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EMC611S

ELECTRICAL MACHINES 214

SINGLE-PHASE
TRANSFORMERS
LECTURE 1

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SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Prescribed Textbook:
Electric Machinery and
Transformers
3rd edition
Bhag S. Guru and Huseyin R.
Hiziroglu
(CHAPTER 4)
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SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks:
1. Electric Machinery Fundamentals
4th edition
Stephen J. Chapman
(CHAPTER 2)

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SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks-cont:
2. Electric Machinery
6th edition
A. E. Fitzgerald; Charles Kingsley
Jr.; Stephen D. Umans
(CHAPTER 2)

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SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks-cont:
HUGHES
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
TECHNOLOGY
tenth edition
By EDWARD HUGHES
Revised by John Hiley, Keith Brown and
Ian McKenzie Smith
(Chapter 34)
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SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Recommended Textbooks:

Chapter 32
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1. INTRODUCTION

A Transformer is an electromagnetic energy


converting/transforming device which has no moving parts
and has two or more windings fixed relative to each other,
intended to transfer electrical energy between circuits or
systems by virtue of electromagnetic induction.
The windings are wrapped around a common
ferromagnetic core and they are (usually) not directly
connected; the only connection between them being the
common magnetic flux present within the core.
The electrical energy is always transferred without a
change in frequency, but may involve changes in the
magnitudes of voltage and current.
Since a transformer works on the principle of
electromagnetic induction, it must be used with an input
source voltage that varies in amplitude.
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INTRODUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 1.1. General arrangement of a two-winding transformer.


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INTRODUCTION (CONT.)
Key words:
Transformer
Magnetically coupled coils
Tightly/Loosely coupled coils.
Air-core transformer.
Iron-core transformer.
Primary winding.
Secondary winding.
Tertiary winding
Step-up transformer.
Step-down transformer.
One-to-one-ratio/one-to-one transformation.
Electrical isolation/Isolation transformer.
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2. TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION

Figure 2.1(a). Core-type transformer construction.


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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.1(b). Core-type transformer construction.

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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.1(c). Core-type transformer construction.


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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.2(a). Shell-type transformer construction.


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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.2(b). Shell-type transformer construction.


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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.2(b). Shell-type transformer construction.

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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.3(a).
Cutaway view of self-protected
distribution transformer typical
of sizes 2 to 25 kVA, 7200:240/120 V.
Only one high-voltage insulator and
lightning arrester is needed because
one side of the 7200-V line and one
side of the primary are grounded.
(General Electric Company.)
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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.3(b). A typical shell-ftype transformer.


(Courtesy of General Electric Company)
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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Figure 2.3(c). The first practical modern transformer. built by William


Stanley in 1885. Note that the core is made up of individual sheets of
metal (laminations). (Courtesy of General Electric Company.)
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TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION (CONT.)

Key words:
Core-type construction: The core encircles the windings.
Shell-type construction: The windings envelop the core.
Core losses and copper losses produce heat.
Ambient cooling.
Forced cooling.

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3. THE TRANSFORMER E.M.F. EQUATION

Let the alternating flux produced at the primary voltage


be given by
= msin2ft eqn. 3.1(a).
Voltages are induced in the two coils due to the
alternating flux.
According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic
induction, the voltages are derived as follows:
(i) The voltage induced in the primary winding is given by
d ( N p ) d
ep = = Np eqn. 3.1(b).
dt dt

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THE TRANSFORMER E.M.F. EQUATION (CONT.)

(ii) The primary induced voltage can be expressed as:


d ( m sin 2ft )
ep = N p = 2fN p m cos 2ft
dt
e p = 2fN p m sin( 2ft + / 2) ...eqn.3.2.

e p = E p m sin( 2ft + / 2) ...eqn.3.3


Equation 3.3 shows that the induced e.m.f. in a
transformer is also sinusoidal but that it leads the
magnetic flux by 90.

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THE TRANSFORMER E.M.F. EQUATION (CONT.)

The maximum (or peak) value of the primary induced


voltage is given by:
E pm = 2fN p m eqn. 3.4.
and its r.m.s. value is:
E pm 2fN p m 6.2832 fN p m
Ep = = =
2 2 1.4142

E p = 4.44 fN p m ...eqn.3.5( a )

E p = 4.44 fN p ABm ...eqn.3.5(b)

Equation 3.5 is known as the transformer e.m.f.


equation.

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4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
OF A TRANSFORMER

4.1. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER


In order to simplify the analysis of a transformer and to
accurately predict its performance, use is made of the
concept of an ideal transformer (Figure 4.1).
An ideal transformer is a transformer whose operation or
action is based on the following assumptions:
(i) The resistances in the primary winding (Rp) and in the
secondary winding (Rs) are negligible. This means that
the copper losses (I2R) in both windings are also
negligible. Therefore Ep = Vp and Vs = Es.
(ii)There is no flux leakage and all the flux that is produced
at the primary coil links the secondary coil (i.e. p = s =
) because it is confined within the core. Therefore, Es =
Ep and therefore Vs = Vp, hence Vs = Es = Ep = Vp.
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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

(iii) There are no core losses (i.e. hysteresis and eddy-


current losses are negligible), therefore, the no-load
current (I0m) does not have an active component and it is
therefore purely reactive. This means that the core does
not heat-up.
(iv) The core of the transformer is highly permeable
(i.e. the steel core is of infinite permeability, C = , or it
is of zero reluctance), therefore the transformer requires
no magnetising current (i.e. I0m is negligible) in order to
produce the required magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) to set
up the required magnetic flux.

