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Nurse Education Today 46 (2016) 139145

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Nurse Education Today

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/nedt

The process of internationalization of the nursing and midwifery


curriculum: A qualitative study
Khadizah H. Abdul-Mumin
Universiti Brunei Darussalam, PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Background: There is an abundance of literature on internationalization of curricula. However, research on
Received 19 September 2015 how a curriculum is internationalized to accommodate non-mobile students studying in their home countries
Received in revised form 21 August 2016 is limited.
Accepted 7 September 2016 Objective: To describe the process undertaken by curriculum developers in internationalizing the Brunei nursing
Available online xxxx
and midwifery curriculum through curriculum design.
Design: A descriptive qualitative research design.
Keywords:
International
Setting: A nursing and midwifery higher education institution in Brunei.
Education Participants: Seventeen nurse/midwife academics.
Nursing Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 curriculum developers. Data were analyzed using
Midwifery thematic analysis.
Curriculum Results: Four themes emerged: expectations of an internationalized curriculum; formation of a committee;
Brunei benchmarking and setting standards; and designing the curriculum for internationalization.
Conclusions: This study has implications for the development of an internationally-oriented curriculum that takes
into account the cultural context of a specic country. The ndings highlight the need to involve students in
curriculum design, a practice that is not common in Brunei.
2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Darussalam, 2013), which is equivalent to a B + or 65% in the UK.


Most students scoring below this average are deemed ineligible to
Internationalization of higher education demands that higher educa- study abroad, and generally cannot access international experiences un-
tion institutions provide education informed by global events, ensure less they are willing and able to self-nance. Therefore, it is important to
programs have international relevance, and teach skills that are applica- design a curriculum that addresses this inequity in international experi-
ble in global markets (Luxon and Peelo, 2009). Brunei is one of many ence by ensuring that all graduates attain the same high level of
countries that aspires to provide nursing and midwifery education knowledge.
that is recognized and comparable internationally (Abdul-Mumin, This paper presents ndings from a study on the internationalization
2016; Mumin, 2015a; Mumin, 2015b). As part of internationalization ef- of the nursing and midwifery curriculum in Brunei; specically, curric-
forts, undergraduate students enrolled in Brunei's GenNEXT Degree ulum design whereby international perspectives are integrated into
Program, including those studying nursing and midwifery, can now par- the local curriculum. The experiences of curriculum developers
ticipate in a semester to a 1-year (two semesters) study abroad program concerning the process of internationalizing the curriculum through
(Mundia, 2012). Eligible students can choose from many countries, in- curriculum design are discussed. Because this topic has not previously
cluding the UK, Germany, the United States, Japan, and Malaysia. How- been studied in Brunei, international literature was explored to examine
ever, these opportunities are only available to high-achieving students the current knowledgebase.
with grade point averages of 4.0 and above (Universiti Brunei
1.1. Operational Denitions
Acknowledgements and Funding
This research project is unfunded. However, the researcher received a salary from the For the purpose of this study, the singular term nursing and mid-
Government of Brunei Darussalam via the Ministry of Education, who also granted leave wifery curriculum refers to nursing and midwifery curricula at differ-
and paid for research support through doctoral training in England. The author would ent levels (e.g., diploma, advanced diploma, degree) for various
like to thank all participants involved in this study, as well as Professor Judith Lathlean
(Professor of Health Research, University of Southampton, United Kingdom) for her guid-
specializations (e.g., critical care nursing, operation theater nursing, pe-
ance and tireless support. diatric nursing, community health nursing). Internationalization
E-mail address: khadizah.mumin@ubd.edu.bn. means the process of integrating international perspectives into a local

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.09.003
0260-6917/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
140 K.H. Abdul-Mumin / Nurse Education Today 46 (2016) 139145

