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QUESTION BANK-2017

Unit-1
2- Marks
1) Define sensitivity and resolution? [CO1][L1]
2) Differentiate between log and dynamic error? [CO1][L2]
3) What is the difference between accuracy and precision of measurement? [CO1][L1&L2]
4) Define speed of response and fidelity? [CO1][L2]
5) How are the instrumental errors are different from gross errors? [CO1][L2]
6) Explain random errors in brief? [CO1][L2]
7) Write short note on systematic errors? [CO1][L2]
8) What is the difference between series type and shunt type ohmmeter? [CO1][L2]
9) Compare the sensitivity of AC voltmeter with DC voltmeter? [CO1][L2]
10) State the limitations of thermocouples? [CO1][L1]
11) List the salient features of voltage ohm meter? [CO1][L1]
12) What is loading effect in volt-meters? [CO1][L1]
13) A 500V volts volt-meter is accurate within +/-1% at full scale. Calculate the limiting error when the
instrument is used to measure a voltage of 200V.[CO1][L5]
14) Mention the basic requirements of measurement? [CO1][L1]
15) What are the limitations of thermos couples used in RF ammeter? [CO1][L1]
16) Explain the function of measurement system? [CO1][L2]
17) Define static characteristics? & What are the various Static characteristics? [CO1][L1]
18) state the importance of sensitivity while selecting voltmeters for measurement? [CO1][L1]
19) Define Dynamic characteristics? & What are the various Dynamic characteristics? [CO1][L1&
L2]
20) Define any two Dynamic characteristics of an Instrument? [CO1][L1]

10- Marks

1 .a) What are the essential requirements of multipliers. [CO1][L1]


b) Define the terms i) Accuracy ii) Precision
2. a) Explain the construction of multi-range voltmeter. [CO1][L1& L2]
b) Define the following terms i) Error ii) Resolution iii) Sensitivity iv) Expected value
3. a) Explain different types of errors that occur in measurements. [CO1][L2& L3]
b) Differentiate static and dynamic characteristics.
4. a) Describe with the help of circuit diagram the construction and working of a shunt-type ohm meter
b) Explain the fundamental principle on which DC meter is constructed. [CO1][L2& L3]
5. Explain how a multi-meter can be used as i) DC voltmeter & AC volt
meter
ii) DC ammeter & ohmmeter [CO1][L2&
L3]
6. a) List the salient features of voltage ohmmeter. [CO1][L1& L5]
b) A shunt type ohmmeter uses a5 mA basis DArsonval movement with an internal resistance of 50. The
battery voltage is 3V.It is desired to modify the circuits by adding appropriate shunt resistance across the
movement.so that the instrument indicates 5 at the midpoint scale. Calculate: i)The value of shunt
resistance. ii) Value of current limiting resistance R1.
7. a) Explain the principle used in ohmmeters. [CO1][L2& L3]
b) Explain with the help of circuit diagram the construction & working of a series type ohm meter.
8. a) How do we determine the performance characteristics of an instrument. [CO1][L2& L3]
b) Explain the process of calibration.
9. a) Define sensitivity. Express sensitivity mathematically. What is deflection factor? [CO1][L1& L5]
b) A particular ammeter requires a change of 1A in its coil in order to produce a change in
deflection of the pointer by 3mm.Determine its sensitivity and deflection factor.
10.a)what is precision .what are the Two characteristics of precision .Differentiate accuracy & precision.
b) A moving coil instrument gives a full scale deflection of 10mA when the potential difference
across its terminals is 100mV.Calculate: i) the series resistance for a full scale deflection
corresponding to100A.ii) the series resistance for a full scale deflection with 1000V.calculate the
power dissipation in each case. [CO1][L1&L2& L5]
Unit-2
2- Marks

1) State the need of a time base generator? [CO2][L1]


2) What is the function of trigger circuit? [CO2][L1]
3) Differentiate between dual beam and dual trace CRO? [CO2][L2]
4) What is the specialty of storage oscilloscope? [CO2][L1]
5) What does the term phosphorescence & fluorescence? [CO2][L1]
6) State the function of attenuators in CRO? [CO2][L1]
7) State the advantages of using probes? [CO2][L1]
8) Mention the standard specifications of a simple CRO? [CO2][L1]
9) State the advantages of using delayed sweep CRO? [CO2][L1]
10) Why delay line used in CRO? [CO2][L2]
11) Mention various applications of CRO?
12) What are the advantages of digital storage oscilloscope? [CO2][L1]
13) What is the principle of CRO? [CO2][L1]
14) What is meant by special Oscilloscope? [CO2][L1]
15) List the types of special oscilloscopes? [CO2][L1]
16) What is the function of X-Y mode on CRO front panel? [CO2][L1]
17) List the applications of random noise generator? [CO2][L1]
18) Distinguish between analog and digital storage oscilloscope? [CO2][L2]
19) State the functions of following i) Astigmatism ii) focus. [CO2][L1]
20) Define deflection sensitivity & deflection factor of CRT? [CO2][L1]

10- Marks

1. Draw the neat diagrams of both vertical & horizontal deflection systems and explain briefly about
their working. [CO2][L2&L3]
2. a) Discuss about important CRT features. [CO2][L2&L3]
b) Draw the block diagram of a dual beam oscilloscope & explain its working.
3. Draw the block diagram of a general purpose oscilloscope and explain function of each block
4. a)Explain with a block diagram ,the major parts of CRT. [CO2][L2&L3]
b)What are the advantages of dual trace oscilloscopes over dual beam CRO.
5. a) Draw the block diagram of Delay line circuit and explain its working. [CO2][L1&L2&L3]
b) State the standard specifications of a sample CRO.
6. a) What is CRO. What is the use of CRO in the development of electronic circuits& the systems?
b) Explain how a two dimensional display is produced in a CRO. [CO2][L1&L2&L3]
7.a) Discuss in detail, the construction and working of a digital sampling oscilloscope. [CO2]
[L1&L2&L3]
b) Explain with a diagram how frequency can be measured using a gear wheel
method.
8. a) Describe in details the construction and working of an analog type storage oscilloscope.
b) Explain the principle of secondary emission. [CO2][L1&L2&L3]
9. a) Define astigmatism, focus & intensity. [CO2][L1&L2]
b) State the various applications of an oscilloscope.
10.a)write an account on X-shift & Y-shift functions. [CO2][L1&L2]
b) Explain the function of trigger circuit.