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

Figure 4.1. An ideal transformer under no load.


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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

Since the same flux (ideal transformer) links both the


primary and secondary coils, an e.m.f. (equal to the
primary e.m.f. assuming equal turns ratios) is also
induced in the secondary winding (e.m.f. of mutual
induction), i.e.
d ( N s ) d
es = = Ns and
dt dt

es = 2fN s m sin( 2ft + / 2) ...eqn.4.2(a )


Following the same procedure as in section (3.), the
r.m.s. value of the transformer e.m.f. in the secondary
winding is
Es = 4.44 fN s m = 4.44 fN s ABm eqn. 4.2(b).

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

Dividing eqn. 3.5 by eqn. 4.2(b) yields:

Total e.m. f . induced in the primary winding


Total e.m. f . induced in the sec ondary winding
E p N p 4.44 f m
=
Es N s 4.44 f m

N p e.m. f . per turn


=
N s e.m. f . per turn
Ep Np
= = ...eqn.4.3(b)
Es Ns
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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

The ratio given by equation 4.3(b) is known as the


transformation ratio or the turns ratio of the
transformer, .
The no-load voltage across the secondary of the
transformer is the same as the e.m.f. induced in it, i.e.
Vs = Es or vs = es (r.m.s.) eqn. 4.4.
On the basis of the equality of Ep and Vp and on
equation 4.3(b), it is clear that es is also sinusoidal and
is in phase with ep.
Since Vs is a voltage dropped across the load, it is in
phase with Es.

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

When the secondary winding of the transformer is on


open-circuit, the primary current is such that the primary
ampere-turns are just sufficient to produce the flux
necessary to induce an e.m.f. that is practically equal
and opposite to the applied voltage.
This magnetising current is usually about 3 5 per
cent of the full-load primary current.
Hence, Es and Ep in equation 4.3 may be replaced by Vs
and Vp, respectively:
Ep Vp Np
= = = eqn. 4.4.
Es Vs Ns

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

4.2. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD


When a load is connected across the secondary
terminals, the secondary current, by Lenz's law,
produces a demagnetising effect.
That is, a current which produces a magnetic flux that
opposes the change in the flux produced in the primary
winding.
Consequently the flux and hence the e.m.f. induced
in the primary winding are reduced slightly.
This small change increases the difference between
the applied voltage (Vp) and the e.m.f. (Ep) induced in
the primary winding, causing the primary current to
increase appreciably.

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

The demagnetising ampere-turns (IsNs) of the


secondary winding are thus nearly neutralised by the
increase in the primary ampere-turns (IpNp); and since
the primary ampere-turns on no-load are very small
compared with the full-load ampere-turns, full-load
primary ampere-turns are approximately equal to
full-load secondary ampere-turns (m.m.f. balance),
i.e.
I p N p = I s N s eqn. 4.5
Combining equations 4.4 and 4.5 yields,

Ep Vp Np
Is
= = = = eqn. 4.6
E s Vs N s I p

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

From equation 4.6 the ampere-turns balance between


the primary and secondary circuits translates into
apparent power balance between the two sides, i.e.:
I V =IV
p p s s
or I E = I E eqn. 4.7(a)
p p s s

or in terms of complex power:


I V p = I Vs
*
p
*
s eqn. 4.7(b),
i.e. the complex power delivered to the load by the
secondary winding is equal to the complex power
supplied to the primary winding by the source.

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

Since the primary and secondary power-factors,


on full-load, are always nearly the same, it implies that:
V p I p cos p = Vs I s cos s
PPr i = Psec .

Primary Power = Secondary Power


eqn. 4.8
Thus, from equations 4.7 and 4.8, it is clear that
the transformer transfers energy (at the rate given by
eqn. 4.8) from the primary circuit to the secondary
circuit at either the same or different values of voltage
and current.

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ON LOAD (CONT.)

It is clear from the above explanation that the magnetic


flux forms a connecting link between the primary and
secondary circuits and that any variation of the
secondary current is accompanied by a small
variation of the flux and therefore of the e.m.f.
induced in the primary, thereby enabling the
primary current to vary approximately
proportionally to the secondary current.
Therefore, there is always a balance between
primary and secondary ampere-turns, known as
m.m.f. balance.