curriculum to develop an internationalized/international curriculum. 2. Methods


Internationalized or international curriculum denotes a curriculum
with international perspectives or content designed for non-mobile stu- 2.1. Research Design
dents (domestic and foreign) who cannot obtain internationalization
experiences abroad. International perspectives means knowledge, A qualitative descriptive design was used to explore and describe
ideas, models, principles, theories, or concepts that encompass intercul- curriculum developers' experiences of the process of internationalizing
tural, multicultural, and international aspects. the nursing and midwifery curriculum in Brunei through curriculum de-
sign. The design was appropriate because the study aimed to gather data
1.2. Internationalization of the Curriculum that describe an event or process (Lincoln et al., 2011). This study was
also guided by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm that highlights
The process of internationalizing higher education is complex, the construction of knowledge as a result of the collective interpretation
encompassing various initiatives, strategies, and activities. There are processes of the researcher and the researched (Lincoln et al., 2011).
two common ways of internationalizing higher education: (1) at
home, by infusing international content into the curriculum for local
students; and (2) abroad, by sending students to attend educational 2.2. Participants and Setting
programs in other countries (Knight, 2004). Internationalization of the
curriculum commonly refers to structuring courses, programs, and This study was conducted in a nursing and midwifery education pro-
qualications to focus on comparative and international themes that vider in Brunei. There were initially three nursing and midwifery educa-
emphasize the development of international and/or intercultural global tion providers in Brunei that were later merged into one institution. The
competencies (Egron-Polak and Hudson, 2010; Knight, 2004). Students present study commenced before and continued after this merger.
are expected to display knowledge of, skills relevant to, and open atti- To begin with, forty nurse/midwife academics working as curricu-
tudes toward, diverse cultures (Olsson, 2010). In addition, an lum developers (henceforth curriculum developers or participants)
internationalized curriculum should enable students to work in any in the study institution were individually approached to ascertain their
global context (Luxon and Peelo, 2009). interest in the study. Participants were selected using a purposive sam-
pling strategy (Lacey, 2015) guided by comprehensive inclusion and ex-
1.3. Integration of International Perspectives into the Local Curriculum clusion criteria (Table 1). There is no clear guidance available on
determining sample adequacy in qualitative research. However, the
Existing studies emphasize internationalization via experience main aim of qualitative research is to explore and increase understand-
in other countries. However, research on how a curriculum is ing of a phenomenon by gathering high-quality data (Seale et al., 2007),
internationalized to accommodate non-mobile students studying in rather than establishing a large sample to allow generalization of the
their home country is limited. An abundance of literature has focused ndings to a wider population. Therefore, data saturation (Morse,
on short- and long-term study abroad programs or internationaliza- 2000) was used to determine sample size. Data saturation was achieved
tion across borders, in which students engage in theoretical and/or after interviewing 15 curriculum developers, and conrmed by
clinical experiences in another country (Olsson, 2010). Literature is interviewing a further two participants, giving a total of 17 participants
also available on topics such as international standards and collabo- included in this study.
rations in developing curricula (Uys and Middleton, 2011; Wright
et al., 2005); perceptions about internationalization of the curricu-
lum (Ruddock and Turner, 2007); uniformity in internationalizing 2.3. Ethical Considerations
curricula (Lahtinen et al., 2014); and inuencing factors, rationales,
and implications for internationalizing curricula (Egron-Polak and When the study began, there was no research ethics committee in
Hudson, 2010; Kent-Wilkinson et al., 2015). the institution where the study was performed (which is under the aus-
The literature review identied two published studies related to pices of the Brunei Ministry of Education). All research undertaken
nursing and midwifery focused on integration of perspectives from within the Ministry of Education in Brunei must be approved by the
international curricula into local curricula (Jayasekara and Schultz, Ofce of the Deputy Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Education.
2006; Xu et al., 2002). Xu et al. (2002) conducted a study in China on A formal letter was sent to this Ofce via the institution where the
nurse academics' perspectives of the relevance of integrating 21 key study was to be conducted, and the study was approved by that Ofce.
concepts extracted from The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Potential participants were given invitation letters and study infor-
Professional Nursing Practice, produced by the American Association mation sheets to ensure they were fully informed about the study. Par-
of Colleges of Nursing (1998) for use in China. Participants in that ticipation was voluntary, and participants had the right to withdraw
study acknowledged the relevance of that document to nursing in the from the study at any time. The researcher also invited potential partic-
United States, and recognized that it provided a framework for develop- ipants to ask questions to clarify the details of the study, facilitating an
ing, dening, and revising a baccalaureate nursing curriculum, but sug- informed decision to participate (Flory and Emanuel, 2004). Written
gested it needed to be adapted to the Chinese culture and context. consent was obtained from all individual participants. In this paper,
Jayasekara and Schultz (2006) conducted a comprehensive system- pseudonyms are used to protect participants' anonymity (e.g., CD1
atic review to appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the [curriculum developer 1], CD2, and so on).
feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from
developed countries into developing countries. They posited that most
developing countries borrow concepts and curricula directly from de-
veloped countries, mainly owing to the global nursing inuence from Table 1
Inclusion/exclusion criteria for selection of participants.
those countries. The authors suggested the direct transplantation of a
curriculum model from one culture to another was inappropriate Parameter Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
without prior assessment of cultural relevancy. They argued that a col- Job appointment Nurse/midwife Clinical instructors
laborative approach encompassing international, regional, and local ex- educators Retirees
perience was more effective in ensuring adaptability of curricula across Work experience and experience 1 year or more Less than 1 year
countries that are culturally and socially different (Jayasekara and in Brunei's curriculum
development
Schultz, 2006).
K.H. Abdul-Mumin / Nurse Education Today 46 (2016) 139145 141