Unit3
2- Marks

1) Define the basic operating principle of signal generator? [CO3][L1]


2) Differentiate between fixed and variable AF oscillator? [CO3][L2]
3) Mention the applications of function generator? [CO3][L1]
4) What is the function of marker generator in sweep generator? [CO3][L1]
5) Draw the diagram of random noise generator? [CO3][L1]
6) Mention the standard specifications of a signal generator? [CO3][L1]
7) State the function of symmetry control in a pulse generator? [CO3][L1]
8) What is the function of spectrum analyser? [CO3][L1]
9) What are harmonic distortion analyser? [CO3][L1]
10) What is the basic principle of wave analyser? [CO3][L1]
11) Describe the logic analyser? [CO3][L2]
12) What are the applications of spectrum analyser? [CO3][L1]
13) What is spectrum analyser? [CO3][L1]
14) Draw the circuit of resonant wave analyser? [CO3][L1]
15) State the principle of heterodyne wave analyser? [CO3][L1]
16) Mention the applications of wave analyser? [CO3][L1]
17) Sketch the basic characteristics of pulse waveform? [CO3][L1]
18) State function of the following i) duty cycle ii) pulse repetition rate (PRR). [CO3][L1]
19) Compare AF oscillator with RF oscillator? [CO3][L1]
20) State the principle of basic sine wave generator? [CO3][L1]

10- Marks

1. a) With the help of block diagram explain the functioning of a conventional standard signal generator.
b) Write about fixed AF oscillator and variable AF oscillator. [CO3][L2&L3]
2. a) Draw the block diagram of a function generator and explain its operation. [CO3][L1&L2&L3]
b) List the applications of random noise generator.
3. With a neat diagram discuss the operation of a pulse generator. [CO3][L2&L3]
4. a).Discuss in detail about RF signal generator operation. [CO3][L2&L3]
b) Explain the method of generate random noise.
5. a) Explain the working of a standard sweep generator with diagram. [CO3][L2&L3]
b) What is sweep generator? Explain in detail.
6. a) With help of a neat sketch, explain the working of a frequency selective wave analyser.
b) What is the function of wave analyser? [CO3][L2&L3]
7. a) Describe with diagram the operation of a digital Fourier analyser. [CO3][L1&L2&L3]
b) List the application of wave analysers.
8. a) Draw the circuit diagram and explain the working of a heterodyne type wave analyser.
b) What is distortion? What does a distortion analyser measure. [CO3][L1&L2&L3]
9. a) What is the function of harmonic distortion analyser. [CO3][L1&L2]
b) Describe the diagram with operation of a harmonic distortion analyser using a bridge T-network
10.a) With a neat sketch explain the operation of logic analyser. [CO3][L2&L3]
b) Explain how wave analyser can be tuned to a particular frequency with in the audible frequency range.

Unit4
2- Marks

1) What is a bridge? What is the importance of a bridge? [CO4][L1]


2) What are the limitations of Wheatstone bridge? [CO4][L1]
3) Describe how a bridge can be used as an error detector? [CO4][L2]
4) What is the balance condition for a basic kelvin bridge? [CO4][L1]
5) Compare dc and ac bridges? [CO4][L1]
6) Differentiate between Maxwells and Anderson Bridge? [CO4][L2]
7) What is the difference between Schering and Kelvin Bridge? [CO4][L1]
8) What is meant by q-meter? [CO4][L1]
9) What are the different errors occurred in bridges? [CO4][L1]
10) State the 2 balancing conditions of Wein Bridge? [CO4][L1]
11) What are the precautions we need to take when using a bridge? [CO4][L1]
12) If the bridge arms are connected with R1=2.2K, R2=3.9K, R3=10K, Find R4? [CO4][L5]
13) List the precautions to be taken when using a bridge? [CO4][L1]
14) Interpret the applications of Wheatstone bridge? [CO4][L1]
15) Explain the sensitivity of a Wheatstone bridge? [CO4][L2]
16) Draw the circuit of Kelvins Double Bridge? [CO4][L1]
17) Why Wagner ground connection is used in bridges? [CO4][L2]
18) Compare Maxwells and Hays bridge? [CO4][L1]
19) Depict Andersons bridge with its components illustrated? [CO4][L2]
20) Why Hays bridge is suited for measurement of high Q coils? [CO4][L2]

10- Marks
1. a) Discuss the working principle of q-meter &its applications. [CO4][L2&L3]
b) Explain the working principle & operation of LCR bridge circuit.
2. a) Explain about Hays Bridge for measurement of high Q coils. [CO4][L1&L2]
b) List the applications of Hays Bridge.
3. Describe in detail about EMI &EMC with suitable examples. [CO4][L2&L3]
4. a) Define the term null as it applies to bridge measurements. [CO4][L2&L3]
b) Explain the operation of
Kelvin Bridge.
5. What is the function of bridge? Draw the Andersons bridge circuit and derive necessary equations&
explain it. [CO4][L1&L2]
6. a) Explain the Wien bridge circuit &its applications. [CO4][L2&L5]
b) In the case of Schering bridge, arm AC has R=4.7k . Arm CD has unknown elements.are BD
has C=0.1MF, arm AB=4.7K is shunt with 1MF.Determine values of components are the arm
CD.
7. a) Explain how a Maxwell bridge can be used for measuring an unknown inductance.
b) What is interference &explain noise reduction techniques. [CO4][L2&L3]
8. Describe the operation of the Wheatstone bridge & derive the expression for current when the bridge is
unbalanced. [CO4][L2&L3]
9. a) Which type of bridge circuit is used to determine the dissipated factor of a capacitor? Draw the circuit
and derive the expression for the unknown elements.
b) Explain how a Maxwell bridge can be used for measuring an unknown inductance. [CO4][L3&L4]
10.a) What are the applications of Wheatstone bridge. And list out its limitations.[CO4][L1&L2&L4]
b) Describe the operation of the Wheatstone bridge and derive the expression for DC resistance.

