Anda di halaman 1dari 44

CIRC'ULAR

SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR


MODE S
ADYISORY CIRCULAR

Approved by the Secretary General


and published under his authority

INTERNATtONAL
C I V I L A V l A f DON
ORGANtZATI O N
MONTREAL m CANADA
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A t t h e ICAO C o m m n i c a t i o n s D i v i s i o n a l Meeting i n A p r i l 1981, t h e r e was a n
e x t e n s i v e exchange o f views r e g a r d i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n of s e c o n d a r y s u r v e i l l a n c e r a d a r
(SSR) and c o l l i s i o n a v o i d a n c e systems. A number of recommendations were i s s u e d
including:

RECOMMENDATION 1 / 3 - ICAO FUTURE ACTIVITY ON SSR IMPROVEMENTS AND


COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS

That :

a) S t a t e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a p o s i t i o n t o d o
s o , p r o v i d e ICAO w i t h t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s and o t h e r
r e l a t e d o p e r a t i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o v e r i n g SSR
improvements t o p r o v i d e f o r improved s u r v e i l l a n c e c a p a b i l i t y ,
d i s c r e t e a d d r e s s i n g of a i r c r a f t and a n i n t e g r a l automated
d a t a comnunication c a p a b i l i t y ;

b) ICAO u s e t h e m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d a s t h e r e s u l t of a ) above t o
p u b l i s h a n ICAO c i r c u l a r .

T h i s document d e s c r i b e s t h e background, p r i n c i p l e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,
equipment, o p e r a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d s t a t e of development of SSR improvements and i n
p a r t i c u l a r a new mode o f SSR (Mode S). The a p p e n d i x p r o v i d e s a g l o s s a r y of r e l e v a n t
terms.

- Note. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s o f t h i s document t h e t e r m SSR, u n l e s s


o t h e r w i s e q u a l i f i e d , r e f e r s t o p r e s e n t day secondary s u r v e i l l a n c e r a d a r w i t h Mode A
( i d e n t i t y ) and Mode C ( a l t i t u d e ) c a p a b i l i t y as d e f i n e d i n ICAO Annex 10.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
1.1 THE PRESENT SITUATION WITH RESPECT TO SSR

1.1.1 Since i t s a d o p t i o n by ICAO more t h a n twenty y e a r s ago, t h e use of secondary


s u r v e i l l a n c e r a d a r (SSR) f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e h a s s p r e a d throughout t h e world. Despite
i n i t i a l d i s p l a y technology l i m i t a t i o n s , SSR supplementation of primary mode r a d a r
i n f o r m a t i o n allowed a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e heavy work-load e n t a i l e d i n
identifying radar plots. Technology advances s u c h a s d i g i t a l p r o c e s s i n g allowed f u r t h e r
s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n c o n t r o l l e r work-load by p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e d i s p l a y of Mode C
a l t i t u d e codes, f l i g h t c a l l s i g n , and ground s p e e d , a s w e l l a s t h e Mode A code
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each a i r c r a f t . Recent improvements i n SSR technology, u t i l i z i n g Mode C
a l t i t u d e i n f o r m a t i o n have f a c i l i t a t e d t h e implementation of a short-term c o n f l i c t a l e r t
f u n c t i o n t h a t warns t h e c o n t r o l l e r of a p o t e n t i a l i n f r i n g e m e n t of s e p a r a t i o n s t a n d a r d s .

1.1.2 Hence, SSR system u s e h a s r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n ATC s a f e t y


and system c a p a c i t y . In t h e EUROCONTROL Member S t a t e s and t h e United S t a t e s , busy
t e r m i n a l s and e n - r o u t e areas as w e l l as almost a l l t h e a i r s p a c e above 20 000 f e e t
( 6 100 m e t r e s ) , a r e now covered by SSR. The c a r r i a g e of a 4 096-code transponder and an
a l t i t u d e encoder has become mandatory f o r IFR c o n t r o l l e d f l i g h t s i n t h e s e same a r e a s .
It i s noteworthy t h a t almost a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r l i n e s have i n s t a l l e d t r a n s p o n d e r s and
a l t i t u d e encoders i n t h e i r f l e e t a i r c r a f t .

1.2 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

SSR l i m i t a t i o n s

1.2.1 As t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e d and more a i r c r a f t were equipped w i t h t r a n s p o n d e r s


d u r i n g t h e 1970s, o p e r a t i o n of t h e SSR system began t o e n c o u n t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s . These
d i f f i c u l t i e s were due t o l i m i t a t i o n s which o r i g i n a t e d p a r t l y from t h e b a s i c system
concept and p a r t l y from i n a d e q u a t e technology. A t t h e p r e s e n t time one system
l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e u s e of t h e same two f r e q u e n c i e s f o r a l l ground s t a t i o n i n t e r r o g a t i o n s
( 1 030 MHz) and a i r b o r n e t r a n s p o n d e r r e p l i e s ( 1 090 MHz). Other system l i m i t a t i o n s a r e
t h e u s e of common i n t e r r o g a t i o n codes f o r a l l i n t e r r o g a t o r s and t r a n s p o n d e r s a s w e l l a s
t h e u s e of azimuth measurement methods t h a t a r e i m p e r f e c t i n t o d a y ' s c o n t e x t . These
l i m i t a t i o n s g i v e r i s e t o two k i n d s of i n t e r f e r e n c e : f r u i t and synchronous g a r b l i n g .
T h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n c r e a s e s w i t h t r a f f i c d e n s i t y , and i n c e r t a i n a r e a s t h e r e s u l t a n t
s a t u r a t i o n could r e n d e r t h e SSR i n o p e r a b l e b e f o r e t h e end of t h e c e n t u r y . These and
o t h e r SSR l i m i t a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g subparagraphs.

a) Synchronous g a r b l i n g . When two a i r c r a f t , a l t h o u g h v e r t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d ,


a r e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y on t h e r a d a r s c r e e n , t h e i r d i s t a n c e s from t h e
r a d a r a r e almost t h e same and consequently t h e y a r e i n t e r r o g a t e d w i t h a
very s h o r t time d i f f e r e n c e . The two t r a n s p o n d e r r e p l i e s , t h e r e f o r e ,
o v e r l a p a t t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r antenna c a u s i n g mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e . The
r e p l i e s a r e s a i d t o be garbled. In g e n e r a l t h e r e s u l t on t h e ground i s
a n e r r o n e o u s l y decode4 o r l o s t t a r g e t r e p o r t .
2 ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110

b) F r u i t . F r u i t i s t h e t e r m a p p l i e d t o i n t e r f e r e n c e caused by t h e
r e c e p t i o n o f r e p l i e s g i v e n by a t r a n s p o n d e r i n r e s p o n s e t o
i n t e r r o g a t i o n s from a n o t h e r s e n s o r . This o c c u r s when a n a i r c r a f t l i e s
i n t h e o v e r l a p p i n g c o v e r a g e of two o r more i n t e r r o g a t o r s .

c) Over-interrogation. High i n t e r r o g a t i o n r a t e s , which may be e x p e r i e n c e d


by a t r a n s p o n d e r s i u u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e coverage of s e v e r a l
i n t e r r o g a t o r s , n o t o n l y i n c r e a s e s t h e occupancy of t h e t r a n s p o n d e r b u t
may a l s o c a u s e i t t o d e s e n s i t i z e i t s r e c e i v e r , t h u s i n h i b i t i n g r e p l i e s
t o t h e more d i s t a n t i n t e r r o g a t o r s .

d) Azimuth accuracy. h e mainly t o t h e " s l i d i n g window" t e c h n i q u e


g e n e r a l l y u s e d by d i g i t a l r a d a r p l o t e x t r a c t o r s , t h e a c c u r a c y o f a z i m u t h
measurement i s f a r f r o m optimum. The t e c h n i q u e i s a l s o very s e n s i t i v e
t o i n t e r f e r e n c e and i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p a i r e d by synchronous
garbling.

e) Reflections. R e f l e c t i o n s i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n p a t h from o b s t a c l e s s u c h
a s l a r g e b u i l d i n g s o r h i g h t e r r a i n i n t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e r a d a r can
g i v e rise t o "ghost" t a r g e t s on t h e d i s p l a y , which are i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e
from r e a l a i r c r a f t .

f) Aircraft identification. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of o n l y 4 096 codes g i v e s


r i s e t o a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s . Although i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t
s a t u r a t i o n of t h e codes h a s been r e a c h e d , t h e i r management i s becoming
more and more d i f f i c u l t i n c e r t a i n r e g i o n s . The need t o d i s p l a y t o a i r
t r a f f i c c o n t r o l l e r s n o t o n l y Mode A codes b u t a l s o a i r c r a f t
r a d i o t e l e p h o n y c a l l s i g n s i n p l a i n language r e q u i r e s complex l o g i c t o
c o r r e l a t e SSR r e s p o n s e s w i t h f l i g h t p l a n s . The r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s
c o r r e l a t i o n is i m p a i r e d due t o Mode A code assignment r u l e s .

E f f e c t s on s u r v e i l l a n c e performance

1.2.2 The cumulative e f f e c t o f t h e above l i m i t a t i o n s c a n r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t


d e g r a d a t i o n o f SSR performance. Although modern t e c h n i q u e s may reduce t h e e f f e c t s of
most of t h e s e phenomena, t h e r e is no known s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem of synchronous
garbling.

New o p e r a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s

1.2.3 The f u t u r e development and automation of ATC systems calls f o r a


s u r v e i l l a n c e s y s t e m which i s h i g h l y a c c u r a t e , r e l i a b l e , imnune t o i n t e r f e r e n c e , and
provides f o r an air-ground d i g i t a l d a t a link. Direct a c q u i s i t i o n of f l i g h t
identification w i l l a s s i s t the radar service.

1.2.4 A ground based c o l l i s i o n p r e v e n t i o n s y s t e m w i l l r e q u i r e a r e l i a b l e d a t a l i n k


t o t r a n s m i t c o l l i s i o n p r e v e n t i o n manoeuvres t o t h e p i l o t . An a i r b o r n e c o l l i s i o n
avoidance s y s t e m w i l l r e q u i r e d a t a i n t e r c h a n g e between a i r c r a f t f o r manoeuvre co-
o r d i n a t i o n . It may a l s o r e q u i r e t h e u s e o f a n air-ground d a t a l i n k t o exchange
i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e ground.
ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110 3

1.2.5 It i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t ATC, c o l l i s i o n avoidance and c o l l i s i o n


p r e v e n t i o n should a l l u t i l i z e t h e same l i n k f o r t h e exchange of d a t a .

1.3 IMPROVEMENTS TO SSR

1.3.1 The r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h have provided two methods t o enhance SSR and t o


s a t i s f y f u t u r e automation requirements t o t h e end of t h e century: t h e f i r s t , monopulse,
r e l a t e s t o t h e e x i s t i n g SSR; t h e o t h e r modifies i t by a d d i t i o n of a s e l e c t i v e a d d r e s s
feature.

Monopulse

1.3.2 Without r e q u i r i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n of system d e s i g n , t h e u s e of monopulse


t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e ground r e c e i v e r can c o n s i d e r a b l y improve t h e a z i r m t h accuracy, and
consequently, t h e e f f e c t s of synchronous g a r b l i n g can be g r e a t l y reduced. Since fewer
r e p l i e s a r e needed t o e n s u r e decoding and s a t i s f a c t o r y p o s i t i o n measurement, t h e
t e c h n i q u e s p e r m i t a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e p u l s e r e p e t i t i o n frequency of ground i n t e r r o g a t o r s .
S a t u r a t i o n of t h e SSR system due t o t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e f o r e , may be postponed.

SSR Mode S

1.3.3 A technique u s i n g a unique a d d r e s s f o r e a c h a i r c r a f t , known a s SSR Mode S ,


compatible w i t h e x i s t i n g SSR modes, h a s been developed t o e s t a b l i s h a n a i r g r o u n d d a t a
l i n k . A new t y p e of t r a n s p o n d e r w i l l be r e q u i r e d on board, but i t w i l l o p e r a t e i n Modes
A and C a s w e l l a s i n Mode S; t h u s , c a r r i a g e of two equipment8 i s avoided. In t h e same
way, Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r s w i l l o p e r a t e compatibly w i t h Modes A and C , t h u s e n a b l i n g
a c q u i s i t i o n of a i r c r a f t equipped w i t h p r e s e n t transponders. The p r i n c i p l e s of SSR
Mode S a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2.

1.4 THE NEED FOR STANDARDIZATION

1.4.1 SSR Mode S r e q u i r e s new s i g n a l formats f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n between a i r c r a f t and


ground i n t e r r o g a t o r s . T h e r e f o r e t h e s i g n a l s i n space must be s t a n d a r d i z e d i n o r d e r t o
a l l o w t h e i r use by a l l t h o s e who implement t h e system, e i t h e r on t h e ground o r i n
a i r c r a f t . T h i s i s a n e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r i t s world-wide use.

1.4.2 Mode S i n c l u d e s a d a t a l i n k , but t h i s d i f f e r s from a c o n v e n t i o n a l point-to-


p o i n t d a t a l i n k because e v e r y ground i n t e r r o g a t o r must be a b l e t o commnicate w i t h a l l
Mode S equipped a i r c r a f t w i t h i n coverage, whatever t h e i r o r i g i n , and every t r a n s p o n d e r
must be a b l e t o communicate w i t h ground i n t e r r o g a t o r s of any S t a t e . A s a consequence,
t h e r e i s a need t o s t a n d a r d i z e n o t o n l y t h e b a s i c d a t a l i n k but a l s o t h o s e a p p l i c a t i o n s
of i n t e r e s t t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i v i l a v i a t i o n commnity. T h i s w i l l a l l o w S t a t e s t o
t a k e advantage of system modularity, t o t a i l o r i t t o t h e i r own needs, and w i l l a l l o w
u s e r s t o c a r r y minimal d a t a l i n k equipment compatible w i t h a l l Mode S s e n s o r s . An
i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e , through ICAO, e s s e n t i a l system
4 ICAO Circular 174-AN/110

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the p r i n c i p l e s of address a l l o c a t i o n s o a s t o ensure that no two


a i r c r a f t w i l l have the same address. C o o p a t i b i l i t y with present ground and airborne
equipment must be ensured so a s t o protect investments i n both present airborne
equipment operating i n Modes A and C and present SSR interrogators.
2.1 MONOPULSE TECHNIQUES

P r e s e n t day a z i m u t h measurement

2.1.1 Tn p r e s e n t day SSR t h e t r a n s p o n d e r r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d a t t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r a r e


e i t h e r p r e s e n t e d d i r e c t l y on a r o t a t i n g s c a n d i s p l a y o r r e c e i v e p r i o r p r o c e s s i n g i n a
radar plot extractor. I n t h e f o r m e r c a s e , t h e a z i m u t h of a t a r g e t of i n t e r e s t i s
e s t i m a t e d d i r e c t l y on t h e d i s p l a y , whereas i n a n e x t r a c t o r t h e " s l i d i n g window"
t e c h n i q u e i s used t c e s t i m a t e t a r g e t a z i n u t h . I n p r i n c i p l e , t h e " s l i d i n g window"
t e c h n i q u e c o n s i s t s of d e t e c t i n g b o t h t h e s t a r t and t h e end o f t h e sequence o f v a l i d
r e p l i e s a t t h e e d g e s of t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r main beam a n d c a l c u l a t i n g t h e azimuth a s t h e
mean of t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r a n t e n n a b e a r i n g a t t h e s e two e v e n t s . I n b o t h t h e above c a s e s ,
r e l i a b l e a z i m u t h measurement depends on t h e r e c e i p t of a s e q u e n c e of v a l i d r e p l i e s on
each antenna revolution.

Monopulse a z i m u t h measurement

2.1.2 Monopulse a z i m t h measurement, a s i t s name i m p l i e s , i s a t e c h n i q u e which


a l l o w s t h e measurement of t a r g e t a z i a u t h t o be made on a s i n g l e p u l s e w i t h i n any
transponder reply. Thus a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n p u l s e r e p e t i t i o n f r e q u e n c y i s
p o s s i b l e , improving t h e SSR environment a n d r e d u c i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e . Monopulse azimuth
measurement i s a l s o more a c c u r a t e t h a n t h e s l i d i n g window t e c h n i q u e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a n
i n t e r f e r e n c e environment. A monopulse s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of a monopulse a n t e n n a , a twin
c h a n n e l monopulse r e c e i v e r , and a monopulse p r o c e s s o r .

The monopulse a n t e n n a

2.1.3 Monopulse a z i n u t h measurement t e c h n i q u e s u s u a l l y r e q a i r e two a n t e n n a s o r a


s p l i t a n t e n n a , w i t h e a c h a n t e n n a o r e a c h s e c t i o n s e p a r a t e l y fed. One t e c h n i q u e u s e s two
beams a r r a n g e d w i t h t h e i r r a d i a t i o n a x e s p a r a l l e l a n d t h e i r c e n t r e s s e p a r a t e d
h o r i z o n t a l l y . Except f o r t a r g e t s o n - b o r e s i g h t , t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n p a t h l e n g t h s
between t h e t a r g e t a i r c r a f t a n d t h e two a n t e n n a s . T h i s g i v e s r i s e t o a phase d i f f e r e n c e
between t h e two r e c e i v e d s i g n a l s which i s a f u n c t i o n of t a r g e t a n g l e r e l a t i v e t o t h e
a n t e n n a b o r e s i g h t ( s e e F i g u r e 2-1). Another t e c h n i q u e u s e s two beams h a v i n g a common
phase c e n t r e . It i s common p r a c t i c e t o combine t h e two a n t e n n a o u t p u t s i n t o sum and
d i f f e r e n c e p a t t e r n s . The r e s u l t a n t s i g n a l a m p l i t u d e p a t t e r n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e
2-2. The sum p a t t e r n i s used f o r t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n s i g n a l s whereas b o t h p a t t e r n s a r e
used f o r r e p l i e s . F i g u r e 2-3 shows how t h e o f f - b o r e s i g h t a n g l e of t h e t a r g e t can b e
e s t i m a t e d from t h e r a t i o o f t h e a m p l i t u d e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l t o t h a t o f t h e sum
signal.
6 LCAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN1110

path knglh
difference

F i g u r e 2- 1. Monopulse a n g l e measurement

F i g u r e 2-2. Sum (C) a n d d i f f e r e n c e ( A ) p a t t e r n s

F i g u r e 2-3. O f f - b o r e s i g h t a n g l e a s f u n c t i o n of r a t i o o f
d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l a m p l i t u d e t o sum s i g n a l a m p l i t u d e
ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110 7

The monopulse r e c e i v e r

2.1.4 The r e c e i v e r normally h a s two c a r e f u l l y matched c h a n n e l s h a v i n g s t a b l e g a i n


and phase c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s n o t o n l y o v e r a wide dynamic range b u t a l s o o v e r t h e p o s s i b l e
f r e q u e n c y band of t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l s ( p l u s o r minus 3 MHz).

The monopulse p r o c e s s o r

2.1.5 The o u t p u t of t h e monopulse r e c e i v e r i s f e d t o t h e monopulse p r o c e s s o r f o r


t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e o f f - b o r e s i g h t a n g l e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t r u e a z i u u t h of t h e
a i r c r a f t target.

The monopulse e x t r a c t o r

2.1.6 The o u t p u t of t h e monopulse p r o c e s s o r i s f e d i n t o a s p e c i a l monopulse


e x t r a c t o r which p e r m i t s improved code p r o c e s s i n g and a c h i e v e s a r e d u c t i o n of t h e e f f e c t s
of synchronous g a r b l i n g .

2.2 MODE S

The unique a i r c r a f t a d d r e s s

2.2.1 P r e s e n t day SSR i n t e r r o g a t e s on Modes A o r C s p a t i a l l y , t h a t i s , e a c h


transponder-equipped a i r c r a f t which i s i n t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r a n t e n n a beam r e c e i v e s and
r e p l i e s t o e a c h i n t e r r o g a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e of Mode S , e a c h s u i t a b l y equipped a i r c r a f t
c a n be i n t e r r o g a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . The i n t e t r o g a t o r i t s e l f can s e l e c t which a i r c r a f t t o
i n t e r r o g a t e a n d when t o i n t e r r o g a t e i t . T h i s s e l - e c t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by a s s i g n i n g e a c h
Mode S a i r c r a f t a u n i q u e a d d r e s s . Twenty-four b i t s a r e employed i r . e a c h i n t e r r o g a t i o n
and r e p l y f o r a i r c r a f t a d d r e s s . Thus more t h a n 16 m i l l i o n d i f f e r e n t a d d r e s s e s can be
encoded - enough t o e n s u r e t h a t no a d d r e s s need be r e p e a t e d f o r a n o t h e r a i r c r a f t . Each
i n t e r r o g a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t a i n s t h e unique a d d r e s s of t h e a i r c r a f t f o r which i t i s
i n t e n d e d . Upon r e c e i p t e a c h a i r c r a f t examines t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n f o r i t s own a d d r e s s .
An a i r c r a f t which r e c o g n i z e s i t s a d d r e s s g e n e r a t e s and t r a n s m i t s t h e n e c e s s a r y r e p l y ,
and a l l o t h e r a i r c r a f t i g n o r e t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n .

I n t e r r o g a t i o n management

2.2.2 One p r i n c i p a l a d v a n t a g e of t h i s f e a t u r e i s t h a t i t a l l o w s a n i n t e r r o g a t o r t o
sequence i t s i n t e r r o g a t i o n s as a f u n c t i o n of time and t a r g e t r a n g e , s o a s t o e n s u r e t h a t
no o v e r l a p p i n g r e p l i e s a r r i v e a t t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r a n t e n n a . Thus t h e synchronous
g a r b l i n g phenomenon i s avoided. Another a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t a n i n t e r r o g a t o r may
i n t e r r o g a t e o n l y t h o s e a i r c r a f t f o r which i t h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i g n o r e a l l o t h e r s *
Thus t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i n t e r r o g a t i o n of a l l a i r c r a f t i n t h e a r e a of coverage of a n
i n t e r r o g a t o r o r t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n of one a i r c r a f t by s e v e r a l i n t e r r o g a t o r s can be
avoided. T h i s w i l l l e a d t o a n improved SSR environment and i n c r e a s e d s y s t e m c a p a c i t y -
The u s e of Mode S means t h a t , i n p r i n c i p l e , o n l y one i n t e r r o g a t i o n p e r a i r c r a f t P e r
a n t e n n a s c a n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e . However, i f a v a l i d r e p l y i s n o t r e c e i v e d
ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110 9

c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c i e s have been adopted f o r Mode S a s a r e used f o r Modes A and C


( 1 030 MHz f o r i n t e r r o g a t i o n s and 1 090 MHz f o r r e p l i e s ) ; Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r s
i n t e r r o g a t e i n Modes A and C and p r o c e s s t h e r e p l i e s i n t h e normal SSR way; Mode S
t r a n s p o n d e r s a l s o respond t o any Mode A o r C i n t e r r o g a t i o n e x a c t l y a s p r e s e n t l y
s p e c i f i e d i n ICAO Annex 10 and a l s o i n c l u d e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s such a s s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n
identification.

2.3.2 S p e c i a l measures have a l s o been developed t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e two systems c a n


c o - e x i s t on t h e same f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h o u t s u f f e r i n g mutual i n t e r f erence. It i s n e c e s s a r y
t o p r e v e n t Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r s b e i n g s p u r i o u s l y t r i g g e r e d by t h e Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n
s i g n a l s . T h i s i s achieved by immediately preceding each Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n by a P I -
P 2 p u l s e p a i r of e q u a l amplitude. To Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r s t h i s l o o k s l i k e a s i d e l o b e
s u p p r e s s i o n p u l s e p a i r and c a u s e s t h o s e t r a n s p o n d e r s n o t t o r e p l y . The Mode S
i n t e r r o g a t i o n i s accomplished w i t h i n t h e s u p p r e s s i o n period. To p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t t i m e
f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e 24-bit a d d r e s s and u s e f u l d a t a exchange, a d a t a r a t e of
4 megabits p e r second h a s been s e l e c t e d .

2.4 THE MODE S DATA LINK

Basic p r o v i s i o n

2.4.1 The Mode S system employs two b a s i c message l e n g t h s : 56 and 112 b i t s . Each
message, i r r e s p e c t i v e of l e n g t h and f o r m a t , i n c l u d e s a 24-bit f i e l d c o n t a i n i n g p a r i t y
o v e r l a i d on a d d r e s s t o e n s u r e i t s t r a n s m i s s i o n t o a g i v e n a d d r e s s w i t h a v e r y small r i s k
of u n d e t e c t e d e r r o r . The Mode S system p r o v i d e s a d a t a l i n k c a p a b i l i t y from w i t h i n
t h e s e message formats. The 56-bit f o r m a t s a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e pur-
poses. T h e r e f o r e , a l l major d a t a l i n k a c t i v i t i e s e x p l o i t t h e 112-bit f o r m a t s w i t h d a t a
t r a n s f e r s b e i n g p o s s i b l e i n ground-to-air, a i r - t o - g r o u n d and a i r - t o a i r d i r e c t i o n s .

Link c a p a c i t y

2.4.2 Four of t h e s e 112-bit message f o r m a t s have been d e f i n e d f o r d a t a l i n k


purposes. These a r e t h e Comm A and Comm C i n t e r r o g a t i o n , o r "uplink" messages and t h e
Comm B and Comm D r e p l y , o r "downlink" E s s a g e s . I n Comm C and Comm D messages, 80 of
t h e 112 b i t s can be used f o r d a t a t r a n s f e r , b u t because s u r v e i l l a n c e f u n c t i o n s a r e
i n c l u d e d w i t h i n Comm A and Comm B messages, t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y f o r t h i s purpose i s
r e s t r i c t e d t o 56 b i t s p e r message. Because a number of a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o
r e q u i r e t h e t r a n s f e r of g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s of d a t a , two methods a r e b e i n g provided f o r
d a t a block l i n k i n g : t h e f i r s t e n a b l e s t h e d a t a sequences from up t o f o u r Comm A
messages t o be combined; t h e second, designed f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t t r a n s f e r of l o n g e r
messages, e n a b l e s a sequence of up t o s i x t e e n Comm C o r Comm D messages t o be
t r a n s m i t t e d , i . e . 16 x 80 (= 1 280) d a t a b i t s , i n what i s known a s a n extended l e n g t h
message (ELM).

Data h a n d l i n g

2.4.3 Both ground-based i n t e r r o g a t o r s and a i r b o r n e t r a n s p o n d e r s can be c o n s i d e r e d


a s d a t a l i n k t e r m i n a l s t h a t f u n c t i o n by time-sharing t h e normal s u r v e i l l a n c e channel-
The a c t u a l message t r a n s m i t t e d a t any i n s t a n t may be a n assembly of d a t a from a mder
10 ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110

of s o u r c e s , f o r example, i n t h e a i r - t o - g r o u n d d i r e c t i o n t h e t r a n s p o n d e r may t r a n s m i t
s u r v e i l l a n c e d a t a t o g e t h e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n from a number of a i r b o r n e s e n s o r s . In
p r i n c i p l e , any t y p e of i n f o r m a t i o n can be conveyed by t h e d a t a l i n k p r o v i d e d t h a t i t c a n
be c o n v e r t e d i n t o a d i g i t a l form. The amount of i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed i n a g i v e n d a t a
block w i l l depend o n t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e c o d i n g employed. The more s o p h i s t i c a t e d
t h e coding, however, t h e g r e a t e r w i l l b e t h e requirement f o r p r o c e s s i n g a t t h e r e c e i v e r
t e r m i n a l . T h e r e f o r e , very c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n must b e g i v e n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n and
s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of t h e coding scheme.

Data l i n k q u a l i t y

2.4.4 A h i g h i n t e g r i t y f o r d a t a t r a n s f e r i s a c h i e v e d by t h e u s e of a number o f
s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s . The modulation t e c h n i q u e s used p r o v i d e , on t h e u p l i n k , improved
immunity t o i n t e r f e r e n c e and m l t i p a t h e f f e c t s a n d , o n t h e downlink, r e l i a b l e b i t
d e t e c t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f SSR (Modes A and C ) i n t e r f e r e n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , u s e of a
24-bit p a r i t y check code e n s u r e s a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e j e c t i o n of c o r r u p t e d messages
by t h e t r a n s p o n d e r and a d e g r e e o f e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n on t h e ground.

2.5 EVOLUTIONARY IMPLEMENTATION

2.5.1 As d e f i n e d i n ICAO Annex 10, t h e p r e s e n t day SSR f u l f i l s , i n many r e g i o n s ,


a l l t h e normal r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n ATC r a d a r s u r v e i l l a n c e f u n c t i o n . L o c a l o r r e g i o n a l
c o n d i t i o n s w i l l d i c t a t e whether SSR Modes A and C w i l l c o n t i n u e t o meet t h o s e
r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e f u t u r e o r whether improved SSR o r SSP. Mode S w i l l be r e q u i r e d . In
some a r e a s , i t may n o t b e n e c e s s a r y t o r e p l a c e t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m w i t h a f u l l Mode S
system. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Mode S system and i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h c u r r e n t SSK
a r e s u c h t h a t a number o f e v o l u t i o n a r y s t e p s may b e f o r e s e e n i n t h e p r o g r e s s i o n from a n
e x i s t i n g SSR system towards a f u l l SSR Mode S i n s t a l l a t i o n . Each s t e p can be t a k e n a s
and when l o c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s d i c t a t e and w i l l have no u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t on t h e
performance of n e i g h b o u r i n g SSR systems. These z t e p s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
paragraphs.

Monopulse t e c h n i q u e s

2.5.2 As d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2.1 above, t h e implementation of monopulse


i n t e r r o g a t o r s can b r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e b e n e f i t s i n r e g i o n s where i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o
improve s y s t e m performance. The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f monopulse on t h e ground r e q u i r e s n o
m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e a i r b o r n e t r a n s p o n d e r s . It does r e q u i r e , however, a s a l r e a d y
i n d i c a t e d , a monopulse a n t e n n a o r a d a p t a t i o n of a n e x i s t i n g a n t e n n a , a twin c h a n n e l
r e c e i v e r and a s p e c i a l p r o c e s s o r .

SSR Mode S - Basic functions

2.5.3 The p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n s t o b e added t o upgrade a monopulse i n t e r r o g a t o r t o


Mode S a r e i n t e r r o g a t i o n management, Mode S s u r v e i l l a n c e p r o c e s s i n g and, i f r e q u i r e d ,
d a t a l i n k p r o c e s s i n g . The s t e p t o add t h e s e f u n c t i o n s can be t a k e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , when
s u r v e i l l a n c e performance of monopulse a l o n e does n o t meet r e q u i r e m e n t s o r when i t i s
c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e a d d i t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f f e r e d by t h e
Mode S d a t a l i n k . As w e l l a s improving s u r v e i l l a n c e performance, t h e b a s i c Mode S
s y s t e m w i l l a l l o w ATS a u t h o r i t i e s t o o f f e r , and t o b e n e f i t from, a number of a d d i t i o n a l
s e r v i c e s which can be accomplished t h r o u g h u s e of t h e Comm A ( u p l i n k ) and Comm B
ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110 -
11

(downlink) d a t a l i n k c a p a b i l i t y . When t h e requirements e x i s t i n t h e f u t u r e , t h e b a s i c


Mode S system can be enhanced by t h e e x t e n s i o n of i t s d a t a l i n k c a p a c i t y t o i n c l u d e t h e
extended l e n g t h message c a p a b i l i t y , t h a t i s , Comm C and Comm D messages. The
i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e ground equipment w i l l be mainly i n t h e l o g i c and p o s s i b l y i n t h e
i n t e r r o g a t o r t r a n s m i t t e r due t o a n i n c r e a s e d t r a n s m i t t e r d u t y c y c l e . The b e n e f i t s of
Mode S s u r v e i l l a n c e o r conumnications w i l l , of course, i n c r e a s e a s t h e p r o p o r t i o n of
Mode S equipped a i r c r a f t i n c r e a s e s .

Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r e v o l u t i o n

2.5.4 A similar e v o l u t i o n a r y concept e x i s t s f o r Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r equipage i n t h e


aircraft. S i n c e t h e Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r h a s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l SSR Modes A and C , i t can
be used i n s t e a d of t h e e x i s t i n g SSR transponder. There a r e c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s t h a t a c c r u e
t o t h e ATC system and t o t h e s a f e t y of o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e a i r s p a c e w i t h t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n
of Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r s even w i t h o u t Mode S i n s t a l l e d on t h e ground. These b e n e f i t s
r e l a t e t o t h e improved ground s u r v e i l l a n c e due t o t h e h i g h e r performance of t h e
transponder ( t i g h t e r t o l e r a n c e s and p o s s i b l e use of a n t e n n a d i v e r s i t y ) i n t h e
c o n v e n t i o n a l modes and t o t h e f a c t t h a t Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r s can s u p p o r t a i r b o r n e
c o l l i s i o n avoidance. Of c o u r s e , a s ground Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r s w i t h d a t a l i n k
c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e implemented, a l l of t h e b e n e f i t s of c a r r y i n g Mode S become a v a i l a b l e .
3.1 SIGNALS I N SPACE

3.1.1 Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n s a r e m d e from a s e r i e s of p u l s e s which a r e numbered PI


t o P 6 w i t h P I , P 2 and P 3 p u l s e s b e i n g t h e same as t h o s e used i n t h e e x i s t i n g SSR modes.
Mode S adds t h r e e new p u l s e s P q , P 5 a n d P6 a n d t h e s e a r e used i n v a r i o u s combinations
w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g p u l s e s t o c r e a t e t h e t h r e e new s i g n a l t y p e s which make up t h e Mode S
i n t e r r o g a t i o n set. These new s i g n a l t y p e s a r e :

a) The Mode A/C/S a l l - c a l l i n t e r r o g a t i o n which i s used f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e of


Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r s and f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r s ;

b) The Mode A/C-only a l l - c a l l . This e l i c i t s a r e p l y from Mode A/C


t r a n s p o n d e r s b u t n o t from Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r s ; and

c) The Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n which o n l y e l i c i t s a r e p l y from Mode S


t r a n s p o n d e r s . T h i s i n t e r r o g a t i o n , w i t h v a r i o u s c o d i n g s i n P6, i s used
f o r Mode S-only a l l - c a l l , Mode S a d d r e s s e d s u r v e i l l a n c e , and d a t a l i n k .

The Mode A/C/S and Mode A/C-only all-calls

3.1.2 The Mode A/C/S and Mode AIC-only a l l - c a l l s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e e x i s t i n g SSR


i n t e r r o g a t i o n s d e f i n e d i n Annex 10, b u t w i t h a n a d d i t i o n a l p u l s e , P 4 , f o l l o w i n g P3. The
i n t e r r o g a t i o n i s shown s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 3-1. A P 4 p u l s e w i d t h of 1.6 micro-
seconds i s used i n t h e Mode A/C/S a l l - c a l l i n t e r r o g a t i o n , w h i l e a P4 p u l s e w i d t h of 0.8
microseconds i s used i n t h e Mode A/C-only a l l - c a l l . Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r s a r e n o t
a f f e c t e d by t h e presence of t h e P 4 p u l s e , and t h u s t h e y respond w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e
Mode A o r Mode C r e p l y . The Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r d e t e c t s t h e P q p u l s e and i f i t i s s h o r t
(0.8 microseconds) r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n a s a Mode A/C-only a l l - c a l l and does n o t
r e p l y . However, i f t h e P 4 i s l o n g (1.6 microsecon?;) t h e Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r r e c o g n i z e s
t h e r e p l y a s a Mode S a l l - c a l l and s e n d s a Mode S reply c o n t a i n i n g i t s a d d r e s s .

3.1.3 I n t h e above two i n t e r r o g a t i o n t y p e s s i d e l o b e s u p p r e s s i o n i s accomplished by


t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e P 2 p u l s e on a s i d e l o b e s u p p r e s s i o n c o n t r o l p a t t e r n . If t h i s
p u l s e i s r e c e i v e d by e i t h e r a Mode A/C o r a Mode S t r a n s ~ o n d e ra t a n a m p l i t u d e above
t h a t of t h e P I p u l s e t h e t r a n s p o n d e r w i l l n o t r e p l y .

The Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n

3.1.4 The Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n i s formed by t h r e e p u l s e s P I , P2 and P 6 and i s


i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 3-2. P u l s e s P I and P 2 form t h e preamble and a r e spaced 2 micro-
seconds a p a r t . A Mode A / C t r a n s p o n d e r which r e c e i v e s t h i s i n t e r r o g a t i o n w i l l i n t e r p r e t
t h e p a i r a s a n SSR s i d e l o b e s u p p r e s s i o n command and w i l l s u p p r e s s f o r a p e r i o d of t i m e
between 25 and 45 microseconds. The P6 p u l s e i s t r a n s m i t t e d From t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r
d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Without s u c h s u p p r e s s i o n t h e Pg p u l s e would, w i t h h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y ,
t r i g g e r t h e Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r s c a u s i n g a s p u r i o u s r e p l y . The P6 p u l s e of t h e Mode S
i n t e r r o g a t i o n i s e i t h e r 16.25 o r 30.25 microseconds l o n g and c o n t a i n s t h e d a t a i n t h e
ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110 13

MOOE A : 8 D y SEC
MOOE C : 2 1 . 0 ~SEC

p3 p4
INTERROGATION i

H
O 8 p SEC
H
0 . 8 p SEC
t----l
* p SEC

I
i?Dv S E C d * MODE A / C / S ALL-CALL: 1.6p SEC
I MODE A/C- ONLY ALL- CALL: 0.8 u SEC
I--1 n
SLS CONTROL 1 P
-
lRANSM1SSON 1

F i g u r e 3-1. Mode A/C/S and Mode A/C-only a l l - c a l l


i n t e r r o g a t i o n p u l s e sequence

form of d i f f e r e n t i a l phase s h i f t keyed (DPSK) modulation. The d a t a c h i p s a r e 0.25


microseconds long and a phase r e v e r s a l a t t h e beginning of each c h i p r e p r e s e n t s a binary
" I " , w h i l e t h e absence of such a r e v e r s a l d e n o t e s a b i n a r y "0". The c h i p l e n g t h
r e p r e s e n t s a 4 Mbps r a t e which p e r m i t s t r a n s m i s s i o n of 112-bit messages w i t h i n t h e
minimum a v a i l a b l e SSR s u p p r e s s i o n i n t e r v a l . DPSK i s used because i t p r o v i d e s s u p e r i o r
i n t e r f e r e n c e imuunity, l i n k margin, and g r e a t e r imnunity t o m l t i p a t h t h a n i s provided
by p u l s e amplitude modulation.

3.1.5 Sidelobe s u p p r e s s i o n i s accomplished f o r t h i s t y p e of i n t e r r o g a t i o n by t h e


t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e P 5 c o n t r o l p u l s e on a s i d e l o b e s u p p r e s s i o n p a t t e r n . If the c o n t r o l
p u l s e amplitude r e c e i v e d by t h e t r a n s p o n d e r exceeds t h e amplitude of t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n ,
t h e sync phase r e v e r s a l w i l l be obscured, and t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n w i l l be r e j e c t e d . With
d i s c r e t e address i n t e r r o g a t i o n s , transmitted sidelobe suppression i s not required t o
p r e v e n t s i d e l o b e r e p l i e s because, i n g e n e r a l , an a i r c r a f t w i l l be i n t e r r o g a t e d only when
i n t h e mainbeam of t h e i n t e r r o g a t i n g antenna. However, t r a n s m i t t e d s i d e l o b e s u p p r e s s i o n
on a l l - c a l l i n t e r r o g a t i o n s p r e v e n t s s i d e l o b e r e p l i e s , because a l l t r a n s p o n d e r s which a r e
not locked o u t could reply.

Mode S r e p l i e s

3.1.6 A Mode S r e p l y c o n s i s t s of a preamble and a d a t a block c o n t a i n i n g 56 o r


112 p u l s e s . The s i g n a l format i s d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 3-3. The preamble c o n s i s t s of a
s e r i e s of f o u r 0.5 microsecond p u l s e s . The d a t a block begins 8 microseconds a f t e r t h e
l e a d i n g edge of t h e f i r s t preamble p u l s e . Binary d a t a a r e t r a n s m i t t e d a t a 1 Mbps d a t a
r a t e u s i n g p u l s e p o s i t i o n modulation (ppm) i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: In t h e 1 microsecond
i n t e r v a l corresponding t o e a c h d a t a b i t , a 0.5 microsecond p u l s e i s t r a n s m i t t e d i n t h e
f i r s t h a l f of t h e i n t e r v a l i f t h e d a t a b i t i s a "1" a n d i n t h e second h a l f i f t h e d a t a
b i t i s a "0". The group of f o u r p u l s e s f o r m i n g t h e preamble i s d e s i g n e d t o be e a s i l y
d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from Mode A and Mode C r e p l i e s a l l o w i n g Mode S t o be d e t e c t e d e a r l y i n
t h e ground system. The c h o i c e o f ppm f o r t h e d a t a block p e r m i t s r e l i a b l e b i t d e t e c t i o n
i n t h e p r e s e n c e of SSR (Modes A and C ) i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i l e t h e complexity of i t s
generation i n t h e transponder is not t o o great.

0 . 5 SEC
~

SYNC. PHASE
REVERSAL . PHASE REVERSU POSITIONS

SLS CONTROL
TRANSMISSION ---cf p--0.811 SEC

F i g u r e 3-2. Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n p u l s e sequence

CORRESPONOING TO BIT
SEOWNCE 0010...001

F i g u r e 3-3. Mode S r e p l y waveform


ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110 15

3.2 MESSAGE STRUCTURE

3.2.1 The i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d i n t h e Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n i s c o n t a i n e d i n d a t a


b l o c k s which can c a r r y e i t h e r 56 o r 112 b i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . This information i s
encoded w i t h i n f i e l d s , e a c h f i e l d e x i s t i n g f o r a d e d i c a t e d purpose. A l l d a t a blocks
c o n t a i n a t l e a s t two e s s e n t i a l f i e l d s , t h e f o r m a t d e s c r i p t o r of 5 b i t s which i s
t r a n s m i t t e d a t t h e beginning of t h e d a t a b l o c k and t h e a d d r e s s p a r i t y f i e l d o f 24 b i t s
which i s t r a n s m i t t e d a t t h e end. A summary of t h e f o r m a t s i s shown i n F i g u r e s 3-4 and
3-5, and i n T a b l e 3-1 t h e p u r p o s e of i n d i v i d u a l f i e l d s i s b r i e f l y shown. F i g u r e 3-4
shows t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n f o r m a t s and F i g u r e 3-5 t h e r e p l y f o r m a t s . F u l l d e f i n i t i o n of
t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e s e are i n t h e s y s t e m d e f i n i t i o n .

3.2.2 The 24-bit a d d r e s s p a r i t y f i e l d c o n t a i n s t h e a i r c r a f t ' s 24-bit u n i q u e


a d d r e s s code o v e r l a y e d on (summed b i t by b i t modulo 2) 24 p a r i t y check b i t s g e n e r a t e d on
t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r t of t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n as shown i n F i g u r e 3-6.

3.3 SURVEILLANCE PROTOCOLS

3.3.1 The s u r v e i l l a n c e p r o t o c o l s d e f i n e t h e ways i n which t h e v a r i o u s


i n t e r r o g a t i o n t y p e s and f o r m a t s r e l a t e t o t h e r e p l y formats. T h e r e a r e two b a s i c p h a s e s
of o p e r a t i o n when a ground i n t e r r o g a t o r i s m o n i t o r i n g a Mode S f i t t e d a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i n g
i n t h e a r e a of coverage of t h a t ground i n t e r r o g a t o r . The f i r s t phase i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n
phase i n which t h e Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r s e a r c h e s f o r new t a r g e t s . The i n t e r r o g a t o r
t r a n s m i t s a l l - c a l l i n t e r r o g a t i o n s t o which new a i r c r a f t i n t h e coverage w i l l r e p l y
i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r Mode S a d d r e s s . From t h i s s t a g e onward, t h e a d d r e s s can b e used t o
c o n t a c t t h e a i r c r a f t d i r e c t l y . However, as new a i r c r a f t c a n be e n t e r i n g t h e coverage
a r e a a t any t i m e , a l l - c a l l i n t e r r o g a t i o n s n u s t be t r a n s m i t t e d a t a c o n t i n u o u s low r a t e
t o a c q u i r e t h e s e new a i r c r a f t .

3.3.2 To a v o i d i n t e r f e r e n c e from a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d a i r c r a f t , a l o c k o u t p r 3 t o c o l
e x i s t s i n which t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r t e l l s t h e t r a n s p o n d e r t o i g n o r e a l l - c a l l s from i t s e l f
f o r a p e r i o d of t i m e . By examining t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r i d e n t i f i e r which i s i n c l u d e d i n
u p l i n k f o r m a t s , t h e t r a n s p o n d e r r e c o g n i z e s from which i n t e r r o g a t o r i t i s l o c k e d o u t .
This i s c a l l e d a m u l t i s i t e lockout. I n some c i r c u l n s t a n c e s a series of ground
i n t e r r o g a t o r s w i l l be l i n k e d t o g e t h e r s c t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s may he co-ordinated.
Such a l i n k a l l o w s i n f o r m a t i o n on a n y g i v e n t a r g e t t o be p a s s e d from one ground
i n t e r r o g a t o r t o a n o t h e r , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g t h e need f o r i n d i v i d u a l l o c k o u t s . T h i s i s
c a l l e d a n o n - s e l e c t i v e a 11 - c a l l l o c k o u t .

3.3.3 I n t h e a c q u i s i - t i o n p h a s e , e i t h e r of two a l l - c a l l f o r m a t s can be used. The


Mode A/C/S a l l - c a l l i n t e r r o g a t i o n ( t h e Pb a l l - c a l l ) e l i c i t s a r e p l y i n t h e downlink
f o r m a t DFl1. T h i s r e p l y c o n t a i n s d a t a f i e l d s which i n c l u d e t h e a i r c r a f t a d d r e s s a n d
o t h e r p e r t i n e n t information. The second a l l - c a l l t y p e i s t h e Mode S-only a l l - c a l l which
u t i l i z e s t h e Mode S u p l i n k f o r m a t UF11. T h i s f o r m a t c o n t a i n s two c o n t r o l f i e l d s :

I) t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r i d e n t i f i e r ( 1 1 ) f i e l d , which i d e n t i f i e s t h e
i n t e r r o g a t o r ; and

2) t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of r e p l y (PR) f i e l d , which p e r f o r m s c e r t a i n c o n t r o l
f u n c t i o n s . The f o r m a t a l s o e l i c i t s t h e a l l - c a l l r e p l y format DF11.
FORMAT
No.

RL,: 1 AQ: 1
- - - - - - - - - - --
0
------------
18 AP. 24 1 Short Special Surve~llonce

4 Surveillance, Altitude Request

5 00 1 o ~ ~ P c : ~ I5R IRD. I : ~ ~ SD :16 I AP : 24 1 S m i l l a n c e , Identity Re-

11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 111
~ o l o l 1 ~ ~ ~ : 4 ~ 11 111 :1 411~ 11 AP : 2 4 Mode S-Only All-Call

RL:l AO:l
----- ------
16 - - - - - 1-8 - - - - - 1 AP : 2 4 Long Special Surveillance

20 SD :I6 I MA . 56
I I
- I AP :24 Comm Request

/ c

21 lo 1 o 1 I P C : ~ ~RR : 5 101!31 SD :16 1 MA r i 5 6


* -
I
I AP:24 Comm A, Identity Request

24

LEGEND: = FIELD DESKiNATED 'h X" WHICH IS ASSIGED M BITS

- --
L -IN-
-] = FREE COMNO SPACE WITH N AVAILABLE BITS
Shop Special Surveillonce

Suneillonce, Altitude

I
] 0 0 1 0 1 1 ~ ~ : 3 1 ~ ~U:M5 : 6 I ID:13 I AP: 2 4
I Surveillonce, Identity

All - Call Reply

-,
l,

----- AC:13 I MV: 56 Long Special Surveillance

-4J
1 0 1 0 0 ( ~ ~ : 3 1 ~I U~ M: :56 I AC: 13
-
M8.:-56
I
AP :24 C o m m B, Altitude

I'
1
10 I O I I F S : ~ ] D R : ~ U M : 6 1 I D : 13 I MB :56 I AP:24 o m m a , Idenhty

usiEm I XX: M 1 = FIELD MSIGNNED "XX"WICH IS ASSIGMD M BITS

-----
I------1 N = FREE CODING SPACE WITH N AVAILABLE BITS
18 lCAO Circular 174-AIJ/110

Field Uplink (U)


Of
Designation Name Downlink (Dl h a n f ng
. . - - -

Address Announced Aircraft address in a l l - c a l l

Altitude Code Equivalent t o aircraft


Piode C code
Address /parity Mode S address and error
detect ion
For compatkbility with
airborne collision avoidance
Capability Aircraft report of syetem
caprb llity
P4wnlink Forreat bmlf n b descxipt 0 r
Designator Identification Describes content of SD f i e l d
Downlfnk Request MrcraE t requests permission
to eend data t o ground
Flight S t atus Mrcraf t situation repar t
ldenti ty code Equivalent t o Mode k code
Interrogator I d e n t i f i e r Site number for mltlsite
features
Control E M Part of extended length
mesaage protocol
Wssage, Comm A Message to aircraft
Message, Conm I3 Message from aircraft
Message, C o r n C Inng message segment t o
aircraft
Message, Comm D Lung message segmnt from
aireraft
Message, Special For conpatibility with
Interrogation airborne collision avoidance
Message, S p e c i a l Reply For conpatibilitg with
airborne collision avoidance
N u m b r of C Segment Part of ELM protocol
Number of D S e p n t Part of ELM protocol
Protocol Operating commands for t h e
t ranspander
Parity/Interrogator Reports source of
Identtf i e r interrogation
P r o b a b i l i t y of & p l y Used in stochastic acquisition
mode
Reply Control Part o f ELPI protocol
%ply Informatton For c o q a t i b i l i t y with
airborne collfsion avoidance
For compatibtlity with
afrborne collision avoidacce
Reply Request Co-nds details of r e p l y
Special Designator Control codes t o transponder
Uplink Fonnat Format descriptor
Utility Message Reports transponder
reservation status
Vertical Status Mrcraf t status, airborne or
on the ground

Table 3-1. Message f i e l d descriptions


ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN11 10 19

32 or

0 1 1
88

0 .
+
BIT

I
.
DATA FIELD

. . 1 0 1 ENCODER e l
24

. 0
PARITY

l o o
CHECK 8lTS

* * * I 1 0

24 BIT AIRCRAFT ADDRESS = 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1

ADORESS / PARITY FIELD 1 1 I O 1 . * * 0 1 1

F i g u r e 3-6. Address/parity generation

3.3.4 Uplink message f o r m a t s 4, 5, 20 and 21 a r e used f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e . A


s u r v e i l l a n c e i n t e r r o g a t i o n u s i n g e i t h e r format UF4 o r UF20 w i l l e l i c i t a r e p l y w i t h t h e
a i r c r a f t ' s a l t i t u d e i n i t . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two i s t h a t UF4 c o n t a i n s o n l y
c o n t r o l f i e l d s w h i l e UF20 a l s o i n c l u d e s a 56-bit message f i e l d (Comm A) f o r t h e
t r a n s m i s s i o n of d a t a t o t h e a i r c r a f t . The r e p l y s e n t i n response t o t h e s e
i n t e r r o g a t i o n s w i l l e i t h e r be t h e format DF4 o r t h e format DF20. Both c o n t a i n t h e
a l t i t u d e i n a s p e c i f i c f i e l d , but DF20 a l s o c o n t a i n s a 56-bit message f i e l d (Comm B) f o r
t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of d a t a t o t h e ground. An i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s w i t h UF5 and
UF21, and DF5 and DF21. I n t e r r o g a t i o n s u s i n g e i t h e r t h e UF5 o r t h e UF21 format w i l l
e l i c i t r e p l i e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e a i r c r a f t ' s i d e n t i t y (Mode A code) i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e
format DF5 o r DF21. I f t h e t r a n s f e r of d a t a i s a l s o r e q u i r e d t h e n UF21 (Comm A -
ground-to-air) i s used i n s t e a d of UF5, and DF2 1 (Comm B - air-to-ground) i s used i n s t e a d
of DF5. For both a l t i t u d e and i d e n t i t y r e p l i e s , t h e r e p l y format used ( s u r v e i l l a n c e
only o r s u r v e i l l a n c e w i t h Comm B ) w i l l depend on t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e transponder i n
t h e a i r c r a f t and on t h e u p l i n k format used i n t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n .

3.4 COWUNICATION PROTOCOLS

3.4.1 Apart from t h e t r a n s f e r of s u r v e i l l a n c e d a t a ( a l t i t u d e , Mode A code) from


t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e ground, t h e %ode S system a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r exchanging more g e n e r a l
messages between ground and a i r . TWOc l a s s e s of messages a r e supported: Standard
20 ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110

messages, which a r e r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t (up t o 224 b i t s ) , and handled i n l o n g s u r v e i l l a n c e


t r a n s m i s s i o n s (Comm A and Comm B ) ; and ELMS which a r e l o n g e r (up t o 1 280 b i t s ) , and u s e
a s p e c i a l burst transmission protocol. Comrmnication c o n t r o l d a t a f o r b o t h t y p e s o f
messages a r e accommodated i n t h e s u r v e i l l a n c e f o r m a t s and u s e t h e d e s i g n a t o r
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( D I ) and s p e c i a l d e s i g n a t o r (SD) f i e l d s ( u p l i n k ) , and t h e downlink f o r m a t
(DF) and u t i l i t y message (UM) f i e l d s ( i n t h e r e p l i e s ) .

3.4.2 A d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d a t a c o n t e n t of messages i s n o t a p a r t o f
t h e Mode S s y s t e m s p e c i f i c a t i o n b u t I t i s recommended t h a t e a c h d a t a message s t a r t w i t h
a n 8 - b i t f i e l d i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c o n t e n t of t h e message.

S t a n d a r d message communication p r o t o c o l s

3.4.3 Standard messages c o n s i s t of 56-bit d a t a segments i n s e r t e d i n t o l o n g


s u r v e i l l a n c e i n t e r r o g a t i o n s and r e p l i e s . These messages are t r a n s m i t t e d w i t h o u t
i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n of s u r v e i l l a n c e d a t a and a l l o w f o r t h e p a s s a g e of
r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r i o r i t y t r a f f i c , i.e. t r a f f i c t h a t cannot s t a n d a d e l a y of more t h a n
10-15 seconds.

Uplink s t a n d a r d messages

3.4.4 In t h e ground-to-air d i r e c t i o n , s t a n d a r d messages may c o n s i s t of from one t o


f o u r segments, e a c h of 56 b i t s , e a c h t r a n s m i t t e d i n a s e p a r a t e l o n g s u r v e i l l a n c e
(Comm A) i n t e r r o g a t i o n . Each segment i s accompanied by c o n t r o l d a t a which p r o v i d e :

a) t h e i d e n t i t y of t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g ground system; a n d

b) t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e segment i n t h e message ( f i r s t , i n t e r m e d i a t e , f i n a l ,
o r only).

Downlink s t a n d a r d messages

3.4.5 Messages i n t h e air-ground d i r e c t i o n can a r i s e from two c a u s e s :

I) l'he ground system, by i n s e r t i n g a code i n i t s i n t e r r o g a t i o n , c a n r e q u e s t


d a t a from a s p e c i f i e d s o u r c e i n t h e a i r c r a f t . The r e q u e s t and t h e
i d e n t i t y of t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a s o u r c e i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e p l y r e q u e s t
(RR) and s p e c i a l d e s i g n a t o r (SD) f i e l d s of t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n . The d a t a ,
i f a v a i l a b l e , n u s t be p l a c e d i n t h e Comm B message f i e l d of t h e r e p l y .
I f t h e d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , a blank ( a l l - z e r o ) f i e l d must be s e n t .

2) If a n a i r c r a f t wishes t o send a message t o t h e ground, i t p u t s a s p e c i a l


code ( t h e "B code") i n t h e downlink r e q u e s t (DR) f i e l d of i t s r e p l i e s t o
surveillance interrogations. Ground i n t e r r o g a t o r s r e c o g n i z e this code
and, on a l a t e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n , r e q u e s t t h a t t h e d a t a be s e n t t o them.
ICAO Circular 174-AN/110 21

Extended length message ( E M ) protocole

3.4.6 ELMS can be up t o 1 280 b i t s long, and are transmitted in segraents of 80


bits using a special burst mode protocol. Each segmnt is contained in a Corn C
interrogation or Comm D reply (see Figure 3-41, Because ELMS are comparatively long,
are k r a n s d t t e d in bursta, and do not require replies t o individual ssgrrr?nts, Mode S
transponders rmst store a11 the segments of an ELM until the message ha8 been completely
s e n t or received. As a consequence, Mode S transponders with E M capabilities w i l l not
be required to handle more than one E M a t a time in each direct1on.

Net ted-site protocols

3.4.7 The protocols include the identity of the ground system in order to enaure
that laessages between an aircraft and t w o independent interrogators cannot becone
confused. Simplified and more b i t v f f i c i e n t protocols say be used where there is no
possibility of confusion arising, v i z . where a l l the interrogators within range of an
aircraft a t e linked into a single, c o m n covlperatlve system. The simplified and mre
b i t - f f k c i e n t protocols are e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the netted-site protocols except
that i n the former the Interrogator identifier i s omitted, and an identifier value of
zero assured.

Data link performance

3.4,8 The d u a l use of t h e Made S syetem for surveillance and for data l i n k
undoubtedly tnf luences the performance of the data l i n k . Although some work, notably in
the USSR, has been done on the use o f electronically-scanned ground station antennas,
the majority of Mode S ground stations will certainly use mchanically-rotated aerials.
This necessarily constrains the tsansmissloa of data link messages for a particular
aircraft t o those times when the aerial i s pointing i n the rtghr d i r e c t i o n -in practice
no more than about 0,8 per cent of the time (3-degree beamwidth), although this period
can be increased through the use of back-tcrback antenna systems. Based on an b-eecond
r o t a t i o n period, an aggregate data rate of a b u t 35-50 bpa per aircraft (assuming a l l
interrogariclns to be Corn A) is a reasonable value t o expect, and this rate can be
maintained simLtaneously for a11 aircraft in cover.
E
m -

4.1 THE INTERROGATOR

4.1.1 A s i n d i c a t e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 3 , t h e Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r i s c a p a b l e of d e t e c t i n g
SSR Modes A and C a s w e l l as SSR Mode S transponder-equipped a i r c r a f t . The i n t e r r o g a t o r
f u n c t i o n s f o r Modes A and C, improved SSR (monopulse), and Mode S are i n d i c a t e d i n t h e
f o l l o w i n g paragraphs.

Conventional SSR i n t e r r o g a t o r (Nodes A and C)

4.1.2 E x i s t i n g ground i n t e r r o g a t o r s w i l l normally have t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n a l


elements:

a) narrow beam a n t e n n a ;

b) transmitter;

c) receiver;

d) Modes A and C r e p l y p r o c e s s o r ;

e) Reply-to-reply c o r r e l a t o r and d e f r u i t e r ; a n d

f) output i n t e r f a c e t o a i r t r a f f i c control.

Monopulse SSR i n t e r r o g a t o r

4.1.3 The a d d i t i o n of monopulse c a p a b i l i t y t o t h e b a s i c i n t e r r o g a t o r o f 4.1.2


m o d i f i e s o r adds t o t h e b a s i c f u n c t i o n s as f o l l o w s :

a) The a n t e n n a must be e q u i p p e d f o r monopulse o p e r a t i o n .

b) A multichannel r e c e i v e r , w i t h s i d e l o b e suppression i s required t o


p r o c e s s and e x t r a c t monopulse i n f o r m a t i o n .

c) Scan-to-scan s u r v e i l l a n c e p r o c e s s i n g may be r e q u i r e d f o r Mode A / C


equipped a i r c r a f t i f t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r o p e r a t e s a t t h e minimum
interrogation rate. S i n c e monopulse i s used f o r b e a r i n g measurement,
SSR r e p l y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e d i c t a t e d by t h e need t o d e t e c t a l t i t u d e and
code i n f o r m a t i o n r e l i a b l y and t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e r e j e c t i o n of f r u i t
r e p l i e s . Measurements have shown t h a t o p e r a t i o n w i t h a s few a s two
i n t e r r o g a t i o n s p e r mode ( w i t h i n t h e a n t e n n a 3 d e g r e e b e a w i d t h ) w i l l
p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e s u r v e i l l a n c e performance. O p e r a t i o n a t t h i s minimm
i n t e r r o g a t i o n r a t e i s d e s i r a b l e because i t r e d u c e s s i g n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e .
However, a t t h e mininum i n t e r r o g a t i o n r a t e , scan-to-scan s u r v e i l l a n c e
p r o c e s s i n g i s r e q u i r e d t o s u p p r e s s s p u r i o u s t a r g e t s caused by f r u i t a n d
t o improve t h e q u a l i t y of r e c e i v e d a l t i t u d e (Mode C ) and code (Mode A )
information.
ICAO Circular 1 74-AN / 11 0 23

Mode S interrogator

4.1.4 The addition of a Mode S capabtlity to the monopulse interrogator of 4.1.3


m o d i f i e s or adds t o those functions aa follows:

a) The transmitter mst have a higher average power to handle the longer
Mode S interrogation and t o provide for the higher Interrogation rates
that may occur when mny aircraft are in the beam a t the sam time.
Peak power i a the same as for an SSB Mode A and C interrogator.
Frequency s t a b i l i t y nuat be adequate t o handle DPSK t r a n d s a i o n s .

b) A sidelobe suppression transndtter i a required for the W e S P5 pulse


if the Hode S-only a l l - c a l l interrogation is t o be used.

c) An interrogation management function f a needed t o schedule addressed


interrogations and r e p l i e s for Mode S aircraft.

d) A Mode S processing function is required t o detect and decode the Mode S


replies.

el Scan-tu-scan surveillance processing i s required t o track Mode S


aircraft and t o predict aircraft posf t i o a l a range and a z i m t h on the
following scan. This next-scan prediction is needed by interrogation
management to schedule addressed interrogations and replies for Mode S
aircraft as they eater the beam.

f) A data link processing function will tw required if the Mode S


eomaunications features are used. This function keeps track of data
l i n k activity for both ground and a i r l n i t f a t e d requests. S t provides
this information to Interrogation mnagernt so that the interrogations
rind replies required for comunlcations d e l i v e r y can be scheduled. A
ground communications Interface i e required to transfer wasages t o and
from ground uaers.

g) Intersf te co-ordinatian may be required t o ensure co-operatiye a c t i o n


with any adjacent sensors that have overlapping coverage. !Ibis function
may be very rudiwntary i n areas of low Hode S interrogator density. In
the highest interrogator and t r a f f i c densities anticipated, managemnt
w f l l become more complex and may tncltide the capability for co-
ordination with adjacent s i t e s via ground eommrnications l i n k s (network
management). In t h i s latter case, sensor-t o-sensor comrmnicatlons
interfaces must be provided.

Mode S sensor block dianram

4.1.5 h block diagram of a Mode S interrogator is shown in Figure 4-1. The


functions in comnon wf t h an SSB Mode A/C 1nterrogator are f ndicated,
24 ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN1110

4.2 THE TRANSPONDER

4.2.1 Like t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r , t h e Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r p r o c e s s e s Mode A and Mode C


i n t e r r o g a t i o n s and r e p l i e s . It t h u s h a s e l e m e n t s i n common w i t h a Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r .

Conventional SSR t r a n s p o n d e r f u n c t i o n s

4.2.2 A Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r h a s a t l e a s t t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n a l e l e m e n t s :

a) antenna;

b) receiver;

c) video processor;

d) Modes A and C i n t e r r o g a t i o n / r e p l y l o g i c ; and

e) transmitter.

Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r f u n c t i o n s

4.2.3 A Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r c o n t a i n s a l l of t h e f u n c t i o n a l e l e m e n t s of a Mode A/C


transponder. The only s i g n i f i c a n t change i n r e q u i r e m e n t s t o one of t h e s e e l e m e n t s i s i n
t h e a v e r a g e power r e q u i r e d of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r due t o t h e g r e a t e r l e n g t h of t h e Mode S
r e p l y . The peak power requirement i s t h e same a s f o r a Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r . A Mode S
t r a n s p o n d e r must a l s o have t h e f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n a l elements.

a) A DPSK demodulator i s needed t o decode t h e d a t a b i t s of t h e Mode S P6


pulse.

b) Mode S l o g i c i s r e q u i r e d t o decode and p r o c e s s t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n and t o


g e n e r a t e t h e r e q u i r e d r e p l y . The Mode S l o g i c r e c e i v e s a n i n p u t from
t h e v i d e o p r o c e s s o r ( f o r the i n t e r r o g a t i o n preamble) and from t h e DPSK
demodulator ( f o r t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n d a t a b i t s ) .

c) A comnunication i n t e r f a c e i s r e q u i r e d t o c o n n e c t t h e t r a n s p o n d e r t o
e x t e r n a l d a t a l i n k devices. This i n t e r f a c e i s b i - d i r e c t i o n a l t o support
b o t h up- and down-link t r a n s f e r s .

d) I n a d d i t i o n , many a i r c r a f t w i l l employ a n a d d i t i o n a l top-mounted a n t e n n a


and a s s o c i a t e d r e c e i v e r i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e g r e a t e r l i n k r e l i a b i l i t y
r e q u i r e d f o r combined surveillance/communications s e r v i c e .

Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r block diagram

4.2.4 A b l o c k d i a g r a m o f a t y p i c a l Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r i s shown i n F i g u r e 4-2.


Elements i n common w i t h a Mode A/C t r a n s p o n d e r a r e i n d i c a t e d .
1 DIFFERENCE / -- -H1
H TnN
:U
mi: I1 MWL S
REPLY
PROcESSOR
1
OAT*-LINK
PROCESSING

NETWORK
MANdGEMENT

AR fRAFcc
SURVEILLANCE FLE CONTROL.

CONVERTWNAL SSR FUNCTlOtl5


N
QI

r =
OPSK
DEMO0
-
J

I+
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P
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n
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Ee,
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I MODE S COMM C-
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ANTENNA LOGIC INTERFACE
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t
CONVENTIONAL SSR FUNCTIONS
5.1.1 Mode S interrogator processing has the potential far providing substantia 1
improvewnts in surveillance r e l i a b i l i t y and accuracy for Mode A/C as well as Mode S
equipped aircraft.

Monopulse SSR surveillance benefits

5.1.2 Monopulse direction finding is required for Mode S surveillance, but it can
t o Modes A and C t o provide enhanced surveillance performance.
also be a p p l i e d

a) SurvelLltance i n Modes A and C can be performed on as few as t w a replies


per mode p e r scan. This permits t h e interrogator t o aperate at a reduced
interrogation rate coqared t o current interrogators, which reduces the
uplink and downlink signal interference caused by the interrogator.

bl Monopufse information may be used in the SSR plot extractor t o correlate


lrlto a single surveillance report the d i f f e r e n t replies that are
received from an aircraf e during each scan, Measurements have shown
t h a t the use of monopulse provides a s u b s t a n t i a l improvement In identity
resolution i n garbling situations.

c) The accuracy o f moncpulse d i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g is four t o f i v e times better


than that of the conventional sliding window detector,

Mode S surveillance benefits

5.1.3 The use of Mode S elkminates many of the limitations of conventional and
improved (monopulse) SSR,

a) The a v a i l a b i l i t y of over 16 millton addresses can provide a unlque


i d e n t i t y as well a s a means t o co-nfcate fndlvidaalty with each
suitably equipped aircraft.

b) Uniquely addressed interrogations directed r o c l o s e l y spaced aircraft


can be rimed so that t h e i r replies do not overlap, thus eliminating
synchronous garble whlch w i l l greatly enhance the surveillance
reliability o f aircraft, for example, i n a holding pattern.

c) In systems using radar tracking, replies l a b e l l e d with the aircraft


address can be unambiguously associated with tracks, thus ef i d n a t i ng
t h e Mode A/C surveillance problems of split or swapped tracks and
reducing t h e r e f l e c t i o n problem. In terragator proceaatng t o accomplish
reply-to-track correlation is g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d compared to current SSR
processing.
28 ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110

d) S u r v e i l l a n c e can be accomplished o n a s i n g l e i n t e r r o g a t i o n / r e p l y
t r a n s a c t i o n d u r i n g e a c h s c a n , t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e s i g n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e of
t h e Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r .

e) If a tracked a i r c r a f t does n o t reply t o an i n t e r r o g a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e


t o adaptively r e i n t e r r o g a t e t h a t a i r c r a f t without r e i n t e r r o g a t i n g o t h e r
a i r c r a f t i n t h e beam. This enhances s u r v e i l l a n c e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r
a i r c r a f t t h a t may have a temporary m a r g i n a l l i n k and does n o t g e n e r a t e
unwanted r e p l i e s .

f) A Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r can l i m i t i t s d i s c r e t e i n t e r r o g a t i o n s t o a i r c r a f t
w i t h i n a d e f i n e d coverage volume and t h a t c o v e r a g e volume can be a d a p t e d
as needed, f o r i n s t a n c e , when r e d u n d a n t c o v e r a g e i s p r o v i d e d i n a
m u l t i r a d a r environment.

g) Mode S c o d i n g s u p p o r t s e r r o r d e t e c t i o n i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s a s w e l l a s
e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n on t h e r e p l y l i n k . E r r o r d e t e c t i o n p r o v i d e s r e l i a b l e
r e a d o u t of a i r c r a f t a l t i t u d e and o t h e r t r a n s m i t t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . E r r o r
c o r r e c t i o n enhances t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of a s u c c e s s f u l r e p l y .

5.2 DATA LINK APPLICATIONS

General

5.2.1 The f l e x i b i l i t y o f f e r e d by Mode S d a t a l i n k can p r o v i d e a range of message


t y p e s and l e n g t h s . F o r convenience, t h e s e may be d i v i d e d i n t o a i r - t o - a i r and ground-to-
a i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . The l a t t e r may be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o ATC and f l i g h t a d v i s o r y
s e r v i c e s . Note t h a t n o t a l l o f t h e s e r v i c e s d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n can be handled by t h e
b a s i c t r a n s p o n d e r i d e n t i f i e d i n 6.2.2 b).

Airborne c o l l i s i o n avoidance

5.2.2 The Mode S d a t a l i n k p r o v i d e s a r e l i a b l e means f o r a i r - t o - a i r c o l l i s i o n


a v o i d a n c e s y s t e m s t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s - The u s e of t h e same a i r c r a f t a d d r e s s
f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e and c o m n i c a t i o n s e l i m i n a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t 7 - a n s n i t t i n g a d a t a
l i n k message t o t h e wrong a i r c r a f t .

ATC s e r v i c e s

5.2.3 Mode S d a t a l i n k c a n p r o v i d e a back-up t o many ATC s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e


p r o v i d e d today by VHF v o i c e comnunications. T h i s d a t a l i n k back-up w i l l improve s y s t e m
s a f e t y by r e d u c i n g communications r e l a t e d e r r o r s w i t h i n t h e ATC system. Many t y p e s of
messages a r e p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s f o r d a t a l i n k back-up and o t h e r ATC s e r v i c e s . These
include:

a) flight identification;

b) a l t i t u d e clearance confirmation;

c) take-off clearance confirmation;


ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN1110 29
-
d) new comrmnications frequency f o r s e c t o r handoff;

e) p i l o t acknowledgement of ATC c l e a r a n c e s ;

f) t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e ground of a i r c r a f t f l i g h t parameters; and

g) minimum s a f e a l t i t u d e warning.

A i r t r a f f i c a d v i s o r y and f l i g h t i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s

5.2.4 Ground d e r i v e d t r a f f i c a d v i s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y provided by means


of VHF voice comrmnications. The Mode S l i n k has t h e c a p a b i l i t y of backing-up t h e voice
a d v i s o r y on a scan-by-scan b a s i s . Data-linked t r a f f i c a d v i s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n of t h i s t y p e
could be used t o update a n on-board g r a p h i c d i s p l a y of proximate a i r c r a f t . The Mode S
d a t a l i n k a l s o o f f e r s t h e p o t e n t i a l of p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on r e q u e s t , f o r example,
VOLMET, ATIS, and o t h e r weather information.
D E V E U ) ~AND PLANNING

6.1 STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT

6.1.1 The development o f SSR Mode S s t a r t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e 1970s i n b o t h


t h e United Kingdom and t h e United S t a t e s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e s y s t e m under development i n
t h e United Kingdom was known as Address S e l e c t i v e (ADSEL) SSR. T h i s d i f f e r e d i n c e r t a i n
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from t h e D i s c r e t e Address Beacon System (DABS) b e i n g developed i n t h e
United S t a t e s . However, e a r l y c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h e two S t a t e s soon l e d t o a s i n g l e
j o i n t development of a s e l e c t i v e a d d r e s s SSR s y s t e m -
t h e SSR Mode S.

Development i n t h e United Kingdom

6.1.2 I n t h e United Kingdom, i n i t i a l development and r e l a t e d s t u d i e s were


u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e Royal S i g n a l s and Radar E s t a b l i s h m e n t (RSRE) on b e h a l f of t h e C i v i l
A v i a t i o n A u t h o r i t y (CAA). This l e d t o a d e t a i l e d f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t by
i n d u s t r y , which was f o l l o w e d by t h e development and c o n s t r u c t i o n of a n e x p e r i m e n t a l
ground s t a t i o n and twenty t r a n s p o n d e r u n i t s . These have s e r v e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n a n d
f u r t h e r development of t h e system. The t r a n s p o n d e r s r e c e i v e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e
Modes A and C e l e m e n t s and were flown i n c e r t a i n a i r l i n e a i r c r a f t and s p e c i a l a i r c r a f t
f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n s . Development and implementat i o n of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s y s t e m was
completed towards t h e end of 1977, a n d t h e t r i a l s were conducted o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g
years.

6.1.3 I n i t i a l l y t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of t h e s e l e c t i v e a d d r e s s e d c o n c e p t was
demonstrated by United Kingdom t r i a l s , and t h e s e were c o n t i n u e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e
performance of t h e Mode S s y s t e m and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e optilaum o p e r a t i n g r u l e s . The most
i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of t h e system performance were t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h which t h e p o s i t i o n of
a n a i r c r a f t can b e measured ( r a n g e and b e a r i n g ) , and t h e performance of t h e
c o m n i c a t i o n s links.

Uevelopment i n t h e United S t a t e s

6.1.4 Development of Mode S by t h e F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (FAA) f o l l o w e d


a recommendation i n 1969 of t h e A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Advisory Conmitt - a f o r a replacement
f o r t h e c u r r e n t SSR (Nodes A and C ) . The f i r s t p h a s e of t h i s development ini.:,ludeci a
c o n c e p t u a l d e s i g n s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t by t h e L i n c o l n L a b o r a t o r y of t h e M a s s a c h u s s e t t s
I n s t i t u t e of Technology. During t h i s phase a l a b o r a t o r y model s e n s o r was c o n s t r u c . t e d ,
and a number of f e a s i b i l i t y model t r a n s p o n d e r s were a c q u i r e d . These s e r v e d t o
d e m o n s t r a t e n o t only t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e concept b u t a l s o t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of Mode S
w i t h c u r r e n t SSR. T h i s phase was f o l l o w e d by one of e n g i n e e r i n g development and
e v a l u a t i o n . For t h i s phase t h r e e i n t e r r o g a t o r s and t h i r t y s i x t r a n s p o n d e r s were
developed by i n d u s t r y . The e v a l u a t i o n programme s t a r t e d i n June 1978 and c o n t i n u e d
u n t i l A p r i l 1980. I n t h e United S t a t e s t h e b a s i c Mode S development programme h a s been
completed. A Mode S N a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d was i s s u e d by t h e FAA i n December 1980. The
Radio T e c h n i c a l Commission f o r A e r o n a u t i c s (KTCA), i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e European
O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r C i v i l A v i a t i o n E l e c t r o n i c s (EUKOCAE), i s now i n t h e p r o c e s s of
f i n a l i z i n g minimum o p e r a t i o n a l performance s t a n d a r d s f o r Mode S a i r b o r n e equipment.
ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN1110 31

Development i n t h e Union of S o v i e t S o c i a l i s t Republics

6.1.5 Development of SSR modes f o r t h e USSR M i n i s t r y of C i v i l A v i a t i o n was begun


i n t h e mid-1970s. I n 1981, f l i g h t t e s t s of t h e USSR d i s c r e t e a d d r e s s transponder were
undertaken a t t h e FAA T e c h n i c a l Centre i n o r d e r t o determine t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e
USSR transponder w i t h t h e United S t a t e s ' Mode S system. The t e s t s showed t h a t , when
o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e United S t a t e s 1 Mode S system, t h e USSR t r a n s p o n d e r e x h i b i t e d
performance s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b t a i n e d w i t h t e s t s of United S t a t e s 1 a i r b o r n e equipment.

R e s u l t s of t r i a l s and e v a l u a t i o n s

6.1.6 The r e s u l t s of t h e r e s p e c t i v e programmes i n t h e United Kingdom and t h e


United S t a t e s can be summarized a s follows:

a) Absolute accuracy. The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of t h e e r r o r i n range


measurement, i n c l u d i n g t h e component due t o j i t t e r i n t h e transponder
d e l a y , i s of t h e o r d e r of 37 metres. The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of a z i m t h
e r r o r i s of t h e o r d e r of 0.1 degree w i t h a s t a n d a r d beacon antenna.
Using a 1.52 metres v e r t i c a l a p e r t u r e open a r r a y , t h i s f i g u r e was
improved t o 0.06 degree.

b) S u r v e i l l a n c e r e l i a b i l i t y . The p r o b a b i l i t y of s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r r o g a t i o n
has been demonstrated t o be i n e x c e s s of 0.99 w i t h i n t h e coverage a r e a
of t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r .

c) Synchronous g a r b l i n g . It h a s been demonstrated t h a t synchronous


g a r b l i n g between two a i r c r a f t i n c l o s e proximity (e.g. d u r i n g
o v e r t a k i n g ) can be completely avoided provided t h a t a t l e a s t one of t h e
a i r c r a f t i s equipped w i t h a Mode S transponder.

d) Data l i n k . The i n t e g r i t y of t h e d a t a l i n k i s v e r y h i g h , about 98 p e r


c e n t of i n t e r r o g a t i o n s a r e r e c e i v e d c o r r e c t l y , and about 95 p e r cent
r e s u l t i n a n e r r o r l r e e r e p l y . T e s t s have shown t h a t t h e u n d e t e c t e d
e r r o r r a t e i s very low; t h e o r y p r e d i c t s l e s s t h a n one e r r o r i n 10'
messages.

e) C o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h c u r r e n t SSR systems. Considerable t e s t i n g has been


conducted t o determine t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of Mode S w i t h e x i s t i n g SSR
Modes A and C r e p l y p r o c e s s o r s . No impact h a s been observed on e x i s t i n g
ATC o p e r a t i o n s .

f) System c a p a c i t y . S u r v e i l l a n c e and comrmnication c a p a c i t y t e s t s i n d i c a t e


t h a t Mode S w i l l be a b l e t o accommodate a l l t r a f f i c d e n s i t i e s f o r t h e
foreseeable future.

6.2 INTERNATIONAL CO+PERATION

6.2.1 A s w e l l a s t h e j o i n t programme of development undertaken by t h e CAA i n t h e


United Kingdom and t h e FAA i n t h e United S t a t e s , t h e r e have been r e g u l a r t e c h n i c a l
exchanges of i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o t h e r S t a t e s and i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h t h e M i n i s t r y of C i v i l
A v i a t i o n of t h e Union of S o v i e t S o c i a l i s t Republics, which has l e d t o j o i n t t e s t
32 ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110

a c t i v i t i e s . There a r e a number of i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d i n g exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n


and t e c h n i c a l c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h o s e S t a t e s i n v o l v e d i n Mode S development and o t h e r
S t a t e s with an i n t e r e s t i n t h e f i e l d .

EUROCONTROL a c t i v i t i e s

6.2.2 I n February 1980, t h e EUROCONTROL Member S t a t e s (Belgium, France, t h e


F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of Germany, I r e l a n d , Luxembourg, t h e Kingdom of t h e N e t h e r l a n d s and t h e
United Kingdom) s e t up a working group t o a c t as a f o c a l p o i n t w i t h i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n
f o r m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o SSR Mode S and c o l l i s i o n a v o i d a n c e systems. A s w e l l a s t h e
EUROCONTROL Member S t a t e s , t h e United S t a t e s and Sweden, t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Air T r a n s p o r t
A s s o c i a t i o n (IATA), t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of A i r Line P i l o t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n
(IFALPA), and I C A O a r e r e p r e s e n t e d on t h i s working group. The work of t h i s group h a s
embraced a number of a s p e c t s of SSR Mode S where i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i s
e s s e n t i a l , t h e most i m p o r t a n t of which i n c l u d e :

a) System c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The g r o u p i s p r e p a r i n g d r a f t p r o p o s a l s f o r SSR


Mode S c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o ICAO.

b) Basic s y s t e m r e q u i r e m e n t s . I t is n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e a n a i r b o r n e s y s t e m
t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e minimum i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i n o r d e r
t o a l l o w ATC systems t o b e n e f i t f r o m a w e l l - d e f i n e d l e v e l of Mode S
performance and e n a b l e ATS a u t h o r i t i e s t o p l a n t h e i r developments i n a
c o h e r e n t way. The group h a s t h e r e f o r e proposed a b a s i c s y s t e m which
would comprise a b a s i c t r a n s p o n d e r , two a n t e n n a s t o e n s u r e a h i g h
p r o b a b i l i t y o f d e t e c t i o n , a c o n t r o l u n i t , d a t a l i n k i n t e r f a c e s , and a
d i s p l a y u n i t f o r ATC and ATS messages u p l i n k e d from t h e ground. T h i s
d i s p l a y c o u l d be s h a r e d w i t h c o l l i s i o n a v o i d a n c e equipment o r be
embodied i n a n e l e c t r o n i c f l i g h t i n s t r u m e n t system. The b a s i c s y s t e m
should support t h e following functions:

1) SSR Modes A and C and s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ;

2) s t a n d a r d and m u l t i s i t e p r o t o c o l s ( f u l l Mode S s u r v e i l l a n c e ) ;

3) Comm A ( u p ) and Comm B (down) s h o r t d a t a l i n k messages w i t h


appropriate interfaces;

4) f l i g h t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n p u t and t r a n s m i s s i o n ;

5) extended c a p a b i l i t y r e p o r t i n g ;

6) "on t h e ground" r e p o r t i n g ;

7) squitter;

8) s p e c i a l s u r v e i l l a n c e ; and

9) a e r i a l diversity.

-
Note. 6, 7, and 8 p r o v i d e
a v o i d a n c e s y s tem.
compatibility with an airborne c o l l i s i o n
I C A O C i r c u l a r 174-AN1110 33

c) A i r c r a f t a d d r e s s a s s i g n m e n t . A s a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d i n 2.2.1, s e l e c t i v e
communications with a i r c r a f t w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s of an
i n d i v i d u a l a d d r e s s a s s i g n e d t o each a i r c r a f t equipped w i t h Mode S.
With an a d d r e s s composed of 24 i n f o r m a t i o n b i t s , more t h a n 16 m i l l i o n
(i.e. 224) d i f f e r e n t combinations a r e a v a i l a b l e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of
t h e s e a d d r e s s e s n u s t be o r g a n i z e d on a world-wide s c a l e s o a s t o e n s u r e
t h a t each a i r c r a f t h a s , a t a l l t i m e s , a u n i q u e a d d r e s s which is n o t used
by any o t h e r a i r c r a f t .
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
A GLOSSARY OF TERM BELUED To ssn MODE S

-Note. The definitions given for the following terms relate specifically to their
use in the context of SSR Mode S. These definitions may not be applicable in other
contexts.
Addressed interrogation. A Mode S interrogation directed to a specific
Mode S equipped aircraft by use of that aircraft's address (cf. "all-call
interrogation", "broadcast interrogation").

Airborne c o l l i s i o n avoidance system. An airborne system which provides the


detection and tracking of aircraft in the vicinity of the equipped aircraft, signals the
presence of aircraft presenting a collision threat and provides resolution manoeuvre
advice to ensure the safe separation of the conflicting aircraft (cf. "ground-based
collision prevention system").

Aircraft address. The 24-bit unique address assigned to a Mode S equipped


aircraft .
Air-ground data l i n k . A system for the two-way exchange of digital data
between the ground and an aircraft.

All-call interrogation. A Mode S interrogation which elicits a reply from


all transponders in a group, e.g. all non-Mode S transponders, all Mode S transponders,
etc. (cf. "addressed interrogation", "broadcast interrogation").

Antenna d i v e r s i t y . The use of dual SSR aircraft antennas, one mounted on


top of the fuselage and one underneath with switching between them so that, on the basis
of predefined criteria, the received signal will be accepted from one of them and the
reply will be transmitted by the same antenna.

Broadcast interrogatwn. A Mode S interrogation which is directed to all


Mode S equipped aircraft within coverage but for which no reply is required (cf
"addressed interrogation", "all-call interrogation").

Capzbility report. A report in certain aircraft replies which indicates the


basic capability of the airborne Mode S installation (cf. "extended capability
report").

Collision avoidance system. See "airborne collision avoidance system".

Collision prevention system. See "ground-based collision prevention


system".

Lhta l i n k . See "air-ground data link".

Digital data l i n k . See "air-ground data link".


36 ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN/110

Downlink. The d a t a l i n k t r a n s m i s s i o n p a t h from t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e ground


system ( c f . "uplink").

DomZink format. A Mode S t r a n s p o n d e r r e p l y message format ( c f . "uplink


format" ).

Extended c a p b i Z i t y report. A r e p o r t i n c e r t a i n downlink r e p l i e s which,


upon r e q u e s t from t h e ground, d e f i n e s t h e d a t a l i n k c a p a b i l i t y of a n a i r b o r n e Mode S
i n s t a l l a t i o n ( c f . " c a p a b i l i t y r e p o r t " ).

Extended data readout. The t r a n s m i s s i o n by a Mode S equipped a i r c r a f t , on


r e q u e s t from t h e ground, o f d a t a from a s p e c i f i e d d a t a s o u r c e on t h e a i r c r a f t .

Extended length message. A group of up t o 1 6 i n d i v i d u a l message segments,


e a c h of 80 b i t s , which are l i n k e d s o as t o p r o v i d e a s i n g l e message, i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n
o n t h e Mode S d a t a l i n k (cf. " s t a n d a r d message").

Ground-based colZision prevention system. A ground-based s y s t e m which


p r e d i c t s t h e imminent, o r d e t e c t s a c t u a l , i n f r i n g e m e n t of s e p a r a t i o n c r i t e r i a and
t r a n s m i t s r e s o l u t i o n manoeuvre a d v i c e t o t h e a i r c r a f t t o e n s u r e t h e s a f e s e p a r a t i o n of
t h e c o n f l i c t i n g a i r c r a f t ( c f . " a i r b o r n e c o l l i s i o n a v o i d a n c e system").

Interrogator i d e n t i f i e r . A 4 - b i t a d d r e s s a s s i g n e d t o a Mode S ground


i n t e r r o g a t o r i n a r e a s where o v e r l a p p i n g coverage e x i s t s and i n t e r r o g a t o r s a r e n o t
i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i n a ground network.

Lockout. Means by which a t r a n s p o n d e r c a n be i n h i b i t e d from r e p l y i n g t o


specified all-call interrogations.

Message fieZd. A group o f one o r more b i t s d e f i n e d f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose


w i t h i n a Mode S message format.

Message format. A Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n o r r e p l y d a t a block c o n s i s t i n g of


e i t h e r 56 o r 112 b i t s ( c f . "downlink f o r m a t " , " u p l i n k f o r m a t " ) .

Mode S. An enhanced mode of secondary s u r v e i l l a n c e r a d a r (SSR) which


p e r m i t s t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n of a l l SSR equipped a i r c r a f t and t h e a d d r e s j e d i n t e r r o g a t i o n
of s u i t a b l y equipped a i r c r a f t and two-way exchange of d i g i t a l d a t a between s u c h a i r c r a f t
and t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r .

MonopuZse. A t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e measurement o f r a d a r t a r g e t azimuth on one


o r more p u l s e s w i t h i n a s i n g l e response.

MuZtisite. P e r t a i n i n g t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of a number of Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r s


w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g coverage but which a r e n o t i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i n a ground network ( c f .
"network" ).

Network. P e r t a i n i n g t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a number of SSR Mode S


i n t e r r o g a t o r s which a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i n a ground network ( c f . " m u l t i s i t e " ) .
ICAO C i r c u l a r 174-AN11 10 -
37

On-the-ground report. A r e p o r t i n c e r t a i n a i r c r a f t r e p l i e s which i n d i c a t e s


t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t i s on t h e ground. This p e r m i t s t h e a i r c r a f t r e p o r t i n g t h i s f a c t t o be
ignored by a i r b o r n e c o l l i s i o n avoidance systems.

FrotocoZ. A s e t of r u l e s which d e f i n e t h e procedures t o be a p p l i e d and t h e


formats and c o n t e n t s of messages f o r any s p e c i f i c t r a n s a c t i o n between a n i n t e r r o g a t o r
and a transponder.

Special surveiZlance. I n t e r r o g a t i o n and r e p l y formats which may be used by


a i r c r a f t equipped w i t h an a i r b o r n e c o l l i s i o n avoidance system f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e of Mode S
equipped a i r c r a f t .

S q u i t t e r . The p e r i o d i c t r a n s m i s s i o n by a transponder, w i t h o u t a p r i o r
i n t e r r o g a t i o n , of a s p e c i f i c r e p l y format t o f a c i l i t a t e a c q u i s i t i o n by a n a i r b o r n e
c o l l i s i o n avoidance system.

Standard message. A s t a n d a r d message i s t h a t t r a n s m i t t e d i n a 56-bit


message f i e l d i n l o n g s u r v e i l l a n c e i n t e r r o g a t i o n o r r e p l y formats ( c f . "extended l e n g t h
message").

Target a c q u i s i t i o n . The a c q u i s i t i o n by u s e of a l l - c a l l i n t e r r o g a t i o n s by a
Mode S i n t e r r o g a t o r of "new" Mode S t a r g e t s which p e r m i t s subsequent s u r v e i l l a n c e by
addressed i n t e r r o g a t i o n s and comrmnications w i t h t h a t a i r c r a f t .

Uplink. The d a t a l i n k t r a n s m i s s i o n p a t h from t h e ground system t o t h e


a i r c r a f t (cf . "downlink" ).

Uplink format. A Mode S i n t e r r o g a t i o n message format ( c f . "downlink


format").

- END -
ICAO T E C H N I C A L PUBLICATIONS

The followipt8 sunammy @CS the stahrs, and also regarded w not yet having attained a sufficient degree
desen'bes in general terms the contents of the vm*ous of maturity for adoption as International Standards
senis of rechicar publications issued by the Infer- and Recommended Ractioes, as d l as material of a
nationaI Civil Aviation Oquniaabian. It d m not more permanent chmder which is considered too
include specialized publicorions that do mot fall detailed for incorporation in an Annex, or is suscep-
spe~fppI& Within one of the wries, such as the tible to frequent amendment, for which the prmsses
Aeronautid Chart Catalogue or the Meteorological of the Convention would be too.cumbersome.
Tables for International Air Navigation.
ReSfansl Suppbm&uy hwdm (SUPPS) have
InternatiomF Standards and Recommmded h c - a status similar to that of PANS in that they are
tic= are adopted by the Council in accordance with approved by the Council, but onIy for application in
Articles 54, 37 md 90 of the Canvention on the respeciive regians. Thr3y are prepared in mnsoli-
International Civil Aviation and are designated, for dated form, since certain of the procedures apply to
convenience, as Annexes to the Canvention. The overlapping regions or are common to twa or more
uniform .application by Contracting States of the Ke$ions.
specifications contained in the International Stan-
dards is recognized as necessary for the safety or
regularity of international air navigation while the
uniform application of the specifications in the The foRowhg publications are prepared by author-
Recommended Btactioes is regarded as desirable in ilyof the Secretq~General in accordance wfth the
the interest of safety, regularity or efficienq of p'miples and polfcies ~ p p r w e dby the C o w i L
international air navigation. Knowledge of any differ-
ences between the national regulationsox practices of T d n W Manuals provide guidance and informa-
a State and those establjshed by an International tion in amplification of the International Standards,
Standard is essential to the safety or regularity of Recommended Practices and PANS, the implementa-
international air navigation. In the event of nm- tion of which they are designed to facatate.
compliance with an International Standard, a State
has, in fact, an obligation, undw Mi& 38 of the Alr Navigation Ram detail requirements fox fa&-
Convention, to notify the Council of any differences. ties and services for internationai air navigation in the
Knowledge of differences from Recommended Prae- respective lCAO Aii Navigation Regions. They are
tices may also be Important for the safety of air prepared on the authority of the Secretary Genemi
navigation and, although the Conpention does not on the basis of recommendations of regional air
impose any obligation with regard thereto, the navigation meetings and of the CounciI action there-
Council has invited Contracting States to notify such on. The plans are amended peri~djcallyto reflect
differences in addition to thorn relating to Interna- chmjps In requirements and in the status of imple-
tional Standards. meribtion of the recommended Bcilities and services.

Ptocedum Em Air Nwiption S#Ptoes (FANS) ate fCA0 Chcnlrrrs make awilable specialized informa-
approved by the Cauncil for world-wide application. tion of interest to Contracting States. This includes
l h e y conbin, fwthe most part,opmting procedures studies on technid subjects.
PRICE: U.S.$2.25
(or equivalent in other currencies)

Circular 174-AN1110
Order No. 891033