2.4. Data Collection word-for-word translations (Jones and Kay, 1992; Squires, 2008). No
changes were requested. Data analyses were conducted independently
Semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth individual interviews were by the researcher, and themes were checked repeatedly for consistency
conducted by the researcher in the participant's preferred language of interpretation (Table 3). Relevant quotations from participant inter-
(the national language of Brunei, Malay, and/or English) to facilitate views are presented in the Results. The above details provide a decision
open and comfortable conversation. An interview guide (Table 2) was or audit trail for this study (Lincoln et al., 2011).
designed that focused on the topics being explored while allowing ex-
ibility. Trial interviews were conducted with four participants. The in- 3. Results
terview guide required only minor modications, and these trial
interviews were later included in the main study. Participants were en- 3.1. Participant Prole
couraged to ask questions and were informed that: (i) they did not have
to answer any questions that they preferred not to; (ii) there were no Study participants were seventeen curriculum developers (nurse/
right or wrong answers; (iii) the researcher was only interested in midwife academics), three of whom were male (Table 4). They aged
their views; and (iv) they could terminate the interview at any time. 2655 years, had 240 years of work experience, and their highest qual-
The interviews were conducted at a time and place chosen by the partic- ications were bachelor or master degrees. For condentiality reasons,
ipants, usually after working hours at their homes or ofces, and were participants' gender and precise information concerning age, years of
free from environmental distractions. The interviews were audio re- experience, and the name of the specic curriculum they designed are
corded with the participants' consent and lasted 4590 min. In addition, not reported.
notes were recorded in a diary before and after the interviews to aid the
process of reexivity (Gilgun, 2010). 3.2. Themes