Unit5
2- Marks
1) Define sensor and transducers? [CO5][L1]
2) Differentiate between active and passive transducers? [CO5][L2]
3) Mention the advantages of electrical transducers? [CO5][L1]
4) Mention the disadvantages of LVDT? [CO5][L1]
5) What are the limitation of resistance thermometers? [CO5][L1]
6) Mention the disadvantages of thermocouples. [CO5][L1]
7) Define strain gauge ,define the gauge factor? [CO5][L1]
8) What is the basic principle involved in piezoelectric transducers? [CO5][L1]
9) What is the difference between thermistor and thermocouple? [CO5][L1]
10) List the various types of temperature transducers? [CO5][L1]
11) What is signal conditioner? [CO5][L1]
12) Describe the basic principle of capacitive transducers? [CO5][L2]
13) Summarise the advantages & disadvantages of thermos couple? [CO5][L1]
14) A Resistance Strain gauge with gauge factor of 2 is cemented to a steel member, which is subjected to a
strain of 110 .If the original resistance value of the gauge is 130, calculate the change in
6

resistance. [CO5][L5]
15) Name one passive and active sensors? [CO5][L1]
16) Categorise photo electric transducers? [CO5][L1]
17) List the types of force summing devices? [CO5][L1]
18) Sketch the various configurations of thermistor? [CO5][L1]
19) Summarise the advantages of LVDT? [CO5][L1]
20) What are the merits & demerits of Thermocouple? [CO5][L1]

10- Marks

1. With a neat sketch explain the operation of LVDT. What are the advantages &
disadvantages? [CO5][L2&L3]
2. Explain strain gauge for resistance measurement & its applications. [CO5][L2&L3]
3. Describe the operation of i) resistive transducers ii) capacitive transducers. [CO5][L2&L3]
4. a) What are the differences between the active & passive transducers. [CO5][L2&L3]
b) Explain the operation of potentiometric transducer.
5. a) Define a transducer .list the applications. [CO5][L1&L2]
b) Explain about Inductive transducers
6. a) Draw the diagram of Resistance Thermometer & explain briefly. [CO5][L1&L2&L3]
b) What are the functions of transducers?
7. Write short notes on i) LVDT ii) thermocouple iii) signal conditioning circuits. [CO5][L2&L3]
8. a) With a neat sketch , explain the operation of piezo-electric transducers in detail. [CO5][L2&L3]
b) Explain how an electrical transducer can be used to find the unknown pressure of a liquid.
9. a) List the three types of temperature transducers &describe the application of each.
b) Explain about pH measurement. [CO5][L2&L3]
10.a) Define piezoelectric effect. Write the applications of piezoelectric transducer.
b) Write about IC sensors & smart sensors. [CO5][L2&L3]

BITS
Unit-1

1.The true value of quantity change with time is known as


(a) static error(b) Dynamic error (c) Speed of response (d) Lag
2. Which of the following is not a static characteristics
(a) Drift (b) Dead zone (c) sensitivity (d) Fidelity
3. ------ refers to the degree of closeness or conformity to the true value of quantity under
measurement
(a) Precision (b) Accuracy (c) Drift (d) Resolution
4. -----is defined as the nearness of the indicated value to the true value of the quantity being
measured
(a) Accuracy (b) Precision (c) Reproducibility (d) Static error
5. A meter reads 127.50V and the true value of voltage is 127.43. What is static error
(a) 0.07V (b) 0.7V (c) -0.7V (d) -0.07
6. What type of errors are due to largely human errors like misreading of instruments
(a) Gross error (b) Systematic errors (c) Random error (d)Environmental error
7.The AC voltmeter using PMMC measures
(a) True RMS voltage (b) Peak voltage (c) Average voltage (d) Instantaneous value
8. The true RMS voltmeter measures
(a) average value (b) Instantaneous value (c) RMS value (d) Peak value
9. The instrument required to measure voltage is
(a) Ohmmeter (b)Ammeter (c) Voltmeter (d) Wattmeter
10. A DArsonval Movement is
(a) Taut band (b) PMMC (c) Electrodynamometer (d) Moving Iron type
11. The sensitivity of a voltmeter is defined as
(a) /V (b) V/ (c) I/ (d) /I
12. A measure of the consistency or repeatability of measurement is known as
(a) Precision (b) Resolution (c) Accuracy (d) Sensitivity
13.Variance =
(a) Standard deviation (b) 1/ Standard deviation
(c) 1/( Standard deviation) 2
(d) ( Standard deviation)
2

14. ------- is defined as the degree to which the instrument indicates the changes in the measured
without dynamic error
(a) Fidelity (b) Dynamic error (c) Speed of response (d) settling time
15. A set of readings has a wide range and therefore it has
(a) Low precision (b) Dynamic precision (c) low accuracy (d) High accuracy
16. Which of the characteristic is not a dynamic characteristic
(a) Fidelity (b) Dynamic error (c) Resolution (d) Measures lag
17. ------- is the rapidity with which a measuring device responds to the change in the measured
(a) Dynamic error (b) Fidelity (c) measurement lag (d) speed of response
18. ------ is the difference between the true value of quantity and the value indicated by
instrument
(a) Dynamic error (b) Fidelity (c) measurement lag (d) Speed of response
19. A D' Arsonval movement is rated at 50 A, its sensitivity is given by
(a) 200 (b) 20000 (c) 0.02 (d) 50
20. ------is defined as the ability of the instrument to reproduce a certain set of readings within a
given accuracy
(a) Accuracy (b) Precision (c) Reproducibility (d) Static error
21. The smallest measurable input change is called----------------
(a) Resolution (b) threshold (c) dead zone (d) drift
22.--------- is defined as the difference between the largest and smallest reading of instrument
(a) Span (b) Range (c) dead space (d) Resolution
23.------- is defined as the nearness of the indicated value to the true value of the quantity being
measured
(a) Accuracy (b) Reproducibility (c) Reproducibility (d) Static error
24. The voltage of a circuit is measured by a voltmeter having input impedance comparable with
the output impedance of the circuit there by causing error in voltage measurement. This error
may be called as---------------
(a) Gross error (b) random error
(c) Error caused by misuse of instrument (d) error caused by loading effect
25. --------is defined as the largest change in input quantity for which there is not output of the
instrument
(a) Fidelity (b) accuracy (c) dead zone (d) drift
26. What type of errors are due to shortcomings of the instruments like detective (or) worn parts? ?
(a) Gross error (b) random error (c) systematic errors (d) Environmental
errors
27. Accuracy is expressed as-------------
(a)relative accuracy (b) % accuracy (c) error (d) % error
28. A 0-300V voltmeter has an error of 2% of full scale deflection. What would be the range of
readings if true voltages is 30V ?
(a)24V-36V (b)29.4V-30.6V (c) 20V to 40V (d) 30V-40V
29 -------------is the delay in the response of the instrument to the change in the measured quantity
(a)Fidelity (b) Dynamic error (c) Speed of response (d) measurement lag
30. is the time for the instrument not reach and stay within a specified tolerance band around its
final value
(a)Fidelity (b) Dynamic error (c) Speed of response (d) Settling time
31. A 1mA D'Arsonval Multimeter movement has a resistance of 100 . I is to be converted to 10V voltmeter. The
value of multiplier resistance is given by ---------------------
(a) 999 . (b) 9999 . (c) 990 . (d) 9900 .
32. Which of the characteristic is not a dynamic characteristic?
(a)Fidelity (b) Dynamic error (c) Resolution (d) measured lag
33. --------- is the delay in the response of the instrument to the change in the measured
quantity
(a) Dynamic error (b) Fidelity (c) Measured lag (d) Speed of response
34. A digital voltmeter has a readout range from 0 to 9,999 counts. Determine the resolution------
(a) 1 mv (b) 10 mv (c) 100 mv (d) 1000 mv
35. Gross errors occur due to---------------------------
(a)Human error (b) instrumental error (c) random error (d) none
36. In measurement system, which of following are undesirable static characteristics?
(a)Sensitivity, accuracy (b) Drift, static error and dead zone
(c)Reproducibility, nonlinearity (d) Drift, static error, dead zone and non-linearity
37. Static errors occurs due to---------------------------
(a)Measuring devices (b) Human error (c) random error (d) none
38. A. 1mA ammeter has a resistance of 100 . It is to be converted to a 1A ammeter. The
value of shunt resistance is ---------------------
(a)0.001 (b) 0.1001 (c) 100000 (d) 100
39. A 1mA meter movement with an internal resistance of 100 is to be converted in to 0-
100mA ammeter. Calculate the value of shunt current I = ----------------------------
S

