionization potential (potential required to 1 A, 400 Hz (most induced voltage)
remove a valence electron)
Near the wire (is stronger) Electric charge (unbalanced, the atom is said
to carry)
Faradays first law (whenever a conductor cuts 10-4 m
1 Gb/cm = (Oe) Permeability (H/m) permittivity (F/m)
Paramagnetic (slightly greater than) Self-induced emf (emf induced in a coil)
Magnetic susceptibility (capacity of substance Electric flux (scalar)
to become magnetized)
Statcoulumb (esu) Diamagnetic material (slight less than)
Test charge (used to detect the presence of Conductor (smallest energy gap) 0 eV
electric charge)
Electric pole (equal magnitude opposite signs) Electrically neutral (same positive and
Amount of current (determines the strength) Breakdown voltage (Lowest voltage)
Increases four times (distance if halved, force Flux density in mks (Weber/m2)
Flux in cgs (maxwell) Inductance (represent the energy stored)
Coulombs law or law of electrostatics (directly Magnetic flux (the entire group of magnetic
proportional and inversely proportional) field lines)
Left hand rule (direction of magnetic field (electron current) Rate at which electrons pass
when current is flowing)
permeance-Permits flux Gaussmeter measure (magnetic flux density)
Potential energy (energy in electromagnetic or 1,836 electrons (equal to protons and
electrostatic field) neutrons mass)
Residual magnetism (reduced to zero) Permittivity (store electrical potential energy)
Weber (108 maxwells) Nucleus (neutral)
1.1 x 10-10 um (diameter of hydrogen) Cobalt (ferromagnetic)
Permeability (conduct magnetic flux) Electric field (space outside)
Electric flux density (vector) Magnetic flux (total number of magnetic lines)
Mutual inductance (a change current in one Retentivity (which retain magnetism)
will do the other)
Neutral (isolated body under normal Keeper (used to maintain strength)
North pole (magnetic lines of force are Gilbert (cgs of magnetomotive force)
Residual magnetism (quantity of magnetism 8 (electrns to make stability)
Statcoulomb (cgs) Oppose the creation of magnetic flux
Electron (amber) Magnetic induction (substance becomes a
magnet when placed near a magnet)
Ionizing (insulator can be conductor) Electromagnet can be switched On and OFF
90 angle line of force leave and enter 2A
0.93 It allows independent operations of loads
Orange, blue, gold and silver (3.6 ohms 1.55 A lagging
Reactive (has a phase difference) Rms (effective value, value that causes the
same heating effct as a dc-voltage)
Impedance (resistance and reactance) Superposition (several voltage)
14, 14, 14 (28 amu) Gallium phosphide (green and red lights)
Series clipper (Clipper where diode is Diac (2 terminal, bidirectional), diode
connected in series) unidirectional
Zinc Sulfide (Zns) highest energy gap Indium antimonide (InSb) smallest energy gap
Tunnel diode (Esaki diode) negative resistance Selenium (semiconductor used in xerography)
AIP (slowest electron-mobility) 1.5 x 1010 (equilibrium concentration)
Insulator (absolute temperature) Inner-metallic (compound semiconductors)
Forward bias (external voltage) Diac (three-layer diode)
Reverse current (small value) Reverse recovery time (important to
Ionization (avalanche breakdown primarily Thyrector (two Zener diode)
Trivalent (acceptor impurities) Diode pack (containing more than one diode)
14 eC (total charge of nucleus of silicon atom) IMPATT (Read diode)
Donor-doped becomes (N-type semiconductor) Acceptor level in a doped semiconductor (near
the valence level)
Forbidden band (separates valence and Amorphous semiconuctor-(Semiconducting
conduction band) glass)
Zener diode (utilize the avalanche or Zener Less than 1 watt - low power or small signal
breakdown region, for voltage regulation)
Diode capacitance(the total capacitance) Junction diode(n-type and p-type are brought
Zener impedance (impedance operating in Zener diode voltage regulator
Zener breakdown region)
Resistance operating a steady state voltage (minimum voltage) threshold voltage
(dc resistance)
(silicon) non metal (effect when electric field across a
semiconductor is strong) avalanche
Shockley diode (four layer, characteristic at 1 st Depletion region-(area where there are no
quadrant = SCR ) charge carriers)
Junction diode is forward biased a voltage Elemental semiconductor (germanium)
greater than threshold is applied, with the
cathode less positive than anode
Semiconductor used in requiring the emission Electrical resistance decrease as temperature
or absorption of lights (compound increase
Combination of inductance, capacitance and Operating temperature of a reverses-biased
resistance (diode impedance) diode is increased, its leakage current or
reverse saturation current will (increase
Semiconductor diode that have a fine wire Unidirectional conduction (diode action)
called a cat-whisker (point contact diode)
(depends on quantum-mechanical bond) (semiconductor that is very rare) germanium
Gunn diode
Inserted with an intrinsic material, the diode Threshold voltage when it operates at higher
becomes PiN diode temperature (decreases)