2.5. Data Analysis The process of internationalizing the Brunei nursing and midwifery
curriculum through curriculum design reected an internationalization
Interviews were transcribed verbatim and fully translated into En- process that involved integrating international perspectives into the
glish. Next, each transcript was read and reread, followed by line-by- curriculum. There are four main themes identied that reected partic-
line coding, which began with an initial coding process (Charmaz, ipants' descriptions of this process. In the rst theme, the curriculum
2014), also known as open coding (Corbin and Strauss, 2015). Coding developers' expectations of internationalization of the curriculum
then became more focused, and the most frequent initial codes were are described. In the other three themes, the steps conducted to
used to sort, synthesize, integrate, and organize large amounts of data internationalize the curriculum are represented. The rst step in
leading to the formation of themes (Charmaz, 2014). Next, the constant internationalizing the curriculum is described in the second theme
comparative method (Maykut and Morehouse, 2003) was used. Similar formation of a committee to develop the curriculum. The second step
and overlapping codes were constantly examined and rened until is depicted in the third theme benchmarking and setting standards,
all data were accounted for and no further coding was necessary and the third step is illustrated in the fourth theme designing the cur-
(Charmaz, 2014). At this point, the researcher determined data satura- riculum for internationalization.
tion to have been achieved. Data saturation is reached when no new cat-
egories or themes emerge and the depth and variation of major 3.3. Expectations of Internationalizing the Brunei Curriculum
categories or themes is evident (Corbin and Strauss, 2015). Microsoft
Word and Excel programs were used for the management of qualitative There are more than half of the participants whom emphasized that
data analysis. curriculum internationalization fostered international collaboration,
provided opportunities for selected students to go abroad for interna-
2.6. Rigor tional experiences, and ensured no student is deprived of the chance
for similar international experiences.
All participants had sufcient mastery of both English and Malay.
The researcher requested that participants' commented on and con- Internationalization is important [for] collaboration or partnership
rmed the accuracy of their interview translation, focusing on sentence with other universities, for examplethe discovery year, a one-
construction that produced meaning-based translations rather than year study abroad program in the BHSc (Bachelor of Health Sci-
ences) course for the best studentsWe also want our students
who are deprived of opportunities to go abroad to equally have ex-
posure to international experiences. (CD10)
Table 2
Interview guide.
The majority of participants made an association with marketabili-
Topics Questions ty when explaining the internationalization of the curriculum. They de-
Role in curriculum development Please describe your role in terms ned marketability as the ability to attract paying international
of curriculum development applicants to study in Brunei, as well as the viability of Brunei students
Factors and issues considered in What is considered? and graduates being accepted for further education and work globally.
curriculum development When? This aligned with one of the university's mission statements, which is
How?
Why?
to become one of the most renowned universities in the world. As one
Western or international Any evidence of inclusion? participant said:
perspectives integrated in What was included?
the curriculum Why was it included? We want our programs to be marketable. To sell our programs, the
How was it included?
curriculum needs to be lucrative for people from outside BruneiIt
Views on the internationalization What are your views?
of the nursing and midwifery What is your general understanding is the mission of our University to become one of the most chosen
curriculum in Brunei of internationalization? universities worldwideOur students and graduates must be able
Why? (Why develop an internationalized to pursue study and work, not only in Brunei, but also abroad
curriculum?) The curriculum should prepare them with skills for studying and
Relevance to Brunei
working globally (CD2)
142 K.H. Abdul-Mumin / Nurse Education Today 46 (2016) 139145

Table 3
The coding process.

Focused coding Preliminary themes Final themes

Perceptions of internationalization of the curriculum Expectations of internationalizing Expectations of internationalizing curriculum


Forming a committee to develop the curriculum Committee formation Committee formation
Searching for guidelines for benchmarking and setting standards Benchmarking Benchmarking
Value of benchmarking to set standards Benchmarking
Setting standards benchmarking Benchmarking
Evaluating and identifying guidelines for developing curriculum Identifying guidelines for benchmarking
Features and structure of the curriculum Designing the curriculum Designing curriculum for internationalization
The relevance of curriculum content Determining the scope of internationalization
Marrying or blending with the local context Adapting international perspectives in the curriculum
Identication, adaptation, application and incorporation Internationalizing the curriculum

3.4. Committee Formation 3.5. Benchmarking and Setting Standards

All participants highlighted the importance of forming a develop- All participants explained that the committee searched and identi-
ment committee, which was indicative of a collaborative approach ed available guidelines for benchmarking, setting standards, and de-
and sense of team responsibility toward curriculum development. termining the contents of Brunei's nursing and midwifery curriculum.
They discussed the difculty of developing a curriculum in the absence
In order to develop the curriculum, we have to form a committee of guidelines.
that works together, and meets regularly to design the whole curric-
ulum until the curriculum is completely developed. (CD16) Developing a curriculum is not easy without guidelines. It is like
walking blindfolded. We need guidelines for setting the standards
These committees commonly comprised nursing and midwifery ac- of the curriculum as a whole. (CD1)
ademics, as well as stakeholder representatives from the Brunei Minis-
try of Health (MoH). Involvement of MoH representatives ensured the All participants recognized the need for, and importance of, guide-
provision of clinical learning experiences and environments that pro- lines for developing a curriculum to a standard comparable to those of
duce graduates best suited to work in Brunei. The selection of commit- other countries, and highlighted the value of benchmarking to set stan-
tee members highlighted the curriculum developers' expectations that dards for the curriculum.
the curriculum should reect subject matter expertise and information
on current practices in Brunei. The most important thing is benchmarkingWe have to benchmark
or follow standards or a framework that is already established inter-
They are local Bruneians and also expatriates from the US, UK, nationally. (CD4)
Canada, and Oz [Australia], all specialized in their area, and stake-
holders from the MoH. With the stakeholders' viewpoints, we actu- The lack of guidelines in Brunei on internationalizing the curriculum
ally identify the essential content, look at what happens in Brunei encouraged the committee to search for any available documents, such
and abroad, and what we are going to include in our curriculum. as curricula, student handbooks, or similar documents from a variety of
(CD3) sources in many different countries, including universities, professional
bodies, and international organizations.

We started off by collecting documents that we obtained from our


previous study abroad, those nurses and midwives in the MoH that
have studied abroad, and also those that we can retrieve from the in-
Table 4 ternetmainly curriculum documents, clinical placement guide-
Participant prole.
Degree: Degree in nursing or midwifery or other.
lines, and course handbooks from universities in the UK, USA,
Master: Master degree in nursing or midwifery or other. Australia, Canada, and many other countries. (CD17)
CD: Curriculum developer.

Curriculum Age range Years of Highest


Documents from the UK Nursing and Midwifery Council and UK uni-
developers (years) experience qualication versities were used as primary guidelines for setting curriculum stan-
dards. Participants made this decision based on familiarity with UK
CD1 3645 1120 Master
CD2 3645 1120 Degree nursing and midwifery, and their perceptions of professional practice
CD3 3645 0110 Degree in the UK as the most established, renowned, and reputable in the
CD4 4655 3140 Degree world. They also explained that the curriculum content was further
CD5 4655 3140 Degree benchmarked against documents from various countries and interna-
CD6 3645 1120 Master
CD7 4655 3140 Master
tional organizations, such as the International Confederation of
CD8 4655 3140 Master Midwives, the International Council for Nurses, and the World Health
CD9 2635 0110 Master Organization, to ensure that the Brunei curriculum met minimum inter-
CD10 4655 3140 Master national standards.
CD11 4655 3140 Degree
CD12 4655 3140 Master
CD13 3645 1120 Master We benchmarked our curriculum with the UK universities, and NMC
CD14 4655 2130 Master [Nursing and Midwifery Council] UK standards...We developed the
CD15 4655 3140 Master contents of the curriculumexplored and examined what happens
CD16 2635 0110 Master in the many countries outside of Brunei, and requirements of the
CD17 3645 1120 Master
international bodies, the ICM [International Confederation of
K.H. Abdul-Mumin / Nurse Education Today 46 (2016) 139145 143

Midwives], ICN [International Council for Nurses], WHO [World contextual to Brunei by examining the suitability and practicability
Health Organization]in order to make sure that our curriculum is of the knowledge to culture, religion, and social context of Brunei.
based on current research ndings and evidence and is up to date. (CD6)
(CD13)
Once relevant international perspectives were identied, partici-
pants indicated that they had to modify some of these to adapt them
3.6. Designing the Curriculum for Internationalization to the Brunei context. This ensured the curriculum was not simply cop-
ied from documents from other countries, and thus lacking in relevance
The process of designing the curriculum aimed to internationalize to Brunei's situation.
the curriculum. This process was described as dynamic with inter-
changeable, interrelated, and interwoven steps. All participants report- We used the existing documents, as well as modifying the content
ed the process involved discussion of how the curriculum would be based on our previous experiences in our courses, and the various
developed in consideration of, and comparison with, documents identi- experiences from the UK, Australia, Canada, Africa, and the US were
ed as guidelines for benchmarking. These documents, together with taken into account and compared with the different situation in
the curriculum developers' background knowledge and previous inter- Brunei. We wanted our curriculum to be relevant to Brunei. (CD11)
national experience, were discussed, reected on, analyzed, and evalu-
ated by the committee. The majority of participants highlighted that to ensure the interna-
Collective decision making was used to determine how these docu- tional perspectives were relevant to Brunei, critical thinking was needed
ments could be best used to inform development of the Brunei to understand their relationship and signicance to Brunei.
curriculum.
The practice of leadership of our Prophet Muhammad such as that of
We shared our experiences as students when we did our degrees in the Muzakarah [group meeting and brainstorming] can be associ-
different universities in the UK, Australia, and CanadaWe looked at ated with the principles of leadership such as laissez-faire, and with
our curricula, handbooks, assessment packages, and all documents the MIB philosophy. The association [can be made] between what
we collected, discussed how we are going to structure our [Brunei] was in the Qur'an on doing good and doing no harm and teaching
curriculum, the topics to be taught, how to teach, how we felt about the ethical principles of benecence. (CD12)
the topics, and the teaching and assessing methods that we are going
to use. (CD15)
4. Discussion
Participants explained that discussions facilitated identication of
international perspectives considered relevant the Brunei curriculum, This study indicates that internationalization of the Brunei nursing
and highlighted the importance of preserving the Brunei context. Partic- and midwifery curriculum through integration of international perspec-
ipants used the terms local values and Brunei context interchange- tives was perceived as important by curriculum developers. They
ably to encompass ideas related to the social and cultural attributes of stressed the need to offer all students equal opportunities for exposure
the diverse peoples of Brunei. Participants repeatedly noted three es- to international experiences through the internationalized curriculum,
sential components of the Brunei context. The rst was the Malay peo- and eliminate the bias of only focusing on sending high-achieving stu-
ple and Malay culture, which is the major cultural group in Brunei. The dents to join study abroad programs.
second was Islam, the ofcial and dominant religion of Brunei. The third This study highlighted the benets of using a committee structure to
component was the political climate of Brunei, which is the Malay Is- facilitate collective decision making throughout the curriculum devel-
lamic Monarchy (MIB). The religion and culture of the people of opment process. The committee ensured that the curriculum was devel-
Brunei, along with the political climate, have important implications oped through teamwork, and created a sense of shared ownership of the
for designing and internationalizing the Brunei nursing and midwifery curriculum. This resonates with existing literature that indicates mutual
curriculum. These culturally critical components shaped the design agreement and collective decision making in curriculum design are
and internationalization of the curriculum, which was therefore inu- powerful if undertaken in a team setting (Iwasiw et al., 2009; Keating,
enced by the Islamic faith and the Brunei Malay culture. For example, 2010).
the international perspectives integrated in the curriculum must not In this study, the importance of involving stakeholders (i.e., MoH
conict with the religion, culture, and politics of Brunei. representatives) as key providers of information on current and rele-
vant practical curriculum components is claried. This is consistent
We put international perspectives into our curriculum, but also with previous literature on collaborative curriculum development in-
protected our local values. There are many religions practiced in volving colleagues who can serve as experts, give practical input, and
BruneiOur ofcial religion is Islam, our country's philosophy is suggest appropriate practice experiences (Keogh et al., 2010; Speers
the MIBseven different Malay groups in Brunei, as well as the and Lathlean, 2015).
many different expatriates in Brunei. The international perspectives It is acknowledged in the literature that students are credible stake-
that we include and adapt in our [Brunei] curriculum must not be in holders who can also be involved in curriculum development. Their role
conict with the culture, religion, and political context of Brunei. in sharing their learning experiences and perspectives, combined with
(CD5) their needs and aspirations, makes invaluable contributions to curricu-
lum development (Anderson et al., 2015; Edwards et al., 2015). Howev-
All participants noted that international perspectives integrated in er, this recommendation was not supported by the ndings of this
the Brunei curriculum must be practical, acceptable, and relevant to study, because students were not involved in the curriculum develop-
the Brunei context. ment committees in Brunei. Therefore, it is recommended that student
involvement be considered in future curriculum development.
With regard to [trends in a specialty care area], we have to really Benchmarking was identied as integral to the process of
make a decisionIs it time now? or, shall we wait another ve internationalizing the curriculum. Curriculum developers searched for
years in order to put the knowledge in the curriculum? If we put guidelines on internationalizing curricula, but were unable to nd any
this in, where would the students acquire the experiences? Is this in Brunei. This led them to search beyond Brunei, and they dened
relevant to Brunei and the students? We want to make it more guidelines as documents originating from any country that contained
144 K.H. Abdul-Mumin / Nurse Education Today 46 (2016) 139145

potential benchmarking standards against which Brunei's curriculum internationalization at home is emphasized in this study. This will
could be compared. The practice of international benchmarking in- benet non-mobile students in their home countries who may have
volves comparing programs or courses offered by educational institu- fewer opportunities for international experiences, as well as high-
tions in one country with those offered by international institutions, to achieving students who have more opportunities to study abroad. An
assess the strengths and weaknesses of both (Mok and Chan, 2008; internationalized curriculum enhances nurses' and midwives' readiness
Hall, 2014). Benchmarking can be practiced by educational institutions for the workplace in various international settings.
globally in designing curricula in general, as well as in internationalizing
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