(a)10mA (b)1mA (c) 99mA (d) 100mA


40. The addition of a ---------------- , converts the basic d'Arsonval movement into a DC
voltmeter
(a)Parallel resistor (b) Series Capacitor (c) Series resistor (d) Parallel Capacitor

Unit-2
1.The Heart of the oscilloscope --------------------------
(a)Power supply Block (b) Vertical amplifier (c) Cathode ray Tube (d) Horizontal amplifier
2. It is not a part of CRT ------------------
(a)Vertical amplifier (b) Deflection plates (c) Electron gun (d) Fluorescent screen
3. If the distance of screen from a CRT to centre of deflection plates is 15cm. The length of deflection plates is 2cm,
The distance between plates is 1cm and the accelerating voltage is 500V, The deflection sensitivity ---------
(a)33.2 V/cm (b) 0.03 cm/V (c) 66.4 V/cm (d) 0.015 cm/v
4. The pre-accelerating anode and accelerating anode are connected to a common positive high voltage of about -----
(a)1350 V (b) 1200 V (c) 1500V (d) 2000V
5. CROS operates on -----------------
(a)voltage (b) current (c) strain (d) pressure
6. The relation between sensitivity of oscilloscope and gain of th vertical amplifier --------------------
(a)Sensitivity (gain) (b) Sensitivity
2
(c) Sensitivity gain (d) Sensitivity
7. It is not a source of synchronization ------------------
(a)Internal (b) External (c) Triggered (d) Line
8. The common operating modes of dual trace oscilloscope are -------------------------
(a) internal and external mode (b)X and Y mode
(c) Alternate and chopped mode (d) ac and dc mode
9. At a high frequency of the order of 100kHz to 500 kHz , the dual trace oscilloscope operate in
----------------------------------------------
(a)X and Y mode (b) alternate mode (c) dc mode (d) chopped mode
10.A sampling oscilloscope is used to examine -------------------------
(a)dc signals (b) high hold off signals (c) very fast signals (d) very slow signals
11. Synchronization can be accomplished by --------------------------------------
(a)Triggered sweep (b) Attenuator (c) Clipper (d) Clamper
12. Lissajous patterns are used to measure ---------------------------]
(a)voltage and frequency (b) frequency and phase (c) frequency and distortion (d) amplitude and flux
13.The attenuation factor of the voltage divider used in CRO is -------------------------------
(a)1:10 (b) 1:100
(c) reciprocal of the voltage divider ratio (d) twice that of voltage divider ratio
14. ----------------- CRO has two separate electron beams
(a)Dual Beam (b) Dual Trace (c) Multi input (d) Simple CRO
15.If the bandwidth of an oscilloscope is given as direct current to 10MHz, what is the fastest
rise time a sine wave can have to be accurately reproduced by the instrument? -------------------
(a)10ns (b) 5ns (c) 35ns (d) 100ns
16.The following oscilloscope is used for the capture and storage of transients and the
steady display of a very low frequency signals ---------------------------------
(a)dual trace oscilloscopes (b)dual beam oscilloscopes
(c)storage oscilloscopes (d)sampling oscilloscopes
17.The bi-stable storage oscilloscopes depend for their operation, on the principle of --------------
(a)bridge balance (b)photo conductive (c)resonance (d)secondary emission
18.The advantage of storage oscilloscope over digital oscilloscope is ------------------------
(a)lower writing speed (b) higher bandwidth (c) more accuracy (d) larger retain
time
19. CRT stands for --------------------------
(a)Cathode ray Transformer (b) Cathode ray Transistor (c) Cathode ray Tube (d) Cathode ray Terminal
20. Which material has fluorescence characteristic -----------------------------------
(a)Carbon (b) Phosphor (c) Al (d) Ge
21. An Isolation probe is used more compared to shielded probe because ----------------
(a)it operates at low frequencies (b) its Q factor is high
(c) it avoid the undesirable circuit loading effects (d) its bandwidth is large
22. The focused beam of electrons strikes the --------------------------- screen
(a) Fluorescent (b) glass (c) plastic (d) Al
23. In modern oscilloscopes -------------- is an additional focusing control
(a)Graticule (b) Aquadag (c) Astigmatism (d) Focus
24.The type of the probe used for analysing the response to modulated signals used in
communication is ---------------------
(a)coaxial cable (b) direct probe (c) isolation probe (d) detector probe
25. The secondary emission electrons are collected by an aqueous solution of graphite called ------------
(a)Graticule (b) Aquadag (c) Astigmatism (d) Focusing
26.when sinusoidal voltages are simultaneously applied to horizontal and vertical plates of
CRT, the resultant pattern is called ----------------------------------------
(a)elliptical pattern (b) lissajous patterns (c) figure eight pattern (d) circular pattern
27.When two sinusoidal voltages of equal frequency which are in phase with each other are
applied to the horizontal and vertical deflection plates, the pattern appearing on the screen is a
(a)ellipse (b) sinusoidal (c) straight line (d) circle
28.When two sinusoidal voltages of equal frequency which 900 phase displacement rare
applied to the horizontal and vertical deflection plates, the pattern appearing on the screen is a
(a)ellipse (b) sinusoidal (c) straight line (d) circle
29.When two equal voltages of equal frequency but with a phase shift are applied to a CRO, the
pattern appearing on the screen is a --------------------------
(a)ellipse (b) sinusoidal (c) straight line (d) circle
30. ---------------------------- of a signal can be accurately measured by Lissajous pattern
(a)Frequency (b) Phase difference
(c) Measurement of voltage (d) Measurement of current
31.In the frequency counters which of the following is not used ---------------------------
(a)decade counter (b) synchronous counter (c) up-down counter (d) BCD counter
32.The controlling torque in single phase power factor meters is provided by ----------------
(a)spring control (b) gravity control (c) stiffness of suspension (d) no control device
33.In a frequency counter to display the count continuously used the following --------------
(a)ripple counter (b) AND gate (c) OR gate (d) D type Flip-Flops
34.The following technique is used for frequency counters to display a large number of
digits --------------------------------
(a)display multiplexing (b) storage elements (c) potential divider (d) AND & OR gates
35. Which meter is suitable for the measurement of 10mV at 50mHz ------------------------------
(a)moving-iron voltmeter (b) CRO (c) VTVM (d) Electrostatic Voltmeter
36. Verticle deflection plates also called -----------------------
(a)X deflection plates (b) Y deflection plates (c) Z deflection plates (d) V deflection plates
37. Sensitivity expressed in terms of ------------------------------
(a)V/cm (b) A/cm (c) V/cm2 (d) A/cm2
38.To measure the period of a pulse waveform, it is necessary to open and close the count gate
at --------------------------
(a)falling edge and raising edge of positive going pulse