Capable of both amplification and oscillation Electron and hole concentrations are equal
Tunnel diode intrinsic semiconductor
Diode is shunted with the load parallel Dynamic resistance (operating with small ac
clipper signal)
Chemical bond that is significant in metals Low leakage current (silicon over germanium)
(metallic bonding)
Average resistance (large ac voltages) Transition capacitance (effect of a capacitor)
Highest mobility (indium antimonide) 32, 32, 40
Zener effect (sudden large increase in current) Opposite in the direction of hole flow
electron flow in semiconductor
Very small current (as cut-off current) P-type (anode)
N-type (cathode) Maximum dissipation power (maximum power
can handle)
Capacitance when the diode is forward biased Highest mobility InSb
diffusion capacitance or storage capacitance
Valence band (conduction of holes occur) Semiconductor good for high temperature
(silicon carbide) SiC
Backward diode high current flow takes Free from impurities intrinsic semiconductor
place when reverse-biased
Power handling capability if operated at higher Pn junction (n-type and p-type)
temperature decrease
Current capacity important specification of Curve for voltage and current (characteristic
semiconductor diode cuvre)
Time required for forward voltage (forward High-speed integrated circuit gallium
recovery time) arsenide
Compensated semiconductor doped with Donor level near conduction band
both donor and acceptor
Germanium mostly used to detect infrared Clamper shift the dc-level of the input signal
Germanium metalloid or semimetal Voltage across the gate-source pinch off
Limiting the free carriers will decrease Substrate of a MOSFET connected to (source)
conductivity increase resistance
Reflects the fact that holes and electrons Skews happen to JFET as current flows to it
participate in the injection process (bipolar)
Area in JFET where current passes as it flows Alloy transistor
from source to drain channel
10:1 or less Infinite collector-emitter resistance
Base emitter is reversed and base-collector is 150:1
forward (cut-off)
Common-emitter forward-current amplification ICBO zero (0) mA
When transistor is saturated VCE is (0V) BJT current controlled current source
FET voltage controlled current-source Diodes in two arms and resistors in other two
(half bridge)
Faulty device Transistor terminal that handles most current
Arrow emitter conventional current flow Diode chopper switching element
Highest power gain common emitter Usually specified by the manufacturers
(commn emitter)
Maximum (saturation) Three terminal three layer transistor
on transistor, voltage VBE 0.7 More useful in integrated circuit IC chips
N-channel, gate should be positive Base-emitter and base collector reversed cut
off region
Transistor characteristic curves that is most Active region reversed forward
useful output characteristic curve
Communication link between the Insulated gate fieldistor, JFET
manufacturer and user specification sheet
The region or area in a transistor that is No channel between the drain and the source
heavily doped at the junction enhancement type
Most frequently used transistor common- Highest input resistance common collector
In MOSFET, foundation substrate IC, ICO milliamperes and micro and nano
Half-wave rectifier series clipper Substrate of p-channel IGFET enhancement
type n-type material
Transconductance of JFET dID/dVGS JFET length 1/L2
Smallest construction base To increase MOSFET power, the channel
should be wide and short
Transistor input equivalent circuit - Resistor Graph of the drain current ID current-voltage
and a voltage source characteristic curve
Circuit must have a capacitor clamper Degree of change, in operating-point due to
temperature variation in the dc biasing
stability factor
Current in collector and emitter when base is Base material and additional terminal
open cut-off substrate
Dc beta Inverting amplifier DTL
Gate consists of PN junction JFET Region normally employed for linear amplifiers
active region
Lowest input resistance JFET VGS = VP = zero
Gate-source voltage is zero drain-source Region minimum distortion at output signal
saturation current active region
Ac alpha a common-base, short-circuit, BJT FET input is reversed BJT forward FET
amplification factor
Proper region of operation for ac amplification Usually neglected hr and ho
dc biasing
NPN ebc, PNP cbe FET operates as BJT as switching MOSFET
enhancement type
Wide and short V-mosfet Depletion pinch-off voltage
JFET over BJT high input resistance Full-wave doubler capacitors ay 2
Transistor outer layers heavily doped Frequency at which the voltage gain of op-
semiconductors amp reduces to unity unity-gain bandwidth
Tank is divided into input and feedback Non-linear class C
portions colpitts oscillator
Approximate value of the bias-current Used in cascade amplifier emitter and base
compensating resistor equal to the parallel
Shunted with a small capacitance to Q-point of Class D any of the above
minimize high frequency noise
Ratio of differential and common gain Darlington superbeta!