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

The action of the transformer can be summarised as


follows:
1. When an alternating voltage Vp is applied to a primary
coil of Np turns linking a suitable iron core, a
magnetising current then flows in the coil, establishing a
flux m in the core.
2. The magnitude of m is such that it induces, in the coil,
an e.m.f. Ep of self-induction to counterbalance the
applied voltage Vp and establish electrical equilibrium.
3. If there is a secondary coil of Ns turns, linking the same
core, then by mutual induction an e.m.f. Es is
developed in the coil.
36
Summary of Action of Transformer (cont.)

4. Should a load be connected to the second coil, a current


Is will flow in the secondary circuit under the influence of
the induced e.m.f., Es.
5. (a) The secondary current, will, by Lenzs law, tend to
produce an alternating flux ms, whose effect is to
reduce the main flux and hence reduce the primary
e.m.f. of self induction, Ep. However, this is opposed (or
prevented) by an immediate and automatic adjustment of
the primary current Ip, thereby maintaining the flux m at
the value required to produce the e.m.f. of self induction
Ep.

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Summary of Action of Transformer (cont.)

(b) Any reduction of the flux would cause a reduction in Ep,


creating a voltage difference between Vp and Ep which
would be sufficient to increase the primary current and
thereby re-establish the flux.
(c)Thus any current which flows in the secondary circuit
causes its counterpart to flow in the primary circuit.
(d)This is the condition of the working of the transformer
that, the flux m shall always be maintained at a
value such that the voltage Vp applied to the primary
terminals shall be balanced by the induced e.m.f. Ep,
assuming voltage drops to be negligible.

38
Summary of Action of Transformer (cont.)

It is, therefore, evident that energy is conveyed from the


primary circuit to the secondary circuit by the flux: the
primary stores energy in the magnetic field and an
extraction of some of this energy for the secondary load
is made up by the addition of energy from the primary,
which consequently takes an increased current.

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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

4.3. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS


OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER
The equivalent circuit diagram of an ideal transformer
on load is shown in Figure 4.3(a).
The phasor diagram of an ideal transformer on no-load
is shown in Figure 4.3(b) and the phasor diagram of an
ideal transformer on load is shown in Figure 4.3(c).
For convenience, Figure 4.3 assumes that the number
of turns on the primary winding and on the secondary
winding are the same so that the primary and secondary
induced voltages are also the same.

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EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS
OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

(a) Equivalent circuit diagram.

(b) Phasor
diagram on Ip = Is; p = s
no-load. (c) Phasor diagram on load.
Figure 4.3. The equivalent circuit diagram of an ideal transformer.
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EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS
OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

In an ideal transformer, there are no voltage drops in


resistance or leakage reactance, the m.m.f. required to
maintain the main flux is vanishingly small and there is
no core loss.
In these circumstances, equation 4.6 (turns-ratio eqn.)
holds exactly and the phase relations are the simple
ones shown in Figure 4.3(c).
Here Vp, the applied primary voltage, is equal in
magnitude and it is in phase with Ep.
The secondary terminal voltage, Vs = Es, the secondary
induced e.m.f.
The phase and magnitude of the secondary current will
be determined by the nature and the magnitude of the
load, respectively.
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EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS
OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER

The secondary m.m.f. is IsNs. The primary m.m.f., IpNp,


will be equal and opposite to the secondary m.m.f.
The stability of the conditions represented in Figure
4.3(c) can be understood from the following
considerations:
Since there are no resistance and leakage reactance
drops, the e.m.f., Ep, must always be equal to the applied
(constant) voltage Vp. The flux m, inducing Ep, must be
constant. As it requires no m.m.f., there must be no
resultant m.m.f. in the common magnetic circuit. The
appearance of IsNs due to the secondary load current must
thus be counter-balanced by the equal and opposite IpNp
or, the rate of EsIs (= VsIs) of energy abstraction from the
secondary must be provided for by the introduction of
energy at an equal rate EpIp (= VpIp) into the primary.
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THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

4.4. POWER IN AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER


Assuming that p and s are the angles between
voltages and currents on the primary and secondary
windings, respectively, the power supplied to the
transformer by the primary circuit is
Pin = Pp = VpIpcosp eqn. 4.9
and the power supplied to the output circuit is
Pout = Ps = VsIscoss eqn. 4.10.
Since ideal transformers do not affect angles between
voltages and currents: p = s = .
Therefore, both windings of an ideal transformer
have the same power-factor.

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POWER IN AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

From eqn. 4.6: Vp Np Is


= =
Vs Ns Ip

Ns Np
Vs = Vp and Is = Ip
Np Ns
Therefore,
Ns Np
Pout = Ps = Vs I s cos = V p I p cos
N N
p s

= V p I p cos p

= Pp = Pin ...eqn. 4.11.


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POWER IN AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER (CONT.)

Therefore, the output power of an ideal transformer is


equal to its input power.
This is to be expected since the losses were assumed to
be zero.
Similarly, for reactive and apparent powers

Qout = Qs = Vs I s sin = V p I p sin = Q p = Qin ...eqn. 4.12.


and

S out = S s = Vs I s = V p I p = S p = Sin ...eqn. 4.13.

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