(b) rising edge and falling edge of positive going pulse
(c)rising edge and falling edge of negative going pulse
(d)positive and negative going pulses used to open and clo
39.To measure the power in AC circuits , the following meter is used ---------------------------
(a)voltmeter (b) ammeter (c) wattmeter (d) AC bridge
40.The measured value of power in AC circuits is equal to -------------------------------------
(a)middle power of one cycle (b) average power over a cycle (c) instantaneous power (d) VI
Unit-3
1. Expansion for B.F.O ----------------
(a) Beat frequency oscillator (b) Best frequency oscillator
(c) Beat frequency oscilloscope (d) Best frequency oscilloscope
2. A triangular wave shape is obtained-----------------------------
(a) by integrating a square wave (b) by differentiating in wave
(c) by differentiating a square wave (d) by integrating a sine wave
3. AWobbluscope is used for alignment of -------------------------------------
(a) radio receiver (b) T.V receiver (c) Oscilloscope (d) wave analyzer
4. The spectrum of Random noise covers all frequencies and is referred to as
(a) Pink noise (b) Black Noise (c) White noise (d) Red noise
5. Modulation in modern signal generator is done internally by signal of frequency
(a) 400Hz & 1000Hz (b) 600Hz & 2000Hz (c) 100Hz & 5000Hz (d) 10000Hz & 4000Hz
6. AF sine & square wave generator has an output impedance of
(a) 600 (b) 200 (c) 1000 (d) 50
7. A frequency divider used in a modern signal generator
(a) Divider the frequency by 2 (b) doubles the frequency
(c) Divider the frequency by 10 (d)Multiply the frequency by 2
8. Internal calibration in modern signal generators is obtained by using
(a) 2MHz Crystal OSC (b) 1MHz Crystal OSC (c) 5MHz Crystal OSC (d) 5.5MHz crystal OSC
9. Frequency dividers are obtained by the use of
(a) LC network (b) AND gate (c) Flip - Flops (d) RC netwoks
10. A wein bridge oscillator is suitable for
(a) RF generator (b) Function generator (c) Pulse generator (d) AF generator
11. A wein bridge oscillator operates in ___________ range
(a) AF (b) RF (c) Video frequency (d) High frequency
12. Duty cycle of a square wave=------------------
(a)25% (b) 50% (c) 25-75% (d) 75%
13. Wave analyzers are used to measure the
(a) Amplitude & Phase (b) Phase & frequency (c) Amplitude & frequency (d) Frequency band
14. Random noise can be generated by using
(a) Zener diode generator (b) P-n diode generator
(c) Tunnel diode generator (d) Transistor generator
15. Duty cycle varies from -------------
(a)25% (b) 50% (c) 25-75% (d) 75%
16. The frequency sweeper provides the modulating voltage which varies the
(a) Inductance (b) Capacitance (c) Resistance (d) voltage
17. A sweep generator is used for
(a) Fault finding (b) Frequency generation (c) Amplification (d) Alignment
18.The range of AF oscillators
(a) 10 kHz - 30 MHz (b) 20Hz 20kHz (c) dc - 5 MHz (d) 1.5 MHz to 30 MHz
19.Basic wave analyzer consists a primary detector & _______
(a)LC circuit (b) LCR circuit (c) RC circuit re (d) LCRC circuit
20. The wave to be analyzed is first passes through
(a)Attenuator (b) Selective amplifier (c) regulator (d) single generator
21. Ordinary wave analyzers are useful for measurement in the _______ range only
(a) Audio frequency (b)Low frequency (c) Radio frequency (d) Very high Frequency
22. Harmonic distortion is due to
(a) Liner behavior of circuit element (b) Non-linear behaviour of circuit element
(c) Change in behavior of circuit element due to change in temperature
(d) change in behaviour of circuit element due to change in environment
23. Spectrum analyzer operates on the same principle of
(a) wave analyzer (b) amplitude analyzer (c) Frequency analyzer (d) Phase analyzer
24. Wave analyzer are used in the frequency range of
(a) 20MHz (b)below 50MHz (c) 100MHz (d) none
25. A distortion analyzer measure the total
(a) Average power (b) RMS power (c) Peak power (d) DC power
26. Wave analyzers are used to give the------resolution
(a) very HF (b) very LF (c) very UHF (d) Frequency
27. A distortion is defined as
(a) Unwanted frequency (b) Unwanted amplitude
(c) change in shape of the waveform (d) Unwanted signal
28. Wave analyzer are also called as
(a) phase meter (b) frequency selective voltmeter (c) Distortion analyzer (d) Spectrum analyzer
29 . Wave analyzers are used to measure the
(a) Amplitude & Phase (b) Phase & frequency (c) Amplitude & frequency (d) Frequency band
30. Wave analyzer are used in the frequency range of
(a) VHF (b)UHF (c) Lower RF (d) Higher RF
31. A spectrum analyzer uses at the output a
(a) frequency meter (b) TVM (c) Rectifier (d) Circuit
32. A wave analyzer consists of
(a) RC circuits (b) LC circuits (c) Oscillator (d) rectifiers
33. The frequency axis in a spectrum analyzer is the
(a) X-axis (b) Y-axis (c) Z- axis (d) XY- axis
34. A heterodyne wave analyzer operates on the principle
(a) Mixing (b) Amplification (c) Adding (d) Subtraction
35. A spectrum analyzer is used to display
(a )Frequency band spectrum (b) Amplitude (c) Time (d) Phase
36. Basic wave analyzer uses a full wave rectifier, to obtain _______ of the input signal
(a)Average value (b) RMS value (c) square (d) Double
37. The bandwidth of a wave analyzer is
(a) Wide (b) Narrow (c) Medium (d) Cannot determine
38. A spectrum analyzer works in
(a) Time domain (b) Amplitude (c) Frequency (d) Phase
39. The simple sine wave generator consists of
(a)Only an oscillator (b) Only an attenuator (c) Oscillator, attenuator (d) Frequency divider, attenuator
40. The pulse Risetime is defind as the time taken by the pulse
(a)to go from 10% to 90% of its amplitude (b) to go from 0% to 100% of its amplitude
(c)to go from 0% to 90% of its amplitude (d) to go from 10% to 100% of its amplitude
Unit-4
1.Wagner's earth devices are used in ac bridge circuits for -----------------------------------
(a)eliminating the effect of earth capacitances
(b)eliminating the effect of inter-component capacitances
(c)shielding the bridge elements (d) eliminating the effect of stray electrostatic fields
2.How an AC bridge is used in amplifiers and oscillators ? --------------------------------
(a) generate an additional amount of power (b) provide a impedance matching
(c) Provide a feed back (d) path provide filtering
3. For the measurement of inductance and capacitance using AC bridge, the oscillator have
(a)variable frequency and high power of about kw
(b) variable frequency and very high power of about kw
(c)fixed frequency and low power of mw (d) fixed frequency and output of about 1 w
4. In order to satisfy both conditions for balance and for convenience of manipulation, the
bridge must contain ---------------------------
(a)a head phone and an oscillator (b) vibration galvanometer and head phones
(c)two variable elements in its configuration (d) four fixed elements in its configuration
5. In order that the bridge to be balanced -----------------------
(a)Z Z =Z Z and < +< = < +< (b) Z /Z =Z /Z and < +< =< +<
1 4 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 2 3