common-mode rejection ratio
Classify AM or FM class S Op-amp terminals 5
Noise gain using op-amps five inputs 6 Nonlinear distortion harmonic distortion
Internally compensated op-amps Frequency dependent on charge and
compensation capacitor discharge of RC networks relaxation
Eliminate Miller effect cascode amplifier Important in large signal dc-amplification
slew rate
3 amplifiers gain of 8 512 By making the feedback resistance small
minimize the effect of the input
Two transistors differential amplifier Feedback element resistor
20 dB/decade roll-off reduction by a factor of Generating a reference voltage above ground
10 per decade single polarity power supply
Distortion due to inability of an amplifier Distinguishing feature of class C amplifier
amplitude distortion less than 180 degrees
10 90 Current at the input of op-amp input bias
Darlington configuration direct-coupled two- Common collector very low output
stage transistor configuration resistance
Change in input offset current due to Most efficient class A (transformer-coupled)
temperature change input offset current drift
Uses tapped coil in tuned circuit Hartley Q point below cutoff region
Class A at the center Causes the output to saturate towards
positive or negative
Highest gain open loop gain 180 degrees class B
By properly using and adjusting the offset-null By installing a bias-current-compensating
terminals resistor
Class B cut off ang Q-point Reduction of op-amps gain roll-off
Break frequency 0.707 times Gain in comparator open-loop gain
Microwave oscillator klystron Class B 180 degrees 78.55 efficiency
Make the feedback and input resistances as Noise gain of op-amps 1+Rf/Ri
small as possible lesser noise
Better performance frequency response Class D 90% efficiency
Voltage gain decrease frequency increase Circuit input stage of op-amp differential
Large dc least effect drift Produce alternating or pulsating current or
voltage oscillator
360 class A Packaging - SMT
Bias currents slight difference input offset Op-amp zero-crossing detector withoyt
current hysteresis has no feedback
External frequency-compensating capacitor Two comparators using op-amps window
3.0-30F comparator
TO-99 Less than 180 degrees class C
Class A 25% Single-ended input
Q-point class A active region Q-point class B cutoff region
Q-point class AB slightly above cutoff Maximum output voltage rate of change of an
op-amp slew rate
Least distortion class A DIL TO-116
Can be controlled externally programmable +VSAT to VSAT (maximum output voltage
op-amps swing)
Slew rate and frequency response can affect Follows the differential amplifier high gain
its performance amplifier
Input bias current helps us to determine Class BC biased to class C but modulated
value of resistors reversed to class C
Amplifier at the output stage of op-amps Voltage gain of voltage follower unity
complementary amplifier
Can be used for linear amplification class A Gain in common mode common gain
or B
Input offset voltage is represented by 6dB/octave reduction of op-amps voltage
battery gain
Multistage transistor amplifier cascaded Like darlington feedback pair
Used both npn feedback pair Ration of output to input quantity gain
More than 180 but less than 360 class AB Battery between the non-inverting and
ground terminal
Overall gain of amplifier in cascade the Output complementary stage of most op-
product amps common collector
A good op-amp - has very high input Two-stage transistor amplifier cascode
resistance configuration
Class C efficiency - 33% Class D highest efficiency
Push-pull amplifier that uses npn and pnp Intended for pulse operation class D
transistors complementary-symmetry
External frequency-compensation capacitor Threshold voltage between the base-emitter
lower value, wider bandwidth junction of silicon darlington transistor 1.6 V
Feedback element of integrator capacitor Free-running astable
Eccles/Jordan circuit - bistable multivibrator Has an output current flowing during the
whole input current cycle class A
Stage followed by the output complementray
in p-amps level shifter