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ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 9, September - 2013

Selective Harmonic Elimination in Multilevel Inverter Using Real Coded

Genetic Algorithm Initialized Newton Raphson Method

1

Adeyemo, I. A.,2 Aborisade, D. O., 3 Ojo, J. A.

1, 2,3

Electronic & Electrical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria.

Abstract This paper presents a novel two-phase Basically, there are three multilevel converter

hybrid optimization algorithm called Real Coded Genetic topologies and they are as follows: Diode-Clamped

Algorithm Initialized Newton Raphson (GAIN) method for Multilevel Converter (DCMC) which is based on the

solving the transcendental nonlinear equations neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter topology introduced

characterizing harmonics in multilevel converters. The by Nabae, et al, in 1981 [3], Capacitor-Clamped Multilevel

proposed hybrid Real GAIN method is developed in such a Converter (CCMC) also known as flying capacitor or

way that Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is the multicell converter proposed by Meynard and Foch in 1992

primary optimizer exploiting its global search capabilities [3], and Cascaded Multicell Converter (CMC) otherwise

by directing the search towards the optimal region, and known as Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Converter

Newton Raphson method is then employed as a local (CHBMLC) [5, 6]. However many varieties of each

search method to fine tune the best solution provided by topology as well as hybrid of the fundamental topologies

RCGA in each evolution. The proposed method is such as Generalized P2 Converter, Mixed-Level Hybrid

implemented for the offline computation of the optimum Converter, Asymmetric Hybrid converter have been

switching angles in an 11-level inverter so that the required developed but with the same underlying principle [7-11].

fundamental voltage is produced while the low order Several modulation techniques and control

harmonics specifically the 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th harmonics paradigms have been developed for multilevel converters

which are more harmful and more difficult to remove with among which are Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation

filters are eliminated. Computational and MATLAB (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) method,

simulation results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and Space Vector Control (SVC), and Space Vector Pulse

high spectral performance of the proposed algorithm. Width Modulation (SVPWM) [1, 2,]. Selective

RT

Harmonics Elimination (SHE) method at fundamental

Keywords- Multilevel inverter, Selective Harmonics switching frequency arguably gives the best spectral

Elimination (SHE), Real Coded Genetic Algorithm performance. The main challenge associated with the

(RCGA), Newton Raphson method SHE method is how to obtain analytical solutions of the

IJE

INTRODUCTION trigonometric terms [12].

The traditional methods used for solving this

Multilevel voltage source inverters have recently kind of optimization problems include derivative-

become very popular in medium and high power dependent method like Newton Raphson method which is

applications such as large motor drives and electric utilities very fast and accurate but risks being trapped at a local

due to their ability to meet the increasing demand of power optimum and diverges if the arbitrarily chosen initial

ratings and high power quality. By synthesizing the desired values are not sufficiently close to the roots [13-16].

ac output voltage of a multilevel inverter from several Evolutionary algorithms like Ant Colony Optimization

levels of dc input voltages, staircase waveforms are (ACO) [17], Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) [18] and

produced, which approach the sinusoidal waveform with the conventional Binary Coded Genetic Algorithm

low harmonic distortion. In comparison with the hard- (BCGA) [19-21] are derivative free and are successful in

switched two-level pulse width modulation (PWM) locating the optimal solution with any arbitrarily chosen

inverters, multilevel inverters have a lower dv/dt per initial values, but they are usually slow in convergence

switching, lower electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and require much computing time. Also, they minimize

considerably reduced switching loss and higher efficiency rather than eliminate the unwanted low order harmonics

[1, 2]. Chiasson et al [22] proposed a method based on

Due to their high spectral performance and ability Elimination theory using resultants of polynomials to

to attain a higher voltage with low harmonics without the determine the solutions of the SHE equations. A difficulty

use of transformers, multilevel inverters have drawn with this approach is that as the number of levels

tremendous interest in applications such as industrial motor increases, the order of the polynomials becomes very

drives, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission, high, thereby making the computations of solutions of

flexible AC transmission system (FACTs) and utility these polynomial equations very complex. Another

interface for renewable energy systems because several approach uses Walsh functions [23-25] where solving

batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, or rectied wind turbines or linear equations, instead of non-linear transcendental

microturbines can be connected through a multilevel equations, optimizes the switching angle. The method

inverter to feed a load or interconnect to the ac grid without results in a set of algebraic matrix equations and the

voltage balancing problems [1, 2]. calculation of the optimal switching angles is a complex

and time-consuming operation.