(c) Z Z =Z Z and < < = < < (d) Z Z =Z Z and < -< = < -<
1 4 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 2 3

6. An AC bridge in its basic form, consists of ---------------------------------------


(a) Four arms and shielding the bridge element
(b) Four arms, a source of excitation and balance detector
(c)Wagner's earth device and four arms (d) four arms and source of excitation
7. A suspension type galvanometer having a sensitivity 0.5A per scale division is used to
measure ---------------------
(a) Inductance (b) dc resistance (c) ac resistance (d) frequency
8. The advantage of Hay's bridge over Maxwell s inductance-capacitance bridge is
------------------
(a) it can be used for measurement of inductance of low Q coils
(b) it can be used for measurement of inductance of high Q coils
(c) it can be used for measurement of inductance of low and medium Q coils
(d) its equations for balance do not contain any frequency term
9. The expression for unknown inductance of high Q coils using Hay's bridge is ----------------
(a) L =R /W R C
2 2
2
4 4 (b) L =R /W R C 2 1
2
4 4

(c) L =R R /C
1 2 3 4 (d) L =R R C 1 2 3 4

10.In the Wein's bridge, to balance the harmonics ------------------------------------


(a)a vibration galvanometer is used (b) high voltage supply is used
(c)a square wave is used as input (d) a filter is connected in series with the null detector
11. Frequency can be measured by using -------------------------
(a)Maxwell's bridge (b) Hay's bridge (c) Schering bridge (d) Wien's bridge
12. The following bridge is used in harmonic distortion analyser --------------------
(a)Wein's bridge (b) Campbell's bridge (c) Maxwell's bridge (d) Hay's bridge
13.Why the sinusoidal voltage is required to balance the Wein s Bridge? -----------------------
(a) it required a high voltage as supply (b) because of its frequency sensitivity
(c) Harmonics will sometimes produce masking (d) a filter is used to balance the bridge
14. To measure both dc and ac resistances which of the following bridge is used? ----------
(a)Wheatstone bridge (b) Wien's bridge (c) Hay's bridge (d) Maxwell's bridge
15. Sometimes a fixed capacitor is used in Maxwell s bridge instead of a variable capacitor
because
(a) fixed capacitors have a high degree of accuracy
(b) Variable capacitors are functions of frequency
(c) fixed capacitors available in all ranges (d) variable capacitors are expensive
16. Maxwell's bridge is used to measure the inductance of a -------------------------------------
(a) low Q coils (b)high Q coils (c) medium Q coils (d) low and high Q coils
17. Maxwell's Inductance bridge circuit measures an inductance by ----------------------------
(a)comparison with a variable standard resistance (b) equating resistance of arm 2 and arm 3
(c)equating the total impedance of arm 1 (d) comparison with a variable standard self-inductance
18. Maxwell's Inductance-Capacitance bridge circuit measures an inductance by -----------------
(a)comparison with a variable standard resistance (b) equating resistance of arm 2 and arm 3
(c)equating the total impedance of arm 1 (d) comparison with a standard variable capacitance
19.The Maxwell s bridge is limited to measurement of coil of Q values ----------------------
(a)Q >10 (b) 10< Q<100 (c) 1 < Q < 10 (d) Q < 1
20.To measure the properties of insulating material, which of the following bridge is used
----------
(a)Maxwell's bridge (b) Hay's bridge (c) Schering bridge (d) Owen's bridge
21.Which of the following circuit is used to make the plate area definite for the
measurement of relative permittivity using Schering bridge? ----------------------------
(a)earth screen (b) guard circuits (c) Wagner earth device (d) potential divider
22.To measure the relative permittivity of dielectric material, which of the following bridge
is used -------------------------
(a)Maxwell's bridge (b) Hay's bridge (c) Schering bridge (d) Owen's bridge
23.To measure the dissipation factor, the following bridge is used ---------------------------
(a)Maxwell's bridge (b) Hay's bridge (c) Schering bridge (d) Owen's bridge
24. Anderson's bridge is used to measure the --------------------------
(a) self-inductance in terms of a standard inductance
(b) self-inductance in terms of a standard capacitance
(c) self-capacitance in terms of a standard capacitance
(d) self-capacitance in terms of a standard inductance
25. Schering Bridge is used to measure the ---------------------------------
(a) frequency (b) resistance (c) inductance (d) capacitance
26.Kelvin bridge is used to measure the--------
(a) high frequencies (b) high capacitances
(c) low resistances (d).low inductances
27.The Kelvin bridge is also called double bridge because -------
(a) It measures low and high resistance values
(b) Vibration galvanometer is used for balance
(c) all arms consist of pure resistances (d) it contains a second set of ratio arms
28. Use of high quality components in bridge circuit will normally have the advantages of all
except
(a) high-accuracy calibration (b) freedom from stay conductance effects
(c) Minimum of residues in components (d) reduce eddy current errors
29.To avoid the Eddy current errors in the bridge uses the --------------------------
(a) proper bridge layout (b) small inherent
inductance or capacitance
(c) large conducting masses near the bridge network (d) good quality components
30. In order to avoid the errors caused due to inter-capacitance between high and low arms
of bridge , which of the following is used -----------------------------------
(a) insulating materials (b) high voltage source (c) very sensitive detectors (d) earthed screens
31. Mutual -inductance effects causes errors in ac bridge circuit due to
(a) Electrostatic fields between conductors at different potentials
(b) Residues in components
(c). imperfect insulation
(d) magnetic coupling between various components of the bridge
32. To eliminate the unwanted harmonics from the source which of the following is used
-----------
(a) Inherent inductance (b) wave filter (c) head phones (d) good
components
33. To avoid the stray conductance effects in the bridge circuit by ---------------------
(a) Using large conducting masses near the bridge network
(b) Various bridge components and other pieces of apparatus mounted on insulating stands
(c) Using small inherent inductance or capacitance (d) using Wagner Earthing devices
34. Stray-capacitance effects causes errors in ac bridge circuit due to -------------------------------
