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SINGLE-PHASE

TRANSFORMERS

LECTURE 1

SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Prescribed Textbook:

Electric Machinery and

Transformers

3rd edition

Bhag S. Guru and Huseyin R.

Hiziroglu

(CHAPTER 4)

2/2010; 4/2015 2 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks:

1. Electric Machinery Fundamentals

4th edition

Stephen J. Chapman

(CHAPTER 2)

SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks-cont:

2. Electric Machinery

6th edition

A. E. Fitzgerald; Charles Kingsley

Jr.; Stephen D. Umans

(CHAPTER 2)

SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks-cont:

HUGHES

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC

TECHNOLOGY

tenth edition

By EDWARD HUGHES

Revised by John Hiley, Keith Brown and

Ian McKenzie Smith

(Chapter 34)

3/2010 5 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks:

Chapter 32

3/2010 6 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

1. INTRODUCTION

converting/transforming device which has no moving parts

and has two or more windings fixed relative to each other,

intended to transfer electrical energy between circuits or

systems by virtue of electromagnetic induction.

The windings are wrapped around a common

ferromagnetic core and they are (usually) not directly

connected; the only connection between them being the

common magnetic flux present within the core.

The electrical energy is always transferred without a

change in frequency, but may involve changes in the

magnitudes of voltage and current.

Since a transformer works on the principle of

electromagnetic induction, it must be used with an input

source voltage that varies in amplitude.

3/2010; 4/2015 7 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

INTRODUCTION (CONT.)

3/2010; 4/2015 8 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

INTRODUCTION (CONT.)

Key words:

Transformer

Magnetically coupled coils

Tightly/Loosely coupled coils.

Air-core transformer.

Iron-core transformer.

Primary winding.

Secondary winding.

Tertiary winding

Step-up transformer.

Step-down transformer.

One-to-one-ratio/one-to-one transformation.

Electrical isolation/Isolation transformer.

3/2010; 4/2015 9 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

2. TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION

3/2010; 4/2015 10 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

3/2010 12 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

3/2010; 4/2015 13 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

3/2010; 4/2015 14 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.3(a).

Cutaway view of self-protected

distribution transformer typical

of sizes 2 to 25 kVA, 7200:240/120 V.

Only one high-voltage insulator and

lightning arrester is needed because

one side of the 7200-V line and one

side of the primary are grounded.

(General Electric Company.)

3/2010 16 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

(Courtesy of General Electric Company)

3/2010 17 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Stanley in 1885. Note that the core is made up of individual sheets of

metal (laminations). (Courtesy of General Electric Company.)

3/2010 18 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Key words:

Core-type construction: The core encircles the windings.

Shell-type construction: The windings envelop the core.

Core losses and copper losses produce heat.

Ambient cooling.

Forced cooling.

3. THE TRANSFORMER E.M.F. EQUATION

be given by

= msin2ft eqn. 3.1(a).

Voltages are induced in the two coils due to the

alternating flux.

According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic

induction, the voltages are derived as follows:

(i) The voltage induced in the primary winding is given by

d ( N p ) d

ep = = Np eqn. 3.1(b).

dt dt

THE TRANSFORMER E.M.F. EQUATION (CONT.)

d ( m sin 2ft )

ep = N p = 2fN p m cos 2ft

dt

e p = 2fN p m sin( 2ft + / 2) ...eqn.3.2.

Equation 3.3 shows that the induced e.m.f. in a

transformer is also sinusoidal but that it leads the

magnetic flux by 90.

THE TRANSFORMER E.M.F. EQUATION (CONT.)

voltage is given by:

E pm = 2fN p m eqn. 3.4.

and its r.m.s. value is:

E pm 2fN p m 6.2832 fN p m

Ep = = =

2 2 1.4142

E p = 4.44 fN p m ...eqn.3.5( a )

equation.

4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

OF A TRANSFORMER

In order to simplify the analysis of a transformer and to

accurately predict its performance, use is made of the

concept of an ideal transformer (Figure 4.1).

An ideal transformer is a transformer whose operation or

action is based on the following assumptions:

(i) The resistances in the primary winding (Rp) and in the

secondary winding (Rs) are negligible. This means that

the copper losses (I2R) in both windings are also

negligible. Therefore Ep = Vp and Vs = Es.

(ii)There is no flux leakage and all the flux that is produced

at the primary coil links the secondary coil (i.e. p = s =

) because it is confined within the core. Therefore, Es =

Ep and therefore Vs = Vp, hence Vs = Es = Ep = Vp.

3/2010; 4/2015 23 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

current losses are negligible), therefore, the no-load

current (I0m) does not have an active component and it is

therefore purely reactive. This means that the core does

not heat-up.

(iv) The core of the transformer is highly permeable

(i.e. the steel core is of infinite permeability, C = , or it

is of zero reluctance), therefore the transformer requires

no magnetising current (i.e. I0m is negligible) in order to

produce the required magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) to set

up the required magnetic flux.

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

3/2010; 4/2015 25 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

primary and secondary coils, an e.m.f. (equal to the

primary e.m.f. assuming equal turns ratios) is also

induced in the secondary winding (e.m.f. of mutual

induction), i.e.

d ( N s ) d

es = = Ns and

dt dt

Following the same procedure as in section (3.), the

r.m.s. value of the transformer e.m.f. in the secondary

winding is

Es = 4.44 fN s m = 4.44 fN s ABm eqn. 4.2(b).

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

Total e.m. f . induced in the sec ondary winding

E p N p 4.44 f m

=

Es N s 4.44 f m

=

N s e.m. f . per turn

Ep Np

= = ...eqn.4.3(b)

Es Ns

3/2010; 4/2015 28 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

transformation ratio or the turns ratio of the

transformer, .

The no-load voltage across the secondary of the

transformer is the same as the e.m.f. induced in it, i.e.

Vs = Es or vs = es (r.m.s.) eqn. 4.4.

On the basis of the equality of Ep and Vp and on

equation 4.3(b), it is clear that es is also sinusoidal and

is in phase with ep.

Since Vs is a voltage dropped across the load, it is in

phase with Es.

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

open-circuit, the primary current is such that the primary

ampere-turns are just sufficient to produce the flux

necessary to induce an e.m.f. that is practically equal

and opposite to the applied voltage.

This magnetising current is usually about 3 5 per

cent of the full-load primary current.

Hence, Es and Ep in equation 4.3 may be replaced by Vs

and Vp, respectively:

Ep Vp Np

= = = eqn. 4.4.

Es Vs Ns

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

When a load is connected across the secondary

terminals, the secondary current, by Lenz's law,

produces a demagnetising effect.

That is, a current which produces a magnetic flux that

opposes the change in the flux produced in the primary

winding.

Consequently the flux and hence the e.m.f. induced

in the primary winding are reduced slightly.

This small change increases the difference between

the applied voltage (Vp) and the e.m.f. (Ep) induced in

the primary winding, causing the primary current to

increase appreciably.

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

secondary winding are thus nearly neutralised by the

increase in the primary ampere-turns (IpNp); and since

the primary ampere-turns on no-load are very small

compared with the full-load ampere-turns, full-load

primary ampere-turns are approximately equal to

full-load secondary ampere-turns (m.m.f. balance),

i.e.

I p N p = I s N s eqn. 4.5

Combining equations 4.4 and 4.5 yields,

Ep Vp Np

Is

= = = = eqn. 4.6

E s Vs N s I p

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

the primary and secondary circuits translates into

apparent power balance between the two sides, i.e.:

I V =IV

p p s s

or I E = I E eqn. 4.7(a)

p p s s

I V p = I Vs

*

p

*

s eqn. 4.7(b),

i.e. the complex power delivered to the load by the

secondary winding is equal to the complex power

supplied to the primary winding by the source.

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

on full-load, are always nearly the same, it implies that:

V p I p cos p = Vs I s cos s

PPr i = Psec .

eqn. 4.8

Thus, from equations 4.7 and 4.8, it is clear that

the transformer transfers energy (at the rate given by

eqn. 4.8) from the primary circuit to the secondary

circuit at either the same or different values of voltage

and current.

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

flux forms a connecting link between the primary and

secondary circuits and that any variation of the

secondary current is accompanied by a small

variation of the flux and therefore of the e.m.f.

induced in the primary, thereby enabling the

primary current to vary approximately

proportionally to the secondary current.

Therefore, there is always a balance between

primary and secondary ampere-turns, known as

m.m.f. balance.

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

follows:

1. When an alternating voltage Vp is applied to a primary

coil of Np turns linking a suitable iron core, a

magnetising current then flows in the coil, establishing a

flux m in the core.

2. The magnitude of m is such that it induces, in the coil,

an e.m.f. Ep of self-induction to counterbalance the

applied voltage Vp and establish electrical equilibrium.

3. If there is a secondary coil of Ns turns, linking the same

core, then by mutual induction an e.m.f. Es is

developed in the coil.

36

Summary of Action of Transformer (cont.)

Is will flow in the secondary circuit under the influence of

the induced e.m.f., Es.

5. (a) The secondary current, will, by Lenzs law, tend to

produce an alternating flux ms, whose effect is to

reduce the main flux and hence reduce the primary

e.m.f. of self induction, Ep. However, this is opposed (or

prevented) by an immediate and automatic adjustment of

the primary current Ip, thereby maintaining the flux m at

the value required to produce the e.m.f. of self induction

Ep.

Summary of Action of Transformer (cont.)

creating a voltage difference between Vp and Ep which

would be sufficient to increase the primary current and

thereby re-establish the flux.

(c)Thus any current which flows in the secondary circuit

causes its counterpart to flow in the primary circuit.

(d)This is the condition of the working of the transformer

that, the flux m shall always be maintained at a

value such that the voltage Vp applied to the primary

terminals shall be balanced by the induced e.m.f. Ep,

assuming voltage drops to be negligible.

38

Summary of Action of Transformer (cont.)

primary circuit to the secondary circuit by the flux: the

primary stores energy in the magnetic field and an

extraction of some of this energy for the secondary load

is made up by the addition of energy from the primary,

which consequently takes an increased current.

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

The equivalent circuit diagram of an ideal transformer

on load is shown in Figure 4.3(a).

The phasor diagram of an ideal transformer on no-load

is shown in Figure 4.3(b) and the phasor diagram of an

ideal transformer on load is shown in Figure 4.3(c).

For convenience, Figure 4.3 assumes that the number

of turns on the primary winding and on the secondary

winding are the same so that the primary and secondary

induced voltages are also the same.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS

OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

(b) Phasor

diagram on Ip = Is; p = s

no-load. (c) Phasor diagram on load.

Figure 4.3. The equivalent circuit diagram of an ideal transformer.

3/2010; 4/2015 41 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS

OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

resistance or leakage reactance, the m.m.f. required to

maintain the main flux is vanishingly small and there is

no core loss.

In these circumstances, equation 4.6 (turns-ratio eqn.)

holds exactly and the phase relations are the simple

ones shown in Figure 4.3(c).

Here Vp, the applied primary voltage, is equal in

magnitude and it is in phase with Ep.

The secondary terminal voltage, Vs = Es, the secondary

induced e.m.f.

The phase and magnitude of the secondary current will

be determined by the nature and the magnitude of the

load, respectively.

3/2010; 4/2015 42 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS

OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

will be equal and opposite to the secondary m.m.f.

The stability of the conditions represented in Figure

4.3(c) can be understood from the following

considerations:

Since there are no resistance and leakage reactance

drops, the e.m.f., Ep, must always be equal to the applied

(constant) voltage Vp. The flux m, inducing Ep, must be

constant. As it requires no m.m.f., there must be no

resultant m.m.f. in the common magnetic circuit. The

appearance of IsNs due to the secondary load current must

thus be counter-balanced by the equal and opposite IpNp

or, the rate of EsIs (= VsIs) of energy abstraction from the

secondary must be provided for by the introduction of

energy at an equal rate EpIp (= VpIp) into the primary.

3/2010; 4/2015 43 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

Assuming that p and s are the angles between

voltages and currents on the primary and secondary

windings, respectively, the power supplied to the

transformer by the primary circuit is

Pin = Pp = VpIpcosp eqn. 4.9

and the power supplied to the output circuit is

Pout = Ps = VsIscoss eqn. 4.10.

Since ideal transformers do not affect angles between

voltages and currents: p = s = .

Therefore, both windings of an ideal transformer

have the same power-factor.

POWER IN AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

= =

Vs Ns Ip

Ns Np

Vs = Vp and Is = Ip

Np Ns

Therefore,

Ns Np

Pout = Ps = Vs I s cos = V p I p cos

N N

p s

= V p I p cos p

3/2010; 4/2015 45 TRANSFORMERS - K. Kanyimba

POWER IN AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

equal to its input power.

This is to be expected since the losses were assumed to

be zero.

Similarly, for reactive and apparent powers

and

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