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 9, September - 2013

II. CASCADED H-BRIDGE MULTILEVEL output voltage waveform shown in Figure 2 is expressed in

INVERTERS equation (1).

Cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters consist

of a number of H-bridge power conditioning cells, each

supplied by an isolated source on the DC side and series-

connected on the AC side [1, 2, 6, 8, 16]. The structure of a

single phase cascaded H-bridge multilevel converter is

shown in Figure 1.

H-bridge multilevel converter using fundamental frequency

switching scheme.

V (t ) H n ( ) sin(nt ) (1)

Where

4Vdc

s

H n ( ) cos(n k ) , for odd n

RT

(2)

n k 1

IJE

harmonics in each phase need not be cancelled as they

automatically cancel in the line-to-line voltages as a result

only non-triplen odd harmonics are present in the line-to-

Fig. 1. Configuration of an 11-level single-phase line voltages [22]

cascaded H-bridge multilevel converter

Combining equations 1, 2 and 3

The number of output phase voltage levels in a

4V

v(t) n1,3,5... dc (cos(n1) cos(n2 ) ...

cascaded H-Bridge inverter is dened by n =2s +1, where s

is the number H-bridges per phase connected in cascade. n

Each H-bridge switch can generate three different voltage

levels: + Vdc , 0, and - Vdc by connecting the DC source to

cos( n s )) sin nt ) (4)

switches S1 , S 2 , S 3 , and S 4 shown in the figure. To Subject to 0 1 2 ... s

2

obtain + Vdc , switches S1 and S 4 are turned on, whereas

Generally for s number of switching angles, one

Vdc can be obtained by turning on switches S 2 and S 3 . switching angle is used for the desired fundamental output

voltage V1 and the remaining (s-1) switching angles are

By turning on S1 and S 2 , or S 3 and S 4 , the output used to eliminate certain low order harmonics that

voltage is zero. The outputs of H-bridge switches are dominate the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) such that

connected in series such that the synthesized AC voltage equation (4) becomes

waveform is the summation of all voltages from the

cascaded H-bridge cells [22]. V (t ) V1 sin(t ) (5)

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 9, September - 2013

From equation (4), the expression for the cos(131 ) cos(132 ) ... cos(135 ) 0

fundamental output voltage V1 in terms of the switching

angles is given by

Generally equation (11) can be written as

4Vdc

V1 cos(1 ) cos( 2 ) ... cos( s ) (6) F ( ) B(mi )

(12)

The relation between the fundamental voltage The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is computed as

and the maximum obtainable fundamental voltage V1max is shown in equation (13) :

given by modulation index. The modulation index, mi, is

defined as the ratio of the fundamental output voltage V1 to 49

the maximum obtainable fundamental voltage V1max. The

maximum fundamental voltage is obtained when all the

V i

2

i 5, 7 ,11,13.....

switching angles are zero [16]. From equation (6), THD

V1 (13)

4sVdc

V1 max (7) IV. REVIEW OF REAL CODED GENETIC

ALGORITHM AND NEWTON RAPHSON

METHOD

V1 V1

mi (0 mi 1) (8) A. REAL CODED GENETIC ALGORITHM

V1 max 4sVdc

The genetic algorithm proposed by Holland

in 1975 is an evolutionary algorithm that was inspired

To develop an 11-level cascaded multilevel

by the study of genetics [26]. He proposed a Binary-

inverter, five SDCSs are required. The modulation index

Coded Genetic Algorithm (BCGA) modeled on

and switching angles that result in the synthesis of AC

Darwinian principles of survival of the ttest, with a

waveform with the least Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

random but structured exchange of information. A

RT

can be found by solving the following nonlinear and

random population of individuals, or potential solutions

transcendental equations characterizing the harmonics

to the problem called strings or chromosomes, is

derived from equations (1), (2) and (4) [16, 22] :

created, and in turn the parameters of these solutions

are modified by the genetic operators (selection,

IJE

(cos( 1 ) cos( 2 ) ... cos( 5 )) V1 better) population of solutions. This process is repeated

for a number of generations until the desired solution is

obtained. Due to the inexact nature of genetic

cos(5 1 ) cos(5 2 ) ... cos(5 5 ) 0 algorithm, its performance depends on the population

size as well as the choice and values of the genetic

operators used. Population size has to be chosen in such

cos(7 1 ) cos(7 2 ) ... cos(7 5 ) 0 (9) a way that there is balance between the execution time

and accuracy, which means that an increase in the

cos(11 1 ) cos(11 2 ) ... cos(11 5 ) 0 accuracy of a solution can only come at the expense of

the convergent speed and vice versa.

cos(13 1 ) cos(13 2 ) ... cos(13 5 ) 0 For real valued numerical optimization problems,

Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), whose

The correct solution must satisfy the condition chromosomes comprise real numbers outperforms binary-

coded genetic algorithms. The obvious advantages of

RCGA include global search capability, enhanced

0 1 2 ... 5 convergent speed resulting from a reduced computational

2 (10) effort (BCGA uses binary code, which needs a lot of time

to code and decode the values). In this research work, with

Equation (8) in equation (9) yields: the population size set at 40, Real Coded Genetic

Algorithm using oating-point representation together with

cos( 1 ) cos( 2 ) ... cos( 5 ) 5mi the tournament selection, heuristic crossover at the rate of

0.8, dynamic or non-uniform mutation at the rate of 0.02

cos(51) cos(52 ) ... cos(55 ) 0 and generational replacement strategy is proposed. Each

cos(71) cos(72 ) ... cos(75 ) 0 (11) chromosome (potential solution) of the nonlinear and

transcendental equations is encoded as a vector of oating-

point valued or real numbers of the same length as the

cos(111) cos(112 ) ... cos(115 ) 0 dimension of the search space. For each chromosome

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 9, September - 2013

(potential solution), the fitness function is calculated as Step 2: RCGA proceeds by randomly generating a

follows [21]: population of potential solutions.

4 2

Step 3: i) Assesses the population fitness using

V * V 5

1 V hs (14)

f min 100 1 * 1

V1

h 50

V1

the objective function.

i s2 s

ii) Ranking is carried out.

i = 1, 2 5

iii) Selection is employed to pick the best individuals

as members.

subject to 0 1 2 ... 5

2

iv) Creation of offsprings based on discrete

recombination (crossover and mutation).

Where:

v) Elitism is employed and a new generation is

V1* = desired fundamental output voltage, S = created.

number of switching angles = the number of DC sources =

vi) Repeat steps (i) to (v) for sufficient number of

5, = order of the viable harmonic at the output of a

iterations to attain the stopping criterion.

three phase multilevel converter. For example, ,

Step 4: The solution from step 3 is fine tuned with

Newton-Raphson method as follows;

In this work, the GA for each state is run twice, i) A solution set of RCGAbest is used as initial values

because it may fall into local minima. The least fitness for the switching angles (i.e. RGAbest = initial = 0 )

function between both runs is chosen. By increasing the

number of runs, the probability of reaching the global ii) Set mi = 0.

minimum increases but the convergent speed decreases due

to the increase in the execution time. Also, the default iii) Calculate F(0), B(mi), and Jacobian J(0)

RT

number of generations is 100 but sometimes, GA converges

to a solution much before 100 generations are completed. iv) Compute correction during the iteration

In order to save time, generations are halted if the result using relation,

remains unchanged for 50 generations. J 1 ( 0 )B ( mi ) F ( 0 )

IJE

v) Update the switching angles i.e.

Newton-Raphson (NR) method is one of the fastest ( k 1) ( k ) ( k )

iterative methods. This method begins with an arbitrary

initial approximation and generally converges at a zero of a vi) Perform transformation to bring switching angles

given system of nonlinear equations [27]. However, in this in feasible range.

work, the NR method is used to compute the switching

angles for the system of SHE equations using the best (k 1) cos 1 abs[(cos( (k 1))]

solutions returned by RCGA as the initial approximation.

The Switching angles producing the desired fundamental vii) Repeat steps (iii) to (vi) for sufficient number of

voltage along with elimination of 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th iterations to attain error goal.

harmonic components are computed for complete range of

modulation. Different solution sets are obtained for the viii) Increment mi by a fixed step.

range of modulation index where they exist.

ix) Repeat steps (ii) to (viii) for the whole range of

The hybrid Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Initialised mi

Newton Raphson (Real GAIN) method was developed in

such a way that Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RGA) Step 5: Plot the switching angles as a function of mi.

with step size of 0.005 is the primary optimizer exploiting Different solution sets would be obtained.

its global search capabilities by directing the search

towards the optimal region, Newton-Raphson (NR) method Step 6: Take one solution set at a time and compute

with step size of 0.02 is then employed as a local search the complete solution set for the range of mi where it

method to fine tune the best solution provided by RGA in exits.

each evolution as follows:

By following the above steps, all possible solutions

Step 1: Formulate the SHE problem. when they exist, can be computed.

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 9, September - 2013

V. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS harmonics are completely eliminated. Also, the best

solution set found at modulation index of 0.9149 has Total

A personal computer (1.83GHz Intel dual core Harmonic Distortion (THD) of 4.04% and corresponding

processor with 2.00 GB Random Access Memory and 286 Low Order Harmonic Distortion (LOHD) of 0.00%.

GB Hard disk drive) running MATLAB R2009a on

Windows 7 Ultimate edition was used to carry out the VI. SIMULATION RESULTS

calculations. A plot of the switching angles for values of

modulation indices ranging from 0 to 1.0 is shown in In order to validate the observed analytical

Figure 3. As the plot shows, solutions do not exist at the results, an 11-level single-phase Cascaded H-Bridge

lower end [0, 0.3764] and upper end [0.915, 1] of the inverter was modelled in MATLAB-SIMULINK using

modulation indices, isolated solution sets are only found for SimPower System block set. In each of the five H-Bridges

modulation index in the intervals [0.3764, 0.3779] and in the 11-level single-phase Cascaded H-Bridge inverter,

[0.9149]. In the subinterval [0.4871, 0.5395], [0.58], and 12V dc source is the SDCS, and the switching device used

[0.6179, 0.6586] two sets of solution exist. For those values is Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). Simulations

of modulation indices that multiple solution sets exist, the were performed using the best solution set of the hybrid

set with the least Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is real GAIN algorithm calculated offline. The switching

chosen. scheme adopted in this research work is the Fundamental

frequency switching scheme because of its simplicity and

Graph of Switching Angles(degree) vs Modulation index low switching losses. The Fast Fourier Transform analysis

90

1 of the simulated phase voltage waveforms was done using

80

2

3

the FFT block to show the harmonic spectrum of the 11-

4

5

level single-phase output AC voltage synthesized at the

70

fundamental frequency (f = 50Hz) producing fundamental

60 voltage of 69.91V (peak) at modulation index of 0.9149

Switching angles (degrees)

50

which agrees closely with the analytical value of 69.89V

(peak) calculated using equation (8).

40

RT

30

20

10

IJE

0

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Modulation Index

index for 11-level CHBMLI

computed out to the 13th order labeled Low Order

Harmonic Distortion (LOHD), and Total Harmonic

Distortion (THD) computed out to the 49th order versus

modulation index are shown in Figure 4.

12

Total Harmonic Distortion

% of 5th Harmonic

Fig.5. Harmonic spectrum for 11-level CHBMLI at

mi 0.9149

% of 7th Harmonic

10 % of 11th Harmonic

% of 13th Harmonic modulation index,

% of Low Order Harmonic Distortion

TABLE I

THD (%)

4

mi 0.9149

2

0

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

THD Results Results

Modulation Index

Fig. 4. Plot of THDs versus modulation index for

11-level CHBMLI 49th 4.04% 4.06%

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 9, September - 2013

The analytical and simulation values of THD [6] P. Hammond, A new approach to enhance power

computed up to 13th order and 49th order are shown in quality for medium voltage ac drives, IEEE Trans.

Table I for comparison purpose. It can be seen from the Ind. Applicat., vol. 33, pp. 202208, Jan./Feb. 1997

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VII. CONCLUSION

[9] M. D. Manjrekar, P. K. Steimer, and T. A. Lipo,

The selective harmonic elimination method at Hybrid multilevel power conversion system: a

fundamental frequency switching scheme has been competitive solution for high-power appli- cations,

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RT

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IJE

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ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 9, September - 2013

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RT

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IJE

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