(a) Electrostatic fields between conductors at different potentials (b) residues in components
(c) Imperfect insulation (d) magnetic coupling between various components of the bridge
35. Wagner Earthing devices are used to remove all the ------------------------------
(a) Earth capacitances from the bridge networks (b) residual errors
(c) Eddy current errors (d) mutual inductance effects
36. In X-Y plotters, an emf is plotted as a function of ----------------------
(a) time (b) frequency (c) another emf (d) current
37.In a Q meter, the value of shunt resistance connected across the oscillator is typically in the
order of
(a) (b) m (c) (d) k
38.In a Q meter, distributed capacitance of coil is measured by --------------------------------
(a) changing the capacitance of the tuning inductor
(b) Changing the resistance of the tuning inductor
(c) changing the resistance of the tuning capacitor
(d) Changing the capacitance of the tuning capacitor
39. The measured value of Q using Q -meter is compared to the true value ----------------
(a) Always larger (b) always equal (c) always smaller (d) sometimes
larger
40. LCR meter is used to measure ------------------------
(a) R only (b) L only (c) C only (d) R, Land C
41. The physical quantity may be plotted against another physical quantity by using ---------------
(a)Q-meter (b) wattmeter (c) X-Y recorder with appropriate transducers (d) LCR
meter

ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION

QUESTION BANK-2017
ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION
QUESTION BANK-2017

Unit-5
1. The lower limit of useful working range of a transducer is determined by ---------------------
(a)constant current source (b)transducer error and noise (c) constant current source (d) none
2. In transducer, the observed output deviates from the correct value by a constant factor the
resulting error is called -------------
(a) zero error (b) Hysteresis error (c) sensitivity error (d)non-conformity errors
3. Transducer converts -------------------------------
(a)analog signal into digital signal (b) digital signal into analog signal
(c) one form of energy into other form of energy (d) mechanical displacement into mechanical
energy
4. An inverse transducer converts --------------------------------------
(a) analog signal into digital signal (b) digital signal into analog signal
(c) an electrical energy to any other form of energy (d) an optical signal to any other form of
energy
5. One of the following can act as an inverse transducer --------------------------------
(a) strip chart recorder (b) strain gauge (c) LVDT (d) piezo electric crystals
6. One of the following is an active transducer -------------------------------
(a)strain gauge (b) photovoltaic cell (c) photo emissive cell (d) selsyn
7. In a resistance potentiometer high value of resistance leads to ------------------------
(a) high value of sensitivity (b) low value of error
(c) low value of non-linearity (d) high value of selectivity
8.What is the order of minimum displacement that can be measured with capacitive
transducers?
(a)1cm (b) 1 mm (c) 1m (d) 1 m
9. Capacitive transducers using the principle of change of capacitance with change of dielectric
are normally used for measurement of -----------------------
(a)displacement (b) pressure (c) force (d) liquid levels
10. The dynamic characteristics of capacitive transducers are similar to those of ----------------
(a) low pass filters (b) high pass filters (c) notch filters (d) band stop filters
11. The sensitivity of the capacitive transducer can be increased by making -----------------------
(a)the distance between the plates extremely small (b) the distance between the plates extremely
large
(c) the electric field in the air gap exceeds the break down voltage (d) dielectric constant low
12. Air cored inductive transducers are suitable for ------------------------------------
(a) low frequencies (b) high frequencies
(c) Same frequencies as iron cored transducers (d) both a & b
13. The size of air cored inductive transducers as compared with the iron cored transducers ------
(a) smaller (b) higher (c) same (d) exactly halved
14. Capacitive transducers are normally used for -----------------------
(a) Dynamic measurements (b) static measurements (c) transient measurements (d) gauge
measurements
15. Capacitive transducers can be used for measurement of liquid level. The principle of
operation used in this case is --------------------
(a) change of capacitance (b) change of area of plates
(c) change of dielectric strength (d) change of distance between plates
16.Metal foil gauges use fat end turns in order to ----------------------------
(a)increase transverse sensitivity (b) reduce transverse sensitivity
(c)reduce cross sensitivity (d) increase cross sensitivity
17. An LVDT has -----------------------------
(a) an infinite resolution and a low sensitivity (b) a low resolution and a high sensitivity
(c) an low resolution and an infinite sensitivity (d) an infinite resolution and a high sensitivity
18. Ceramic materials are used for piezo-electric transducers because they are ------------------
(a) Polycrystalline in nature (b) non-magnetic in nature
(c) Ferro-electric in nature (d) high permeability
19. Quartz and Rochelle salt belong to ------------------------------
(a) synthetic group of piezo-electric materials (b) natural group of piezo-electric materials
(c) Non-magnetic material (d) a solid Ferro-electric material
20. In LVDT the core is made up of a -----------------------------------
(a)non-magnetic material (b) a solid Ferro-electric material
(c)high permeability, nickel-iron hydrogen annealed material (d) low permeability, Ferro-electric
material
21. In LVDT, if the supply voltage contains harmonics then the voltage at null point is ---------
(a)unity (b) zero (c) ten (d) infinity
22. Piezo-electric transducers are --------------------------------------
(a) passive transducers (b)active transducers
(c) active &inverse transducers (d) passive &inverse transducers
23.The Piezo-electric transducers are mainly used for measurement of ----------------------------
(a)displacement (b) resistance (c) temperature (d) pressure
24. Thermocouples are ---------------------------------
(a) active transducers (b) passive transducers (c) output transducers (d) inverse transducers
25. The smallest size thermistor is ----------------------------------
(a)disc (b) rod (c) probe (d) bead
26.In thermocouples the reference junction temperature is --------------------------
(a)zero (b) 0 C
0
(c) -100 C
0
(d) 1000 C
0

27.In a thermocouples, the combination of metals be so chosen that a rise in temperature


should always produce a ----------------------
(a)linear fall in emf (b) linear rise in emf (c) non- linear fall in emf (d) non-linear rise in emf
28. The following device is used to measure the pressures ranging from 10-1 to 10-3mm
of Hg
(a) bellows and differential transformers (b) pivot torque
(c) pirani gauge (d) piezoelectric transducers
29. The electrical strain gauges attached to a diaphragm is used for --------------------------
(a) pressure (b) velocity (c) humidity (d) resistivity
30. The optical pyrometers are used to measure --------------------------
(a) resistance (b) displacement (c) temperature (d) velocity
31. Placing an obstruction in the path of fluid causing a change in fluid pressure is the
principle of measurement of ------------------------
(a)displacement (b) velocity (c) rate of flow (d) fluid pressure
32. Radiation pyrometers are used in the temperature range of -----------------------
(a)0-500 C
0
(b)50-100 C
0
(c) -250 to 500 C
0
(d) 1200-2500 C
0

33. data-acquisition systems are used to measure -----------------------


(a) Displacement (b) velocity (c) humidity (d) analog signals
34. Which of the following is used to measure the acceleration? ---------------------
(a)accelerometer (b) hygrometer (c) ultrasonic transducer (d) pirani gauge
35.The measurement of acceleration at high frequencies is measured by --------------------
(a) Potentiometric type accelerometer (b) seismic transducer
(c) relative hygrometer (d) LVDT accelerometers
36. Microwave Refractometer is used to measure the -------------------
(a) humidity (b) velocity (c) liquid level (d) acceleration
37. The following device is used to measure the relative humidity --------------------------------
(a)LVDT (b) scintillation counters (c) barometer (d) hygrometer
38.The following characteristics of lithium chloride is changed when it is exposed to
variations in humidity
(a) pressure (b) force (c) resistance (d) capacitance
39. A thermistor exhibits ---------------------
(a) a negative change of resistance with increase of temperature depending the type of material
used
(b) a positive change of resistance with increase of temperature depending the type of material
used
(c) either a negative or positive change of resistance with increase of temperature depending the
type of material used
(d) either a negative or positive change of resistance with decrease of temperature depending
the type of material used
40. Which of the following is not used for static and dynamic pressure measurements? ---------
(a) capacitive transducers (b) photoelectric transducers
(c) oscillation transducers (d) piezoelectric transducers
41.Transducers, Amplifiers, Filters, Nonlinear analog functions, Analog multiplexers and
sample-holds all these are used in the following system -----------------------
(a)radio and TV transmission (b) digital data communication system
(c)Digital data acquisition system (d) microwave communication system
42. The Force summing devices in the measurement of pressure are used to convert ------------
(a) pressure into mechanical energy (b) mechanical to electrical energy
(c)pressure into displacement (d) pressure into electrical energy
43. The function of secondary transducers in the measurement of pressure is ---------------------
(a) converts pressure into mechanical energy (b) converts displacement into electrical parameter
(c) converts pressure into displacement (d) increases the strength of electrical energy
44. The function of primary transducers in the measurement of pressure is ------------
(a) converts pressure into mechanical energy (b) converts displacement into electrical parameter
(c) converts pressure into displacement (d) increases the strength of electrical energy
45. The following device is used to measure a angular velocity with a ripple free output--------
(a)Moving Coil type Velocity transducer (b) Seismic type velocity transducer
(c)DC tachometer generator (d) Drag Cup Rotor AC tachometer generator
46. The following characteristics of lithium chloride is changed when it is exposed to
variations in humidity ----------------------------------------------
(a) pressure (b) force (c) frequency (d) capacitance
47. To cover the entire range of humidity, which of the following device is used? -----------------
(a)Resistive Hygrometer (b) Aluminium oxide Hygrometer
(c) capacitive Hygrometer (d) microwave refractometer
48.The most commonly used transducer for the measurement of liner velocity is ----------------
(a) pivot torque (b) strain gauge (c) electro-magnetic transducer (d) pirani gauge
49. In the moving coil type velocity transducer, the velocity of coil is ----------------------------
(a) inversely proportional to the voltage generated in the coil
(b) proportional to the voltage generated in the coil
(c) proportional to the applied voltage to the coil
(d) inversely proportional to the current applied to the coil

ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION