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Margaret Matthews

Katy Salisbury

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Margaret Matthews
Katy Salisbury

Weidenfeld and N1Co_lson (McGaugh,_ J. 2003) PP.40-
ducation Limited Q Weidenfeld and N1colson, an irnpnnt of The Orion ~ c_opyright
Pearso n E Group. London; Extract on page 45 adapted frorn H~~shing
Ed1nbur9h Gate Bananas?. Prof1le_ Books (Berners-Lee. M. 201 O) oc. 146_ 14 d Are
Harlo~ copyr1ght ~ Prof1le Books; Extract on pages 47-48 ada 8.
Essex CM20 lJE "The Pottery-Producing System at Akrotin: An mdex of~t1 from
England ed companies throughout the world. and Social Acuvrty". The Thera Foundat1on (l Katsa-Tom~ra~nge
and .AsSO''t
copyr1ght ursa Katsa-Tornara. Extract on pages 61-62 ad
www from Hope for Animals and Their World, lcon Books (Jane ~Pted
e> Pearson Educat1on umned 20 l \ with Thane Maynard and Gail Hudson 201 O) pp.19-22, copy~~ll
2009. Reproduced courtesy of lcon Books, London. UK g t
n ht of Margaret Matthews and Katy Sahsbury to be .
Extract on pages 69 70 adapted from "A reputation in taers"
~~t1ied as authors of th1s Work has been asserted by them in
New Scientist. 29/05/201 O. pp.26-27 (Ward, B.), copyright 't
~~ordance with the Copynght, Oes19ns and Patents Act 1988.
New Scientist Magazine; Extract on pages 81-82 adapted from
All rights reserved: no part of thrs pubcanon may be reproduced, "Music retailer - a new-~ech pioneer", Brisbane Times. pp. l-2
stored m a retneval system. or transmitted in any form. o~ by (Rod Myer. 201 O). copynght Rod Myer. a Melbourne writer and
any means. electronK, mecharucel. photocopyinq, record1~9. or journalist; Extract on pages 86-87 adapted from Thames: Sacred
otherwise without the pnor wntten perrmssron of the Pubhshers. River. Chatto and Windus (Pe ter Ackroyd, 2007) pp. 162 -165.
Copyright Peter Ackroyd 2007. Reproduced w1th perm1ssion of
First pubhshed 20 l l The Random House Group and She1I Land Associates Ltd; Extract
Fourth impression 2015 on pages 89-90 adapted from "Diminutive Subjects, Design
ISBN: 978-1-4082-6790-5 Strategy, and Driving Sales: Preschoolers and the N1ntendo DS" by
Book with key and Mult1-ROM and Audio CD pack J. Alisan Bryant. Anna Akerman, Jordana Drell, http://gamestud1es.
org. Reproduced by permiss1on of Dr Alisan Bryant; lnterview on
Set in l0.5pt Arial Regular page 99 adapted from Bird Table, Wmter 2009, BTO (M1ke Toms.
Printed in China 2009) pp.15-17. copyright The British Trust for Orn1thology;
SWTCJ04 Extra et on pages l 00- l O l adapted from Poverty and Reefs Vol 7
Photocopying: The Publisher grants permission for the photocopying A Global Review, OFID / IMM Ltd (Whittingham. E . Campbell,
of those pages marked 'photocopiable' accordinq to the follow1n_g e
J. and Townsley, P.) pp.3 & 31-34, copyright 2003 IMM Ltd.
conditions. Individual purchasers may make copies for use by t~~ir Exeter. UK; Extract on pages 104- l 05 adapled from Cognitive and
staff and students, but this permission does not extend to additional Language Development in Children, Open University (Oates. J and
institutions or branches. Under no circumstances may any part of Grayson. A. 2004) pp.288-293. Reproduced by perm1s~ion of The
this book be photocopied for resale. Open University; Extract on pages l 07 -108 from Leammg f~om
the past, Penguin Books (J. Diamond, 2005) pp.5-15, copynght
Acknowledgements Jared Diamond, 2005. Reproduced with permission from Jared
For Hannah and George Oiamond and Pengu1n Books Ltd; lnterview on pages 114-115
adapted from "Cut costs and time, not corners". The Observer
The authors would like to thank the following people: Magazine. 20/06/2010, p.32 (Dulux Advertisement Feature).
Jonathan Salisbury and the students of Mayflower College, reproduced with permission of Dulux, ICI Pa1nts; Extract on
Plymouth and the students of Bell ( and pages 126-127 from "Talking Heads", New S~ien~1st, 29/05(201 O,
lnternational House, London for their valuable help in trialling pp.33-35 (Kenneally, C.). copyright New Setent1st Magazine;
writing and speaking papers; Rosemary Coop for her hard work lnterview on page 137 adapted from 2009 Ashden Awards Case
produong detarled answer keys and offenng general advice; Study by Vincent Stauffer, copyright e The Ashden Awards for
Malcolm Fletcher for his helpful comments on reading tasks. Sustainable Energy,; Extract on pages
We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce 142-143 adapted from "A cave man blinking in the light", The
copyright material: Economist, 08/05/201 O, pp.83-84, copyright~ The Econom1st
201 O; Extract on pages 146-147 from The Unnatural History
Figures of the Sea, Gata (Callum Roberts. 2007) pp.374-376. copyright
Figure on page 73 "Graduare joblessness by gender 2008 2007 Callum, M Roberts Reproduced by permiss1on of
to 2009". copyright ONS, Crown Copyright material is lsland Press. Washington. OC; Extract on page 156 adapted
reproduced with the permission of the Controller, OHtce of Public from 'Volunteer S19nup', MNDNR,
Sector lnorrnauon (OPSI); and Figure on page 111 from The volunteenng/s1gnup.html. copynght ~ 20 l O. Sta te of Minnesota,
Managemenr of Weeds in tmqeuot: and Drainage Channels. Department of Natural Resources. Reprinted w1th permiss1on;
Water, Engineenng and Development Centre (Smout, l.K .. Wade. Extract on pages 1 58-1 59 adapted from "Seven Top Tips on
P.M., Baker, P.J. and Ferguson, C M.) p 36, http://www.dfid-kar- How to get up the Career Ladder". Personnel Today (Accessed
water neVw5outputs/electronic_ outputs/management_ of _weeds. on 27 .08. l O), www, copyright Personnel
pdf, copyright WEDC. Loughborough University, 1997. Today Group; and Extract on pages 161-162 adapted from Bird
Text Table. Summer 2009. lssue 58, BTO (M1ke Toms 2009) pp.14-17.
lnterv1ew on page 14 adapted from "Jumper - down the hatch?", copyright C The Brittsh Trust far Orn1thology.
28 Apnl 201 O,, copyright Plantlife; Extract Every e!fort has been made to t~ace the copyright holders and we
on pages 16- 1 7 adapted from "Case study lsle of Eigg Heritage apolog1se in advance for any unintentional omissions. We would
Trust. Scotland" The Ashden Awards. accessed on 20.07. l O, be pleased to in~ert the ~pprop~iate acknowledgement in any
pp. l-3, copynght e The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy, subsequent ed1t1on of th1s pubhcation.; Extract on pages 20-21 from The
Conrexr of Organiza11onal Change, Prenuce Hall & FT (Senior, B.
and Flermnq, J. 2006) pp.7 15. copynght Pearson Education
Ltd; Extract on pages 24-25 adapted from Memory and Ernotion,
lntroduction to IELTS 4 Test 5 96
Overview of the test 4 tisterunq module 96
Results 4 Reading module 101
The IELTS nine-band scale 4 Writing module 112
Overview of the IELTS Test 5 Speaking module 113
Listening 5
Academic Reading 5 Test 6 114
Academic Writing 6 listening module 114
General Training Reading 6 Reading module 119
General Training Writing 7 Writing module 131
Speaking 7 Speaking module 132

Test 1 8 Test 7 133

Listening module 8 listening module 133
Reading module 15 Reading module 139
Writing module 28 Writing module 1 51
Speaking module 30 Speaking module 152

Test 2 32 General Training Test 153

listening module 32 Reading module 153
Reading module 39 Writing module 164
Writing module 52
Speaking module 54 Speaking File 166

Test 3 56 Writing'File 169

listening module 56
Reading module 62
Answer Key 173
Writing module 74
Speaking module 75

Test 4 76
Listening module 76
Reading module 82
Writing module 94
Speaking module 95
IELTS st~inds for /nternationalEnglish Language The IELTS nine-band scale
Testing System. lt 1s a test of English language
~ills de 1gned for students who want to study in
~he med1um of Enqlish either at uruvers.ty, college
or secondary school. Has fuly operanonet command of the language
appropnate, accurate and fluent with complete
There are two versions of the test: the Academic understanding.
Module and the General Training (GT) Module. Band 8 - Very good user
Students w1sh1ng to study at postgraduate or
H~s fully operat.1onal command ?f the language
undergraduate levels should take the Academic
Module. The General Training Module is designed with only occasiona' unsysternat.c inaccuracies and
for those candidates who plan to undertake training inappropriacies. Misunderstandings may occur m
unfamiliar situations. Handles complex detailed
or secondary school education. The General Training
argumentation well.
Module is also used in Australia, Canada, New
Zealand and the UK to assess the language skills Band 7 - Good user
of incoming migrants. Candidates must decide in Has operational command of the language, though
advance which of the two modules they wish to sit with occasional inaccuracies, inappropriacies and
as the results are not interchangeable. misunderstandings in sorne situations. Generally
handles complex language well and understands
Students sit the Listening, Reading and Writing papers detailed reasoning.
in that order on one day. The Speaking Test may be
held up to two days later, though normally it is taken Band 6 - Competent user
on the same day, after the Writing Test. Has generally effective command of the language
despite sorne inaccuracies, inappropriacies and
A computerised version of the Listening, Reading and misunderstandings. Can use and understand fairly
Writing Tests is available at many IELTS centres, but complex language, particularly in familiar situations.
the paper-based version of IELTS will always be offered
and is the standard format.
Has partial command of the language, coping with
Overview of the test overall meaning in most situations, though is likely
to make many mistakes. Should be able to handle
The test is in four parts reflecting the four basic basic communication in own field.
language skills:

Listening: taken by al/ canddates Basic competence is limited to familiar situations.

Has frequent problems in understanding and
Reading: Academc or General Tranng expression. Is notable to use complex language.
Writing: Academc or General Training Band 3 - Extremely limited user
Speaking: taken by ali canddates Conveys and understands only general meaning
in very familiar situations. Frequent breakdowns in
Results communication occur.
Band 2 - lntermittent user
Performance is rated on a scale of 0-9. Candidates
receive a Test Report Form, which shows their overall No real communication is possible except for
performance reported as a single band score as well the most basic information using isolated words
as the individual seores they received for each part of or short formulas in familiar situations and to
the test. meet immediate needs. Has great difficulty in
understanding spoken and written English.

No assessable information provided.

Overview of the IELTS Test
Listening (played once only; approx 30 minutes + 1 O minutes transfer time)

No. of
Oiscourse types No.of
Task types
''.llijitlt ....
Section 1 10 A trensecuonat 2 mulupte chotee hsten1ng for mam
ccnversanon - general ideas
context. short answer questions
Section 2 10 hstening for spec1fic
An inforrnauonal talk - 1 not~table/forn'Vflow chart/
general context. sentence compleuon

Section 3 10 summary completion understanding

A conversation - 2-4 speaker's opmion
context. plan/map/d1agram labelling

Section 4 10 matchmq
A lecture - education/ 1
training context. classification
Overall 40 Up to 3 task types per passage ,

Academic Reading (60 minutes)

No. of Text types Task types Target reading skllls

Passage 1 13-14 Academic texts, i.e. journals, multiple choice skimming and scanning
newspapers, textbooks and
Passage 2 13-14 short answer questions understanding main ideas
Passage 3 13-14 notevtable/torm/tlow reading for detail
Generally accessible rather
than discipline-specific. understanding opinion and
completion .. attitude
Graded in difficulty.
diagram labelling
matching paragraph
matching lists/sentence
locating information in
True/False/Not Given
Ye~No/Not Given
Overall 40 Total of 2,000-2.750 words Up to 4 task types per passage


Listening module (approx 30 minutes + 1 O minutes transfer time)


The Listening test is taken by both Academic and General Training candidates.
lt lasts for forty minutes (thirty minutes plus ten minutes transfer time) and
consists of four sections. There are a total of forty questons: ten in each section.
The recording is only played ONCE. As you listen, you must note down your
answers on the question paper. When the recording is finshed you will be given
ten minutes to transfer your answers to the answer sheet.
Sections 1 and 2 relate to social contexts, testing the listening skills you need for
survival in an English-speaking country. Section 1 is a conversation between two
speakers, e.g. two people talking about holiday preparations, and Section 2 is a
monologue, e.g. a podcast about what you can do at a theme park.
Sections 3 and 4 have a more academic or training context. Section 3 is a
conversation between two or more people, e.g. a seminar between a tutor and
a student about a work placement, and Section 4 is a monologue, e.g. a lecturer
presenting the findings of a research project.
Before each section, you will hear a brief introduction explaining who the
speakers are and what the situation is. You will also be given a short time to look
through the questions before the recording for that section starts. In sections 1 to
3, there is a short break in the middle giving you time to look at the questions in
the second half. There is no break in Section 4.
All answers will occur in the correct form in the recording (so you will not change
it), and you will only get a mark if the answer is correctly spelt. You must also
follow the instructions regarding the maximum flumber of words for each answer.

A variety of questions are used, chosen from the following types:

Multiple choice.
Note/table/summary/flow chart completion.
Diagram/map/plan labelling.
True, false, not given.
In sorne tasks you will have to write words or phrases, and in other tasks you will
have to write letters or numbers.


Questions 1-10
Questions 1-10
Tip strip
Questions 1-1 o Complete the form below.
When you read task
mstrucnons, always
~rld.effin~ how many Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS ORA NUMBER for each answer.
words are allowed for
each answer, Never
wnte more than the Health club customer research
maxunum stated
though you can use Example Answer
fewer In thrs task. the
maximurn number of Name: Sellna ~~~~~
words you can use is
two, but many of the
answers are just one Occupation: 1 .
Only write down words
you hear, in the form Age group: 2 .
you hear them. tf you
need to change the Type of membership: 3 .
form of a word to make
it fit grammatically, then
it's incorrect. Length of membership: 4 yesre
For Section 1 only, you
will be given an example Why joined: Kecommonded by a 5 .
and you will hear the first
few lines twice. After that
you will only hear the Visits to club per month: Eight (on an average) .
recording once.
Question 1 Facility used most: 6 .
Listen fer a phrase which
mea ns the same as
'occupation'. Facility not used (lf any): Tennis courte
(oeceue reluctant to 7 )
Question 4
You will hear several
numbers mentioned. Don't Suggestions for Have more 8 .
just write down the first improvements:
number you hear - wait lnsta/19 in the gym.
until the woman confirms
how many years she has
been a member.
Open 1 O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . later at weekends.

Tip strip endings. You will not get a mark if you leave off
the 's'.
Question 6 and Question 9
Questions 8-1 O
Listen to both speakers. Most of the answers
are supplied by the woman, but not all of There are three suggestions for improvements
them. For Questions 6 and 9. the man suggests listed. Carefully read the words given for each
something and the woman agrees. bullet point: this will tell you where to note each
suggested improvement. You w1ll lose a mark if
Question 8
you do not put the word in the correct gap.
Be careful with answers which require plural



Questions 11-16
Tip strip
Qustions 11-16 Complete the ffow chart below .
As \\1th .ill flow cnert
tasi..) h~tt?n carel ully for Choose SIX answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-G, next to
the words and obrases
wh1ch s19nal the
questions 11-16.
beg1nnin9 of each new
staqe in the sequence.
For thrs type of A air B ash e earth D grass
quesuon. check how F stones G water
many extra options are
E sticks
qiven. m thrs case. there
In these tasks. opnons
are only used once (In Making a steam pit
tasks where you can
use opuons more than Diga pit.
once. the mstrucuons
will clearly state thrs.)
Arrange a row of 11 over the pit.

Place 12 on top.

Light the wood and let it burn out.

Remove 13 .

lnsert a stick.

Cover the pit with 14 .

Place wrapped food on top, and cover it with 15 .

Remove the stick and put 16 into the hole.


Questions 17-18

Tip strip Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Questions 17-20
Which TWO characteristlcs apply to tne bamboo oven?
In this type of rnultrple-
choice rtem, you must
choose TWO options A lt's suitable for windy weather.
from a hst of f1ve. B The fire is lit below the bottom end of the bamboo.
The options might not
be in the same order as C The bamboo is cut into equal lengths.
the information in the
recording. O The oven hangs from a stick.
E lt cooks food by steaming it.

Questions 19-20

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about eating wild fung?

A Cooking doesn't make poisonous fung edible.

B Edible wild fung can be eaten without cooking.
e Wild fung are highly nutritious.
O Sorne edible fung look very similar to poisonous varieties.
E Fungi which cannot be identified should only be eaten in small quantities.


Que tlons 21-30
Ot1 t1011s ;> I 25
Tlp atrtp
Outlon' 21 O C/Joo tt ron et I ttu1. A, B or C
l 111 lh1w "'"''lh ltl\ ti "
1111p111 l.111I 111 ~llllW Whtl
" 1.11~11111 lh1t1 11.11111'\
Reso rch project on attltudes towards study
'""' 11111\ '''"'" h tl111
111111t\l 111l111111o1lhlll 21 Phot b 's mnln ronson for chooslng her toplc was that
l)t\11'11 .11 ''"' 111111111111111
A h r ck motos hod beon very lnterested in lt.
11t ''"' ""' lhlll
1\ 1111 \'llUll\l h111.1h
lt would h lp proparo her for her first teaching post.
\ht1t.111 .111d '"""
l111t 111111. llth11 (N1111
th.111111'. tt1h1111.11!1111
e bo hod bo n lnsplrod by a particular book.
t\ ""'" '1111~1'11 ti ,,
11111Wllll1t111111111 22 Pho bo's maln rosearen question relatad to
A the effoct o teachsr discipline.
l 111 Ou ~tlon~ 21 24,
hvu-n hu wh.11 e tti vorlely of learning activities.
l1IH11li1 d111\ 1h111~'
t 111 Quo,tlon 2!), e levels of pupll confidence.
h-, 11'11 h 11 whi11 l1111y
lht11~. 23 Phoebo was most surprised by her finding that
Questlon 24
A gender did not influence behaviour signiflcantly.
lt\11 11 hu .111.11.1pht.1w

uf 'tlt \tl111t1v
e glrls were more negativa about school than boys.
C boys were more talkative than girls In class.

24 Regerding teaching, Phoebe says she has learned that

A teachers should be flexible in their lesson planning.
B brighter chudren learn from supporting weaker ones.
C children vary from each ther in unpredictable ways.

25 Tony is particularly impressed by Phoebe's ability to

A recognise the limitations of such small-scale research.
B reect on her own research experience in an interesting way.
C deslgn her research ln such a way as to minimise difficulties.

rLS r 1, LIS l [ NIN(j MODULE

Questions 26-30

Tip strip What did Phoebe find difficult about the different research techniques she useo?
Questions 26-30
Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the cortect letter A-G, next to
For matchmq exerciscs questions 26-30.
like these. 1t 1s important
to be clear on the
specific task In this
case you must listen for Difficulties
what is DIFFICULT about
each of the five research A Obtaining permission
techniques. The focus
w1ll also be indicated in B Deciding on a suitable focus
the heading of the box:
'Difficulttes'. C Concentrating while gathering data
O Working collaboratively
E Processing data she had gathered
F Finding a suitable time to conduct the research
G Getting hold of suitable equipment

Research techniques

26 Observing lessons

27 lnterviewing teachers

28 lnterviewing pupils

29 Using questionnaires

30 Taking photographs


Questions 31-40

Questions 31-40

Complete the sentences below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Saving the juniper plant

Tip strip 31 Juniper was one of the first plants to colonise Britain after the last
Question 31
Listen for a synonym
tor 'coloruse'
32 lts smoke is virtually , so juniper wood was used as
Question 32
fuel in illegal activities.
Listen for a synonym
for 'illeqa!'.
33 Oils from the plant were used to prevent spreading.
Question 37
Listen for a synonym
for 'rapid'. 34 Nowadays, its berries are widely used to food and drink.
Question 38
Listen for a synonym
for 'novel'. 35 Juniper plants also support several species of insects and .

36 In current juniper populations, ratios of the are poor.

37 Many of the bushes in each group are of the same age so .

of whole populations is rapid.

38 Plantlife is trialling novel technque across areas of England.

39 One measure is to introduce for seedlings.

40 A further step is to plant from healthy bushes.

Tip strip what will be important to the speaker: the

Questions 31-40 destructron of an ancient species of plant and
ways to protect it.
Secuon 4 of the listening paper is a presentation
Read the sub-headings on the answer sheet.
or lecture. Read the heading and listen carefully
The speaker will clearly state when he/she is
to the mforrnation given at the beginning of
the recordmq. lt tells you who is talking and his/ changing to a new sub-section. He/She will
her general subject or field. Also the first part of either mention the word in the heading or
the lecture rtself often qives useful mformation give a close paraphrase. Listen for structuring
about the focus. phrases such as 'Turning now to ... or a
rhetorical question such as 'Why is the juniper
The field of this presentation rs Environmental plant declining ... ?'
Science - knowmq this will help you predict


Reading module (1 hour)


The Academic Reading test lasts for an hour, and rt consists of three parts, so you
should spend about twenty minutes on each part. The first part is generally a bit
easier than the second and third parts, so you mrqht decide to spend a ltttle less
time on this.
As you do the test you can make notes on the question paper. but all your
answers have to be written on a separate mark sheet. so you must allow enough
time to do this.
The test has a total of 40 questions, so in two of the sections there are 13
questions, and in one there are 14 questions.
Reading passages
The reading passages in all three sections are of a similar length, each one
consisting of between 750-950 words. The first passage is usually more factual
than the others, and the third contains more opinion. There is a range of topics.
and these might be related to any academic subject area, such as natural sciences,
history, archaeology or education. However, the subject matter of the passages is
not highly technical, and should be accessible to any IELTS candidate, whatever
their personal educational history.

The Academic Reading paper uses a variety of task types, including:

Giving short answers to questions.
Deciding whether statements/opinions correspond to what is written in the
reading passage.
Matching statements to people or events which are mentioned in the
reading passage.
Completing a summary, or individual sentences, which are based on the
reading passage.
Completing a table, a diagram, a flow chart, or notes which are based on the
reading passage.
Choosing a statement about the reading passage from several options.
Choosing the answer to a question about the reading passage from
several options.
Choosing the best heading for each of the paragraphs in a reading passage.
In sorne tasks, you will have to write words or phrases. and in other tasks you will
have to write letters or numbers.


You should spend about 20 mtnutes on Questions 1-13, wh/ch are basad on
Reading Passage 1 below.

Reducing electricity
consumption on the Isle of Eigg
Background than dernand, and diesel generators are operating to
back it up- a so-called 'red light day', as opposed
The 1 le of Eigg is situaied off the West Coast to 'green light days' when there is sufficiem
of Scotland, and is reached by ferry from the rencwablc energy. Residents then take steps to
mainland. For the island community of about a temporarily reduce electrici~y demand further
hundred resident it has alway bccn expensive to still, or po tpone dcmand until renewable energy
irnport products, materials and skilled labour from generation has increased.
the mainland, and this ha encouraged a culture
of self- ufficiency and careful use of resources. Energy use on the island has also been reduced
Today, although the island now has most rnodcrn through improved wall and loft insulation in
convenience . C01 emissions per household are homes, new boilcrs, solar water heating, car-
20 percent lower than the UK average, and sharing and various small, energy-saving measures
clectricity use is 50 perccnt lower, in houscholds. New energy supplies are being
developed, including sustainably harvested forests
When Eigg dcsigned its electricity grid, which to supply wood for heating.
was switched on in February 2008, it quickly
became apparent that in order to keep the capital Eigg Heritage Trust has installed insulation in
building coses down, it would be necessary to all of its own properties at no cosr to the tenants.
manage demand. This would also allow the island while private properties have paid for their own
to generate most of its electricity frorn renewable insulation to be installed. The same applies for
source , mainly water, wind and solar power. installations of -solar water heating, although not all
This goal was overseen by the Eigg Heritage Trust properties have rcceived this as yet. The Trust
Trust (EHT). also operates a Green Grants scheme, where residents
can claim 50 percent of the cost of equipment to
reduce carbon emissions, up to a limit of f300.
The technology Purchases included bikes, solar water heating,
sccondary glazing, thicker curtains, and grecnhouses
Eigg manages electricity demand rnainly by capping to grow food locally, rather than importing it.
the in tantaneou power that can be used to five
kilowatts (kW) for a household and ten kW for a
business. lfusage goes over the lirnit, the electricity Environmental benefits
supply is cut off and the maintenance team must
be called to come and switch it back on again. Ali Prior to the installation of the new electricity grid
households and businesses have energy monitors, and 1:enewable ~nergy generation, most households
which display current and cumulative electricity on E1~g u~cd ~1e~el generators to supply electricity,
usage, and sound an alarm when consumption resulting in significant carbon emissions. Homes
reaches a user-defined leve!, usually set a few "'.ere als? poo~ly insulated and had old, inefficient
hundred watts below thc actual limit. The result is oil-burning boilers, or used coa! for heating.
that Eigg residents have a keen sense of how much
power different electrical appliances use, and are Thc work by the Eigg Heritagc Trust to reduce
careful to minimise energy consumption. ?nergy use has rcsulted in significant reductions
in carbon cmissrons from the island's households
Dcmand is also managed by warning the entire and busines es .. The average annual electricity use
island when renewable energy generation is lower per household rs JUSt 2, 160 kilowatt hours (kWh).


compared to a UK average in 2008 of 4, 198 access to energy equitable. Every hou.sehold has
kWh. Domestic carbon emissions have fallen by the same five k W cap, irrespective of mcorne, so
4 7 percent, from 8.4 to 4.45 tonnes per year. This distributing the available resources equally across
compares to average U K household emissions of the island 's population.
5.5 to 6 tonnes per year. The emissions should fall
even further over the next few years as the supply
of wood for heating increases. Economic and employment benefits

Eigg's electricity grid supports four part-time

Social benefits maintenance jobs oo the island, and residents have
also been employed for building work to improve
The completion of Eigg's electricity grid has Trust-owned houses and other buildings. Likewise,
made a significant difference to the island's the start of organised harvesting of wood for heating
residents, freeing them from dependence on diesel has created several forestry jobs for residents. A
generators and providing them with a stable and part-time 'green project manager' post has also
affordable power supply. A reliable electricity been created. A wider economic impact has come
supply has brought improvements in other areas, from having a reliable and a:ffordable electricity
for example, better treatment of drinking water in supply, which has enabled severa! new businesses
sorne houses, and the elimination of the constant to start up, including restaurants, shops, guest
noise of diesel generators. lmproved home houses and self-catering accommodation. As Eigg
insulation and heating has also yielded benefits, has become known for cutting carbon emissions
making it more affordable to keep homes at a and protecting the environment, an increasing
comfortable temperature. One of the incentives number of visitors have come to the island to learn
for capping electricity use, rather than charging about its work, bringing a further economic benefit
different amounts according to usage, was to make to the residents.


Questions 1-7

Answer the questions be/ow.

Tip strip
Questions 1-7 Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/ORA NUMBER from the
Onl} choose words passage for each answer.
ot numbers whrch
appesr in the readmq
passaqe Don 't use your 1 Approximately how many people live on Eigg?
own words
Doo't rnake any 2 What proportion of a UK household's electricity consumption does an Eigg
changes to the words household consume?
from the read1n9
passage. For example.
don 't change a singular
3 Apart from wind and sun, where does most of Eigg's electricity come from?
noun to a plural noun.
You can use fewer 4 What device measures the amount of electricity Eigg's households are using
words than the
maxrmum number 5 When renewable energy supplies are insufficient, what backs them up?
rn the instructions.
Don': write more 6 What has EHT provided free of charge in all the houses it owns?
words than the
rnstructions tell you
7 Which gardening aid did sorne Eigg inhabitants claim grants for?
Question 1
When you're trying to
frnd the answer. look
for a word that has
a simrlar meaning to
Question 3
When you're try1ng to
frnd the answer. look for
a word that has a similar
meanrng to 'most of'
Question 7
The answer is a plural
noun. Don't leave the
plural 's' off the end of
the word .


Questlons 8-13

Tip strip Do tne following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
Questions 8-13
The statemento; follow
the order of the
informanon in the TRUE lf the statement agrees with the information
reedinq passage FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
Sorne of the words m NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
the statements might
be the same or sirmlar 8 Electricity was available for the first time on Eigg when a new grid was
to words in the readinq switched on.
passaqe, whether the
statement is true, false
or nor 91ven. 9 Eigg's carbon emissions are now much lower than before.
Read the whole
statement carefully 10 Wood will soon be the main source of heating on Eigg.
before you decide
whether it matches 11 Eigg is quieter as a result of having a new electricity supply.
information in the
reading passage
or not. 12 Well-off households pay higher prices for the use of extra electricity.
Question 8
13 The new electricity grid has created additional employment opportunities
There are several references
to 'electricity grid' in the
on Eigg.
reading passage. Look
at each one in turn, to
find where the answer
to Question 8 is.
Question 10
Look carefully at the
words in the reading
passage to see whether
there is a word or phrase
with a similar meaning
to 'rnain'.
Question 12 .
When the reading passage
mentions electricity
prices. it uses the word
'equitable'. Even if you
don't know this word,
you can probably guess
its meaning.


You should spend ebout 20 mmutes on Questions 14-26 whch are based on
Readmg Passage 2 below.

Change in business organisations

A The forces that operare to bring abour chango C This situation prevaile~ for s~mc time,
in organisations can be thought of as winds with dcmand still cornmg rnainly frorn
which are many and varicd from small thc domcstic market and organisations
summer breezes that mcrely disturba fcw striving to fil! the 'supply gap' ..Thus the
papers, to mighty howling gales which cause most disturbing environmental mftuence on
devastarion to structurcs and operations, organisations of thi time was the demand
causing conscquent reorientation of purpose for products, which outstripped supply, The
and rebuilding. Somerirnes, however. the saying attributed to Henry Ford that 'You
winds die down to givc periods of relativo can have any coJour of car so long as it is
calm, periods of rclativc organisational black', gives a flavour of the supply-led
stability. Such a pcriod was thc agricultura! state of thc market. Apart from any technical
age. which Goodman ( 1995) maintains difficulties of producing diffcrent colours
prcvailed in Europe and western societies of car, Ford did not havc to worry about
as a whole until the early l 700s. During this customers' colour preferences: he could scll
period, wealth was created in the context of ali that he made. Organisations of this period
an agriculrurally based society influcnced can be regarded as 'task-oriented', with
mainly by local rnarkets (both custorner and effort being put into increasing production
labour) and factors outside people 's control, through more effective and efficient
such as the wcather. During this time, people production processes.
could fairly well predi et the cycle of activities
required to maintain life, evcn if rhat life D As time passcd, this favourable period
might be al littlc more than subsistence level. for organisations bcgan to decline. In the
neo-industrial age, peoplc became more
B To maintain thc metcorological mctaphor, discrirninating in the goods and services
stronger winds of change blew to bring in they wished to buy and, as technological
the Industrial Revolurion and the industrial advancements brought about increased
age. Again, according to Goodman, this productivity, supply ovcrtook demand.
lasted for a long time, until around 1945. It Companics began, increasingly, to look
was charactcrised by a series of inventions abroad for additional markets.
and innovations that reduced thc numbcr of
people needed to work the land and, in turn, E At the same time, organisations faced
provided the mcans of production of hirherto more intensive competition from abroad
rarely obtainable goods; for organisations, for their own products and services. In the
supplying thcse in ever increasing numbers West, this devclopment was accornpanied
became thc aim. To a Jarge extent, demand by a shift in focus from manufacturing to
and supply were predictable, enabling service, whethcr this merely added value to
companies to structure their organisations manufactured products, or whether it was
along what Burns and Stalker ( 1966) service in its own right. In the neo-industrial
described as mechanistic lines, that is as age of western countries, the emphasis
systems of strict hierarchical structures mov~d towards adding value to goods and
and firm means of control. servrces - what Goodman calls the value-


oricnred time. as conrrasred with the task- 25 pcrcent of pcople will no longer work in
orierucd and product scrviccs-oricntcd times a traditional office and ... 50 percent ~l~
of thc pasr. work from home in sorne forrn.' Contmumg
to use the 'winds of change metaphor, the
F Today, in the post-industrial age, most people expectation is of damaging gale-force winds
agree that organisational life is becoming bringing the need for rebuilding that takes the
ever more uncertain. as the pace of change opportunity to incorporate new ideas and ways
quickcns and thc future becomes less of doing things.
predictable. Writing in 1999, Nadler and
Tushman, two US academics, said: 'Poiscd on G Whether ali this will happen is arguable.
the eve of the next ccntury, we are witnessing Forccas ting the future is always fraught
a profound transfonnation in the very nature with di fficulties. For instance, Mannermann
of our business organisations. l listoric forces ( 1998) sees future studies as part art and
ha e converged to fundamentally rcshapc part sciencc and notes: 'The future is full
the scope, strategics. and structures of of surpriscs, uncertainty, trends and trend
large entcrprise .'Ata less general levcl of brcaks, irrationality and rationality, and it
analysis, Graeme Leach, Chief Economist is changing and escaping from our hands
ar the British lnstitute of Directors, claimcd as time goes by. lt is also the result of
in the Guardian newspaper (2000) that: 'By actions made by innumerable more or less
2020, the nine-to-five rat race will be extinct powerful forces.' What seems certain is that
and present leve Is of self-employrnent, the organisational world is changing at a
commuting and technology use, as wel 1 as fast rate - even if the direction of change
age and sex gaps, will have changed beyond is not always predictable. Consequently,
recognition.' According to the article, Leach it is crucial that organisational managers
anticipates that: 'In 20 years time, 20-25 and decision makers are aware of, and
percent of the workforce will be temporary able to analyse the factors which trigger
workers and many more will be flexible, ... organisational change.



Questons 14-18

Reading Passage 2 has SEVEN paragraphs, A-G.

Tip strip
Questions 14-18 Which paragraph contains the fol/owing information?
This informat1on does
not appear m the same Write the correct letter, A-G.
order as 1t does in the
reading passaqe.
14 sorne specific predictions about businesses and working practices
To md where the
answers are. look for
words with the same or 15 reference to the way company employees were usually managed
similar meanings as the
words in the questions. 16 a warning for business leaders
You may have to read
several sentences 17 the description of an era notable for the relative absence of change
before you can be sure
you have found the
appropriate section in 18 a reason why customer satisfaction was not a high priority
the reading passage.
Question 14
The question has Questions 19-23
'oredictions'. so find a
paragraph which contains Look at the following characteristics (Questions 19-23) and the list of periods below.
more than one of these.
Question 16 Match each characteristic with the correct period, A, 8 or C.
The word 'warning'
does not appear in the Write the correct letter, A, B or C.
reading passage. so
you have to look for the
same idea expressed in NB You may use any letter more than once.
an indirect way.
Find references to 19 a surplus of goods.
future developments
which might have 20 an emphasis on production quantity.
negative consequences.

Question 18 21 the proximity of consumers to workplaces.

To find the answer,
look for a phrase with
a meaning similar to
22 a focus on the quality of goods.
'nota high priority',
or any references to 23 new products and new ways of working.
customers' needs.

List of periods

A The agricultura! age. B The industrial age.

C The neo-industrial age.

Tip strip Question 19

Questions 19-23 In .which age were companies producing more
thinqs than they could easily sell?
The 'periods' are in the same order as they
are in the reading passage. Question 21
Find the relevant paragraphs, then look for Look for a word which has a meaning
words with the same or similar meanings as connected to 'proximity'.
the words in the questions. Question 23
Don't leave any questions unanswered. When Look for words with a meaning similar to
you have attempted all the questions, go 'new products.
back and guess any remaining answers.


Questions 24-26

Complete tne summary below.

Tip strip
Questions 24-26 Choose ONE WORD ONL Y from lhe passage for each answer.
You can see from the
summary tille that 11
rs about the present Businesses in the 21t century
time. so look far the
answers rn the last two
paraqraphs. lt is generally agreed that changes are taking place more quickly now. and
The rn1ss1ng words may that organisations are being transformed. One leading economist suggested
not be m the same
arder as they appear m that by 2020, up to a quarter of employees would be 24 and
the readmq passage.
Don 't write more than half of all employees would be based in the 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Although
the nurnber of words predictions can be wrong, the speed of change is not in doubt, and business
you are allowed in the
instrucuons. leaders need to understand the 26 that will be influential.
Look only far words
which fit the summary
grammattcally as well
as in mearunq,
Don 't change any
words. Wnte them
exactly as they appear
in the readmg passage.
Question 24
There is more than one
reference to 2020, and
one of them is indirect
(you have to identify the
year from what is written).
Question 25
There is an arride (the) in
front of the space, so the
answer is a noun.
Question 26
To find where the answer
is, look for a phrase which
has a similar meaning to
'business leaders'.


You should soend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40. which are based on
Resding Passage 3 betow.

The creation of last1ng memories
Man) srudics of the bruin proccsses undcrlying we obviously nccd to have memory ~hat i. crcated
the crcation of mcmory consolidation (Iasting rapidly: reacting t? an ever and rapidly changing
mcmories) have involvcd gh ing various human cnvironment requires that. For cxample, most
and animal subjects treatmcnt, whilc training them currcnt building cede require thai the heights of ali
to perform a task. Thesc have contributed grcatly to step in a stairca e be equal. A.ft~r taking a couple
our undcrstanding. of tcps, up or down, we implicitly remernber thc
heights o the steps and assume that the others
In pioneering studic using goldfish. Bernard will be the samc. lf they are not the same, we are
Agranoff found that protcin synthesis inhibitors' very likely to t~p a_n~ fall. Lack of this kind of
injecred after training caused the goldfish to forget rapidly created implicit mernory would be bad for
whar they had learned. In other experiments, us and for insurance cornpames, but perhaps good
he administered protein synthesis inhibitorsfor lawyers. It would be of little value to us if we
imrnediately befare the fish were trained. The remembered the heights of the steps only after a
rcmarkable finding was thar thc fish learned the delay of many hours, when the memory becomes
task completely normally, but forgot it within a consolidated.
few hours - that is. the protein synthesis inhibitors
blocked mernory consolidation. but did not The hypothesis that lasting memory consolidates
influence short-term memory. slowly over time is supported primarily by clinical
and experimental evidence that the formation of
There is now extensive evidence that short-terrn long-term mernory is inftuenced by treatments
memory is spared by many kinds of treatments, and disorders affecting brain functioning. There
including electro-convulsive therapy (ECT), are also other kinds of evidence indicating more
that block memory consolidation. On the other directly that the memories consolidate over time
hand, and equally importantly, neuroscientist after learning. Avi Kami and Dov Sagi reported
[van Izquierdo found that many drug treatments that the performance of human subjects trained in
can block short-terrn memory without blocking a visual skill did not improve until eight hours after
memory consolidation. Contrary to the hypothesis the training was completed, and that improvement
put forward by Canadian psychologist Donald was e~en greater the following day. Furthermore,
Hebb, in 1949, long-term memory does not require the skill was retained for several years.
short-term memory, and vice versa.
Studies using human brain imaging to study chances
Such findings suggest that our experiences create in neural activity induced by learning have also
parallel, and possibly independent stages of reported that the changes continue to develop for
memory, each with a different life span. All of this hours. after. Iea~ing. In an innovative study using
evidence from clinical and experimental studies functional imagmg of the brain, Reza Shadmehr
strongly indicates that the brain handles recent and and Henry. Holcornb examined brain activity in
rernote memory in different ways; but why does it severa! ~ram regions shortly after human subjects
do that? were trained in a motor learning task requiring
ann and hand movements. They found that whi le
the performance of the subjects remained stable
substances which stop or slow the growth of cells for severa! hours after completion of the training,


their brain activity did not: diffcrent rcgions of thehave to rcly on for many hours, days ora Iifeti~:;
brain were predominantly active at diffcrcnt times that is so susceptible to disruption shortly a
o cr a period of severa! hours aflcr thc training. it is initiatcd. Pcrhaps the brain sxstem that
Thc activity shiftcd from thc prefrontal cortex consolidatcs long-term memory over time was a
to two arcas known to be involvcd in controlling late <levclopment in vertebrate evolution. Moreover,
movemcnts, the motor cortex and cerebellar maybe we consolidate memories slowly because
cortcx. Consolidation of thc motor skill appeared our mammalian brains are largc and enormously
to in olve activation of different neural systems complex. We can readily rcjcct these ideas. Ali
that incrcased the stability of the brain processes species of animals studied to date have both short
underlying the skill. and long-terrn memory; and ali are susceptible to
retrograde amnesia. Like humans, birds, bees, and
There is also evidcnce that learning-induced molluscs, as well as fish and rats, make long-term
changos in the activity of neurons in the cerebral memory slowly. Consolidation of memory clearly
cortcx continue to increase for many days after emerged early in evolution, and was conserved.
the training. In an extensive series of studies using
rats with electrodes implantcd in the auditory Although there seems to be no compelling
cortex, Norman Weinbergcr reported that, after a reason to conclude that a biological system
tone of specific frequency was paired a few times such as a brain could not quickly make a lasting
with footshock, neurons in the rats' auditory memory, the fact is that animal brains do not.
cortex responded more to that specific tone and Thus, memory consolidation must serve sorne
less to other tones of other frequencies. Even very important adaptive function or functions.
more interestingly, the selectivity of the neurons There is considerable evidence suggesting that the
response to the specific tone used in training slow consolidation is adaptive because it enables
continued to increase for severa! days after the neurobiological processes occurring shortly after
training was terminated. learning to influence the strength of memory for
experiences. The extensive evidence that memory
It is not intuitively obvious why our lasting can be enhanced, as well as impaired, by treatments
memories consolidate slowly, Certainly, one can administered shortly after training, provides
wonder why we have a form of memory that we intriguing support far this hypothesis .



Questions 27-40

Questions 27-31

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27 Experiments by Bernard Agrano ff d escrrlbed in Reading Passage 3 rnvolve

A injecting goldfish at different stages of the experiments.

B training goldfish to do different types of task.
e using different types of treatment on goldfish.
O comparing the performance of different goldfish on certain tasks.

28 Most findings from recent studies suggest that

A drug treatments do not normally affect short-term memories.
B long-term memories build upon short-term memories.
e short and long-term memories are formed by separate processes.
O ECT treatment affects both short-and long-term memories.

29 In the fifth paragraph, what does the writer want to show by the example
of staircases?
A Prompt memory formation underlies the performance of everyday tasks
B Routine tasks can be carried out unconsciously.
C Physical accidents can impair the function of memory.
O Complex information such as regulations cannot be retained by
the memory.

30 Observations about memory by Kami and Sagi

A cast doubt on existing hypotheses.
B related only to short-term memory.
C were based on tasks involving hearing.
D confirmed other experimental findings.

31 What did the experiment by Shadmehr and Holcomb show?

A Different areas of the brain were activated by different tasks.
B Activity in the brain gradually moved from one area to other areas.
C Subjects continued to get better at a task after training had finished.
O Treatment given to subjects improved the rf
rr pe ormance on a task.


Questions 32-36

Do tnefollowing ststements agree with the views of the writer in Reading

Passage 3?


YES lf the statement agrees wth the views of the writer

NO if the statement contradlcts the vlews of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the wrter thinks about this

32 The training which Kami and Sagi's subjects were given was repeated over
several days.

33 The rats in Weinberger's studies learned to associate a certain sound with a

specific experience.

34 The results of Weinberger's studies indicated that the strength of the rats'
learned associations increases with time.

35 lt is easy to see the evolutionary advantage of the way lasting memories in

humans are created.

36 Long-term memories in humans are more stable than in many other species.

Questions 37-40

Complete the summary using the list of words, A-1, below.

Long-term memory
Various researchers have examined the way lasting memories are formed.
Laboratory experiments usually involve teaching subjects to do something

37 , and treating them with mild electric shocks or drugs. Other

studies monitor behaviour after a learning experience. or use sophisticated
equipment to observe brain activity.

The results are generally consistent: they show that lasting memories are
the result of a 38 and complex biological process.

The fact that humans share this trait with other species, including animals
with 39 brains, suggests that it developed 40 in
our evolutionary history.

A early B easy e large O late E lengthy

F new G recently H small 1 quick


Writing module (1 hour)


The Academic Writing test lasts for an hour, and consists of two parts. The first
part is shorter than the second, and carries only one third of the marks, so you
should spend about 20 minutes on this part and 40 minutes on the second part.
Far each part you should allow enough time to plan what you are going to say
before you begin writing, and to check what you have written afterwards.

Task 1
In the first part, you have to write a mnimum of 150 words altogether. You are
presented with a visual which you have to describe in words, providing a general
overview with supporting details. The visual might be a fine graph, a bar chart, a
pie chart, a diagram ora plan, and the subject of the visuals are varied. Subjects
might include social trends, economics, natural or industrial processes, or health.
but you do not need any specialist knowledge to do the task.
You are expected to write in a neutral ar formal style.
Task 2
In the second part, you have to write an essay with a minimum of 250 words. This
involves commenting on an issue or problem which is presented in the task. You
are expected to discuss various points of view and arrive ata conclusion. Tapies
are varied, and might include health, lifestyles, environment, ar education, but
you do not have to have any special knowledge to be able to do the task.
You are expected to write in a neutral ar formal style.


WRITING TASK ~ J You should spend about 20 minutos on this task.
The table below shows the results of surveys In 2000, 2005 and 2010
about one untversity.
Summarse the nformation by selecting and reportlng the main
features, and make comparlsons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

Percentage of students giving good ratings for

different aspects of a university
2000 2005 2010
Teaching quality 65 63 69
Print resources 87 89 88
Electronic resources 45 72 88
Range of modules offered 32 30 27
Buildings/teaching facilities 77 77 77

Tip strip Start with an mtroductory sentence Give data to support the claims you
which summarises what the visual make - citing specic percentages. But
Make sure you understand exactly
shows. Don't simply copy down you don't need to quote exact figures
what the visual shows. In this task. the
what's in the rubric - this is a waste of far every point - you w1ll ga1n marks for
figures in the table:
your time showing that you can be selecnve.
relate to just one university,
Take sorne time befare you start Don't write too much: 150-200 words
are from three different surveys. writing to look far any unprovements. w1ll be enough. You won't be given any
indicate changes in student attitudes. reductions, fluctuations and sirmtanties. extra marks for wriunq a longer piece,
You get this key mformauon from two Report the most strik1ng point first. and you need to leave enough time
sources: the first sentence of the task In thrs task. rt is probably that there for Task 2.
itself and the title of the visual(s). was a great improvement in students'
For Task 1. the second part of the rubric opimons of the uruversity's electroruc
is always the same. resources.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

Some say that because many people are living much longer, the age at
which people retire from work shou/d be raised considerably.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own
knowledge and experience.

Write at least 250 words.

Tip strip The second hne of the task in Task 2 give your own opinion and explain
differs from paper to paper. the arguments you frnd particularly
Be clear which specific aspect of the persuaswe.
task you need to discuss. In this task. You could give your point of view
you need to talk about whether the and then provide illustrations and Write us1ng paragraphs and make
age of retirement should be raised evidence to support this opinion. sure each paragraph has a clear
and if so, whether it should be by a Or, you could explore both sides central tapie.
small or large amount. of the question and then go on to


Speaking module (11-14 minutes)


. d it consists of three parts:

The speaking test lasts for 11-14 mmute.s, an . ho asks questions
Part 1 takes the form of a dialoque with the.~xam~~~r,l~asts for four to
about you. your life, and thinqs you are farni ''

five minutes. 1 t ic that the

Part 2 is a short presentation given by you ~~out ~ genera lf .fhe to ic is
examiner chooses. You can decide the wec1f1c toprc yourse P
connected to your own life and experiences. kf
. t t. n and you can spea or
You have up to one minute to prepare your presen a 10 . f
up to two minutes. There is a clock on the table, and the examiner rerninds you
the timing if necessary.
Part 3 takes the form of a dialogue with the examiner. He/she asks you ab~ut
your views on impersonal subjects which are loosely connected to the topic of
your presentation. This lasts between four and five minutes.

In Part 1, the questions which the examiner asks you are usually factual. and
quite simple, such as 'When ... T', 'Who ... ?', 'How often ... T', or 'What kind
of ... ?'
In Part 2, you will be given a candidate card.
The topic of your presentation is outlined in the first line of the candidate
card. lt starts with 'Describe .. .',
You may be asked about something that happened in the past, or someone
you know, or something you would like to do in the future.
Three separate bullet points tell you what to include in your presentation,
and a fourth line tells you to explain something in more detail, such as your
feelings, or the reason for something.
In Part 3, the questions that the examiner asks you are more complex,
and involve lengthier responses. You may be asked 'What is your opinion
about ... ?';'To what extent do you think ... ?'; 'How important is it to ... T';
compared to 'What do you think ... ?'; or 'What might the reason be for ... ?'


Answ 'r these quesuons

Tip strip Tell me about your country.

Your country ... What's the weather lke in your country?
Question 1 Remember Whch time of year do you think Is best in your country? Why? 'What'.., the ..
Have you visitad many different parts of your country? Why/Why not?
lil.-l'}' means Describe'.
Questions 2-3 G1ve a
Now let's talk about your family.
reason lor your answer.
Your family ... Do you share a house with any of your fami/y? Who?
Question 4 Oon't spend Do most people in your family live in the same town or village?
a long time decidinq who When did you last have a family party?
to talk about.
Which person in your family are you most similar to? How?

You have one minute to make notes on the following tapie. Then you have up
to two minutes to talk about it.
Tip strip
Describe a place in another part of the world that you would love to vsit in
Choose a place that you
can talk about easily.
the future.
lt is all right to spend You should say:
more time on one bullet
than on others. what you know about the place
Oon't forget to include how you know about it
the last line ('and how you would go there
explain ... ') in your
presentation. and explain why you would love to visit that place.

Who would you go to that place with?

Do you enjoy travelling general/y?

Consider these questions and then answer them.

Let's go on to discuss TV programmes about other places.

Tip strip ..,
TV programmes ... What kinds of TV programme about different places are most popular in
lf you don't understand your country?
the question, ask the Can people learn more about geography from TV than they can from books?
examiner to repeat or Why!Why not?
explain it.
Do you thnk TV programmes about different places encourage people to
Other countries ... travel themselves? Why/Why not?
Listen carefully to what
the examiner says he/ Now let's talk about visiting other countries.
she wants to talk about.
Question 2 lt doesn't For what reasons do you think international travel has increased in
matter whether you recent years?
agree or disagree with
Sorne people say it's important for people to find out about another country
trus opiruon. but give
as many reasons and befare they vsit it. Do you agree?
examples as you can. How use ful is it for people to understand the language of the countries they
The tourism industry ... visit? Why?
Question 1 lf you
don't know the answer, Now let's consider the tourism industry.
you can guess. lf you
don't want to guess. Does tourism play a bg part in the economy of your country? How?
tell the examiner that What kinds of unpredictable factors can have a negatve effect on the
you don't know much tourism industry?
about this subject. In the future, what kinds of development might there be in the
Question 2 Ask for tourism industry?
help if there's a word

you don't understand.


Ustening module (approx 30 minutes + 1 O minutes transfer time)


In Section 1, the focus is on listening for facts in a conversation (social context).

In Section 2, the focus is on listening for facts in a talk or presentation
(social context).
In Section 3, the focus is on listening for in a conversation (2-3 people) facts
and opinions (education/training context).
In Section 4, the focus is on listening for specific details and main ideas in a
lecture, in an education/training context.

General preparation
Although you cannot predict exactly the language which the IELTS test will
contain, there are severa! ways you can prepare for taking the listening test.
Do plenty of IELTS listening practice tests - listen to the recording only once and
try to build up your confidence for taking the real test.
Aim to listen to spoken English in a wide variety of situations and topic areas. Listen
to CDs, radio, TV and Internet broadcasts featuring native speakers of English.
Don't worry if you don't catch every word, you'll understand more with practice.
Preparation for specific sections
To help prepare you for Sections 1 and 3 (two or more people interacting); if
you live in a country where English is spoken, try to listen to people conversing,
particularly in 'transactional situations' (where people are trying to get
something done). e.g. in shops, hotels, clinics. Also try to engage people in
conversation yourself. Listen for particular phrases which signa\ key elements,
such as a speaker's opinion or which point is being emphasised.
To help prepare for Sections 2 and 4, ('long turn' monologues, with one person
speaking for sorne time without interacting with others), try to listen to podcasts
on the Internet and more formal talk shows on radio channels like the British
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Radio 4 or the Voice of America (VOA).

Practise reading the question paper quickly, getting a clear idea of what you are
required to listen for.
Use the 'context' information to help you identify the correct answer. Listen
carefully to the information provided at the beginning of each section, telling
you who is speaking, in what situation and for what purpose.
~ELTS rec.ordings are only played ON~E, so it's important you don't worry too much
if you miss the answer to one question. Move on and listen for the answer to the
next question. Try to look for 'clues' ?n t.he question paper, e.g. any sub-headings,
or pa~aphrases of what you hear. This will prevent you from 'losing your place'.
As with ~11 parts of the IELTS, if you aren't sure of the answer take a guess.
You won t lose marks for a wrong answer; and using 'context' information can
often help you make a successful prediction.


Questions 1-10

Ouesuons 1-10
Tip strip
Questions 1-1 O
Complete the form betow.
Rt,ld 1h~ torm c..1relullv
betore vou l1stt>rl You
\'11111 tw .lhte to gN .1 tot Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS ANDIOR A NUMBER for eecn answer.
o u~eful mfcrmancn
.ibout the contoxt 1,1n
Jnam,ll par!..\, purpose of Pinder's Animal Park
the phone CJll (lemporJry
[ob enqu1ry) and who 1\
completang the form (a
xepuorust al tho park)
Question 1 Enquiries about ~'!!~~.?: work
Listen carefully 10 the
drscussion about the Personal Oetails:
spelhng of the surname
the man thrnks there rs Name: Jane 1 .
a double letter in her
name, but the woman
corrects hrrn. Address: 2 .
Question 2
Ex e ter
For Task 1, you often have
to wnte down an address.
lf addresses are not spelt Telephone number: 07792430921
out (as in thrs case). they
contain very familiar Availability: Can start work on 3 .
Question 3 Work details:
Listen fer a date. Severa!
are mentioned, but listen Preferred type of work: Assistant 4 .
carefully for the relevant
one. tt is expressed in
the negative 'I can't start Relevant skills: Familiar with kitchen 5 .
work unnl .. .'.
Question 9 Relevant qualifications: A6 certificate
There are different ways
of saying o m phone Training required: A7 ., course
numbers: you can say
'zero' or 'oh'. Also. listen Referee:
for 'double' numbers.
Question 10 Name: Dr Ruth Price
Listen for a type of minar
Position: 8 ..

Phone number: 9 ..

Other: Applicant has a form of 1 O ..


Questions 11-20

Questions 11-15
Tip strip
Questions 11-1 5 Choose the correct answer, A, 8 or C.
For muftipl~ chotee
quest1ons m Task 2. you
mrght have to listen for
the main idea as well Tamerton Centre
as specific detarls. You
will also sornetimes 11 The Tamerton Centre was set up in order to encourage people
have to listen for
people's opmions, A to enjoy being in the countryside.
Question 12 B to help conserve the countryside.
Listen for the opinion
of the previous year's C to learn more about the countryside.
group and for a past
time reference. 12 Last year's group said that the course
A built their self esteem.
B taught them lots of new skills.
C made them fitter and stronger.

13 For the speaker, what's the most special feature of the course?
A You can choose which activities you do.
B There's such a wide variety of activities.
C You can become an expert in new activities.

14 The speaker advises people to bring

A their own board games.
B extra table tennis equipment.
C a selection of films on DVD.

15 Sed-time is strictly enforced because

A it's a way to reduce bad behaviour.
B tiredness can lead to accidents.
C it makes it easy to check everyone's in.


Questions 16-20

What rules apply to taking different objects to the Centre?

Tip strip
Questions 16-20 Match each object with the correct rule, A-C.
The speaker talks about
hve d1fferent objects
and there are just three
Write the correct letter, A-C.
optrons to choose frorn.
You must listen for whrch Objects
objects are required in the
Centre, which are allowed 16 Electrical equipment
and which are definitely
not allowed.
17 Mobile phone
In this type of task, you
can use each option
more than once. 18 Sun cream
Listen for phrases with
modals such as - 'you 19 Aerosol deodorant
don't have to .. .',
'they're a must .. .', 20 Towel
'you can if you wish
.. .', as well as adjectives
like 'banned'.


A You MUST take this

B You CAN take this, if you wish
e You must NOT take this


Questions 21-30
Questions 21-25
Tip strip
Questions 21-30 Label the diagram below.
usien cJretully to lhe
context 1nformat1on. 1t
will help you understand
Write the correct letter, A-G, next to questions 21-25 below.
the sett1ng bettei Thrs
eonversauon features a
student teacher talking
through her plans for (Year 6 Lesson) Biogas Plant
two different lessons wnh
her tutor.

Questions 21-25
You use each option
only once and two
options will not
be used.
The speaker rnenuons
five different parts
of the plant in the

arder they appear on
the question paper ,-/
(Questions 21-25).
and describes their
position and/or shape
and uncnon. ......... .__--~L_____::::~~~L._~~~-=:j
Listen for prepositions
and direction mdicators
such as 'on the left', 'at
the top'. and 'on the
bottorn'. Also, listen for
words which indicate
21 Waste container
shape and size.
22 Slurry

23 Water inlet

24 Gas ............. " ...

25 Overflow tank


Questions 26-30

Complete the flow cnert below.

Tip strip
Qu~stions 26-30 Choose FIVE answers from tne box and write tne correct tetter. A-O. nBxi to
Ounng the pevse 111 the questions 26-30.
nuddle ot the recordinq,
rPJd Ouesnons 26 30. lt
is unportant to know who
1s doinq what Quesuons A ldentify sequence.
26. 27 and 30 are the
teacher's acnvitres but
B Ask questions.
Questrons 28 and 29 are e Copy.
the pupds' activines
o Demonstrate meaning.
E Oistribute worksheet.
F Oraw pictures.
G Present sentences.


Teacher: Introduce word
Pupils: look and listen

Teacher: 26 .
Pupils: look and listen

Teacher: Present queston

Pupils: respond

Teacher: 27 .
Pupils: 28 and expand

Teacher: Display pictures
Pupils: 29 .

Teacher: 30 .
Pupils: write

Teacher: Monitor pupils


Questions 31-40
Questions 31-40
Tlp strip
Qu~stions 31-40
Complete tne notes below.
Sec non 4 lt;><tu1 e~
olten dt?JI wrth quite
techn1cdl matters, but Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
speekeis 9111e simple
and clear defin1t1ons
to make things clear
for a non-speoahst
Creating artificial gills
dud1ence Listen to
the short def1n1t1on of Background
'art1f1c1al 91lb' in the
mstrucuons and also the Taking In oxygen : mamma/5 - lung5; fl5h - gi/15
background 1nformat1on
at the beginning of
the lecture Long-held dreeme - humans swimming underwater without oxygen tank5
Before you listen,
read all the notes on Oxygen tanks considered too 31 end large
the question paper
(remember there rs no Attempts to extract oxygen directly from water
pause in the middle of
Section 4). The notes on
the paper give a lot of
1960s - predicuon that humans would have gi/ls added by 32 .
informat1on to help you
understand the main Ideas for artificial gil/s were inepred by reeesrch on
points and also enable
you to 'find your place' fish gills
on the paper.
There is quite a long fish swim bladders
introduction befare the
first question. Read the
first two bullet points animals without gills - especial/y bubbles ueed by 33 .
(without gaps) as you
listen. This will prepare
you to hear the answer Building a eimple artificial gil/
to Question 31 .
Question 31 Make a watertight box of a material which lets 34 .
Listen for a synonym pass through
for 'Iarqe'.
Question 32 fil/ with sir and submerge in water
Listen for the cu e '1960s'.
Question 33 lmportant that the diver and the water keep 35 .
Listen for the cues:
animals without gills' The gil/ has to have a large 36 ..
and 'bubbles',
Question 38 De5igner5 oiten use a network of sma/137 on their gil/
Listen for the cue:
'timltation'. Main limitation - prooieme ceueed by increased 38 .
in decpor water

Otner application5

Supplying oxygen for use on 39 .

Powering 40 ce/Is for driving machinery underwater

Reading module (1 hour)


Readinq for mam ideas.

Reading for detail.
Skim reading.
Understanding a sequence of ideas.
Recogmsing wnters' opimons, attitudes and inferences.

,~, .
As the IELTS test is a proficiency test, it is not based on a specific language
syllabus. This means that you cannot predict exactly the language which the
test will contain.
Aim to improve your general language knowledge and skills. as well as to
develop effective strateqies.
Aim to read appropriate matenals about a wide range of topics as often as
possible. Even academic texts about different subjects have a high proportion
of words and structures m common.
Try also to increase your reading speed. The length of time allowed for each
section of the reading test is relatively short, so you will need to be able to
read the texts and the questions quickly.
Over time. your general proficiency in English will increase and your potential
test performance will rise.

When you are preparing to take the Academic Reading test, you should try to
develop strategies for domg the test which work well for you. Sorne strategies
are usef ul for most peo ple, but in other cases what works well for one person
might not work so well for another. For example, sorne people find rt best to
read each text quickly before attempting to do the tasks, while others simply
skim the text and then read parts of it selectively at the same time as they are
doing the tasks.
The types of task found in the Acadermc Reading test are limited, so although
you cannot predict exactly which ones a test might contain, you will be able
to familiarise yourself with all the possible task types. lt is very important that
you know what to expect in general, and have practised doing the tasks before
you do the test. You will be able to develop strategies for doing the tasks which
work best for you.
One strategy which benefrts most people is the use of guesswork. When you
are reading the texts and questrons, you will almost certainly come across words
and phrases which you are unfamiliar with. Use the context, as well as your
knowledge of any other English words that are similar, to guess their meaning.
lf you come across a question which you find particularly difficult, move on to
the next one and then return to it later. lf you still find it too difficult, guess the
answer - you might get it right. You won't lose extra marks for giving a wrong
answer, but you won't gain any mark if you leave a question unanswered.


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on
PASSAGE 1 - Reading Passage 1 below.

Sport Science in Australia

Thc professional carccr paths availablc to graduales perspective. sport is now seen ~s an. area. the
from courscs relating to human movcment and potential for high returns. lt rs quite significant
~port. science are as di verse as the graduate 's that the bu inessman Rupert Murdoch broadened
1~agm~t1on. Howevcr, undergraduate cour e hi business ba e from media to sport, having
~tth this type of content, in Australia as well as purchased an American baseball . tearn and an
in i:nost othcr Western countries, wcrc originally Australian Rugby League compet1t1on,_ as well as
designed as preparation programmc for Phy sical seeking opportunities to invest in an English fo~tball
Education (PE) teachcrs. club. No business person of such international
stature would sce fit to invest in sport unless he
The initial programmes commenced soon after was atisfied that this was a sound business venture
the conclusion of World War 11 in thc mid- l 940s. with ideal revenue-generating opportunities.
One of the prirnary motives far thcse initiatives
was the fact that, during the war efTort. so many These developments have confirmed sport as a
of the men who were asses ed for military duty business with professional management structures,
had been declared unfit. The government saw the marketing processes, and development strategies
solution in the providing of Physical Education in place. They have indicated new and dcveloping
programmes in schools, delivered by better career paths for graduates of human movement
prepared and specifically educated PE teachcrs. sciencc, sport science. exercise science and related
dcgrees. Graduales can now visualise career paths
Latcr, in the l 970s and early 1980 , the surplus of cxtending into such diverse domains as sport
Australians graduating with a PE degree obliged managernent. sport marketing, event and facility
institutions delivering this qualification to identify management, govemment policy dcvclopment
new employment opportunitics for their graduares, pertaining to sport, sport journalism, sport
resulting in the first appearance of dcgrce catering psychology, .. and sport or athletic coaching .
far recreaiion profcssionals. In rnany insrances,
this diversity of programrne dclivery mcrely lcd to Business lcadcrs will only continue their
degrees, delivered by physical educators, as a side- cnthusiasm far sport if they rcccive returns far
line activity to the production of PE teachcrs. their money. Such returns will only be forthcoming
i f astute, enthusiastic and propcrly educatcd
Whilst the need to produce Physical Education professionals are delivcring the programs that
teachers remains a significant social nced, and earn appropriatc financial returns. The successful
most developed socictics demand the availability universities of the 21 st ccntury will be those that
of quality leisure programmes for their cirizcns, have responded to this challcngc by delivcring such
the career options of graduates within this domain degree .
are still developing. The two rnost cvident growth
domains are in the arca of the professional delivcry A second professional growth arca for this group
of port. and the role of a physical lifestyle far of graduates is associated with cornrnunity
community health. health .. The i~cr~asing demand for governrnent
expendirure within health budgets is reaching the
The ports industry is developing at an stage wl~ere !11ost governments are sirnply unable
unprecedented rare of growth. From a business to function m a manner that is satisfying thcir


constituenrs. One of the primary rcasons for this education programmes to reduce cardio-vascular
problem is the unhelpful emphusis on trcatment disease, to reduce medica! dcpendency . up~~
in n~~dical can: programmcs. Govemmcnts have diabetes, to improve workplace health leadmg
traditionally given their senior hcalth official the increased productivity, to initiate and promote
title of 'Minister Ior Health '. when in fact this programmes of activity for the elderly that reduce
officer has functioned as 'Minister for Sickness medica! dependency, and to maintain an active
and the. Construction of Hospitals'. Government lifestyle for the unemployed and disadvantaged
focus simply has to change. lf the change is not groups in society. This is the graduate that
brought about for philosophical reasons, it will governments will be calling upon to shift the
occur naturally, becausc insufficient funding will community focus from medica! dependency to
be available to address the ever-increasing costs of healthy lifestyles in the decades ahead.
medica] support.
The career paths of these graduales are developing
Graduates of human movement, exercise science at a pace that is not evident in other professions.
and sport science have the potential to become The contribution that these graduates can make to
majar players in this shift in policy focus. lt is these socicty, and the recognition of this contribution is
graduates who already have the skills, knowledge at an unprecedented high, and ali indications are
and understanding to initiate cornmunity health that it will continue to grow .


Questions 1-5

Complete the flow chart below.

Tip strip
Questions 1-5 Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
The tule of the flow
chart shows that rt's
about the past, so ook The history of sports and physical science in Australia
for the answers in the
first three paragraphs.
Write either one word A lot of people identified as being 1
or two words for the
answers, but no more.
Make sure that the
answers rt grammatically
as well as in meaning.
lntroduction of PE to 2 ..
The answers follow the
order of information in
the reading passage.
The last box is useful.
Special training programmes for 3 .
lt shows you where
the relevant part of the
reading passage ends.
lf you have to change a 4 of PE graduates
word or phrase to make
it fit, you have chosen
the wrong one.
Question 1 ldentification of alternative 5 .
'Being' comes before
the space, so the answer
must be an adjective or
an adverb.
Diversification of course delivery
Question 5
'Alternative' comes in
front of the space, and
there is no article, so
the answer is either an
uncountable or a plural
noun phrase,


Questions 6-13
Do the fo/lowing statements agree with the informationgiven in Reading Passage
Tip strip
Questions 6- 1 3
There's no need to
answer the quesuons in
words. Just wnte T, ar TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
F. or NG FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
The statements follow NOT GIVEN if there is no informationon this
the arder of the
inforrnauon in the 6 Sport is generally regarded as a profitable area for investment.
readinq pessaqe.
To find the part of the 7 Rupert Murdoch has a personal as well as a business interest in sport.
readmq passage which
contains the answer
look far words and '
8 The range of career opportunities available to sport graduates is increasing.
phrases with sirrular
meanmqs. 9 The interests of business and the interests of universities are linked.
Read each complete
statement befare 1 O Governments have been focusing too much attention on preventative
deodinq the answers. medicine.
Question 13
This statement sounds 11 lt is inevitable that government priorities for health spending will changa.
reasonable in the light of
what is said in the reading 12 Existing degree courses are unsuitable for careers in community health.
passage, and may be true.
However, it must be stated
by the writer for it to be 13 Funding for sport science and related degrees has been increased
definitely true. considerably.


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1'-26 which are based on
Reading Passage 2 below.

An assessment of micro-wind turbines

A In terms of rnicro-renewable energy ources suitable for priv~te use, a 1 ?-kilowatt
{kW) rurbinc' is al the biggest end ofthe spectrum. With ~ nme metre di~mcte.r and
a pote a high as a four-storcy house. this is the mo~t efficient fonn of wind micro.
turbinc, and thc sort of thing you could install ~mly 1 f y~u had pl,enty of ~pace and
money. According to onc estimare. a 15-kW m1cro-turbme (that s one w.1th the
mximum output), casting .(41.000 to purchase and a..further f.~,~00 to mstall,.
is capablc of dclivcring 25.000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity each year if
placed on a suiiably windy site.
8 1 don 't know of any crcdiblc studics of the greenhouse gas emissions involved
in producing and installing rurbines, so my estimates here .are going to be e~en
more broad than u ual. However, it is worth trying. If turbine manufacture is
about as carbon intcnsive per pound sterling of product as other gen~rators. and
electrical morors, which seems a reasonable assurnption, the carbon mtensiry of
manufacture will be around 640 kilograms (kg) per f 1,000 of value. Jnstallation
is probably about as carbon intensive as typical construction, at around 380 kg per
f 1,000. That makes the carbon footprint (the total amount of greenhouse gases
that installing a turbine creates) 30 tonnes.
C The carbon savings from wind-powered electricity generation depend on the
carbon intensity of the electricity that you're replacing. Let's assume that your
generation replaces the coal-fuelled part of the country's energy mix. In other
words, if you live in the UK, let's say that rather than replacing typical grid
electricity, which comes from a mix of coal, gas, oil and renewable energy
sources. the effect of your turbine is to reduce the use of coal-fired power
stations. That's reasonable. because coal is the least preferable source in the
electricity mix. In this case the carbon saving is roughly one kilogram per
kWh, so you save 25 tonnes per year and'pay back the embodied carbon in
just 14 months - a great start.
D The UK governrnent has reccntly introduced a subsidy for renewable energy
that pays individual produccrs 24p per energy unit on top of ali the money they
save on their own fuel bill, and on selling surplus electricity back to the grid at
approximately 5p per unir. With ali this taken into account, individuals would get
back f7,250 per year on their investment. That pays back the costs in about six
years. lt makes good financial sense and, for people who care about the carbon
savings for their own sake, it looks like a fantastic move. The carbon investment
pays back in just overa year, and every year after that is a 25-tonne carbon saving.
(It s important to remembcr that ali these sums rely on a wind turbine having a
favourablc location.)
E So, at face valuc.' the turbine looks 1.ike a great idea environmentally, and a fairly
good long-term mvestment economically for the person installing it. However there
!s a crucial perspective ~issing from the analysis so far. Has the govemment ~pent
ns money wisely? lt has invesied 24p per umt mto each micro-turbine. That works
out ata massive 250 per tonne of carbon saved. My calculations tell me that had
the govemment. invested its money in offshore wind farms, instead of subsidising
smaller dom~st1c turb~nes, they would have br~ken even after eight years. In other
words, the micro-rurbine works out as a good mvcstment for individuals, but only
~ecause the g?vemment spends. and arguably wastes, so much money subsidising
u. Carbon savmgs are far Jower too.


F Neverthcless. although thc micro-wind turbine subsidy doe n 't look like the very
bcst way of spending govcrnment re ource on climate change mitigauon. we are
talking about invcsting only about 0.075 pcrcent per ycar ofthe nation's GDP to get
a one pcrcent reduction in carbon emissions, which i a worthwhilc benefit. In other
words, it could be much bcucr, but it could be worse. In addition, such investment
hclps to promete ami ustain dcveloping technology.
G There is onc extra favourablc way of looking at the rnicro-wind turbine, even
if it is not thc single bcst way of invcsting money in cutting carbon. Input-
output modelling has told us that it is actually quite difficult to spend money
without having a ncgative carbon impact. So if the subsidy encourages people
to spend their money on a carbon-reducing technology such as a wind turbine,
rather than on carbon-producing goods like cars, and services such as overseas
holidays, then the reductions in emissions will be greater than my simple sums
above have suggested .

a rype of engine
a unit for measuring electrical power


Questions 1~26

Questions 14-20
Tip strip
Questions 14-20 Reading Passage 2 has SEVEN paragraphs, A-G.
The heJdrngs ere not
in the sarne order as
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
thl' mtormauon m the
1t>t\ci1ng pessaqe.
Sornetrmes a paragraph Write the correct number, i-ix.
contams mformauon
whrch is in more than
one of the headmgs List of Headings
Choose the headrng
which best describes
the too of the A better use for large sums of money.
paragraph. ii The environmental costs of manufacture and installation.
You can only use each
headmq once iii Estimates of the number of micro-turbines in use.
lf you choose one of iv The environmental benefits of running a mcro-turbne.
the headrngs and then
find that 1t fits a later v The size and output of the largest type of micro-turbine.
paragraph better. go
back and choose a vi A limited case for subsidising micro-turbines.
different one for the
earher paragraph. vii Recent improvements in the design of micro-turbines.
Don't choose a heading viii An indirect method of reducng carbon emssons.
just because it contains
words from the passage. ix The financia! benefits of running a mcro-turbne.
Make sure that it
expresses the topic of
the whole paragraph.
14 Paragraph A
The reading passage
discusses two types
of cost: financia! 15 Paragraph B
and environmental.
Make sure that you 16 Paragraph C
understand which type
of cost each paragraph
17 Paragraph D <ti
is about.
Question 16
18 Paragraph E
Paragraph C estimares
how much fess carbon
domestic wmd turbines 19 Paragraph F
use than convennonal
forms of power. In other 20 Paragraph G
words, it describes
the benefits for the
Question 18
Paragraphs D. E and F
are about large sums
of money (government
spendmg). took at each
of these before decidmq
wh1ch one compares ways
of spending money. one
better than the other.


Questions 21-22

Tip strip Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Questions 21-22
The list below contains some possible statements about micro wind-turbines.
Don 't chooss
staternents because
you agree with thern. Which TWO of these statements are made by the writer of the passage?
Only choose staternents A In certain areas. permission is required to install them.
which are rnade by
the wnter of the B Their exact energy output depends on their position.
reading passage.
Only two statements C They probably take less energy to make than other engines.
are correct.
O The UK government contributes towards their purchase cost.
In the Reading test. the
opnons are in the same E They can produce more energy than a household needs.
order as the information
in the reading passage.
For each staternent. frnd Questions 23-26
the part of the passage
which is most lrkely to
contain the answer. Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

23 would be a more effective target for government investment

than micro-turbinas.

24 An indirect benefit of subsidising micro-turbinas is the support it provides for

25 Most spending has a effect on the environment.

26 lf people buy a micro-turbine, they have less money to spend on things like
foreign holidays and ,...

Tip strip Copy the words carefully. especially when

copying words whrch you aren't familiar with.
Question 23-26 Check the spelling afterwards.
The sentences follow the order of information Question 23
in the readinq passage. so when you've found
the part where the first one is. you can find The sentence compares rmcro-turbines with
the rest more easify. something else. The answer must be a noun
lf the maximum number of words is three.
u's likely that at least one answer will contain Question 25
three words. The word after the space is a noun. and the
Read the whole sentence carefully before word before the space is 'a', so the answer must
choosing an answer. be an adjective beginning with a consonant.


. Questions 27-40, wtucn are based on
You should spend about 20 mmutes on
Reading Passage 3 below.

Pottery productionin ancientAkrotiri

f m the cerarnic material itself, and thc
Excavations at thc sitc of prchistoric Akrotiri. on ~~n~a~~ver~onclusionswhich can be drawn from it.
the coasr of the Aegean Sea, havc re ealed much
about the technical aspects of pottcry manufacture,
The invention ofunits of quantity and of ~ numerical
indisputably one of the basic industries of this
stern to count them was of capital irnportance
Greek city. However, considerably less is known
about the socio-econornic context and thc way }~r an exchange-geared socery such as tha_t of
production was organi ed. Akrotiri. In spite of the absence of any wntten
rccords, thc archaeological evidence reveals that
The bulk of pottcry found at Akrotiri is locally concepts of measurements, both of weight and
made, and dates from the late fifteenth ccntury BC. number had been formulated. Standard measures
lt clearly fulfilled a vast range of the settlernent 's may alr~ady have been in operation, such a~ those
requirernents: more than fifty different types of pots evidcnced by a graduated senes <;>f lead we~ghts -
can be distinguished. The pottery found includes a made in disc form - found at the site, The existence
wide variety of functional types like storage jars, of units of capacity in Lat~ Bronze _Age tim_es _is
smaller containers, pouring vessels, cooking pots, also evidenced, by the notanon of uruts of a liquid
drinking vessels and so on, which ali relate to specific measure for wine on excavated containers.
activities and which would have been made and
distributed with those activities in mind. Given the It must be recognised that the function of pottery
large number of shapes produced and the relatively vessels plays a very important role in determining
high degree of standardisation, it has generally been their characteristics. The intended function affects
assumed that most, if not ali, of Akrotiri pottery the choice of clay, the production technique, and
was produced by specialised craftsmen in a non- the shape and the size of the pots. For example,
domestic context. Unfortunately neither the potters' large storage jars (pithoi) would be needed to store
workshops nor kilns have been found within the commodities, whereas smaller containers would be
excavated area. The reason may be that the cerarnic used for transport. In fact, the length of a man 's
workshops were located on the periphery of the site, arm lirnits the size of a smaller pot to a capacity of
which has not yet been excavated. In any event, the about twenty litres; that is also the maximum a man
ubiquity of the pottery, and the consistent repetition can comfortably carry.
of the same types in different sizes, suggests
production on an industrial scale. The various sizes of container would thus represent
standard quantities of a commodiry, which is a
The Akrotirian potters seem to have responded to fundamental element in the function of exchange.
pressures beyond their households, namely to the Akr~tirian merchants handling a comrnodity such
increasing complexity of regional distribution and as wine would have been able to determine easily
exchange systems. We can imagine them as full- the amount of w1~e they were transporting from thc
time craftsmen working permanently in a high n_umber of cont~mcrs they carried in their ships,
production-rate craft such as pottcry manufacture, smce the capacity of each container was known
and supporting themselves entirely from the to_ be 14-18 litres. (w_e c~uld draw a parallel here
proceeds of their craft. In view of the above, one w1th_the curr<:nt practice m Greece of selling oil in
can begin to speak in terms of mass-produccd 17 ki logram tins.)
pottery and the existence of organised workshops
of craftsmen during thc period 1550-1500 BC. We may thereforc assur:ie that the shape, capacity,
Yet, ~~w po~tery production was organised at and, somenmes decorarion of vessels are indicative
Akrotiri rernams an open question, as there is no ?f _t~e commodit)'. contained by them. Since
real documentary evidence. Our entire knowledge individual transactions would normally involve


differcnt quantities of a givcn comrnodiry, a range where there is no noticeable external differen.ce
of "standardised ' types of vcssel would be needed betwecn pots meant to contain the sarne q~anuty
to meet traders ' requirements. of a commodty, diffcrences in their capac1ty can
actually reach one or two litres. In one case the
In tryi~g to reconstruct systcms of capacity by dcviation from the required size appears to be as
mcasunng the volume of cxcavated pottery, a much as 10-20 pcrcent.
rather generous range of tolcranccs must be
allowed. 1t scerns possiblc that the pottcrs of that The establishment of regular trade routes within
time had specific sizes of vessel in mind, and the Aegean led to increased movement of goods;
tried to reproduce thcm using a spccific type and conscqucntly a regular cxchange of local, luxury
amount of clay. However, it would be quite difficult and surplus goods, includng metals, would ha~e
for them to achieve the exact sizc rcquircd cvery become feasible as a result of the advances in
time, without any mcchanical means of regulating transport technology. The increased demand for
synunetry and wall thickness, and some potters standardised exchanges, inextricably linked to
would be more skilled than others. In addition, commercial transactions, might have been one of
variations in the repetition of types and size may the main factors which led to the standardisation
also occur because of unforeseen circumstances of pottery production. Thus, the whole network
during the throwing process. For instance, instead of ceramic production and exchange would have
of destroying the entire pot if the clay in the rim depended on specific regional economic conditions,
contained a piece of grit, a potter might produce and would reflect the socio-economic structure of
a smaller pot by simply cutting off the rim. E ven prehistoric Akrotiri .


Questions 27-40

Questions 27-28
Tip strip
Questions 27-28
Choose tne correct tener: A, B. C or D.
Ihe qut'\ton~ follow
the order of mformanon
rn the 1eJd1ng pasSc'lge,
27 What does the writer say about items of pottery excavated at Akrotiri?
so the anwver to
Ouesuon 2 7 can be
A There was very little duplication.
found belore the B They would have met a big variety of needs.
answer to Ouesnon 28.
The mormauon in the C Most of them had been importad from other places.
opnons may not follow
the order of mormauon O The intended purpose of each piece was unclear.
m the readmg passage.
Sorne of the words and 28 The assumption that pottery from Akrotiri was produced by specialists is
phrases in the mcorrect partly based on
options, or words and
phrases with a similar A the discovery of kilns.
meanmg, can probably
be found tn the readtng
B the central location of workshops.
passage So after you've C the sophistication of decorative patterns.
chosen an answer.
check that the other O the wide range of shapes represented.
options are wrong.
lf you can't ftnd the
correct answer. and Questions 29-32
you're runnmg out
of time, u's better to Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
guess than to leave the
quesuon unanswered.
Question 28
Write the correct tetter. A-F.
To ftnd where the
answer rs. look for words
29 The assumption that standard units of weight were in use could be based on
related to 'assurnptron'
and 'specrasts'. then 30 Evidence of the use of standard units of volume is provided by
read the following
sentences carefully. 31 The size of certain types of contajners would have been restricted by

32 Attempts to identify the intended capacity of containers are complicated by

A the discovery of a collection of metal discs.
B the size and type of the sailing ships in use.
C variations in the exact shape and thickness of similar containers.
O the physical characteristics of workmen.
E marks found on wine containers.
F the variety of commodities for which they would have been used.

Tip strip Question 30

Questions 29-32 and Questions 39-40 To ftnd where the answer rs, look for a word
with a similar meamnq to 'voturne'
Read all the opuons qutekly before you begin
the task. Question 32
The questions follow the order of mformatron To find where the answer is. look for a phrase
in the readtng passage. with a srrrular rneamnq to 'attempts to 1dent1fy
Each of the correct options can only be the in tended cepaoty', and then read the
used once. Iollowinq sentences.


Questions 33--38
Do tne following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading PasSa<J6
Tip strip
Questions 33-38 Write
D0n r answer the
quesuons by usrnq YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
you: own knowledqs NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
or opuuon. Answer
only accordmq to
NOT GIVEN f it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
what the wnter of the
passaqe says 33 There are plans to excavate new areas of the archaeologcal site in the
Question 40 near future.
The answer to thrs
question cant be found 34 Sorne of the evdence concerning pottery production in ancient Akrotiri comes
in a single part of the from written records.
readrng passaqe. but the
frrst and last paragraphs 35 Pots for transportng liquids would have held no more than about 20 litres.
(the introduction and
the conclusion) are
particularly rmportant. 36 lt would have been hard for merchants to calculate how much wine was on
their ships.

37 The capacity of containers intended to hold the same amounts differed by up

to 20 percent.

38 Regular trading of goods around the Aegean would have led to the general
standardisaton of quantities.

Question 39-40

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

39 What does the writer say about the standardisation of container sizes?
A Containers which looked the same from the outside often varied
in capacity.
B The instruments used to control container size were unreliable.
C The unsystematic use of different types of clay resultad in size variations.
O Potters usually discarded containers which were of a non-standard size.

40 What is probably the main purpose of Readng Passage 3?

A To evaluate the quality of pottery containers found in prehistoric Akrotiri.
B To suggest how features of pottery production at Akrotiri reflectad other
developments in the region.
C To outline the development of pottery-making skills in ancient Greece.
O To describe methods for storing and transporting household goods in
prehistoric societies.


Writing module (1 hour)


Task 1 tests your ability to summarise the information represented in a visual, such
as a graph, bar chart, pie chart. plan or diagram.
You are expected to analyse the information, and identify the main trends or
patterns. You have to then summarise these, and select appropriate information
to exemplify them. You do not have to mention everything which appears in
the visual.

Task 2 tests your ability to write a well-organised essay on a given topic.

The topic is usually expressed in terms of a statement, followed by a question, or
questions. You will be expected to summarise opposing views and offer your own
opinion, or describe the reasons for a given situation and suggest possible causes
or solutions.

For Task 1, look for samples of graphs, charts and diagrams, and practise analysing
the information. You can do this in your own language; the important thing is that
you are a ble to process visual information both accurately and quickly.
Then practise summarising the information in English.
For Task 2, read articles from a wide range of suitable sources and subject matter.
In addition, practise writing essays according to the process suggested in the
Writing File.
While practising for both tasks, impose a time limit on yourself so that you get
used to writing quickly, and have enough time left to check your essay. Also, pay
attention to your handwriting. Ask other people to tell you if it is legible, and
practise letter formation to improve your handwriting .

Manage your time effectively. Don't spend all your time writing. Allow sufficient
time to read the rubrics and, for Task 1, to analyse the visual. Also allow time to
check and correct your writing afterwards.
- You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Tip strip
The diagram below show how leather goods are produced.
)t.1rt wuh cm muoductory
)l.'nten<.(' summausmq Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the msin
what the visual shows features, and making comparisons where relevant.
Don't 1ust copy the task
rubnc aim to moc11fy/add
10 1t shghtly. to make the
Iocus dearer. Write at least 150 words.
You are required to explam
every staqe of the orocess,
but avoid repeat1ng thc A method of producing leather goods
same structures over and
over again. A1m to use a

t~- '-~1
vanety of drfferent verb Animalslcm We1ter..-~
forms - this wrll make the
essay more interestinq ~ ~
and readable.
In process tasks washing
particularly. 1t is irnportent
to use clear sequence
markers, e.g. 'Firstly',

(We1rer +
Veget11b~ matter)
:A.fter that ... and lJ~
phrases which mdicate f +--
sequence such as 'Having Soaking
been deaned . ', 'On
arrival they ... '.

Process tasks require you
to use the passive voice
for many parts of the Flattening
report (e.g. 'The leather
s then transported . .', ~
'They are submerged . ')
because the acuon is more Polishmg
irnportsnt than knowing
who performed it

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Tip strip Write about the following topic:

In thrs task, you must
a) expla1n the rnam
differences between As children become adults, their social behaviour changes in
cruldren's and adults' sorne ways.
social behavrour and b)
state how far you regard What are the main differences between young cnitdren's social
these changes as posinve.
Note do not waste time
behaviour and that of adults? To what extent are the changes that
drscussinq whetber social take place good?
beha~ourchanges. You
must accept thrs.
You can hst all the Give reasons for your answer. and include any relevant examples from your own
ditterences m the f1rst knowledge or experence.
paragraph and then, in
the second paragraph.
discuss the extent to Write at least 250 words.
which these are posnive.
Or. you can explam the
fim d1fference and discuss
wtlether 1t is good or bad.

then expla1n the second
difference and discuss
whether rt rs posmve,
and so on


Speaking module (11-14 minutes)


1 d to the same four criteria for each

The exammer assesses your speaking abi 1ty accor ing . .
part of the test: relevance and coherence, vocabulary; grammar and pr~nunciation ..
You may get a different grade for each separate criterion, but your final grade w1ll
be based on all four criteria.
Part 1 tests your ability to answer simple questions on familiar topics.
Part 2 tests your ability to speak continuously, and at length, on a familiar topic.
Part 3 tests your ability to converse on more abstract and impersonal topics.

Listen to short talks and dialogues in English about everyday topics. Suitable
sources would be published listening materials, as well as TY. radio or the Internet.
Listen to longer interviews and discussions about more serious, impersonal
topics, selecting from the same types of source.
Take opportunities to talk to English speakers as often as possible. Use
communication strategies to keep the conversation going if necessary.
Practise giving short presentations about experiences you have had or people
you know, etc. lf possible, record yourself and listen to the recording.
Practise giving short presentations to other people, and ask them to give
you feedback.

While you are speaking, don't focus too much on accuracy. lf you think too
much about grammar, your fluency may be affected.
lf there is a word or phrase you can't remember, find other ways to say what
you want to say. You are in control of the language you use in a speaking test.
lf the general topic is one you don't know much about, use your imagination.
You will be assessed on how you speak, not on what you say .


An wer thcse ouesu ns

/'d like to talk to you about free time.

Tip strip
Free time ... How much free time do you normal/y neve? Why/Why not?
Question 2 e,",~ more What do you usual/y do in your free time?
than ene Jn'>\.~ Who do you spend your free time with?
Question 3 Sdy a Do you wish you had more free time? Why/Why not?
nomo. and ~meth1n9
about thet person
Now let's discuss c/othes.
Clothes ...
Question 3 lf the Is it important to you to wear clothes that are comfortab/e?
quesuon rs m tbe past Are you interested in fashion? Why/Why not? .
tense. use the past Were you interested in clothes when you were a chlki?
tense m your answer
What are your favourite clothes like now?
Question 4 This
quesuon rs not about
what clothes you hke!

,PART 2 You have one minute to make notes on the following topic. Then you have up
to two minutes to talk about it.
Tip strip
Describe a TV series which you enjoy watching
Choose a series that
you can saya lot about, You should say:
even 1f it's not the one
you eruov the most. what the series is about
Make notes about every who presents iUacts in it
bullet point, and about
how often it is on
the hne at the bottom
(explam ... ). and explain why you enjoy watching the series so much.
Follow-up questions
You can just qive a brief
answer to follow-up Is this series popular with many other people you know?
questrons. Do you watch TV often?

Consider these questions, and then answer them.

Tip strip Let's talk about foreign TV programmes.

Foreign programmes ... What kind of foreign TV programmes are popular in your country?
Question 3 When the What are the advantages of having foreign-made programmes on TV?
question is long, you
Some people think governments should control the number of foreign-made
can say 'Pardon'. or
'Sorry - could you say TV programmes being shown. Do you agree? Why?
that aqam'. You w1ll not
lose marks for this. Now let's talk about children and T\I.
Children and TV ...
Use appropriate phrases
What do you think are the qualities of a good children 's TV programme?
for expressrng opmions. What are the educational benefits of children watching TV?
Changes in the media ... Many peop/e think adults should influence what children watch. Do you
agree? Why?
Question 1 Talk about
both advantaqes and
disedvantaqes Now let's talk about changes in the media.
Question 3 Use the
future tense in your What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of having
answer. and phrases TV broadcast 24 hours a day?
hke 'lt's lrkely that .. .', In what ways have advances in technology inf/uenced the way people
'I ex:pect . . or watch TV?
'Probably :
What changes do you think wi/f occur in broadcast media in the next 20 years?


Listening module (approx 30 minutes + 1 O minutes transfer time)

Questions 1-10

Complete the notes below.

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD ORA NUMBER for each answer.

Car for sale (Mini)

'- of:or. .}uet llnMr .1~. yareold

Colour: 1 .

Mlleage: 2 .

Previoue; owner wae; a 3 .

Current: owner has ueed car mainly for 4 .

Price: may eccept: offers from 5 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

(Note: 6 not due for 5 months)

Condition: good ( recently eervtced


Will need a new 7 eoon

Minor probiem with a 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Aqreed to view the car on 9 a.m.


238, 1 O Road.


Questions 11-20

Questions 11-14

Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

11 The Treloar Valley passenger ferry

A usually starts services in April.
B departs at the same time each day.
C is the main means of transport for local villagers.

12 What does the speaker say about the river cruise?

A lt can be combined with a train journey.
B lt's unsuitable for people who have walking difficulties.
C The return journey takes up to four hours.

13 What information is given about train services in the area?

A Trains run non-stop between Calton and Plymouth.
B One section of the rail track is raised.
C Bookings can be made by telephone or the Internet.

14 The 'Rover' bus ticket

A can be used for up to five journeys a day.
B is valid for weekend travel only.
e has recently gone down in price.


Questions 15-20

Label the map be/ow.

Write the correa letter, A-H, next to questions 15-20.


River River

15 Bus stop

16 Car park

17 Museum

18 Mill ""'"""6'''"'

19 Potter's studio

20 Caf


r, -, : '
Questlons 21-30

Quest1ons 21-24

Choose the coirect letter. A. B or C.

Advlce on wrltlng a dlssertation

21 What does Howard say about the experience of writing his dissertation?
A lt was difficult in unexpected ways.
B lt was more enjoyable than he'd anticipated.
C lt helped him understand previous course work.

22 What is Joanne most worried about?

A Finding enough material.
B Missing deadlines.
C Writing too much.

23 What does Howard say was his main worry a year previously?
A Forgetting what he'd read about.
B Not understandingwhat he'd read.
C Taking such a long time toread each book.

24 What motivated Howard to start writing his dissertation?

A Talking to his tutor about his problema.
B Seeing an inspirational TV show.
C Reading a controversia! journal article.


Questions 2>-30

Questions 25-26

Choose TWO tetters, A-E.

What TWO things does Howard advise Joanne to do in the first month of
A See her tutor every week.
B Review all the module booklists.
C Buy all the key books.
O Write full references for everything she reads.
E Write a draft of the first chapter.

Questions 27-28

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO things does Howard say about library provision?

A Staff are particularly helpful to undergraduates.
B lnter-library loans are very reliable.
C Students can borrow extra books when writing a dissertation.
O Staff recommend relevant old dissertations.
E lt's difficult to access electronic resources.

Questions 29-30
Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO things does Joanne agree to discuss with her tutor?
A The best ways to collaborate with other students.
B Who to get help from during college vacations.
C The best way to present the research.
D Whether she can use web sources.
E How to manage her study time.



~NO llORE THAN TWO WORDS b" each arnswer.

Expertise in creative wt itMg

~ - resean:her had preWxJsly sludied 31 . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1

Had Rbal Ktea k>r researdl - IRSpSed by a book (the 32 .
ola famous ncweist).

Posed" quesboo - do sorne people bec:ome

experts whist othefs donl?

Read experbse research c:fifferent fields.

Avoideo 5''ucfies OO'X!ucted a 33 because too controlled.
~ n'L sruc~ - to 34 e.g. waJting tabtes.

Fou1d partripants: four true 35 in aeative writing

(eas) ro tind) and four wtth extensNe experience.

~~ . ~ -i.....
QiUUIJ ,,.r ~ ga~.. ~~ 36 da ta from ..;""""~
~ n...o;;v 1
~~- lOuriflSsession-assSn1made37 recordings).

Gathered simiar data rom experienced wters.

Compared two da-ra sets and geoera!Ed a 38 for analysts

(ldefl~ five major stages \"riling - v.'ill be refined tater).

Gol an expert 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. to evaruate lhe quality of
1he lfferentproducts.

ldentified the most effective 40 of stages

. producing text.

-~s- 3 LISH t G '400Ulf i$M

Reading module (1 hour)

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are basad on
Reading Passage 1 below.

The Ruf ous Hare-Wallaby

The Rufous Hare-Wallaby is a pccie of Au tralian kangaroo, usually known by its Aboriginal narne,
'ma~a'. ~tone time. thcre may have bccn as many as ten mi Ilion of these linle animals acro s th.e arid ~nd
semi-arid landscape of Australia. but thcir populations. like those of o many other mall endernic specie ,
werc devastated when cats and foxe were introduccd - indeed, during the l 950s it was thought that the
mala wa extinct. But in 1964, a small colony was found 450 miles northwe t of Alice Springs in the
Tanami De en. And 12 years later, a ccond small colony was found ncarby. Very extensive surveys were
madc throughout historical mala rangc - but no other traces were found.
Throughout the l 970s and l 980s, scientists from the Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern
Territory monitorcd these two populations. At first it seemcd that they were holding their own. Then in
late 1987. every one of the individuals of the second and smaller of the wild colonies was killed. From
examination of thc tracks in thc sand, it secmcd that just one single fox had been responsible. And then,
in October 1991. a wild-fire destroyed the entire area occupicd by the rcmaining colony. Thus the mala
was finally pronounced extinct in the wild.
Fortunately, ten years earlicr, seven individuals had becn caprured, and had become the founders of
a captive breeding programme at the Arid Zone Research lnstitute in Alice Springs: and that group
had thriv ed. Part of this success i due to the fact that the female can breed when she is just five
months old and can produce up to three young a year. Like other kangaroo species. the mother carries
her young - known as a joey - in her pouch for about 15 weeks, and she can have more than one joey
at the same time.

In the early l 980s, there were enough mala in the captive population to make it feasible to start a
reintroduction programme. But first it was neccssary to discuss this with the lcaders of the Yapa people.
Traditionally, the mala had been an important animal in their culture, with srrong medicinal powers for
old people. It had also bccn an important food source, and therc were concems that any mala retumed
to the wild would be killed for the pot. And so, in 1980, a group of key Yapa men was invited to visit
the proposed reintroduction area. Thc skills and knowledge of the Yapa would play a significant and
enduring role in this and ali other mala projects,
With the help of the local Yapa, an clectric fence was erccted around 250 acres of suitable habitat, abour
300 miles northwest of Alice Springs so that the mala could adapt while protected from predators. By
J 992, there were about 150 mala in their enclosure, which became known as the Mala Paddock. However.
ali attempts to reintroduce mala from the paddocks into the unfenced wild were unsucce sful, so in the
end the reintroduction programme was abandoned. The team now faced a siruation where mala could be
bred, but not relcased into the wild again.


Thus, in 1993. a Mala Rccovery Tcam was establishcd to boost mala numbers, and goals for a
programn~c w~r\! se~: thc team concentrated on finding suitable predator-frce or predator-contro_ ht
conservauon Siles. w1tl~111 the mala 's known range. Finally, in March 1999, twelve adult fem_ales,
adult m~\les, and cight jocys were transfcrred Irom the Mala Paddock to Dryandra Woodland in Wes
A~straha. Thcn. a ~ew ~1onths latcr, a second group was transferred to Trimouille, an island off thc coa~
ot western Australia. Fir t, it had becn necessary to rid the island of rats and cats - a task that had take
two years of hard work.

Six weeks aftcr their release into this conscrvation sitc a tcam returncd to the island to find out how
things were going. Each of the malas had been fittcd ~ith a radio collar that transmits for about 14
months, after which it falls off. The team was able to loca te 29 out of the 30 transmitters - only one carne
from the collar of a mala that had dicd of unknown causes. So far the recovery programme had gone even
better than expected.

Today, there are many signs suggesting that thc mala population on the island is continuing to do well.


Questions 1-5

Complete the flow chart below.


passage for each answer.

The Wild Australian mala

Distant past: total population of up to 1 in desert

and semi-desert regions.

Populations of malas were destroyed by 2 .

1964/1976: two surviving colonies were discovered.

Scientists 3 the colonies.

1987: one of the colonies was completely destroyed.

1991: the other colony was destroyed by 4 .

The wild mala was declared 5 .


Questions 6-9

Answer the questions below.


passage for each answer.

6 At what age can female malas start breeding?

7 For about how long do young malas stay inside their mother's pouch?

8 Apart from being a food source, what value did malas have for the
Yapa people?

9 What was the Yapa's lasting contribution to the mala reintroduction


Questions 10-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading

Passage 1?


TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT G/VEN if there is no information on this

1 O Natural defences were sufficient to protect the area called Mala Paddock.

11 Scientists eventually gave up their efforts to release captive mala into the
unprotected wild.

12 The mala population which was transferred to Dryandra Woodland quickly

increased in size.

13 Scientists were satisfied with the initial results of the recovery programme.


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based
Reading Passage 2 below. n

Questions 14-26

Questions 14-19

Reading Passage 2 has SEVEN sections, A-G.

Choose the corre et heading for sections A-F from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-viii.

list of Headings
Outbreaks of plague as a result of military campaigns.
ii Systematic intelligence-gathering about externa! cases of plague.
iii Early forms of treatment for plague victims.
iv The general limitations of early Russian anti-plague measures.
v Partly successful bans against foreign states affected by plague.
vi Hostile reactions from foreign states to Russian anti-plague measures.
vii Various measures to limit outbreaks of plague associated with war.
viii The formulation and publication of preventive strategies.

14 Section A

15 Section B

16 Section C

17 Section O

18 Section E

19 Section F


Measures to combat infectious
disease in tsarist Russia
A In th~ second h~~f of the seventcenth century, C During thc eightccnth cenrury, although none
Russian authoritic began implementing of the occurrence. was of the same sea le as
controls at the borders of thcir empire to in the past, plague appeared in Russia severa!
prcve1~t thc irnportation of plague, a highly times. For instance, from 1703 to 1705, a
infectious and dangerous disease. lnformation plague outbreak that had ravaged lstanbul
on disea e outbreak occurring abroad was spread to the Podolsk and Kiev provinces
reg~1larly reported to the tsar's court through in Russia, and then to Poland and Hungary.
vanous means, including commercial channels After defeating the Swedes in the battle of
(travelling merchants), military personnel Poltava in 1709, Tsar Peter 1 (Peter the Great)
deployed abroad, undercover agents, the dispatched part of his army to Poland, where
nerwork of Imperial Foreign Office embassies plague had been raging for two years. Despite
and representations abroad, and the customs preventive measures, the disease spread
offices. For instance, the heads of customs among the Russian troops. In 1710, the
offices were instructed to question foreigners plague reached Riga (then part of Sweden,
entering Russia about possible epidemics of now the capital of Latvia), where it was
dangerous diseases in their respective countries. active until l 711 and claimed 60,000 lives.
During this period, the Russians besieged
B If news of an outbreak carne from abroad, Riga and, after the Swedes had surrendered
relations with the affected country were the city in 171 O, the Russian army lost 9,800
suspended. For instance, foreign vessels were soldiers to the plague. Russian military
not allowed to dock in Russian ports if there chronicles of the time note that more soldiers
was credible information about the existence of died of the disease after the capture of Riga
epidemics in countries from whence they had than frorn enemy fire during the siege of
departed. In addition, ali foreigners entering that city.
Russia from those countries had to undergo
quarantine. ln 1665, after receiving news about D Tsar Peter I imposed strict measures to prevent
a plague epidemic in England, Tsar Alexei the spread of plague during these conflicts.
wrote a letter to King Charles 11 in which he Soldiers suspected of being infected were
announced the cessation of Russian trade isolated and taken to areas far from military
relations with England and other foreign states. camps. In addition, camps were designed to
These protective measures appeared to have separate divisions, detachments, and smaller
been effective, as the country did not record any units of soldiers. When plague reached
cases of plague during that year and in the next Narva (located in present-day Estonia) and
three decades. It was not until 1692 that another threatened to spread to St. Petersburg, the
plague outbreak was recor~ed ~n the. Russi~n newly built capital of Russia, Tsar Peter l
province of Astrakhan. This epidernic contmued ordered the army to cordon off the entire
for five months and killed l 0,383 people, or boundary along the Luga River, including
about 65 percent ofthe city's population. By. temporarily halting ali activity on the river.
the end of the seventeenth century, preventanve In order to prevent the movement of people
measures had been widely introduced in and goods from Narva to St Petersburg
Russia, including the isolation of pers~ns ill and Novgorod, roadblocks and checkpoints
with plague, the imposition of quar~ntmes, and were set up on ali roads. The tsar's orders
the distribution of explanatory publtc health were rigorously enforced, and those who
notices about plague outbreaks. disobeyed were hung.


E However. although the Ru ssian authorities Furthermore, the decree required that
applied such methods to contain the spread governors ensure the physical .examination
of the di case and limit thc number of ali persons suspected .of ca!rymg the diseasef
ictirns, al\ of thc mensures had a provisional and their subsequent isolation. In addition
cha~ctcr: they werc intendcd to rcspond to a it was ordered that sites where plague '
specific outbreak, and were not dcsigned as a victims were found had to be eneircled by
cohercnt .set of measures to be implemented checkpoints and isolated for the duration
systcmatically ar the first sign of plague. The of the outbreak. These checkpoints were to 1
advent of such a standard response systern remain operational for at least six weeks.
came a few years later. The houses of infected persons were to
be burned a long with ali of the personal
F The first attempts to organise procedures property they contained, including farm
and carry out proactive stcps to control animals and cattle. The govemors were
plague date to the a ftermath of the 1727- instructed to inform the neighbouring
l 728. epidemic in Astrakhan. In response provinces and cities about every plague case
to this, the Russian imperial authorities occurring on their territories. Finally, letters
issued severa\ decrecs aimed at controlling brought by couriers were heated above a fire
the future spread of plague. Among these befare being copied.
decrees, the 'Instructions for Governors
and Heads ofTownships' required that ali G The implementation by the authorities of
governors immediately inform the Senate - these combined measures demonstrates their
a governmcnt body created by Tsar Peter l in intuitive understanding of the importance of
1711 to advi e thc monarch - if plague cases the timely isolation of infected people to limit
were detected in their respective provinces. the spread of plague.


Questions 20-21

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Write the correct letters.

Which TWO measures did Russia take in the seventeenth century to avoid
plague outbreaks?
A Cooperation with foreign leaders.
B Spying.
C Military campaigns.
D Restrictions on access to its ports.
E Expulsion of foreigners.

Questions 22-23

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Wrte the correct letters.

Which TWO statements are made about Russia in the early eighteenth century?
A Plague outbreaks were consistently smaller than before.
B Military casualties at Riga exceeded the number of plague victims.
C The design of military camps allowed plague to spread quickly.
O The tsar's plan to protect St Petersburg from plague was not strictly
E Anti-plague measures were generally reactive rather than strategic.

Questions 24-26

Complete the sentences below.

Choose ONE WORD ONL Y from the passage for each answer.

24 An outbreak of plague in prompted the publication of a

coherent preventative strategy.

25 Provincial governors were ordered to burn the and

possessions of plague victims.

26 Correspondence was held over a prior to copying it.


READING .- You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based
PASSAGE 3 . Reading Passage 3 below.

Recovering a damaged reputation

In ~009: it wa. rc~calc~ that somc of thc information publi hed by the University of Ea t Anglia 's Climatic
~c:scarch Untt (C RU) m thc UK, concerning climate chango, had becn inaccurate. Furthermore, it was
allcged that sorne o~ the rclcvant statistic had bccn withhcld from publication. The en uing controvcrsy
aflcctcd thc rcputa~1on n~t only of that institution. but al o of the lntergovernmental Panel on Climate
Chang~ (IPCC): with which the CRU is clo cly involvcd, and of climate scicntists in general. Even if
th~ cl~1m~ ?f misconduct and incompctcnce were eventually proven to be largely untrue, or confined to
a tcw individuals, the damagc wa done. The pcrccived wrongdoings of a few people had raised doubts
about the many.

The res~onsc of most climate scientist was to cross their fingers and hope for the best, and they kept a
low profilc, Many no. doubt hoped that sub equcnt independent inquirics into the IPCC and CRU would
drav a line under their problcm . Howevcr, although the e were likcly to help, they were unlikely to undo
the harm ca u sed by months of hosti le ncws report and attacks by critics.

The damag~ that has been done should not be undere timated. A Ralph Cicerone, the President of
the US ational Academy of Science , wrote in an editorial in the journal Science: 'Public opinion
has m?ve~ towa.rd tl~e vicw that scicntists oftcn try to suppress alternative hypotheses and ideas and
that scicnnsts will withhold data and try to manipulatc sorne aspect of peer review to prevent dissent.'
He concluded that 'the perceived misbehavior of even a few scientists can diminish the credibility of
sciencc as a whole.'

An opinion poli taken at thc beginning of 201 O found that the proportion of people in the US who
trust scientists as a source of information about global warming had dropped from 83 percent, in 2008,
to 74 percent. Another survcy carricd out by thc British Broadcasting Corporation in February 201 O
found that just 26 pcrcent of British people now belie e that climate change is confirmed as being largely
human-made, down from 41 percent in ovember 2009.

Regaining the confidence and trust of thc public is nevcr easy. Hunkering down and hoping for the
best - climate sciencc s currcnt strategy makc it almost impossible. lt is much better to learn from
the successes and failures of organisations that have dealt with similar blow to their public standing.
In fact, climate science needs profes ional help to rebuild its reputation. lt could do worse than follow
the advice givcn by Le tic Gainc -Ros , a 'rcputation _trategist' at Public. Relati?ns (PR) comp~ny
Weber Shandwick. in her reccnt book Corporute Repu1a11011: 12 Steps 10 Safeguarding and Recovering
Reputation. Gaines-Ros ~ strategy is based on her analysis of how variou~ organisations responded t?
crises such as desktop-printer firm Xerox, whose business plummeted durmg the l 990s, and the USAs
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) after the Columbia shuttle disaster in 2003.

The fir t step she sugge rs is to 'take .t~e heat lea~er first'. In many ca es, chie~ executives,who publicly
accept rcsponsibility for corporate failings can begin to reve~ e the freefall of thcir compa~y s reputauons. 1
but not always. 1 f the leader is held at lea~t pa~tly respon ible for t~e fall from grace, n can be almost
impossible to convince critic that a new direction can be charted with that same person at the helm. ,

This is thc dilernma facing the heads ofthe IPCC and CRU. Both have been blamed for their organisations '
problems. not least for the way in which they h~\e dealt with crit!cs. and both have. been. subjectc~ '~
public calls for their removal: Yet both orgam auons appear to believe they can repair their reputauon~
without a change of leadership.


The step outlined by Gaines-Ros i to 'cornmunicate tirele sly'. Yet many climate r~search~~~
ha~c the media and thc public. at lcast until the official enquiries have concluded rheir rep~ n
Th1s react15m may be undcrstandable. but it has backfired. Journalists following the story ha~c oft:en ~
unablc to find spokespcople willing to defend climate science. In this case, 'no comment ' is commo Y
intcrpreted asan admission of silent, collective guilt.

Remaining visible is only a ~tart. though; climate scientists also need to be careful what they sar.
They must realise that th~y f acc doubt not just about their published results, but also ~bout their
conduct and honesty, It sirnply won 't work for scientists to continue to appeal to the weight of the
evidence, while refusing to discuss the integrity of their profession. The harrn has been increased by a
perceived reluctance to adrnit even the possibility of rnistakcs or wrongdoing.

The third step put forward by Gaines-Ross is 'don 't underestirnate your critics and competitors '
This rneans .not only recognising thc skill with which the opponents of clirnat~ research ~a~e executed
their campaigns thro~gh Internet blogs and other media, but also acknowledgmg the validity of sorne
of their cnncisrns. It is clear. for instance, that clirnate scientists need better standards of transparency.
to allow for scrutiny not just by their peers, but also by critics frorn outside the world of research.

It is also important to engage with those critics. That doesn 't mean conceding to unfounded arguments
which are based on prejudice rather than evidence, but there is an obligation to help the public understand
the causes of climate change, as well as the options for avoiding and dealing with the consequences.

To begin the process of rebuilding trust in their profession, climate scientists need to follow these three
steps. But that is just the start. Gaines-Ross estirnates that it typically takes four years for a cornpany to
rescue and restore a broken reputation.

Winning back public confidence is a rnarathon, nota sprint, but you can't win at ali if you don't step up
to the starting line.


Questions 27-40
Questions 27-32

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?


YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

27 lf a majority of scientists at the CRU were cleared of misconduct, the put

would be satisfied.

28 In the aftermath of the CRU scandal, most scientists avoided attention.

29 Journalists have defended the CRU and the IPCC against their critics.

30 Ralph Cicerone regarded the damage caused by the CRU as extending

beyond the field of climate science.

31 Since 2010, confidence in climate science has risen slightly in the US.

32 Climate scientists should take professional advice on regaining public


Questions 33-36

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

33 In accordance with Gaines-Ross's views, the heads of the CRU and IPC
should have ..
A resigned from their posts.
B accepted responsibility and continued in their posts.
C shifted attention onto more junior staff.
O ignored the criticisms directed at them.

34 Which mistake have staff at the CRU and IPCC made?

A They have blamed each other for problems.
B They have publicly acknowledged failings.
C They have avoided interviews with the press.
O They have made conflicting public statements.

35 People who challenge the evidence of climate change have generally

A presented their case poorly.
B missed opportunities for publicity.
e made sorne criticisms which are justified.
O been dishonest in their statements.


36 What does the reference to 'a marathon' indicate in the final paragraph?
A The rate at which the climate is changing.
B The competition between rival theories of climate change.
C The ongoing need for new climate data.
O The time it might take for scientists to win back confidence.

Questions 37-40

Complete the summary using the /ist of wordslphrases, A-H. below.

Controversy about climate science

The revelation, in 2009, that scientists at the CRU had presented inaccurate
information and concealed sorne of their 37.... had a serious effect on their
reputation. In arder to address the problern, the scientists should turn to
experts in 38 ....

Leslie Gaines-Ross has published 39 .... based on studies of crisis

management in commercial and public-sector organisations. Amongst
other things, Gaines-Ross suggests that climate scientists should confront
their 40 .....

A critics B corruption e statistics O guidelines

E managers F public relations G sources H computer modelling


Writing module (1 hour)

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

e of unemployed graduates,
The bar chart below shows the pe~cent:;, a two-year period.
aged 20-24 in one European coun ry o .
' ti and reporting tne mam
Summarise the informatlon by selec mg t
features, and making comparisons where relevan

Write at least 150 words.

Graduate unemployment by gender, 2008 and 2009




Jan 08 April 08 July 08 Oct08 Jan 09 April09

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following tapie:

Many people assume that the goal of every country should be to

produce more materials and goods.
To what extent do you agree or disagree that constantly increasing
production is an appropriate goal?

Give reasons for your answer, and include any relevant examp/es from your own
knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.



speaking module (11-14 minutes)

An ve 1 tnc qu non

Let's talk about what you do.

Do you wor, orare you a student?
What subjects do you study?
Why did you cboose this course?
What's your job?
Why did you choose this job?

Now let's talk about reading.

Od your parents read to you wnen you were a child? Why/Why not?
Do you read for pleasure very often? Why/Why not?
What kind of books or magazines do you buy? Why/Why not?
Which do you find easier, reading in English or writing in English? Why?

You have one minute to make notes on the following topic. Then you have up
to two minutes to talk about it.

Describe an elderly person in your family who you enjoy talking to.
You should say:
who the person is
what he/she is like
how often you see him/her
and explain why you enjoy talking to this person.

Do other people in your family like talkirfg to this person too?

When did you last see this person?

PART 3 _.1 Consider these questions, and then answer them.

Let's go on to talk about elderlypeople who live with their families.

In your country, do most grandparents live in the same house as their children
and grandchildren? Why/Whynot?
What are the advantages and disadvantages for grandparents of living in the
same house as their children and grandchildren?

Now /et's talk about retirement.

Do you think some people retire from their jobs too early? Why/Whynot?
Why do you think some peop/e feel unhappy when they first retire from work?
What types of hobby do people enjoy doing after they have retired from work?

Now let's considerold age in the future.

What kinds of problem can be caused when the proportion of elderly people
in a country keeps rising?
In what ways might the lives of elderly people be different in the future? Why/

Why not?


.TEST - ~4 . .: ~

Listening module (approx 30 minutes + 1 O minutes transfer time)

Questions 1-10

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ANDIOR A NUMBER for each answer.

Things to do befare we go


Cancel appointment with the 1 (Monday)

Begin taking the 2 (Tue5day)


3 '
a 5mall bag,

a 5pare 4 ,

an electrical 5 . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .

Book a 6 .

ln5truction5 for Laura5 mum

Feed the cat

Name: Coln 7 .

Te/: 8 .

Addre55: Fore Street (oppo5ite the 9 )

Water the plant5

Meet the heating engineer on 1O .



Questions 11-20

Questions 11-16

Choose the correct answer, A. B or C.

Adbourne Film Festival

11 Why was the Film Festival started?

A To encourage local people to make films.
B To bring more tourists to the town.
C To use money released from another project.
12 What is the price range for tickets?
A E 1.00 - f:2.50
B 50p - f:2.00
C E1 .50 - E2.50

13 As well as online, tickets for the films can be obtained

A from the local library.
B from severa! different shops.
e from the two festival cinemas.

14 last year's winning film was about

A farms of the future.
B schools and the environment.
e green transport options.

15 This year the competition prize is

A a stay in a hotel.
B film-making equipment.
e a sum of money.

16 The deadline for entering a film in the competition is the end of

A May.
B June.
e July.


Questions 17-20

Questions 17-18

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO main criteria are used to judge the film competition?
A Ability to persuade.
B Quality of the story.
C Memorable characters.
O Quality of photography.
E Originality.

Questions 19-20

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO changes will be made to the competition next year?

A A new way of judging.
B A different length of film.
C An additional age category.
O Different performance times.
E New locations for performances.

.. 1

.' ' . . .. ~. ,. .n 'i . .

,,, .)

'f:.. . ..

,_:~~ ~ 3
.{! .. ~ J

-, .. f , ... --;:~, -:
... . :

.... :
: L ~ .... ', - TEST 4, tlSTEfHNG MODULE
Questions 21-30

Questions 21-24

Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

Research on web-based crosswords

21 Leela and Jake chose this article because
A it was on a topic familiar to most students.
B it covered both IT and education issues.
C it dealt with a very straightforward concept.

22 How did Leela and Jake persuade students to take part in their research?
A They convinced them they would enjoy the experience.
B They said it would help them do a particular test.
C They offered to help them with their own research later on.

23 Leela and Jake changed the design of the original questionnaire because
A it was too short for their purposes.
B it asked misleading questions.
C it contained out-of-date points.

24 Leela was surprised by the fact that

A it is normal for questionnaire retums to be low.
B so many students sent back their questionnaires.
C the questionnaire responses were of such high quality.


Questions 25-30

Questions 25-26

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO things did respondents say they liked most about doing
the crossword?
A lt helped them spell complex technical terms.
B lt was an enjoyable experience.
C lt helped them concentrate effectively.
O lt increased their general motivation to study.
E lt showed what they still needed to study.

Questions 27-28

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

In which TWO areas did these research findings differ from those of the
original study?
A Students' interest in doing similar exercises.
B How much students liked doing the crossword.
C Time taken to do the crossword.
O Gender differences in appreciation.
E Opinions about using crosswords far formal assessment.

Questions 29-30

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO skills did Leela and Jake agree they had learned from doing
the project?
A How to manage their time effectively.
B How to process numerical data.
C How to design research tools.
O How to reference other people's work.
E How to collaborate in research.


Questions 31-40

Complete the sentences betow.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Job satisfaction study

31 Workers involved in the study were employed ata .

32 Despite sorne apparent differences between groups of workers, the survey

results were statistically .

33 The speaker analysed the study's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to identify any problems

with it.

34 Th e vanous
. su b -groups were . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in s1ze.

35 Workers in the part-time group were mainly .

36 The of workers who agreed to take part in the study was


37 Researchers were unable to the circumstances in which

workers filled out the questionnaire.

38 In future, the overall size of the should be increased.

39 In future studies, workers should be prevented from having discussions

with .

40 Workers should be reassured that their responses to questions

are .


Reading module(1 hour)
. Q tions 1-13 which are based
You should spend about 20 mmutes on ues ' o
Reading Passage 1 below.

Geoff Brash. who died in 201 O. was a gregarious Australian businessman and philanthropist w
encouraged the young to reach their potential.
Bom in Melbourne to El a and Alfrcd Brash. he was educated at Scotch College. ~is sister, Barba
became a renowncd arti t and printmakcr. H is father. A 1 fred, ran thc Brash retail mus1c. b~s~nes.s th~t h
been founded in 1862 by his grandfather, thc Gcrman immigrant Marcus Brasch, spec1ahsmg m piano
lt carricd the slogan 'A home i not a home without a piano.'
In his young days, Brash cnjoyed the good life, playing golf and sailing, and spending sorne month
travclling through Europc, having a leisurely holiday. He worked for a time at Myer dep~rtment stor
before joining the family business in 1949, where he quickly began to put his starnp ~n things. In on~
his first management decisions, he diverged from his father s scnse of frugal aesthetics b~ re-carpeting
the old man 's office while he was away. After initially complaining of his extravagance, his father grew
to accept the change and gave his son incrcasing responsibility in the business.
After World War 11 ( 1939-1945), Brash 's had begun to focus on white goods, such as washing machines an
refrigerators. as the consumer boom took hold. However, while his father was content with the business h
had built, the younger Brash viewed expansionas vital. When GeoffBrash took overas managing director i
1957, the company had two stores, but after floating it on the stock exchange the following year, he expanded
rapidly and opened suburban stores, as well as buying into familiar music industry names such as Allans
Palings and Suttons. Evcntually, 170 stores traded across the continent under the Brash 's banner.
Geoff Brash learned from his father s focus on customer service. Alfred Brash had also been a pioneer i
introducing a share scheme for his staff, and his son retained and expanded the plan following the float
Geoff Brash was optimistic and outward looking. As a result, he was a pioneer in both accessing an
selling new technology, and developing overseas relationships. He sourced and sold electric guitars
organs, and a range of other modern instrumenrs, as wcll as state-of-the-art audio and video equipment
He developed a relationship with Taro Kakchashi, the foundcr of Japan 's Roland group, which Jed to
joint venrure that brought electronic musical devices to Australia.

ln 1965, Brash and his wife artended a trade fair in .Guangzhou, the first of irs kind in China; they werc
one of !he rsr Western business p~ople allo~ed mt? the coll!ltry following Mao Zedong 's Cultural
Revolut.10n. ~.~ returned there many time~, help1~g advise t~e Ch mese m establishing a high quality piano
factory m Beijing: he bec~me the fa~tory s age~t m Aust~aha. Brash .also took leadingjazz musicians Don
Burrows and James Morrison to Chma, on a tnp that remtroduced Jazz to many Chinese musicians.


He stood down as Exccutivc Chairman of Brash 's in 1988. but under the new managcment dcbt b_ecameta
problem: and in 1994 the .banks called in administrators. The company was sold to Singapore~n mteres J
and continued to tradc until 1998, whcn it again went into administration. The Brash name then d1sappeare
fr?m thc retail world. Brash was greatly disappointcd by the collapse and the _eventual disappearanc,e
of tl~e con~pany he had run for so long. But it was not long before he invcsted in a restructured Allan 5
111us1c business.

Brash was a committe~ philanthropist who, in the mid- l 980s, cstablished the Bra~h Foundation. which
eventually morphed, with other partners, into thc Soundhousc Music Alliance. This was a not-for-profit
organisation oversecing and promoting multimedia music making and education for teachcr and students.
The Soundhouse offers teachers and young people the opporrunity to gct exposur~ to the latest muste
technology, and to use this to compose and record thcir own rnusic, cithcr alonc or m collaboration. The
organisation has now also established branches in New Zealand, South Africa and Ireland, as wcll as
numerous sites around Australia.


Questions 1-13

Questions 1-5

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading

Passage 1?


TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

1 The Brash business originally sold pianos.

2 Geoff Brash's first job was with his grandfather's company.

3 Alfred Brash thought that his son wasted money.

4 By the time Geoff Brash took control, the Brash business was selling sorne
electrical products.

5 Geoff Brash had ambitions to open Brash stores in other countries.

Questions 6-1 O

Answer the questions below.

for each answer.

6 Which arrangement did Alfred Brash set up for his employees?

7 Which Japanese company did Geoff Brash collaborate with?

8 What type of event in China marked the beginning of Geoff Brash's

relationship with that country?

9 What style of music did Geoff Brash help to promete in China?

1 o When did the Brash company finally stop doing business?


Questions 11-13

Complete the notes below.

Choose ONE WORD ONL y from the passage for eecb answer.

Soundhouse Muslc Alllance

Grew out of the Brash Foundation.

A non-commercial organisation providing support fer music and music

11 .

Allows opportunities fer using up-to-date 12 .

Has 13 in several countries .


. ', . .
.. ;
: ' "'' (.' 1
, '

. '


. . ..
. .. .

s >
:- .. :
: ~\ l : . . , ...


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based
Readmg Passage 2 below.

Questions 14-26

Questions 14-19
Reading Passage 2 has SIX paragraphs, A-F.

Choose the correct heading, A-F, from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-ix.

List of Headings
A mixture of languages and nationalities
ii The creation of an exclusive identity
iii The duties involved in various occupations
iv An unprecedented population density
v lmports and exports transported by river
vi Transporting heavy loads manually
vii Temporary work for large numbers of people
viii Hazards associated with riverside work
ix The changing status of riverside occupations

14 Paragraph A

15 Paragraph B ..................

16 Paragraph C

17 Paragraph O

18 Paragraph E

19 Paragraph F


Early occupations around
the river Thames
A In l~cr pioncerir~g survcy, Sources <4Lo11do11 English, Laura Wright has listed the
va~rc~y of medieval. workers who took thcir livings from the river Tharnes. The
baillies of Quccnhithe and Billingsgatc acted as customs officers. Therc were
conservatnrs; who werc responsiblc for maintaining the cmbankments and the
wcrrs, and thcrc wcrc the garthmen who worked in thc fish garths (enclosures).
Then there were galleymen and lightermen and shoutmen, called after the names
of their boats, and there were hookers who werc named after the manner in which
they caught their fish. The searcher patrolled the Thamcs in search of illegal fish
weirs, and the tideman worked on its banks and foreshores whenever the tide
permitted him to do so.

B Ali of these occupations persisted for many centuries, as did those jobs that
depended upon the trade of the river. Yet, it was not easy work for any of the
workers. They carried most goods upon their backs, since the rough surfaces
of the quays and nearby streets were not suitable for wagons or large carts; the
merchandise characteristically arrived in barreis which could be rolled from the
ship a long each quay. If the burden was too great to be carried by a single man,
then the goods were slung on potes resting on the shoulders of two men. lt was a
slow and expensive method of business.

C However, up to the eightcenth century, river work was seen in a generally

favourable light. For Langland writing in tl!e fourteenth century, the labourers
working on river mcrchandise wcre rclatively prosperous. And the porters of
the seventcenth and early eighteenth centurics were, i f anything, aristocrats of
labour. enjoying high status. However, in the ycars from the late eighteenth to
the early nincteenth century, there was a marked change in attitude. This was in
part beca use the working river was within the region of the East End of London,
which in this period acquired an unenviable reputation. By now, dockside labour
was considered to be the most disreputable, and certainly the least desirable
form of work.

D It could be said that the first industrial community in England grew up around the
Thames. With the host of river workers themselves, as well as the vast assembly
of anci llary trades such as tavern-keepers and laundresses, food-sellers and
street-hawkers, shopkeepers and marine store dealers - there was a workforce of
many thousands congregated in a re~ativ~ly small.area. There were more va.rieties
of business to be observed by the riverside than m any other part of the cuy. As
a result with the possible exception of the area known as Seven Dials, the East
End wa~ also the most intensively inhabited region of London.

E It was a world apart, with its own language and its own laws. From the sailors
in the opium dens of Limehouse to the smugglcrs on the malaria! ats of the
estuary, the workers of the river werc not par~ of a.ny civilised sociery, The_ alen
world of thc river had entcred thcm. That alienation was also expressed in thc
slang of the docks, which essentially amounted to backslang, or the reversa!
of ordinary words. This backslang also helped in the formulation of Cockney
rhyming slang , so that the vocabulary of Londoners was dircctly affectcd by the
life of thc Thames.


F The rcports in thc nincteenth-century press reveal a heterogeneous world of d
labour, in which the crowds of casuals waiting for work at. the dock gate~ck
7.45 a.rn. include penniless refugees, bankrupts. old soldiers, broken-do:t
genrlemcn, discharged servants, and ex-conv1cts. There were sorne 400-s~
permanent workers who eamed a regular wage and who were considered to be
thc patricians of dockside labour. However. there were sorne 2,500 casual workers
who were hired by the shift. The work for which they competed fiercely had
becomc cver more unplcasant. Steam power could not be used for the cranes, for
e~ampl?, beca use of the danger of fire. So the crane~ were powered by treadmills.
S1x to eight men entered a wooden cylinder and, laying hold of rope.s, would tread 1
the wheel round. They could lift nearly 20 tonnes toan average height of 27 feer
(8.2 metres), forty times in an hour. This was part of'the Jife of the river unknown
to those who were intent upon its more picturesque aspects.

a cotlcction of phrascs, based on rhyrnc, used by people in parts of central London as

altematives to standard English words.


: -, i. . s. i
1! 1 1
. .. . .. . ..
. , . ..
1 ,: \. 1

. : .. : . 1.

.. :,,,.-. .
l., I ',. 1'

.,, '. ' s, (

r : \ .. , ... '
.. . , .
. . , ~! .

. . .
~( : .

...... t



', t . Jt :

. ... .. ,,. : . ~-.i. J~_

... . .
t '. ... ~ ..

;,.' . , 1 . ~1. : " . ~ ;...'lJ;/ .~h
~ : !./.l ;.;is !-<:.


"''-'. : .: # ~ .. ~
Questions 20-21
Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Write the correct letters.

Which TWO statements are made about work by the River Thames before the
eighteenth century?
A Goods were transportad from the river by cart.
B The workforce was very poorly paid.
C Occupations were specialised.
D Workers were generally looked down upon.
E Physical strength was required.

Questions 22-23

Choose TWOletters, A-E.

Write the correct letters.

Which TWO statements are made about lite by the River Thames in the early
nineteenth century?
A The area was very crowded.
B There was an absence of crime.
C Casual work was in great demand.
D Severa! different languages were in use.
E lnhabitants were known for their f(iendliness.

Questions 24-26

Complete the sentences below.

Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

24 In the nineteenth century, only a minority of dock workers received

a .
25 Cranes were operated manually because created a risk of tire.

26 Observers who were unfamiliar with London's docks found the River
Thames .


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, whch are based
Reading Passage 3 below.

Video game research

Although video gamos werc first dcveloped for adults, they are no longer exclusively reserved for the
gr?wn up 1~ the home. In 2006, Ridcout and l lamcl rcported that as many as 29 percent ~f preschool
chtldrcn (chtldrcn betwecn two and six ycars old) in the United State had played console video gamcs.
a~d 18 per,ccnt had playcd hand-held oncs. Given young children 'sin atia~le cagerness to learn, ~ouplcd
wtth. the fact that th~y are clcarly surroundcd by the e media, we predict that pre choolers will both
contmu.e and mcrcasingly bcgin to adopt video gamc for personal enjoyment. Although the majority
of gammg ~q~1pment !s still dcsigncd for a much older targct audicnce. once a game system cnters the
household n is ~otent1ally availablc for ali farnily mcmbcrs, including the youngest. Portable system,
have done a particularty good job of pcnctrating thc youngcr market.

Research in th~ video game markct is typically done at two stages: sorne time close to the end of the
product cycle, m order to get feedback from consumcrs, so that a marketing strategy can be developed; the very end of the product cycle to 'fix bugs' in the game. While both ofthose types of research
are important, and may be appropriate for dealing with adult consumers, neither ofthem aids in designing
better games. especially when it comes to designing for an audience that may have particular needs, such
as preschoolers or senior citizens. lnstead, exploratory and formative research has to be undertaken in
order to truly understand those audiences, their abilities, their perspective. and their needs. f n the spring
of 2007, our preschool-garne production team at Nickelodeon hada hunch that the Nintendo os: - with
its new fearures, such as the microphone, small size and portability, and its relatively low price point -
was a ripe gaming platform for preschoolers. There were a few games on the market at the time which
had characters that appealed to the younger set, but our game producers did not think that the game
mechanics or design were appropriate for preschoolers. What exactly preschoolers could do with the
systern, however, was a bit of a mystery. So we set about doing a study to answer the query: What could
we expect preschoolers to be capable of in the context of hand-held game play, and how might the child
development literature inform us as we proceeded with the creation of a new outlet for this age group?
Our context in this case was the United States, although the game that resulted were also released in
other regions, due to the broad international reach of the characters. In order to design the best possible
DS product for a preschool audience wc wcrc fully committed to the idea Is of a 'user-centered approach ',
which assumes that users will be at leasr considered, but ideally consulted during the development process.
After ali, whcn it comes to introducing a new interacrive product to the child market, and particularly
such a young age group within ir, we belicve it is crucial to assess the rangc of physical and cognitive
abilities associated with their specific devclopmcntal stage.
Revel le and Medoff (2002) review some of the basic reasons why home entertainment systems, computers,
and other electronic gaming devices, are oftcn difficult for prcschoolers to use. In addition to their still
developing motor skills (which mak~ .manipulating a controller with sm~ll butto~s difficutt),. many of
the major stumbling blocks are co~111t1vc. T!1ou~h prcschoolers a_re lcarning to think ymbolically, and
understand that picturcs can tand for real-Irte objects, thc vast majonry are till unablc toread and wnte.
Thus usinz text-based menu selections is not viable. Mapping is yet another obstaclc since preschoolcrs
may be um~ble to understand that there is a direct link between how the controllcr is used and the activities
that appear before them on screen. Though this aspect is changing, in traditional mapping systems real
life movements do not usually translate mto game-based acuvny .

over the C?urse .of our study, w~ gained ma.ny insights into how preschoolers inter:act ~ith vari~~~
platforms., including the f?S. For mst~nce, ali mstructions for pre choolers need to be in vo1ce?ver, ith
include visual representanons, and this has been one of the mo t di fficult a reas for us to negotiate w.
rcspect to g~me desi~n on the OS. Because the game cartridges have vcry limited memory c~pacity,
partic~larly m companso.n to console or computer garnes, the ability to capture large amounts ?f vo1ceover
data via sound files or visual rcpresentations of in tructions become limitcd. Text instructtons take .up
rninimal memolJ:', so thcy ar~ preferable from a technological perspective. Figuring out ways ~~ max1mtse
sound and graphics files, while retammg the clear visual and verbal cues that we know are critica] for our
youngest players, is a .constant givc and take. Anoihcr of our findings indicated that preschoolers may use
either stylus, or their fingers; or both although thcy are not very accurate with either. On~ of the .very
interestmg asp7cts of the OS 1~ that thc interface, which i dcsigned to respond to stylus interacuons.
can also effectivcly be u ed w1t~ the tip of the finger, This is particularly noteworthy rn th~ context of
presc~ool~rs .for ~w? rcasons. Firstly, as they have troublc with fine motor skills and their hand-eye
coordmat1on is still m developmcnt. thcy are less exact with their stylus movernents; and secondly, their
ngers are so small that they mimic the tylus very effectively, and therefore by using their fingers they
can often be more accuratc in thcir game interactions.

a brand of hand-held electronic games



Questions 2 7-31

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?


YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the w~iter

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

27 Video game use amongst preschool children is higher in the US than in

other countries.

28 The proportion of preschool children using video games is likely to rise.

29 Parents in the US who own gaming equipment generally allow their children
to play with it.

30 The type of research which manufacturers usually do is aimed at improving

game design.

31 Both old and young games consumers require research which is specifrcally

Questions 32-36

Complete the summary using the list of words/phrases, A-1, below.

Problems for preschool users of video games


Preschool children find many electronic games difficult, because neither

their motor skills nor their 32 are sufficiently developed.

Certain types of control are hard far these children to manipulate:

for example, 33 can be more effective than styluses.
Also, although they already have the ability to relate 34 to
real-world objects, preschool children are largely unable to understand
the connection between their own 35 and the movements
they can see on the screen. Finally, very few preschool children can
understand 36 .

A actions B buttons C cognitive skills

O concentration E fingers F pictures G sounds

H spoken instructions 1 written menus


~~--------------------------------- ~,
Questions 37-40

Choose the correct letter, A, B, e or D.

37 In 2007, what conclusion did gamas producers at Nickelodeon come to?
A The preschool market was unlikely to be sufficiently profitable.
B One of their hardware products would probably be suitable for
C Games produced by rival companies were completely inappropriate for
D They should put their ideas for new games for preschoolers into practica.

38 The study carried out by Nickelodeon

A was based on children living in various parts of the world.
B focused on the kinds of game content which interests preschoolers.
C investigated the specific characteristics of the target market.
O led to products which appealed mainly to the US consumers.

39 Which problem do the writers highlight concerning games instructions for

young children?
A Spoken instructions take up a lot of the available memory.
B Written instructions have to be expressed very simply.
C The children do not follow instructions consistently.
O The video images distract attention from the instructions.

40 Which is the best title for Reading Passage 3?

A An overview of video games software for the preschool market
B Researching and designing video games for preschool children
C The effects of video games on the behaviour of young children
O Assessing the impact of video games on educational achievement


Writing module (1 hour)

You should spend about 20 minutes on th1s tasi<.

~e charts below show the percentage of month/y household lncome

spent on varlous ltems by two dlfferent groups in one European

Summarise the lnformatlon by selecting and reporting the maln

features, and make comparlsons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

Percentage of houHhold Percent~g of household

lncome 1pent on dlfferent ltems income spent on different items*
Low lncome group High income group


Earnings excluding house rent/purchase

WRITING TASK':l You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

Modern technology has made it easier for individua/s to download

copyrighted music and books from the Internet forno charge.

To what extent is this a positive ora negative development?

Give reasons for your answer, and include any relevant examples from your own
knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.


speaking module (11-14 minutes)

Answer thcso questions.

Let's talk about your country.

What is the area where you live like?
Have you always lived in the same part of the country? Why/Why not?
Do many visitors travel to your country?
What do visitors to your country /ike to see and do?

Now let's talk about food.

What is your favourite type of food? Why?
Do you prefer eating at home or in a restaurant? Why/Why not?
When was the first time you cooked something yourself? What?
How happy are you to try eating new things? Why?

PART 2 18 You have one minute to make notes on the following topic. Then you have up
to two minutes to talk about it.

Describe a present that someone gave you which you liked a lot.
You should say:
what the present was
who gave it to you
why the person gave you a present
and explain why you liked that present a lot.

Were you surprised to receive that present?

Do you still have that present? ..

PART 3 Consider these questions and then answer them.

Now tet's talk about giving presents in your country.

On which occasions do people in your country usual/y give presents?
How important is it to wrap presents in an attractive way? Why/Why not?
Do people who receive a present usual/y open it straight away, or do they
open it Jater? Why/Why not?

Now /et's talk about official charities (e.g. Oxfam, UNICEF).

How important is it for people to support and give aid to charities? Why/
What do you think the role of official charities should be?
Why can charities sometimes he/p people more effectively than government
organisations can?


Listening module (approx 30 minutes + 1 o minutes transfer time)


Questions 1-2

Complete the notes below.

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.

Adviceon plumbersand decorators

Make sure the company te : .IP.<iP.I.

Don't cal/ a plumber during the 1 .

Look at trade website: 2 www com

Questions 3-1 O

Complete the table below.

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.

Name Positivepoints Negatlve polnts

Peake's Plumbing Pleasant and friendly Always 4 ..................

Give 3 ..................
Good quality work

John Damerol 5 ................... than Not very polite

Plumbing Services other companies Tends to be
Reliable 6 ..................

Simonson Plasterers Able to do lots of More 8 ..................

different 7 .................. than other companies

H.L. Plastering Reliable. Prefers not to use long

Also able to do 10 ..................
9 ..................


Questions 11-20

Questions 11-15

Choose the correct answer, A, B or C.

Museum work placement

11 On Monday, what will be the students' working day?

A 9.00 a.m. - 5.00 p.rn,
B 8.45 a.m. - 5.00 p.m.
e 9.00 a.m. - 4.45 p.m.

12 While working in the museum, students are encouraged to wear

A formal clothing such as a suit.
B a cap with the museum lago.
C their own casual clothes.

13 lf students are ill or going to be late, they must inform

A the museum receptionist.
B their museum supervisor.
e their school placement tutor.

14 The most popular task whilst on work placement is usually

A making presentations in local primary schools.
B talking to elderly people in care homes.
C conducting workshops in the museum.

15 The best form of preparation befare starting their work placement is to read
A the history of the museum on the website.
B the museum regulations and safety guidance.
C notes made by previous work placement students.


Questions 16-20

Label the plan below.

Write tne correct Jetter, A-1, next to questions 16-20

Where in the museum are the followng places?

16 Sign-in office

17 Gallery 1

18 Key box
19 Kitchen area
20 Staff noticeboard

Gallery 3

Museum Plan
courtyard Play area
Book Shop a rea

Gallery 2



Questlons 21-30

Questions 21-26

What is the tutor's opinion of the following company projects?

Choose FIVE answers from the box, and write the correct letter, A-H. next to
questions 21-26.

Tutor's opinion
A lt would be very rewarding for the student.
B lt is too ambitious.
C lt would be difficult to evaluate.
D lt wouldn't be sufficiently challenging.
E lt would involve extra costs.
F lt is beyond the student's current ability.
G lt is already being done by another student.
H lt would probably have the greatest impact on the company.

Company projects

21 Customer database

22 Online sales catalogue

23 Payroll

24 Stock inventory ................... .

25 Interna! security

26 Customer services

Questions 27-30

Questions 27-28

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO problems do Sam and the tutor identify concerning group
A Personal relationships.
B Cultural differences.
C Oivision of labour.
o Group leadership.
E Group size.


Questions 29-30

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO problems does Sam identify concerning the lecturers?

A Punctuality.
B Organisation.
C Accessibility.
D Helpfulness.
E Teaching materials.

SECTION 4 Questions 31-40

Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ONL Y for each answer.

The Tawny Owl

Most 31 ow/ epeciee in UK

Strongly nocturnal


Mainly lives in 32 , but can a/so be eeen In urban sreee, e.g. parks.


Short wings and 33 , for navigation
Brown and 34 feathers, for camouflage

Large eyes (more ~ective than those of 35 ), for good

night vision

Very qood spatial 36 , for predicting where prey might be found

Excellent 37 , for locating prey from a perch

Main food is small mammals.

Owls in urban areas eat more 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Two thirds of young owls die within a 39 .

Owls don't disperse over long distances.

Owls eeem to dislike flying over large a reas of 40 .


Reading module (1 hour)

You s~ould spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on
Readmg Passage 1 below.

The economic importance

of coral reefs
A lot of people ar?Lmd the world are depcndent. or partly dependent, on coral reefs for their livelihoods.
They often live adjacent to the reef, and their livelihood revolves around the direct extraction, processing
and sale of reef re~ources such as shell fish and seaweeds. In addition, their homes are sheltered by the
reef from wave acnon.

Reef flats and shallow reef lagoons are accessible on foot without the need for a boat and so allow
wo~en, children ai:id. the ~ld~rly to engage directly in man'ual harvesting, or 'reef-glean'ing'. This is a
significant factor distinguishing reef-based fisheries from near-shore sea fisheries. Near-shore fisheries
are typ!cally the d?1nain o~ adult males, in particular where they involve the use of boats, with women
and children restncted rnainly to shore-based activities. However, in a coral-reef fishery the physical
accessibility of the reef opens up opportunities for direct participation by women, and consequently
increases their independence and the importance of their role in the community. It also provides a place
for children to play, and to acquire important skills and knowledge for later in life. For example, in the
South West lsland ofTobi, in the Pacific Ocean, young boys use simple hand lines with a loop and bait at
the end to develop the art of fishing on the reef. Similarly, in the Surin lslands ofThailand, young Moken
boys spend much of their time playing, swimming and diving in shallow reef lagoons, and in doing so
build crucial ski lis for their future daily subsistence.

Secondary occupations, such as fish processing and marketing activities, are often dominated by women,
and offer an important survival strategy for households with access to few other physical assets (such as
boats and gear), for elderly women, widows, or the wives of infirm rnen. On Ulithi Atoll in the western
Pacific, women have a distinct role and rights in the distribution of fish catches. This is because the
canees, made from mahogany logs from nearby Yap lsland, are obtained through the exchange of cloth
made by the women of Ulithi. Small-scale reef fisheries support the involvement oflocal women traders
and their involvement can give them greater control over the household income, and in negotiating
for loans or credit. Thus their role is not only important in providing income for their families, it also
underpins the economy of the local vil lage.
Poor people with little access to land, labour and financial resources are particularly reliant on exploiting
natural resources, and consequently they are vulnerable to seasonal changes in availability of those
resources. The diversity of coral reef fisheries, combined _with their physical acc~ssibility and the
protection they provide against bad weather, make them relarively stable compared with other fishenes,
or land-based agricultura! production.
In many places, the reef may even actas a ~esource bank, used as a means of ~aving food for future times
of need. In Manus, Papua New Guinea, grant clams are collected and held m walled enclosures on the
reef, until they are needed during periods of rough weath~r. In Palau, sea cuc~mbers. are seldom eaten
during good weather in an effort to conserve their populations for months dunng which rough weather
prohibits good fishing.


Coral rcef rcs_ources also act as a buffer against easonal lows in other sectors, ~articularly agriculture
For cxamplc. in co~ stal communitics in northern Mozambique. reef h~rvests prov_1de key sources ~f fooc
ai~d. cash .when agricuhu-n production low, with thc peak in ~shene_ produc_tion coinciding wth th(
period o 10\~e t agncultural stocks. In Papua New Guinea, while a~nculture_ is the ynmary m~ans o
food production, a large proportion of thc coastal population engage m sporadtc subsistence fishmg.

!11many coral-reef arcas. tourism is one of the main industries bringing employment, and in many case
is promotcd to provide alternativcs to fisherics-based livelihood , and to ensure that loca~ r~ef resource
are conscrvcd. In thc Caribbean alonc tour based on scuba-diving have attracted 2_0 million peops i1
m~e ye~r. Thc upgrading of roads and' communications associated with the expanston _of tounsm rna:
also ~n~l~ bencfits to local communities. However, plans for developrnent must be considered carefull)
The ability of thc poorcr rnernbers of the community to access the b~nefits of tou.n 1:11 15 far fron
guarantecd, and. r~qu1re dcvclopment guided by social, cultural and env1ron~ental principles. There 1
gro.w.i~g recogmuo that ustainability is a kcy requirernent, as encornpassed in small-scale eco-touns-
acuvities, for instance.

Where tourism dcvclopment has not bcen carefully planned, and the needs and prioritie.s of the loca
cornmurnty have not been properly recognised, conflict has sornetirnes arisen between tounsm and loca
small-scalc fishers.

Questions 1-7

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading

Passage 1?


TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

1 In most places, coral-reef gleaning is normally carried out by men.

2 lnvolvement in coral-reef-based occupations raises the status of women.

3 Coral reefs provide valuable learning opportunities for young children.

4 The women of Ulithi Atoll have sorne control over how fish catches are
shared out.

5 Boats for use by the inhabitants of Ulithi are constructed on Yap lsland.

6 In coral reef fisheries, only male traders can apply for finance.

7 Coral reefs provide a less constant source of income than near-shore sea:
Questions 8-13

Complete the notes below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

How coral-reef based resources protect peo ple during difficulttimes

Coral reei can provide

a reeource bank. e.g. for keeping deme and 8 .

a seasonal back-up. when 9 producte are insufflcient,

e.g. in northern Mozambique.

a tourist attraction. e.g. 1O tours in the Caribbean.

Benents for local peopic include:

The creauon of jobs.

lmprovements to roade and 11 .

lmportant considerations:

Development must be based on appropriate principies.

Need for 12 .

Poorly-planned aeveiopmen: can creete 13 with local fishers .



You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are basad on
Reading Passage 2 on pages 105-106.

Questions 14-26

Questions 14-19

Reading Passage 2 has SIX paragraphs, A-F.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from tne list of headings beJow.

Write the correct number, i-ix.

List of Headings
A suggested modification to a theory about learning.
i The problem of superficial understanding.
iii The relationship between scientific understanding and age.
iv The rejection of a widely held theory.
v The need to develop new concepts in daily lite.
vi The claim that a perceived contradiction can assist mental
vii lmplications far the training of science teachers.
viii An experiment to assess the benefits of exchanging views with
a partner.
ix Evidence far the delayed benefits of disagreement between pupils.

14 Paragraph A

15 Paragraph B

16 Paragraph C

17 Paragraph O

18 Paragraph E

19 Paragraph F


Acquiring the principiesof
mathematicsand science
A lt has been pointcd out that lcarning mathcmatics and cience is not so much
learrnng facts a~ learning ways of thinking. lt has also bcen emphasised thar in
o.rder .to learn science, pcople often havc to e han ge che way they rhink in ordinary
siruanons. For exarnple, in order to undcrstand even simple conccpts such as hear
and tempera tu re, ways of thinking of temperature as a measure of heat must be
abandoned and . distinction between 'ternperaturc' and 'heat' must be learned.
These changes in ways of thinking are often referred to as conceptual changes.
But how do conceptual changes happen? How do young people change their
ways of as they develop and as they leam in school?

B Traditional instruction based on telling students how modern scientists think

<loes not seem to be very successful. Students may learn the definitions, che
f<?rmulae, the terrninology, and yet still maintain their previous conceptions. This
d1~culty has been illustrated many times, for exarnple, when instructed students
a~e mterv~ewed about heat and temperature. It is often identified by teachers as a
difficulty in applying the concepts learned in the classroom; students may be able
to repeat a formula but fail to use the concept represented by the formula when
they explain observed events.

C The psychologist Piaget suggested an interesting hypothesis relating to the

process of cognitive change in children. Cognitive change was expected to result
from the pupils' own intellectual activity. When confrontcd with a result that
challenges their - that is, whenJaced with conftict - pupils realise that
they need to think again about their own ways of solving problems, regardless of
whether the problem is one in mathematics or in science. He hypothesised that
conflict brings about disequilibrium, and then triggers equilibration processes
that ultimately produce cognitive change. For this reason, according to Piaget
and his colleagues, in order for pupils to progress in their thinking they need to
be actively engaged in solving problems that will challenge their current mode
of reasoning. However, Piaget also pointed out that young children do not always
discard their ideas in the face of contradictory evidence. They may actually
discard the evidence and keep their theory.

D Piaget s hypothesis about how cognitive change occurs was later translated into
an educational approach which is now terrned 'discovery learning'. Discovery
learning initially took what is now considered the 'Ione learner' route. The role
of the teacher was to select situations that challenged the pupils' reasoning; and
the pupils' peers had no real rol~ in this proccs~. However, it was sub_sequently
proposed that interpersor~a.1confl1ct, with pe~rs. m.1g_ht play an irnportant
role in promoting cogmtive change. 1 his hypothesis, originally advanced by
Perret-Clermont (1980) and Doise and Mugny ( l 984), has been investigated in
many recent studies of science teaching and learning.

E Christine Howe and her colleagues, for example, have compared children 's
progress in understanding severa! types of science concepts when they are given
the opportunity to observe relevant events. In onc study, Howe comparcd ~he
progress of 8 to 12-year~old childr~n in understanding_ wh~t influences monon
down a slope. In order to ascerta11~ the role of conflict. m gr?up v.rork~ they
created two kinds of groups accordm~ to .pre-test: <?ne 111 wh1ch. t~e ch1~dren

had dissimilar views, and a second 111 which the children had similar views.


Thcy found support for the idea that children in the groups with dissimilar vi
progrcssed more after thcir training sessions than thos~ who had been place~'Ys
groups wi~h similar iews, Ho~ever, they found no e~tdenc~ to supp~rt the id~~
that thc children worked out their new concept.1ons during th~ir gro~p d1scussions
because progrcss was not actually obscrved in a irnmediately after th~
sessron of group work. but rather in a second test g1ven around four weeks after
the group work.
F In another. study, Howe set out to investigate wherher the obtained
through pair work could be a function of the exchange of 1d~as. They mvcstigated
th~ progress n~ade by 12 15-year-old pupils in the path of falling
objects, a topic that usually involves conceptual d1fficult1es. In order to create
pa1r~ of pupils with varying levels of dissimilarity in their initial conceptions, the
pupils' predictions and explanations of the path of falling objects were assessed
befare they wcre engaged in pair work. The work sessions iny~Jved solving
comp~ter-pr~sented problems. again about predicting and explammg the paths
of fallmg objects. A post-test, given to individuals, assessed the progress made
by pupils in their conceptions of what inftuenced the path of falling objects.

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Questions 20-21

Choose TWO letters. A-E.

The list below contains sorne possible statements about learning.

Which TWO of these statements are attrbuted to Piaget by the writer of

the passage?

A Teachers can assist learning by explaining difficult concepts.

B Mental challenge is a stimulus to learning.
C Repetition and consistency of input aid cognitiva development.
D Children sometimes reject evidence that conflicts with their
E Children can help each other make cognitiva progress.

Questions 22-23

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO of these statements describe Howe's experiment with

A The children were assessed on their ability to understand a scientific
B All the children were working in mixed-ability groups.
C The children who were the most talkative made the least progress.
O The teacher helped the children to understand a scientific problem.
E The children were given a total of three tests, at different times.

Questions 24-26

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

How children learn

Piaget proposed that learning takes place when children encounter ideas
that do not correspond to their current beliefs. The application of this theory
gave rise to a teaching method known as 24 At first this
approach only focused on the relationship between individual pupils and
their 25 Later, researchers such as Perret-Clermont became
interested in the role that interaction with 26 might also play
in a pupil's development.


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, whch are based on
Reading Passage 3 below.

Learning lessons from the past

Many Pl:~St societies collapscd or vanished, leaving behind monumental ruins such as those that the poe
;ihelley nnagin~~ in his sonn~t, 0:.1:ma11dias. B~ collapse, 1 me~n a drastic decrease in human population
zc and/or poltt1cal/econom1c/social cornplcxity, over a considerable area, for an extended ~1~e. By
those standards, most people would consider the following past societies to have. been f~mous vicnms of
fu,ll-fledgcd collapses rathcr than of just minor declines: the Anasazi and Cahokia within the boundaries
of the modern US, the Maya cities in Central Amcrica Moche and Tiwanaku societies in South America,
Norse Greenland, Mycenean Greece and Minoan Crete in Europe, Great Zimbabwe in Africa, Angkor
Wat and the Harappan lndus Vallcy cities in Asia, and Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean.
The monumental ru.ins left behind by those past societies hold a fascination for ali of us. We marve
at the.m when as children we first learn of them through pictures. When we grow up, many of us plan
vacations lll order to experience them at first hand. We feel drawn to their often spectacular and haunting
beauty, and also to the mysteries that they pose. The scales of the ruins testify to the former wealth and
power of their builders. Yet these builders vanished, abandoning the great structures that they had created
at such effort. How could a society that was once so mighty end up collapsing?
lt has long been suspected that many of those mysterious abandonments were at least partly triggered
by ecological problems: people inadvertently destroying the environmental resources on which their
societies depended. This suspicion of unintended ecological suicide (ecocide) has been confirmed by
discoveries made in recent decades by archaeologists, climatologists, historians. paleontologists, and
palynologists (pollen scientists). The processes through which past societies have undermined themselves
by damaging their environments fall into eight categories, whose relative importance differs from case
to case: deforestation and habitat destruction, soil problems, water management problems, overhunting,
overfishing, effects of introduced species on native species, human population growth, and increased
impact of people. "

Those past collapses tended to follow sornewhat similar courses constiruting variations on a theme.
Writers find it tempting to draw analogies between the course of human societies and the course
of individual human lives - to talk of a society's birth, growth, peak, old age and eventual death.
But that metaphor proves erroneous for many past societies: they declined rapidly after reaching
peak numbers and power, a~d th~se rapi~ declines must have come a~~ surprise and their
citizens. Obviously, too, this trajectory rs not one that ali past socienes followed unvaryingly to
completion: di~e:ent . societies collapsed to different degrees and in somewhat different ways,
while many socienes did not collapse at ali.
Today many people feel that environrnental problerns overshadow all the other threats to global
civilisation. These environmental problems include the same eight that undermined past societies, plus
four new ones: human-caused climate change, build up of toxic cbemicals in the environment, energy
shortages. and ful.1 human utilisation of th~ Earth 's photosynthetic But the seriousness of
rhese current environmental problems. is vigorously debated. Are the risks greatly exaggerated, or
conversely are they underestimated? Will modern technology solve our problems, or is it creating new
problems faster than it sol ves o!~ ones? When we deplete one resou.rce (e:g. wood, oil, or ocean fish), can 1

we count on being able to substitute s~me new resourc~ ~e.g. plastics, wind and solar energy, or farrned
fish)? lsn 't the rate of human population growth declining, such that we're airead y on course for ihe
world 's population to Jevel off at sorne manageable number of people? ,


. [ust ihatlike ofthis ~lomanuc
lustrare why those famous collapses of past civili ations have taken on more mea;~J
mystcry. Pcrhaps there are sorne practical lessons that we could lcarn
'.1 11tose pas~ coll~p~es .. But there are al o difTerenccs bctween the modern _world and its proble~~t
. nd those p~:st societte~ and t~e1r problems. We shouldn't be o nave as to think that study of !h~ P .
'1 11 yicld simple solutions. directly transferable to our socicties todav. Wc difTer from past soc1eues 10
~~1n respects that pu~ us _at lowcr. r~sk than thcm: sorne of those respects often mentioned include our
~ owerful rechnology (t:e. ns beneficial effccts), globalisation, modern medicine. and greater knowledge
pf past societres a~d o distant modern socicties. We also difTer from past societies in sorne r~spects that
ut us ar ~reater nsk than them: agam, ?ur potent tcchnology (i.e., its unintended destructive effects),
~lobalisatton (such that now . problem in one part of the world affects ali the rest), the_ dependence of
g111ions of us on modcrn medicine for our survival, and our much larger human population. Perhaps we
~an still learn from the past, but only if we think carefully about its lessons .

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Questions 27-40

Questions 27-29

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27 When the writer describes the impact of monumental ruins today, he

A the income they generate from tourism.
B the area of land they occupy.
e their archaeological value.
O their romantic appeal.

28 Recent findings concerning vanished civilisations have

A overturned long-held beliefs.
B caused controversy amongst scientists.
C come from a variety of disciplines.
O identified one main cause of environmental damage.

29 What does the writer say about ways in which former societies collapsed?
A The pace of decline was usually similar.
B The likelihood of collapse would have been foreseeable.
C Deterioration invariably led to total collapse.
O Individual citizens could sometimes influence the course of events.

Questions 30-34

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?


YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

30 lt is widely believed that environmental problems represent the main danger

faced by the modern world.

31 The accumulation of poisonous substances is a relatively modern problem.

32 There is general agreement that the threats posed by environmental

problems are very serious.

33 Sorne past societies resembled present-day societies more closely

than others.

34 We should be careful when drawing comparisons between past and present.


Questions 35-39

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.

Write the correct letter, A-F.

35 Evidence of the greatness of sorne forrner civilisations

36 The parallel between an individual's lfe and the life of a society

37 The nurnber of environrnental problerns that societies tace
38 The power of technology

39 A consideration of historical events and trends

A is not necessarily valid.
B provides grounds for an optrnistc outtook.
C exists in the forrn of physicat structures.
O is potentially both positive and negative.
E will not provide direct solutions for present problerns.
F is greater now than in the past.

Question 40

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

40 What is the rnain argurnent of Reading Passage 3?

A There are differences as well as sirnilarities between past and present
B More shoutd be done to preserve the physical rernains of earlier
e Sorne historical accounts of great civilsations are inaccurate.
o Modern societies are dependent on each other for their continuing


Writing module (1 hour)

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The graph and bar chart below show the average monthly rainfal/ and
temperature for one region of East Africa.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main
features, and maklng comparisons where relevant.

Write et feast 150 words.

Average monthly rainfall and temperaturas

Average monthly rainfall and temperature

300 240
250 230
~ 200 o
21 s
~ 150

100 20 s
so 19 s

11.flJOlaflfJ/Ulf;\tf You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Writeabout the following topic:

Meat production requires relatively more land than crop production.

Some people think that as land is becoming scarce, the world's meat
consumption should be reduced.
What measures could be taken to reduce the world's meat
consumption? What kinds of problem might such measures cause?

Give reasons for your answer, and include any relevant examples from your ow1
knowledge or experience.

Write at /east 250 words.


speaking module (11-14 minutes)

..... ' ~~
An-;,w ".\r uios , que uons

Let's talk about what you do.

Do you work, orare you a stutient?
How much tim~ do you spend studying each day? Why/Why not?
g~you somet1mes work in a group with other students? Why/Why not?
What is the le'!gth of your normal working day?
Do you somet1mes work in a team? Why/Why not?

Now let's talk about computer games.

Do you prefer playing computer games alone or with a friend? Why/Why not?
At what age did you first play computer games? Why/Why not?
Do you ever buy computer games for other people? Why/Why not?
In general, are computer games more popular wfth menor wfth women? Why?

pART 2 : ..' You hav~ one minute to make notes on the following tapie. Then you have up
to two minutes to talk about it.

Describe the room in your house/apartment which you tike best.

You should say:
where the room is
what it is used for
what it looks like
and explain why you like this room best.

Do other people like this room?

Do you spend much time there?

PART 3 Consider these questions, and then answer them.

Now let's talk about rooms in general.

Which room do families usually spend most time in? Why?
What types of thing do people usually put on the walls of their rooms?
Is it more important for a room to look nice, orto be comfortable? Why?

Let's go on to talk about interior design.

How can different room colours affect the way people feel?
What is modern furniture like comparad to older styles of fumiture?
Do you think women are more interested than men in the way rooms are
decorated? Why/Why not?

Let's discuss indoor and outdoor living spaces next.

How might the climate of an area affect the importance of indoor and outdoor
living spaces? Why?
What do you think living spaces will be like in the future? Why?


Listening module (approx 30 minutes + 1 O minutes transfer time)

Questions 1-10

Complete the table below.

Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

HOLIDAY RENTALS Dates: Examp/6 . 1.<!.'.:-.?~ ../!&.
Name of Location Features Disadvantage(s) Booking details

1 .................. rural apartment distance from www.

surrounded by two bedrooms 3 ............... 4 ...............
2 ............... open plan com

Kingfisher rural house expensive? Phonethe

next to the three bedrooms owner (01752
5 ............... 6 ............... 669218)
nice views room
living room

Sunnybanks in a village house no Contact the

next to the has prvate 9 ............... 10 ...............
7 ............... 8 ...............

SECTION 2 Questions11-20

Questions 11-14

Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

11 According to the speaker, why is ita good time for 0-1-Y painting?
A There are better products available now.
B Materials cost less than they used to.
e People have more free time than before.

12 What happened in 2009 in the UK?

A A record volume of paint was sold.
B A large amount of paint was wasted.
C There was a major project to repaint public buildings.


13 What does the speaker say about paint quantity?

A tt's not necessary to have exact room measurements.

B lt's better to overestimate than to underestimate.
C An automatic calculator can be downloaded from the Internet.

14 What does Community RePaint do?

A lt paints people's houses without payment.
B lt collects unwanted paint and gives it away.
C lt sells unused paint and donates the money to charity.

Questions 1~16

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about paint?
A Don't buy expensive paint.
B Test the colour befare buying a lot.
C Choose a light colour.
D Use water-based paint.
E Buy enough paint for more than one application.

Questions 17-18

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about preparation?
A Replace any loase plaster.
B Oon't spend too long preparing surfaces.

e Use decorators' soap to remove grease from walls.

O Wash dirty walls with warm water.
E Paint over cracks and small hales.

Questions 19-20

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about painting?
A Puta heater in the room.
B Wash brushes in cold water.
e Use a roller with a short pile.
o Apply paint directly from the tin.
E Open doors and windows.


SECTION~3 Questions 21-30

Questions 21-26

Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

21 Why is Matthew considering a student work placement?

A He was informed about an interesting vacancy.
B He needs sorne extra income.
C He wants to try out a career option.
22 Which part of the application process did Linda find most interesting?
A The psychometric test.
B The group activity.
C The individual task.

23 During her work placement, Linda helped find ways to

A speed up car assembly.
B process waste materials.
C calculate the cost of design faults.

24 Why did Linda find her work placement tiring?

A She wasn't used to full-time work.
B The working hours were very long.
C She felt she had to prove her worth.

25 What did Linda's employers give her formal feedback on?

A engineering ability
B organisational skills
e team working

26 What was the main benefit of Linda's work placement?

A lmproved academic skills.
B An offer of work.
C The opportunity to use new software.


Questions 27-30
What does Linda think about the books on Matthew's reading list?

Choose FOUR answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-F, next to
questions 27-30.


A helpful illustrations
B easy to understand
e up-to-date
D comprehensive
E specialised
F useful case studies

27 The Science of Materials

28 Materials Engineering

29 Engineering Basics

30 Evolution of Materials




Ouest/ons 31-40
Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Researching the origin of medieval manuscripts


Medieval msnuecripte - handwritten booh; produced between the

fifth and flfteenth centonee

Origin of many menuecrtpte unknown until 2009; eaenuece eterte

using DNA testing

Animal hlde - two types

Sheep skin: white in colour end 31 . 1

Greasy-writing cen't: be erased so oen used for 32 .

Calf skin: most popular for prestigious work because you can get
33 lettering. 1

Preparatlon of hldes

freated in barreis of lime - where thi~ was not available, skins were
34 (removed hair - more flexible)

Stretched tight on a irsme

Scraped to creete same 35 .

Vellum was 36 - for correct co/our

Genetic te5ting - finding oriqln

Previous/y - analysed handwriting and 37 ueed by the writer

Now- using genetic data from 'known msnuecripte' to creete a


38 .

Uses of new data r:

Gives information on individual books

Shows the 39 of the book industry

Helps define 40 in medieval period



Reading module (1 hour)

You s~ould spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on
Readmg Passage 1 below.

Trends in the Indian fashion

and textile industries
ouring rhe l 950s, the lndian fashion sccne was exciting, stylish and very graceful. There were no celebrity
designers ~r models, nor w~re there any labels that were widely recognised. The value of a garment was
judged by 1t~ style and fabric rather than by who made it. Jt was regarded as perfectly acceptable, even
for high-soc1ety wom~n, to .approach an unknown tailor who could make a garment for a few rupees,
providing the perfect fit, fnish and style. They were proud of getting a bargain, and of giving their own
name to the end rcsult.

Thc t 960s was an era full of mischievousness and cclebration in the arts, music and cinema. The period
was characteri~cd by frccdom frorn rcstrictions and, in thc fashion world, an acceptance of innovative
iypes of material such as plastic and coatcd polyestcr. Tight-fitting kurtas' and churidars.. and high
eoiffures were a trend among women.

The following decade witnessed an increase in the export of traditional materia Is, and the arrival in India
o international fashion. Synthetics became trendy, and the disco culture affected the fashion scene.
lt was in the early 80s when the first fashion store 'Ravissant' opcned in Mumbai. At that time garments
were retailed for a four-figure price tag. American designers like Calvin Klein became popular. In India
too, contours became more masculinc, and even the salwar kameez'" was designed with shoulder pads.
With the cvolution of designcr stores carne the culture of dcsigner fashion, a long with its hefty price tags.
Whatever a garrnenr was like, consumers wcre convinccd that a higher price tag signified elegant designer
fashion, so garrnents wcrc sold at unbelievable prices. Meanwhile, designers decided to gct themselves
noticcd by rnaking showy outfits and associating with thc right celebrities. Soon, fashion shows became
compctitive. each designer attempting to out-do the other in therne, guest list and media coverage.
In thc last decade of the millennium, the market shrank and ethnic wear made a comeback. During the
rccession, thcre was a push to sell at any cost. With ficrce competition thc inevitable occurred: the once
hefty price tags bcgan thcir downward journey, and the fashion-show industry followed suit. However,
the liveliness of the lndian fashion scenc had not cnded - it had merely reached a stable leve l.

At the beginning of the 21 ~1 century, with new dcsigncrs and n:iod~ls. and 1:riore sensible de~igns, t~e
Iashion industry accelerated once again. As far as the glo.bal fashion mdustry rs concerned, Indian et~n~c
des1gns and materials are currently in dcmand from fashion houscs and garment manufacturers. India is
the third largcst producer of cortn, the second largest producer of silk, and the fifth largest producer of
man~made fibres in thc world.
T~e lndian garmcnt and fabric industries have many ~mdame~H~l. advantage~. in terms of a. cheap~r,
sk11led work force. cost-effective production. raw matenal~, flcx1~1hty, anda wide r.ange of.des1gns with
sequins, beadwork, and embroidcry. Jn addition, that India prov1de~ garrnents to mternat~onal ~ash10.n
houses at competitive prices, with a shorter lead time, and an effective monopoly on certam designs, is


accepted the whole world over. lndia has always been regarded as the default source in the embroidered ,
garrnenrs se~ment, but changes in the ratc of cxchange between the rupe~ and the dollar has further
depressed pnces, thereby attracting more buyers. So the international fashion houses walk away With
custom1sed goods d ft .
, an era work 1 sold at very low rates.
As far as the fabric market is concerned, the range available in India can attract as well as _confuse the
buyer . Much of the production takes place in the small town of Chapa in the eastern state 0~ Bihar, a narne
~~e mighr never have heard of. Hcre fabric-rnaking is a family industry; the ran_ge an~ qual~ty ofraw sil.ks
of urned ou.t here bel~e the crude production methods and equrpment. Sur~t 1~ G~Jarat, is the suppher
~n amazi_ng set. of jacquards, rnoss crepes and georgette sheers - ali fabrics m high dema~d. ~n.other
ludian f~bnc design that has been adopted by the fashion industry is the 'M~dras ~heck., ongmally
utihse~ for the universal lungi, a simple lower-body wrap worn in southern India. This d~s1gn has now
found rts way on to bandannas, blouses, home fumishings and almost anythmg one can think of.
Ethnic Indian designs with batik and hand-embroidered motifs have also become popular across the
world. Decorative bead work is another product in demand in the intemational market. Beads are used
to prepare accessory items like belts and bags, and beadwork is now available far haute couture evening
wear too.

* knee-length tunics
** trousers
*** trouser suit


Questions 1-7

Complete the notes below.

Choose ONE WORD ONL Y from the passage for each answer.

lndlan fashion: 1950-2000

No w~/1-known design~rs, modee or 1 .

Elegant clothng cost lttle

Women were pleased to get clothes for a 2 price

New materiaIs, e.g. 3 and polyester

Ftted clothng and tal/ harstyles

Overeeee sales of 4 fabrcs rose

inuence of nternatonal fashon

Opening of fashion etore in Mumbai
Popularity of American deeiqner

Clothing had a 5 shape

Desgners tred to attract attention by presenting 6 .

clothes and mixing with stars

Fa// in demand for expenelve fashion wear

Return to 7 clothing


Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?


TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

8 At the start of the 2151 century, key elements in the lndian fashion
industry changed.

9 India now exports more than half of the cotton it produces.

1 O Conditions in India are generally well suited to the manufacture of clothing.

11 lndian clothing exports have suffered from changes in the value of

its currency.

12 Modern machinery accounts for the high quality of Chapa's silk.

13 Sorne types of lndian craftwork which are intemationally popular had

humble origins.



You s?ould spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26. which are based on
Readmg Passage 2 below.

Sustainable growth at Didcot:

the outline of a report by South
Oxfordshire District Council
The UK South East Plan proposes additional housing growth in the town of Didcot,
which has been a designated growth arca smce 1979. We in South Oxfordshire District Council consider
rhat, although Didcot does have potential for further growth, such development should be sustainable,
well-planned and supported by adequate infrastructure and community services.

Recent experience in Didcot has demonstrated that large greenfield' developments cannot resource ali
the necessary infrastructure and low-cost housing requirements. The ensuing compromises create a legacy
of local transport, infrastructure and community services deficits, with no obvious mcans of correction.
\Ve wish to ensure that there is grcater recognition of the cost attached to housing growth, and that a
means is found to resource the establishment of sustainable communities in growth areas.
Until the l 950s, the developmcnt of job opportunities in the railway industry, and in a large, military
ordnance depot, was the spur to Didcot's expansion. Oevelopment at that time was geared to providing
homes for the railway and depot workers, with limited invcstment in shopping and other services for the
local population. Didcot failed to devclop Broadway as a compact town centre, and achieved only a strip
of shops along one side of the main street hemmed in by low density housing and service trade uses.

From the l 970s, strategic planning policies directed significant new housing development to Didcot.
Planners recognised Didcot s potential, with rapid growth in local job opportunities and good ral
connections for those choosing to work farther afield. However, the town is bisected by the east-west
railway, and people living in Ladygrove, the urban extension to the north which has been built since the
1980s. felt, and still feel, cut ofT from the town and its community.

Population growth in the new housing areas failed to spark adequate prvate-sector investment in town
centre uses. and the timitcd investment which did take place - Didcot Market Place development in
1982, for instance - did not succced in dclivering the numbcr and range of town centre uses needed by
the growing population. In 1990. public-sector finan~e was used to buy the land required f?r the Orchard
Centre development, comprising a superstore, parking and a new street of stores runrung parallel to
Broadway. The development took 13 years to complete.



!he idea that, by obliging developers of new housing to contribute to the cost o~ infrastructure lJ1d
scrvice requ1rem,en t .. a 11 the ncccssary financc could be rarse
blic f'
d. h'as. P roved. unachievable

Subsi antia
~~ts~~ ~nar~cc v as suu nccded to deliv cr major projects uch as thc new link ~oad to the A34 on the
S .l ns .of the town at Milton, thc improved railway crossing at Marsh Bridge and new schools.
wer~ ~~layed due t.o diffi~ulti~s in securing public finance. The sarnc problem also held
on ot hcalth and social scrviccs 111 the town.

!~/~ce.nt ~cars. governmcnt policy, in particular the requirement for developers that forty percem of
1 iruts in. a nev housing de elopmcnt should be low cost homes, has ~ major rmpact on
~~~re~conomics of such deveopmenr, as it has limited the developers ' .contr.1b~t~o.n to the. costs of
. a:structure. The planning authorities are facing ditTcult choices m pnonnsmg the iterns of
t~frastructure which must be funded by development and this in turn means that from now on public
fina nce w111 need to provide
a greatcr proportion of infrastructure
' project
' costs.

The G?vernme~t's Sustainable Communities Plan seeks a holistic approach to new urban developmeni
in which housing, employrnent. services and infrastructure of ali kinds are carefully planned and
deltvered in a way which avoids the infrastructure deficits that have occurred in places like Didcot in the
past. This report, therefore, is structured around the individual components of a sustainable community,
and shows the baseline position for each component.

Didcot has been identified as one of the towns with which the Government is working to evaluate
whether additional growth will strengthen the econornic potential of the town, deliver the necessary
infrastructure and improve environmental standards. A programme of work, including discussions with
the local community about their aspirations for the town as well as other stakeholders, will be undertaken
over the coming months, and will lead to the development of a strategic master plan. The challenge will
be in optimising scarce resources to achieve maximum benefits for the town.

* Jand that has never previously been built on


Quest/ons 14-26

Quest1ons 14-19

Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs. A-1.

Which paragraph contalns the followinginformation?

Wnte the correct letter. A-1.

14 reference to the way the council's report is organised

15 the reason why inhabitants in one part of Oidcot are isolated

16 a statement concerning future sources of investment

17 the identification of two majar employers at Didcot

18 reference to groups who will be consulted about a new development plan

19 an account of how additional town centre facilities were previously funded

Questions 20-23

Look at the following places and the st of statements below.

Match each place with the correct statement, A-F.

Write the correct letter, A-F.

20 Broadway

21 Market Place

22 Orchard Centre

23 Marsh Bridge

List of statements
A lt provided extra facilities for shopping and cars.
8 lts location took a long time to agree.
e lts layout was unsuitable.
o lts construction was held up due to funding problems.
E lt was privately funded.
F lt failed to get Council approval at first.


71 ?' ,. ~

Ouestions 24-26

Complete the sentences be/ow.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

24 A certain proportion of houses in any new development now have to be of

the type.
25 The government is keen to ensure that adequate .. will be
provided for futura housing developments.

26 The views of Didcot's inhabitants and others will form the basis
of a fer the town .

-;-, ........ t ...
' ..

. .. ' - .. ' ~ . '

- ~ '..,. ':t'-lr>. ~.-

~. - t

t.".' :,. ~ : ""

r. -, . .
"t." _~t!._ '='~ \ - ~.
.. . ' , .

''lw\/',."1<-' ~~l #Jf'f...:'~ 1.',! Q...".' ,; ::-: ... ,, !):,/ r; -r..~,(i;."'~..:\\ '!Ji O
... ' t:11..-.1-t ,. .,.,~ . -~ ~s.,.,~ tt 3

. ... ,~ -...~ :~

.... .

.. -'~
\~~~j;. nsr -6, RAJ>t-HG MOOUt:E
You should soena about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on
Reading Passage 3 below.

onc of rhe mo~t inlucnt~al ideas in (the st~dr of_ languages is that of univer al grarnmar (UG). Put
forward by Noam Chomsky 111 thc 1 )60s~ t. is widcly intcrpreted as mcaning that ali Janguagcs a~e
basically thc sume, and that thc human bra1~ is born language-ready, with an in-built programmc that is
ablt: to 111tcrpret thc ~on~mo~ rules underlying any mothcr tengue. For five decades this idea prevailed,
~nd influcnced work 111 lmguistic~. ps~chology and cognitivo scicncc. To understand language, it implied,
you must swcep asidc thc huge diversity of languagcs. and find their common human core.
Since rhe rhcory of UG was pr~poscd, linguists havc identificd many universal languagc rules. However,
therc ar~ alm.ost always excepnons .. Jt was once belicved, for example, that if a Janguagc had syllables*
that bcgrn with a vowe~ and cnd wirh a consonan: (VC). it would also have syllable that begin with
a consonant and cnd w~th a vowcl (C~'). This universal lasted until 1999, when linguists showed that
Arrcrntc. spoken by lndigenous Australians from the area around Al ice Springs in the Northern Tcrritory,
has ve syllables but no cv syllablcs.

Other non-universal ~niversals describe the ba ic rules of putting words together. Take the rule that
every language contams four baste word classes: nouns, verbs, adjcctives and adverbs. Work in the past
two decades has shown that severa! languages lack an open adverb class. which means that new adverbs
cannot be readily formed, unlike in English where you can turn any adjective into an adverb, for example
'soft' into 'softly'. Others, such as Lao, spoken in Laos. have no adjectives at ali. More controversially,
some linguists ar~ue that a few languages, such as Straits Salish, spoken by indigenous people from
north-western regions of North America, do not even have distinct nouns or verbs. Instead, they have a
single class of words to include events, objects and qualities.
Even apparently indisputable universals have been found lacking. This includes recursion, or the ability
to infinitely place one grammatical unit inside a similar unit, such as Jack thinks that Mary thinks
that ... the bus will be on time. lt is widely considered to be the most essential characteristic of human
language, one that sets it apart from the communications of ll other animals. Yet Dan Everett at lllinois
State University recently published controversia! work showing that Amazonian Piraba does not have
this quality.
But what if the very diversity of languages is the key to understanding human communication? Linguists
Nicholas Evans of the Australian National University in Canberra, and Stephen Levinson of the Max
Planck lnstitute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, believe that languages do not share a
common set of rules. Instead, they say, their sheer variery is a detining feature ofhuman communication-
something not scen in other animals. While there is no doubt that human thinking influences the form
that language takcs, if Evans and Levinson are correct, language in turn shapes our brains. This suggests
that humans are more divcrse than we thought, with our brains having differences depending on the
language cnvironment in which we grew up. And that leads to a disturbing conclusion: every time a
language becomes extinct, humanity loses an important piecc of diversity.
lf languages do not obey a single set of shared rules, then how ~re thcy cr~ated? 'Instead of unver.sals~
you get standard engineering solutions tha~ l~nguagcs adopt ~gam and aga1~, and then you get outliers,
says Evans. He and Levinson argue that th1.s is becau_se any given languagc rs a comple~ system s~aped
by rnany factors, including culture, genencs an~ history. There are no absol~tely universal t~a1ts of
~a~guage, they say, only tendencies. And it is a rmx of strong and weak tendencies that charactenses the
bio-cultural' mix that we call language.


Accord~ng to t~e two linguists, the stron tendcncies explain why m~ny languages display comnion
b . h A .vanety of t'actors
( t ene 1 lo pus. hgl anguagc in a 51m11ar direct1on,
. such asd the
r structure
. . of th e
rain, t. e b1ology of specch, and thc efficicncies of communication. widely share mguisnc elements
:ay ~lso be o~cs that build on a particularly human kind of reason~ng. F~r example, the fact _that bef?re
ac~/~~rn to sy~dk we perec e the world as a place full ofthings causing acuons (agents) and thm~s hav1ng
s done to them (paticnts) explains why most languages deploy the e grammat1cal categories.
and te decncie m
comrasr, are cxplaincd by the idiosyncr~s1es o f diff 1 eren
t 1.anguages. E va~s
1 , 111 on ~rgue that rnany aspccts of thc particular natural h1st~ry of a populatio~ may afTect ns
t~~f~ag~. For instancc, Andy Butcher at Flindcrs University in Adcraide, South ~ust~aha, has ?bser~cd
mdigenou. Au tralian childrcn have by far the highest incidcnce of chronic middle-ear mfect1on
~;eany popul~tion on thc planct, and that most indigenous Australian 1.anguages .lack ~any sounds th~t
con C?~mon m other languages, but which are hard to hear with a m1ddle-ear infection .. Whethe- th1s
dition has haped thc sound systems of these languages is unknown, says Evans, but it is importan
to consde- the idea.

Levinson and Eva.ns are ~ot the first to question the theory of universal grammar, but. no one has
summansed these ideas quue as persuasively, and given them as much reach. As a result, their argumem,
have genera.ted widespread enthusiasm, particularly among those linguists ~h? are tired o~ trymg t?
squeeze t~e1r findings mto thc straitjacket of 'absolute universals'. To sorne, 1t is the final nail m UGs
co~n: Michael Tomasello, ca-director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in
~etJ?ztg, Germany, has been a long-standing critic of the idea that all languages conform to a set of rules. 1
Universal grammar is dead,' he says.

a unit of sound


Questons 27-40

Questions 27-32

Do the following statements agree with the views of tne wrter in Readng
Passage 3?


YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

27 In th~ final decades of the twentieth century, a single theory of language

learrnng was dominant.

28 The majority of UG rules proposed by linguists do apply to ali human


29 There is disagreement amongst linguists about an aspect of Straits Salish


30 The search for new universal language rules has largely ended.

31 lf Evans and Levinson are right, people develop in the same way no matter
what language they speak.

32 The loss of any single language might have implications for the human race.

Questions 33-37

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

33 Which of the following views about language are held by Evans and
A Each of the world's languages develops independently.
B The differences between languages outweigh the similarities.
e Only a few language features are universal.
o Each language is influenced by the characteristcs of other languages.

34 According to Evans and Levinson, apparent similarities between languages

could be due to
A close social contact.
B faulty analysis.
e shared modes of perception.
o narrow descriptiva systems.


35 In the eighth paragraph, what does the reference to a middle-ear infection
serve as?
A A JUStification for something.
B A contrast with something.
C The possible cause of something.
D The likely result of something.

36 What does the writer suggest about Evans' and Levinson's theory of
language development?
A lt had not been previously considered.
B lt is presented in a convincing way.
e lt has been largely rejected by other linguists.
D lt is not supported by the evidence.

37 Which of the following best describes the writer's purpose?

A To describe progress in the field of cognitive science.
B To defend a long-held view of language learning.
C To identify the similarities between particular languages.
D To outline opposing views concerning the nature of language.

Questions 38-40

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

Write the correct letter, A-E.

38 The Arrernte language breaks a 'rule'. concerning

39 The Lao language has been identified as lacking

40 lt has now been suggested that Amazonia Piraha does not have
A words of a certain grammatical type.
B a sequence of sounds predicted by UG.
C words which can have more than one meaning.
O the language feature regarded as the most basic.
E sentences beyond a specified length.


~ritinQ module (1 hour)

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

Plan A. below shows a health centre in 2005. Plan B shows the same
place m the present day.
Summarise the information by selectlng and reporting the maln
features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

fir1 r~... GMden

,~ 'k Physiotherapy
Minor operat1ons Physioth~rapy


'\~ CR3
~", ...,
:! CR3
...;; CRl CIU

Car Parking l 2 spaces Car Parking - 30 spaces

00 Present Day

CR Consulting room

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the fo/lowing tapie:

Sorne say that it would be better if the majority of employees worked

from home instead of travelling to a workplace every day.
Do you think the advantages of working from home outweigh the

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own
knowledge and experience.

Write at least 250 words.


Speaking module (11-14 minutes)
Answer these questtons

Let's talk about where you /lve now.

Do you live near here?
Do you live in a house oran apartment?
How long have you flved there?
Do you like where you are living now? Why/Why not?

Now let's talk about holldays.

How often do you get holiday from work/co/lege?
Do you usual/y stay at home when you have a holiday, or do you go
somewhere? Why/Why not?
What did you do the last time you had a holiday?
Do you wish you had more holidays? Why/Why not?
PART 2.- ~~ _~ .. You have one minute to make notes on the following topic. Then you have up to
two minutes to talk about it.

Describe a sports match which you saw and which you found enjoyable.
You should say:
what the sport was
who was playing in this game
where you watched it
and explain why you enjoyed watching the match so much.

Do you often watch sport?

Do you do a lot of sport?

Consider these questions, and then answer them.

Let's talk about young people doing sports.

What sports do most young people in your country enjoy doing?
What are the main benefits for young people of leaming to play different
Can you suggest some ways to encourage young people to play more sport?

Now let's talk about sports on rv.

What kinds of sport do people in your country most often watch on TV? Why?
What do you think are the disadvantages of having a lot of coverage of sport
on TV?
How do you think the broadcasting of sports on TV wi/l change in the next
20 years?

Now let's consider international sports competitions.

Why do you think international sports competitions (like the Football World
Cup) are so popular?
What are the advantages and disadvantages to a country when it hosts a
majar intemational sports competition?
'N_h~t shoul~ govemmen~~ invest r:iore in: helping their top sports people to
wm intemetlone' comoetitions, or m promoting sport for everyone? Why?


ustening module (approx 30 minutes + 1 o minutes transfer time)

Questlons 1-10

Questions 1-10

Complete the notes below.


Notes for holiday

Travel information

WIII ~ma1/. the flight number..

- mu5t find out which 1 arrving at
- be5t taxi company 2 .
- Note: Simon live5 in the 3 .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. . . of the city
- Smon'5 ce// pbone number. 4 ..
What to pack
(to wear)
- ca5ual clothe5

- one 5mart areee - to wear at a 5 .

-a good6 .
- tough 7 ..
- try to find book nsmed 8 ' ' by Rex Campbel/.
(for presente)
- for Jan ice: 9 .
- for Alee: 10 (with racing picture5)


SECTION 2 Questlons 11-20

Questions 11-16

Choose the correct enswer, A, B or C.

Camber's Theme Park

. .
11 Accordinq to the speaker, in what way is
. ea mber's different from other
theme parks?
A lt's suitable far different age groups.
B lt offers lots to do in wet weather.
C lt has a focus on education.

12 The Park first opened in

A 1980.
B 1997.
e 2004.

13 What's included in the entrance fee?

A most rides and parking
B all rides and sorne exhibits
C parking and all rides

14 Becoming a member of the Adventurers Club mea ns

A you can avoiding queuing so much.
B you can enter the Park free., for a year.
C you can visit certain zones closed to other people.

15 The Future Farm zone encourages visitors to

A buy animals as pets.
B learn about the care of animals.
e get clase to the animals.

16 When is hot food available in the park?

A 10.00 a.m. - 5.30 p.m.
B 11.00 a.m. - 5.00 p.m.
e 10.30 a.m. - 5.00 p.m.


Questions 17-20

What special conditions app/y to the following rides?

Choose FOUR answers from the box and wrlte the correct letter, A-F, next to tne
questions 17-20.

Special conditions for visitors

A Must be over a certain age
B Must use special safety equipment
C Must avoid it if they have health problems
O Must wear a particular type of clothing
E Must be over a certain height
F Must be accompaniedby an adult if under 16

17 River Adventure

18 Jungle Jm Rollercoaster

19 Swoop Slide

20 Zip Go-carts



Questions 21-30

Ouestions 21-22

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO things do Brad and Helen agree to say about listening in groups?
A Listerunq skills are often overlooked in business training.
B learning to listen well is a skill that's easy for most people to learn.
C lt's sometimes acceptable to argue against speakers.
D Body language is very important when listening.
E Listeners should avoid interrupting speakers.

Questions 23-24

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO things does the article say about goal~setting?

A Meetings should start with a clear statement of goals.
B lt's important for each individual's goals to be explained.
C Everybody in the group should have the same goals.
O Goals should be a mix of the realistic and the ideal.
E Goals must always to be achievable within a set time.

Questions 2~26

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

What TWO things do Brad and Helen agree are weak points in the article's
section on conflict resolution?
A lt doesn't explore the tapie in enough detail.
B lt only discusses conservative views.
e lt says nothing about the potential value of conflict.
O lt talks too much about 'winners and losers'.
E lt doesn't provide definitions of key terms.


Questions 27-30

What actions do Brad and He/en agree to do regarding tne following

preparation tasks?

Choose FOUR answers from the box and write the correct tetter. A-F, next to
the number.

A Contact the tutor for clarification.
B Check the assignment specifications.
C Leave it until the last task.
O Ask a course-mate to help.
E Find information on the Internet.
F Look through course handbooks.

Preparation tasks

27 Preparing the powerpoint .

28 Using direct quotations .

29 Creating a handout .

30 Drawing up a bibliography .

.. . .. ~ # ....... ,, '
... """

- .>,

.. ' . .. ..
. ... , .
.J' .: 1. :

' . . :,,

Quest/ons 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ONL Y for each answer.

Engineering for sustainable developrnent

The Greenhouse Project (Himalayan mountain region)
Short growing eeeeon because of high altitude and low 31 .
Fresh vegetables tmported by lorry or by 32 .. so are
Need to use sunlight to preven: local plants from 33 .

Previous programmes to provide greenhouses were 34 .

New 9reenhouse

Meets critera for suetainabilty

Simple and 35 to bui/d
Made mainly from local materials (mud or stone for the walts, wood
and 36 .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. . .. for the roof)
Building and maintenance done by local craftsmen
Runs so/e/y on 37 energy

Only fami/ies who have a suitable 38 can own one

Long side faces south

Strong polythene cover
lnner 39 are painted black or white

Social benefits

Owners status is improved

! . ~: Rural have greater opportunities
~ ; :. '
1 ~
More children are educated
t: : .

t :
'. . ~ ... .
. .
... , ,-- .....
1 . ;

; 4 1.

j .


,, ...

..... .
. .. r:~
. . :t.::
ng module (1 hour)
~ea d
You s?ould spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13. which are based on
Readmg Passage 1 below.

The construction of roads

and bridges
Although therc ~ere hig~way. links in Mesopotamia from as early as 3500 uc. the Romans were probably
the first road-buildcrs with fixed e~gmcenng. standards. At the peak of the Roman Empire in the first
century AD. Rome had road connccnone totalltng about 85.000 kilometrcs.

Roman roads were constructed with a d~ep stone surface for stability and load-bearing. They had straight
alignments and therefore ~ere often hilly. The Roman roads remained the main arteries of European
transport for. ma~y cent~nes, and even. today many roads follow the Roman routes. New roads were
generally of inferior quality, and the achievements of Roman builders were largely unsurpassed until the
resurgence of road-bui lding in the eighteenth century.

With horse-drawn coaches in mind, eighteenth-century engineers preferred to curve their roads to avoid
hills. The road surface was regarded as merely a face to absorb wear, the load-bearing strength being
obtained from a properly prepared and well-drained foundation. lmmediately above this, the Scortish
engineer John McAdam (1756-1836) typically laid crushed stone, to which stone dust mixed with water
was added, and which was compacted to a thickness of just five centimetres, and then rolled. McAdam's
surface )ayer - hot tar onto which a layer of stone chips was Jaid - became known as 'tarmacadam',
ortarmac. Roads ofthis kind were known as flexible pavements.
By the early nineteenth century - the start of the railway age - men such as John McAdam and Thomas
Telford had created a British road network totalling sorne 200,00G km, of which about one sixth
was privately owned toll roads called turnpikes. In the first half of the nineteenth century, many roads
in the US were built to the new standards, of which the National Pike from West Virginia to Illinois was
perhaps the most notable.

In the twentieth century, the ever-increasing use of motor vehicles threatened to break up roads built to
nineteenth-century standards, so new techniques had to be developed.

On routes with heavy traffic, flexible pavem.ents were replaced by rigid pavernents, in which .the t.op. layer
was concrete, 15 to 30 centimetres thick, laid on a prepared bed. Nowadays steel bars are laid within the
concrete. This not only restrains shrinkage ~uring setting, but also reduces expansion in warm weather.
As a result. it is possible to lay long slabs without danger of cracking.
The demands of heavy traffic led to the concept of h.igh-speed long-distance roads, with access - or
sltp-lanes - spaccd widely apart. The US Bronx River Parkway of 1925 was followed by several
variants - Germany's autobahns and the Pan ~merican Highway. ~uch. roads - especially the intercity
autobahns with their separate multi-lanc camageways for each direction - were the predecessors of
today's rnotorways .
. Bridges
T~e development by the Romans of the arched bri~ge .marked the beginning of scientific
bndge-building; hitherto, bridges had generally been c.rossmgs in the form of felled trees ~r lat stone
bl0cks. Absorbing the load by compression, arched bndges are very strong. Most were built of stone,


but brick and timber . is at Alcantara in Spain, built of &Ta .
the Romans in AD were also u cd. A fine early examp 1 e . metal and concrete arch d n1tt~
h b 105 to span thc Rivcr Tagu . In modern u mes, . e brjd
ave een con tn1cted Th f . ifi t 1 bridge built of cast iron in 1779 , Shll Sta d~
lronbridgc in England. e irst sigm icant me a ns -

Steel, with its superior strength-to-wei ht ratio soon replaced iron in metal bridge-work. I~ the taitv,
:~~ lthc, truss ~ or girder) bridge bccameg popular~ Built of wood or metal, the truss beam cons1sts of u~
ower horizontal booms joined by vertical or inclined members.
{he u~pcnsion bridge has a deck supported by suspenders that dropfrorn one or more overhead cab
t requ1res strong anchorage at each end to resist the inward tension of ~he cables, and the deck~
strengthened to control distortion by moving loads or high winds. sucb bndg~s ar~ nevertheless li~
and therefore the most suitable for very long spans. The Clifton Suspe~sion Bndge 1.n the UK, desi&ned
~y lsam?ard Kingdom Brunei ( 1806-59) to span the Avon <;Jorg~ m E~glan~ 15 famous both r'-
its beautiful settmg and for its elegant design. The 1998 Akash Kaikyo Bndge m Japan has a spanOf
t ,99 i metres, which is the longest to date.

Cantilever bridg~s, such as the 1889 Forth Ral Bridge in Scotland exploit th.e potential of steel construct10Q
to produce a wide clearwater space. The spans have a central s~pportmg pier and meet midstreani,
The downward thrust, where the spans meet, is countered by firm anchor~ge of. the spans ar hctr
other ends, Although the suspension bridge can span a wider gap, the ca?t1lever is relativelv Stable.
and this was ~mportant for nincteenth-century railway builders. The. world s longest cantilever span ~
549 rnetres - is that of the Quebec ral bridge in Canada, constructed m 1918.


Questons 1-3

Label the diagram below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from tne passage for
each answer.

Flexible Pavement
Surface layer
Tarmacadam (1 .. and stone chips)
Mddle layer
(2... deep) Crush~ stOM
dust and 3 ...


Questions 4- 7

Do the following statements agree wth the nformaton gven in Reading Passage 1?


TRUE if the statement agrees with the nformaton

FALSE if the statement contradcts the informaton
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

4 Road construction improved continuously between the first and eighteenth

5 In Britain, during the nineteenth century, only the very rich could afford to use
toll roads.

6 Nineteenth-century road surfaces were inadequate for heavy motor traffic.

7 Traffic speeds on long-distance highways were unregulated in the ear1y part

of the twentieth century.


Questions 8-13

Complete the table below.

Use ONE WORD ONL y from tne passage for each answer.

Type of bridge Features Example(a)

Arched bridge lntroduced by the Alcantara. Spain
8 ................... lronbridge, UK
Very strong.
Usually made of
9 ...................
Truss bridge Made of wood or
Popular for railways.
Suspension- bridge Has a suspended Clifton, UK
deck. Akashi Kaikyo, Japa
Strong but ( currently the n
10 ................... 11 ........... span)
Cantilever bridge Made of Quebec, Canada
12 ...................
More 13 ..................
than the suspension
'! 1



You sl1oulct .,pull{/ alm11t 20 mlnutu
Rondl11g Po sna<1 2 lml<Jw
,,11 "'"''''" 14 20, wli1r.)111tJ /J 1 od on

Neandcrthals and moclcrn humans

A '1.'IH: cvolu11011111y Pl'lll'CHtH.:N tltat hnvr 1111ulc mudc111 hum1111-. wo d1ffi.:r~nt
lruru othc1 .1111111111114 iuc 11111 d 111 dclL'I 111111~ w1tllrn1t 1111 nluhty
111 cx;llllll~C
humun "PtT1cs thut huvo 1101 11l'1111.vt:d .,111111111 th111i.,
l lowcvcr, rn u Hc1cntil1c
1~111sl~rp1ccc. S 11111<: P1111h111111d ltis 1.:ollcap.11l'"'
lto111 thc Mnx Pl:111ck l11Hlrtutc
lor l:.vol111u111ary /\ntlt1opnl1114y. i11 l .c1p11p, llave made 1111ch a compar 1to.on
posxiblc. 111 20(.)().' .al 11 111ucti11i ol 1111.. Amcricuu \oc1at1011
/\dvam:rmc111 ul S1:11.:11cc. llti..:y nuulc public 1111 lllllllyH1li
Ncuudcrthnl 111:111.
'lor .1hc.
rhc uc.:nomc of

B //~'"''~ 11c:t111dC't't/l(t/<'11s/s, lo givc its propc: n1111c, hvcrl in b1ropc nnd ~ar~1-1
ot ~sll. trom 400,000 ycnrs agolo 10,000 ycnrs 11go. 'lownrd-, lhc cnd of tht8
pcriod 11 shnrcd its rangc with intcrlopcr in rhc li11111 ol l lonu, vmlens ... who
wcrc sprcading out Irom Alricn. l lowcvcr, tite wo 'ipccic'i did not sculc down
to a stublc cohuhitnrion. For n.:nsnni, which are m1 ycl unknown, thc arrival of
llomu sapieus in a rcgiou was nlways quickly lollowcd by thc dlsappcarancc
of Ncundcrthals.

C Bcfore 2009. Dr l'auho uud hiH tcam had conducted only a superficial
comparison hctwecn thc UN/\ ni' Ncanderthals und modern hurnans. Sincc
then, thcy llave pcrformcd a 111or1.: thorough study and, i11 doing so, havc shcd
a Iascinating light on (he intcrtwincd history ol'thc two spccics. 1 hat history
turns out to he mure intcrtwincd thun many had prcviously bclicvcd.

O Dr Puabo und his collcugues cornpurcd thcir Ncandcrthal gcnomc

(painstakingly rcconstructcd Irom thrce bone sarnplcs collcctcd from a cave
in Croatia) with thut of ivc living humuns lrom various parts of Africa and
Eurasia. Prcvious gcnctic analysis, which had only cxarnincd DN/\ passcd
from mothcr 10 child in ccllular structurcs callcd mitochondria, had suggcstcd
no intcrbrccding bctwccn Ncandcrthuls and modern hurnans. T he ncw, more
extensivo cxarninarion, which looks al DN/\ in the ccll nuclcus rathcr thun in
the mitochondria, shows this conclusion is wrong. By cornparing thc DN/\
in thc ccll nucleus of Africans (whos1.: unccstors could not havc crossbrcd
with Ncandcrthals. sincc thcy did 1101 ovcrlap wilh thcm) and various
Eurasians (whosc anccslors co11ld havc crosshrcd with Ncandcrthals), Dr
Paabo has shown that Eurasians are bctwccn onc pcrccnt and four pcrccnt

E That is intriguing. lt shows thal cvcn aflcr severa! hundrcd thousand ycars
or scparalion, thc two spcci1.:s wcrc intcr-lcrtilc. lt is strangc, though, that
no Ncandcrthal mitochondrial DN/\ has turncd up in modcrn humans, sincc
thc usual pallcrn of invasion in hislorical times was for thc invadcrs' males
to mate with thl! invadcd's lema les. Onc piccc of sel f-knowlcdgc, thcn al
lcast for non-/\fricans is 1ha111tcy havc a da~h of Ncandcrthal in thcm. But
Dr Paabo's work also illuminutcs th1.: dill'crl!nccs bctw1.:cn thc spccics. By
comparing modcrn humans, Ncandl!rthals, and chimpanzccs, it is possiblc to
distinguish gcnctic ch:mgcs which are sh.arccl by ~cvcral spccic.s huma.n in or
thcir cvolution away from thc grcat-apc lmeagc, from thosc wh1ch are umquc
to Humo sapiens.


F More than 90 perccnt of the human ~ccelerated regions that hav
idcruified in modcrn pcoplc are found in Neanderthals too. However e~
are not. Dr Paabo has idcntificd 212 parts of t~e gen.orne that seen{ 10the resi
undcrgonc significan! cvolution sincc .thc species spht. The state of hai,
science is still quite primitive, and rt is often unclear what any giv gen?ll'ic
DNA is actually doing. But an examination of t~e 20 largest regionsen b11 of
that havc cvolved in this way shows rhat they mclude several genefD~A
are associated with cognitive ability, and whose malfunction causesss"'~1Ch
mental problcms. Thesc genes therefore look like good places to eriC>ti\
scarch for modcrn humanity's essence. Stan t~

G The newly evolved regions of DNA also include. a gene cal~ed RUNx2 .
controls bonc growth. That rnay account for d1fferences m the sha 'Wh1cJi
skull ami thc rib cagc bctween the two species. By contrastan earlie~e or t"
thc study had airead y shown that Neanderthals and moderns share 1~hase~
vcr~1011 ?r a gene cal lcd FOX P2, which is involved in the ability 10 s esa~
which differs in chimpanzees. 11 is ali, rhen, very promising - anl.111>1
coup m quick succession for Dr Paabo. Another of his teams has revea"'llJj
existencc of a hitherto unsuspected species of human, using mitoch led ti~
DNA found in a liule-finger bone. If that species, too, could have nd~
gfuenome read, humamty's ability to know itself would be enhan dtts fulJ
rther. ce e\'en

an individual's complete set of genes

the scientifc name for modero humans
parts 0 f thc human brain which evolved very rapidly


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1: '
Questions 14-26

Questions 14-18

Look at the following characteristics (Questions 14-18) and the list of

species below.

Match each feature with the correct species, A, B or C.

Write the correct letter, A, B or C.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

14 Once lived in Europe and Asia.

15 Originated in Africa.

16 Did not survive long after the arrival of immigrants.

17 lnterbred with another species.

18 Appears not to have passed on mitochondrial DNA to another species.

List of species

A Homo neanderthalensis
B Homo sapiens
C both Homo neanderthalensis and Hamo sapiens



Questions 19-23
Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the fol/owmg m

Write the correct letter, A-G.

19 an account of the rejection of a theory

20 reference to an unexplained link between iwo events

21 the identification of a skill-related gene common to both Neanderthals anct

modern humans
22 the announcement of a scientific breakthrough

23 an interesting gap in existing knowledge

Questions 24-26

Complete the summary be/ow.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from tne passage for each answer.

The nature of modero humans

Recent work in the field of evolutionary anthropology has made it possible
to compare modern humans with other related species. Genetic analysis
resulted in severa! new findings. First, despite the length of time far which
Homo sapiens and Homo; neanderthalensis had developed separately,
24 did take place. Secondly, genes which evolved after
modern humans split from Neanderthals are connected with cognitive
ability and skeletal 25 .

The poten ti al for this line of research to shed light on the nature of modern
humans was further strengthened when analysis of a 26 led
to the discovery of a new human species.


You s~ould spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are besed on
Readmg Passage 3 below.

The Future of fish

The face of the ocean has changed completely since the first commcrcial fishers cast their nets and
hooks o~ier th~usand yea~s. ago. Fisheries intensified ovcr the centuries, but even by the nineteenth
century it wa~ s~ill felt, justifiably, th~t the plentiful resources of the sea were for the most part beyond
the reach of fishing, and so there w~s l.1ttl~ need .to restrict fishing or crea te protected a reas. The twentieth
cenrury h~ra~ded an escalation in fishing mtensity that is unprecedented in the history of the oceans, and
rnoder~ fishing technologies le~ve fish no place to hide. Today, the only refuges from fishing are those
we deliberately create. Unhappily, the sea trails far behind the land in terms of the area and the quality
of protectton given.

For centuries, as fishing and. cor~1me~ce have expanded, we have held onto the notion that the sea is
differe~t from the land. We st1JI vrew it as a place where people and nations should be free to come and
go at will, as well as somewhere that should be free for us to exploit. Perhaps this is why we have been so
reluctant to protect the sea. On land, protected areas have proliferated as human populations have grown.
Here. comp~re~ to the sea, we have made greater headway in our struggle to maintain the richness and
variety of wildlife and l~nds~ape. Twelve percent of the world's land is now contained in protected areas,
whereas the correspondmg for the sea is but three-fifths of one percent. Worse still, most marine
protected areas allow sorne fishing to continue. Areas off-limits to ali exploitation cover something like
one five-thousandth of the total area of the world 's seas.

Today, we are belatedly coming to realise that 'natural refuges' from fishing have played a critica! role
in sustaining fisheries, and maintaining healthy and diverse marine ecosystems. This does not mean
that marine reserves can rebuild fisheries on their own - other management measures are also required
for that. However, places that are off-limits to fishing constitute the last and most important part of our
package of reform for fisheries management. They underpin and enhance ali our other efforts. There are
limits to protection though. ,,

Reserves cannot bring back what has died out. We can never resurrect globally extinct species, and
restoring locally extinct animals may require reintroductions from elsewhere, if natural dispersa! from
remaining populations is insufficient. We are also seeing, in cases such as northern cod in Canada,
that fishing can shift marine ecosystems into different states, where different mixes of species prevail.
In many cases, these species are less desirable, since the prime fishing targets have gone or are much
reduced in numbers, and changes may be difficult to rever~e, even ~ith a complete moratorium on
fishing. The Mediterranean sailed by Ulysses, the legendary kmg of ancient Greece, supported abundant
monk. seals loggerhead turtles and porpoises. Their disappearance through hunting and overfishing has
totally restr'uctured food webs, and recovery is likely t? be. much harder to a~hiev~ than their destruction
was. This means that the sooner we act to protect manne life, the more certam will be our success.
To some people, creating marine reserves is an admission o~ failure. According to their logic, reserves
should not be necessary if we have done our w?rk properly in man~gmg the we make of t?~ ~ea.
M.any fisheries managers are still wedded to the 1d~a that one day the1~ models ~tll work, and politicians
wilt listen to their advice. Just give the appro~ch time, and success will be theirs. How much time have
we got? This approach has been tried and ref med for the last 50 years. There have been few successes


with which to fcath, . .
the Europ~an un cr.~h.e managers' caps, but a growing litany of failure. Thc Common F1sheries p .
worst pitfalls: n~~~s instrumcnt for thc management of fishcrics and aquaculture. exemplific''cy,
~ure~ucrats and ther d !n~dcls. la~cd advicc, warcred-down . r~~ommendat 1?ns from gover s the
me uably had to E 1 ~he diim.:g.ard of much of this advice by pollt1cians. ~he~ 1t ali went wron nnien1
wcrc actually wo' uiope sent its boats to other countrics in order to obtain fish for far less thag' as 11
rt 11. n they
We are squanderin , h . .
lose a kcy sour gft e wealth of oceans. 1 f we don 't break out of this cycle of fai lure, humanit .
water purifica/e 0 protcm, and much more bcsides. Disrupting natural ecosystem processes s Y h''"
We can go a nutncnt cy.cling, and carbon storagc, could have ramifications for human ti.fe~e as
Marine reservesnl~ewa\to avo1ding this catastrophic mistakc with si'!1ple c.ommon s~nse managellsclf.
here and there to sl~t t e heart of the r~form .. B.ut they will n~t be su.mc1~nt .r they are 1mplementedrnen1.
sc1ent1sts in the up the crumblmg edifice of the 'rational fisheries management envision ~nly
everything we d 1940re
. ~ and l 950s. They have to be placed centre stage as a fundamental underpinni~ gy
0 m t 1e oceans. Reserves are a first resort, nota final resort when ali else fails. g 0r


_.... .
Questlons 27-40

Questions 27-31
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage


YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

27 lt is more than a thousand years since people started to catch fish for
commercial use.

28 In general, open access to the oceans is still regarded as desirable.

29 Sea fishing is now completely banned in the majority of protected areas.

30 People should be encouraged to reduce the amount of fish they eat.

31 The re-introduction of certain mammals to the Mediterranean is a

straightforward task.

Questions 32-34

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

32 What does the writer mean with the question, 'How much time have we got?'
in the fifth paragraph?
A Fisheries policies are currently based on uncertain estimates.
B Accurate predictions will allow governments to plan properly.
C Fisheries managers should provide clearer information.
O Action to protect fish stocks is urgently needed.


33 What is the wrlter's comment on tne Common Fisheries Policy?
A Measures that it advocated were hastily implementad.
. f it commendations.
B Offlcials exaggerated sorne o 1 s re
C lt was based on predictions which were inaccurate.
O The policy makers acquired a good reputation.

34 What is the writer's conclusion concerning tne decline of marine resources.,

A The means of avoiding the worst outcomes needs to be prioritised.
B Measures already taken to avoid a crisis are probably sufficient.
C The situation is now so severe that there is no likely solution.
O lt is no longer clear which measures would be rnost effective.

Questions 35-40

Complete the summary using the tist of wordslphrases,A-J, below.

Measures to protect the oceans

Up till the twentieth century the world's supply of fish was sufficient
for its needs. lt was unnecessary to introduce 35 of any
kind. because large areas of the oceans were inaccessible. However,
as 36 improved, this situation changed, and in the
middle of the twentieth century, policies were introduced to regulate
37 .

These policies have not succeeded. Today, by comparison with

38 , the oceans have very little legal protection.

Despite the doubts that many officials have about the concept of
39 , these should be at the heart of any action taken.
The consequences of further 40 are very serious, and
may even affect our continuing existence.

A action B controls e failure o fish catches I

E fish processlng F fishing techniques G large boats
H marine reserves 1 the land J the past


writin9 module (1 hour)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The charts be_low show the percentage of time younger and older pe?ple
spend on venous Internet activities in their free time (excluding email).

Summarise the informatlon by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

. Percentage of time spent on some Percentage of time spent on some

mternet activities (18-26 age group) internet activities (60-70 age group)


Malng boo1dn91
e.g. c1-.1t..wl

Makong bookings
e.g. cnema/travcl

WRITING TASK.2 ..., You should spend about 40 minutes on tnis task.

Write about the following tapie:

Some people feel that the legal age at which people can marry should
be at /east 21.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons tor your answer and include any relevant examples from your own
knowledge and experience.

Write at /east 250 words.


Speaking module (11-14 minutes)

Answor these quesuons.

Tell me about your country.

Which part of the country are you from?
Has your family always lived there? t?
Do you like living in your country? Why/Why no
Is your country changing a lot? How?

Let's talk about shops.

Do you enjoy going shopping? Why? ?
In your country, what time do shops general/y opet to buy? Why?
What would you recommend visitors to your coun ry
How are shops changing in your country? Why?
PART 2 -
You have one minute to make notes on the following tapie. Then you have up to
two minutes to talk about it.

Describe an occasion when you met someone you hadn't seen for severa!
You should say:
how and when you met the person
who the person was
how long it was since you had last seen him/her
and explain how you felt about meeting this person again.

Did you recognise him/her straight away?

Had helshe changed a lot?

PART3 : ..~ Consider these questions and then answer them.

Now let's talk about keeping in contact with peop/e we know.

In what different ways can people keep in touch with each other?
How important do you think it is to keep in touch with friends? Why/Why not?
Which way of keeping in touch do you think is most popular with young people?

Now let's consider the ways in which peop/e changa as they grow older.
What are the reasons why people change as they grow older?
Why do you think some people change more than others?
At about what age do you think people change the most? Why/Why not?

Now tet's discuss long-term relationships.

How valuable do you think long-term friendships are compared with new
relationships? Why/Why not?
Do you agree that maintaining long-term relationships sometimes requires effort?
Why/Why not?


Reading module (1 hour)


The General Training Reading test contains three sections, and lasts for one hour, so
you have twenty minutes to do each section. The first and second parts of the test are
generally easier than the third, so you might decide to spend less time on these. You
can make notes on the question paper, but all your answers have to be written on a
separate mark sheet, so you must allow enough time to do this. The test has a total
of 40 questions, so in two of the sections there are 13 questions, and in one there
are 14 questions.
The first section of the test consists of two texts about sorne aspect of everyday life.
Topics are varied and might include accommodation, travel, leisure, entertainment or
driving. Each of the texts is approximately 300-350 words in total.
The second section contains two texts about sorne aspect of work or training. Again,
topics are varied, and could include careers, jobs, qualifications, health and safety,
salary and benefits. Each of the texts is between 350 and 400 words in length.
The third section has only one text of about 850-900 words, and is about any subject
of general interest. Topics might include geography, history, science, nature or sport,
but the texts will be generally accessible to readers of any background.

The General Training Reading paper uses a variety of task types, including:
Giving short answers to questions. ~
Deciding whether statements/opinions correspond to what is written in a
reading passage.
Matching statements to people or events which are mentioned in a reading passage.
Completing a summary, or individual sentences based on a reading passage.
Completing a table, a diagram, a flow chart, or notes based on a reading passage.
Choosing a statement about a reading passage from several options.
Choosing the answer to a question about a reading passage from severa! options.
Choosing the best heading for each of the paragraphs in a reading passage.
In sorne tasks you will have to write words or phrases, and in other tasks you will
have to write letters or numbers.

The testing focus of the General Training test is similar to that of the Academic
Training test. See page 39 for more information.

You can use the same preparation tips and strategies for the General Reading test as
you canfor the Academic Reading test. See page 39 for more information.


You should spend about 20 mmutes on Qu estions 1-14.


Bath time animals Chef's outfit

Five foam mix-and-match animal Young children will love to Play

jigsaws. Pieces stick easily to at being a master chef in this
damp tiles and ceramic surfaces. cute costume of a~ron, floppy hat
A great product for keeping and oven glo~e. W1t~ convenient
young children entertained in Velero fasteninqs, this set is
the bath. Assembled animals suitable for a bread range of
approximately 16 cm. szes. Available in two colours:
blue and red - please specify
your preference.

e D

Chimalong Carpenter's tools

An excellent choice, even for This fantastic junior tool box
the very young. This small is great for ali young children
xylophone has eight chimes, and who want to copy adults and do
is accompanied by a book, with sorne real woodworking. The set
instructions for playing twelve includes: a tool box, hammer,
familiar tunes. The chimes and saw, mallet, chisel, spanners,
instructions are colour-coded, sandpaper, screwdrivers and
making it easy for children to pliers - everything needed to
learn how to play the tunes. tackle simple projects. NB: Not
suitable far children under eight
years. Needs adult supervision.

Cardboard playhouse Doll-making kit
A unique playhouse providing A great creative kit for making an
hours of fun and imaginative adorable ballerina doll. Children
play for young children. lt is can give her a name and make
constructed in durable cardboard it official with the birth certificate
and is 100 percent recyclable! which is included! No pins or
lt is easy to assemble, and can needles required. Contains one
be folded flat or used as extra soft doll body, wool, lace, ribbon.
storage when not in use. Pink, adhesiva tape, coloured pencils,
blue, green, silver or brown - birth certificate and detailed
please state preference. Overall instructions. NB: Not suitable tor
size 90 x 67.5 x 128 centimetres. children under five years.
NB: This tem is not available for
overseas delivery or our gift-
wrapping service.


Questions 1-7

Look at the six advertisements for toys, A-Fon page 154.

fiP strip
uestions 1-7 .
O taterncnts don t For which toy are the following statements true?
The s the order of
~ation in the texts, Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
, u mdY not use al/
the letters for your NB: You may use any letter more than once.
Jf\S\Vers You may use
or more letter more
0ne 1 There is a range of colours to choose from.
rMn once
, For ea ch statement, find 2 The size of this can be adjusted to suit the child.
dny texts wh1ch contahtn
rds or phrases wrt
wo 3 This cannot be sent to addresses in other countries.
s1rn1 lai meanings (there
may be more than .
one). and then decide 4 Children can use this to make things out of wood.
which text marches the
statement. 5 Water will not damage this toy.
When you are writinq
your answer, don t 6 This contains the parts needed to make a toy.
copy the words. Only
wrrte the /etter o the 7 This is a type of musical instrument.
correct answer.
Question 1
Find ali the advertisements
that mention colour.
Choose the one that
menuons 'a range' of
(severa!) colours.
Question 2
First find all the
advertisements which
mentron size. Choose
the advertisement that
mentions being able to
change the size,
Question 5
Find the advertisement
contairunq words related to
'water'. There is only one.
! 1

' i
I' J


... .
. 1
~; !
;: 1


- ..,. ~
Dcar rtr und frs Burton,
Tip strip ith s at the Loch Cullen Hotel
Questions 8-14 1 han". you for booking your stay ""'. u h t Is ' one of
Slutlan<l' bcst-known and oldest family-run ore
1 h1 ,l,ltt'llll'llt\ ,Hl' in
th~' '>..llllt' Otd<'r ,l') th\? Wc are delightcd to confirm your rcservati.on frorn 1 lb6l Juned to 20 Jun
quested is not avai a e, an we onJ e.
rnlvrm,111011 in the lt'tt(.'1 U. nlortunatcly. thc double room Y?U re . d We have reserved . Y have
011\t> ol lh~ wortls 11) single or l\.\ in rooms to offer dunng thar peno . 1 twin r0olll
the '>t,lteml'nh m1yh1 be for you, but picase Jet us know if you would prefcr two smg es.
the xime or srmilor to
word-, "' the lettN Th Thc rate will be .(55.00 pcr person per night ', which includes a ful) s~Ottish
sn t mean that theIS brcakfast and tax Wc are currcntly offering a spcci~~rat~f for Su~day n1gti15
statement mu~t be true t:25 pcr pcrson picase contact us as soon as possi e 1 you wish to extcnd
Read the whole
your stay and take up this offer.
statement carefully befare
you decide whether 1t Check-in is from 2 p.m. and check-out is 1 1 a.m.- on the morning of Your
matches mformat1on in departure, 1 f for any reason you require a di fferent time then please let us kno\\
lhe letter or not.
111 ad vanee and we 11 do our best to help you.
For your answer, write T
or F or NG. Don't wnte The Loch Cullcn Hotel has achoiceoftwodistinctlydifferentdiningexperience
complete words. Choose cither the Lounge Bar where you.'11. find fres~ly produced light meai~:
Question 8 or the Loch Restaurant for more formal dining, but with a relaxed atmosphere
!0 find where the answer We can offer you a range of locally-sourced food, such as our award-winning
is, look for a word which haggis or Scottish smoked salman. Throughout the hotel we use the very best
has a srrrular meanmg to fresh Scottish produce.
'managed' Then read the
sentence carefully. On ~eparture. guests can settle the~r bill in cash, or by cheque., debit card or
Question 10 cre~tt ca~d. Thank you for guaranteeing your booking w1t~ a credit card number,
To fmd where the answer which will only be used in the event of a late cancellation. If cancelled up 10
is. look Ior the place where 24 hours befare the day of arrival no fec will be charged. lf cancelled later, orin
pnces and breakfast are the case that a guest doesn 't arrive. then the first night wi 11 be charged in full 1
mentioned Then read the
sentence carefully. lf )'.OU have any questions about your rcservation or the hotel, please don't
Question 12 hesitare to contact us. We look forward to welcoming you on your arrival.
Ftnd a word which is related Yours sincerely,
m mearunq to 'arrival'. Then
check what the letter says Sarah Peterson (Manager)
about the 'earliest' time
guests can arrive.
Questions 8-14

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text above?


TRUE ~f the statement agrees with the information

FALSE ~f the st!teme_nt contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN 1f there 1s no mformation on this

8 The Loch Cullen Hotel is managed by an international company.

9 One room with two beds has been reserved.

1 O Prices will be reduced for guests who do not require breakfast.

11 There is a temporary price reduction for Sund ay-n19

h t stays.

12 The earliest time of arrival at the hotel is normally 2 p.m.

13 Dinner in the loch Restaurant must be book d
e in advance.

14 lf less than 24 hours' notice of cancellation .
is g1ven, there 1s no charge.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questlons 15-21

Minnesota Department
of Natural Resources (DNR)
Voluntccring program Arrivc on time (or a little carly) to
work on thc project for which you
Voluntccrs work with DNR managers, rcgistcrcd to work. The schedule you
profcssionats and tcchnicians to hclp agrcc to is important: be sure to call
managc thc statc 's di verse natural if you will be ab ent or nccd to lcave
r_esourc.cs. Volunt?~r positions rangc carly. Thc DNR is counting on you to
f rom . jobs rcqumng no prcvious be a dcpcndablc voluntccr.
cxpc!1~nce to . pccialist positions
requmng extensivo skill and While working for the DNR, take
expcricnce. Volunteers provide work account of thc following guidelncs:
which supplcmcnts DNR pcrsonncl.
Voluntccrs hclp to pre. crve and Rcpresent the DN R in a positive
enhance Minnesota 's natural beauty fashion. You are not expected to
for t~e cnjoymcnt of pcoplc of ali be knowledgeable in ali arcas
ages, mterests and abilitics. concerning the O R. lf working
with thc public in your voluntcer
Follow these stcps to sign up as a position, ali qucstions from thcm
voluntccr for DNR: related to DNR policics and
procedures are to be passed on to
Yoluntccr opportunities are available your supervisor, or to the D R
throughout thc state at Statc Parks, lnformation Line at 1-888-646-
Statc Forest Campgrounds, Wildlife 6367. Avoid cxpressing a personal
Managcment Arcas, fishcrics and opiruon.
hatchcrics, the 150+ DNR arca officcs,
four regional hcadquartcr offices, thc Kecp a note of your hours. This is
St. Paul Central Office and at spccial important for liablity coverage,
event si tes. Check our websitc to lcarn for rcporting to the legislature,
about voluntecr positions availablc in and for volunteer recognition.
your arca. When the project is finished, turn
in your records to your supervisor,
Contact the DNR officer who is who wi 11 pass them on to the
designated for the project you are programme manager.
intere ted in. (lf you live in Greater
Minnesota, you may use our toll free Your supervisor will be happy to
numbcr at 1-555 646-6367. Hearing discuss any worrie: that you may
impaired individuals may call (651) have, as well as any spccial necds,
296-5484. Thc DNR officer will and try to offcr solutions that rnay
inform you if thc position is still open hclp you perform your volunteer
and wi 11 register you. duties bcuer,


Questions 15-27
Tip strip Ouestions 15-21
Questions 15-21
The informat1on in the Complete the f/ow chart below.
flow chart follows the
arder of mformat1on in Choose ONE WORD ONL Y from tne text for each answer.
the text.
Don 't wnte more than
one word in each space
Volunteering for the DNR
Don' change any
words Write your
answers exactly as they Find out about local vacancies from the DNR's 15 .. .. .......
appear tn the text.
When you wnte your
answers, check that
the grammar of the L__ Get in touch with the named DNR 16 . -----.
~entences is correct. lf it
rsn't, you've chosen the
wrong words.
Question 16
Register for the post. -----
Find a word in the text
that means 'get in touch
with', then look for the
Question 17 Turn up punctually for work (call if you need to change your 17 ).

t t
The flow chart has 'your'
in front of the space, so
the answer rs a noun.
Question 21 Refer questions Give a record of your Tell your supervisor
To find where the answer about the DNR from 20 to if you have any
is, fnd the place where the 18 . your supervisor. concerns or particular
'supervisor' is mentioned to your supervisor 21 .
then read carefully. ' (do not give your own
'Wornes' has a similar
meaning to 'concerns'. 19 ).
This is the first thing to
tell your supervisor about.
Now look for the second


Top tips on how to get
further up the career ladder
Moving jobs is no longcr quite as easy as it was ju~t ~ couple of ycars i?
pro~lpttng ma.ny to look to develop their careers within exisung companies
until the rccru1tment outlook improves.

The followi1~g tips can help you take control of your career and make yourself
more attractive to both your current and any future employer:
Keep up with industry developments

Ensuring you are up-to-date with the latest trends in your industry through
attending confcrences can make you an invaluable employee, and change
the '!'Y managers see you, says John Grange, an adviser at free business
advice and support service Business link.

In recent years, online networking, using corporate sites such as Linkedln,

has also given employccs the ability to liaise with people doing similar
work. lt's a great way of keeping up-to-date with what people in similar jobs
and industries are thinking about, and plenty of people are willing to help i f
you have a problem or want sorne advice.

But Leon Benjamn, author of the book Winning By Sharing, warns that
the effectiveness of such sites in advancing your career vares considerably,
depending on your industry sector 'For people who're working in digital
media its everything, but in the building trade it's almost pointless because
of its low leve! of take up,' he says.

Request suitable training

Ensuring you have access to training to improve your skills is essential to

progressing both your career and earning potential. By getting the right
skills, individuals can sometimes get salary increases, as well as making
themsclvcs more likely to gain promotion.

Finding the right type of training, though, is vital. Apart from on-the-
job training, there are self-help books that can be found in book shops or
libraries, as well as formal courses. lndividuals should decide what their
genuine areas of weakness are, and then talk about them with their Staff
Oevelopment coordinator to find out what kind of training might be best.

Broaden your experience

Experiencing other parts of the business through temporary roles or

job-shadowing can give you a more rounded view of the organisation
and ensure you won 't be pigeon-holed in one particular area.


ation of what goes on Within
1..., an appreci,
h business b ali
Grangc says, 'JI you nave more valuable to t e , ' ecause Yo
dcpartments you bccome much . over here, there s a knock-on en- u
. , k an act10n 1eci
uudcr-tand that if you ta e
ovcr thcre.'

Work with your manager

. . . ith our boss, and part of that is know
Onc of thc kcy s~1lls ~s d~aling '~ ~hey ali have targets, from the ch~g
what your boss is being JUdg~ Y nagers so look at ways rn which y cf
cxccutive and orher ~ore senior;;; still h~lping yourself. ou
can help thcm to deliver those w

Questions 22-27

Look at the top tips in the passage sbove.

Tip strip
Questions 22-27
Complete the notes be/ow.
Notes rruqnt not
follow the arder of the Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from tne text for each answer.
text exactly, but the
headmqs will help you
to find the nqht places Keep up with developments by:
in the text.
Wnte e1ther one word going to conferences
or two words for your
answers. Don 't write 22 , using business websites (but not useful far employees
more than this.
in the 23 )
Your answers
should fit the spaces
grammatically as well as Ask for training
in meaning.
Don't change any could result in a salary increase
words. Wnte your
answers exactly as they types of training - on-the-job, books or 24 .
appear in the text.
Question 22 identify weaknesses and discuss them with the person in charge of
This is the second part of 25 .
a list of two things. Find
what the second thing Get more experience by:
is by looking for 'also' in
the text. then reading the
sentence carefully. doing temporary work in other departments
Question 24
To fmd the place where 26
the answer is, look for
the part in the text Work with the manager
about training.
The answer is one of three find out what their 27 . . . .............. are and h e 1 p th em succee d
types of training. Find
where the text mentions
the other two types,
and then look for the
third type,
Question 27
The notes have 'their' in
front of the space, and
'are' after the space. so
the answer is a plural
noun phrase.


s: s~ould spend about 20 minutes on Questlons 28-40 which are based on
eadmg Passage 3 below.

The Spotted Flycatcher

appcar, typically as if from nowhere, to watch the
ncst, very occasionally even settling on thc eggs.
oespite its rather dull plumagc and less than
rnpressivc vocal repcrtoire, thc Spottcd. Flycatchcr o
has alw~ys attracted a grcat_dea_l of public attention
in Britam. Howevcr, the bird rs rcsident hcrc for Once the eggs hatch, the female will continue to
only a small p~r! of the year. Although onc of the brood them until they are seven to ten days old; the
tast surnmer visitors t~ arnve, it begins to move young are blind and naked through to day five. Both
south in late July, headmg through western France sexes will then provide food for the growing chicks,
and Iberia. froJ? August to October, and reaching sometimes bringing them through to successful
North Africa in _September. Recoveries of birds fedging, and avoiding the unwelcome attentions of
that have been nn~ed suggest that many winter nest predators like cats. Newly ftedged young are
in coastal West Afnca, but others continue south fairly conspicuous; noisily, they continue to beg for
to cross the Equator. Just how far south the birds food from their parents for at Jeast another 10-12
winter is unclear; one juvenile ringed in Wales days. The pair may then initiate another breeding
during August (which could have been on passage attempt, sometimes in the same nest. There are
from a breeding area outside Britain) was recovered records of young from the first brood attending and
in South Africa the following March. feeding young from the second brood, a behaviour
that also occurs in a number of other bird species.
In the cighteenth century, Gilbert White, one of the
first English naturalists to make careful observations Over the main period of egg production females
of his surroundings and record these in a systematic take more calciurn-rich prey (like small snails and
way, cornmented that the annual return of'his' Spotted woodlice). If a second batch of eggs is laid, the
Flycatchers occurred almost exactly to the day. An numberof eggs is reduced to three or four, probably
examination of his joumals confirms this consistency reflecting a reduction in the availability of insect
in arrival dates, with a concentration of sightings prey later in the season. Research has shown that
around 20 May each year. Records logged through on cold days ( or in the cool of early moming) the
a British Trust for Omithology (BTO)-led project Spotted Flycatcher switches from taking larger,
show that the pattem of arrival still delivers the bulk aerial insect prey to gleaning smaller prey from
of Spotted Flycatchers to Britain in the second half amongst foliage. These srnaller prey are likely to
of May, though average arrival dates may now be be less nutritious, and a run of cooler days late in
slightly earlier than they were during White's time. the breeding season may reduce the chances of the
birds successfully rearing a second brood.
Most Spotted Flycatcher nests are built against a
vertical surface, such as a waJI, but sorne may be The Spotted Flycatcher lacks the more brightly
positioned on a beam, and very occasionally, the marked plumage of many other birds, and the lack
species will make use of a hole. Although both scxes of easily recognisable features means it can be
ger involved in building the nest, it is the female mistaken for another, equally drab species, such as
who does most of the work. The nest itself is a fairly the Dunnock, or even the fema le House Sparrow.
delicate structure, slightly built and containing moss, Fortunately, the Spotted Flycatcher can also be
wool, hair and cobwebs. The fema le will deposit four identified from its behaviour. Spotted Flycatchers
?r five eggs or. rarely, six, into this befare she initiates are sel dom seen on the ground, but usually feed
1ncubation - a job that she undertakes almost entirely from a perch, making sallies after aerial insects.
on her own. Bouts of incubation are broken by short The ftycatcher often adopts an upright posture
periods of seven to ten minutes. when the female rnay when perching, making the bird appear rather
leave the nest to feed. While she is away the male will sleek. Additionally, it is rare to see severa! Spotted


~1~ 1.'aldu:~ "'gc1hcr ,
thc period 196 7 2006, a pattcrn scemingly r
tanul~ of rwo adults
1 ~.'!k~they huppen to be a
(rhc ljm ..r l\h)kmg \ ~r Cl~1t~g nc''_ly-lkdgcu young d~cwhcre in Europc. whcre numbers .
are csetpea1cd
. llllat
bt.~ausc uf th, dtlkrl'lll rom thcir pareuts to havc fallen by 59 percent smce 1980. Ho Cd
tt katurc . ctr ~tro1wl\1 l , .1 ongoing and planned work .should hclp 10 Wever.
ter is u , 0.1 1,.111 h.:mcu plumagc). Onc
bill ~nmctimc~ ,;'-= ~udihlc snupping sound that thc thc underlying causes of this trcnd. In par/evcaJ
inscl't fron th~ ai~~' es whcu the bird snutchcs an thc BTO has a projcct to analysc ne t data a;cular,
col lcctcd. Work wi 11 nccd to be carried out elsc~~ady
G as wcll, looking at thc Spoucd Flycatchcr in ~re
wintcring grounds. Undcr tandmg thc factor
Data trom thc BTO 1 drive Spotted Flycatchcr numbers should sti~ ;ha1
the br~eding p s. iow un 86 pcrccnt downturn in conservation action and help to secure the futuu ate
opu 1 auon of Spoucd Flycatchers over this bird. re or

Tip strip Questlons 28-40

Questions 28-34
The head1n9s are not in Questions 28-34
the same order as the
informat1on in the text, The text above has SEVEN paragraphs, A-G.
You can only use each
heading once. Choose the correct heading, i-ix, from the /ist of headings below.
Read all the headmqs
quic~ly before you read Write the correct number, i-ix.
the text
lf you have chosen one
of the headmqs for a List of Headings
paragraph near the
beginning, and then
find that it fits a later A breeding partnership
paragraph better, check i Danger from predators
your answers.
~on't choose a heading iii Geographic range
just because it contains
words from the text. A iv Seasonal changes in diet
head1ng should be about v The regularity of first sightings "
the who/e paragraph.
Question 29 vi A lack of accurate data
Paragraph B mentions vii Reversing the decline
's1ghtings'. so read this
paragraph qurckly to see viii Rearing the young
if 'regulanty' is one of the
mam thernes. ix Physical features
Question 32
Only three of the
paragraphs mennon food 28 Paragraph A
or feed1ng (C. D and E).
One of these describes 29 Paragraph B
what the birds eat in
sorne detarl, Read this
paragraph and check that 30 Paragraph C
it mentions different times
of the year. 31 Paragraph O
Question 34
32 Paragraph E
Look for a paragraph
contain1ng the idea o
'decline' or fall. There 1s 33 Paragraph F
only one.
Check whether thrs 34 Paragraph G
paragraph refers to
'reversing (completely
chan91ng) the decline.


r Questions 35-38

Complete the summary below.

fiP strip
. n 35
, 1 ,r J word 111 the text Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
rl l .
''\, 1 ,nlllt1r mt',rning to
belore the spece ldentifying the Spotted Flycatcher
ftir\\t, '>O the answer is
tlll' \ .
' die<.ti1,-c oran advero.
.111 ' The Spotted Flycatcher can be hard to identify, as its singing is
o1.1estion 37
s \omes befo1e the unremarkable, ano its feathers are quite 35 lt can best be
" SO the answer
<X1e" h
IS a distinguished by its behaviour.
singular oouo p rase.

The Spotted Flycatcher usually waits for its prey on a 36 .

lt is normally seen alone, or as part of a 37 Finally, when it
catches prey it often produces a 38 .

Questions 39 to 40.

Choose the correct letter, A, B, e or D.

Tip strip
Questions 39-40 39 What does the writer say about the seasonal movements of Spotted
The questions follow Flycatchers?
the order of information
m the text
A They can be found in Britain throughout most of the year.
The four options may
not follow the order of B Their time of arrival in Britain has changed considerably since the
normation in the text. eighteenth century.
Alter you've chosen
an answer, check that C Ringing them has only provided evidence of their routes within Europe.
the other opnons are
wrong. O Sorne of them migrate between the northern and southern hemispheres.
lt's better to guess than
to leave a question 40 The nests of Spotted Flycatchers
Question 40 A have to be sturdily built.
lnforrnation about the B may be used for more than one brood.
birds' nests is contamed
in Paragraph e and e are normally constructed by the male.
Paragraph D. So to be
sure of the correct answer, o must hold up to ten eggs at a time.
you have to read both
lh~e paragraphs.


Writing module (i hour)


The General Training Writing test lasts for an _hour and cons_ists of two parts. The
first part is shorter than the second, and carnes only o~e thrrd of the marks, so You
should spend about 20 minutes on this part and 40 mrnutes on the second Part.
For each part you should allow enough time to plan what. you are going to say
before you begin writing, and to check what you have wntten afterwards.

Task 1
In the first part, you have to write a letter with a mnimum of _150 ~ord~ altogether,
in response to a situation which is described in the task. The situatton m19ht be
related to social life, or it might be related to work life. and it might be a letter to a
friend ora letter to an official or a work colleague.
You are provided with a list of three things which your letter should include.
You have to write in an appropriate style according to the situation.
Task 2
In the second part you have to write an essay with a minimum of 250 words.
This involves giving your own opinion about a situation or point of view which
is described in the task. Topics are varied, and might include health, lifestyles,
environment, or education, but you do not have to have any special knowledge to 1
be able to do the task.

The testing focus for the General Training Writing test is similar to that of the
Academic Writing test. See page 52 for more information.

As you cannot predict what the topics of the General Training Writing test will be,
you sh?uld read about different topics using a wide variety of sources, such as
magazrnes. n~wspapers. letters, lea~lets, ~~vertisements and websites. 1

At the same trme, you should pract1se wntrng both letters and essays to a time limit.


You should soena about 20 minutes on this task.

fip striP
0 ihe nrst two
=. want something that you cen't buy In your own country. You
decide to asl< an English frlend to help you.
ReJtences carefully, as
se" ,,pla1n the reason
th.'\,~111119 J letter Write a letter to the friend. In your letter
tor v
, irnportant to realtse
'lt 1
thetvloW 19 say what you want,
, Yoifre w11t1ng to a
mend, so your tone explain why you want it,
rnu~t be informal and
nla,.ed. suggest how the friend could help.
, Tht.' fr1end rs Enghsh.
, choose somethmg
which you rmqht Write at least 150 words.
rt'<'lsonably ask a fnend
10 help you to buy.
, You rnust cover ali three
You do not need to write any addresses.
tiullet points in your
!etw: you will lose marks Begin your letter as follows:
1f you miss any of them.
, 11 often helps to imagine Dear ,
a real person when you
are writing the letter.
, Airn to use a wide
range of vocabulary
and grammar.
Divide your letter into
suitable paragraphs.
Don't write too much or
write an address -you
won't get any extra rnarks.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following tapie:

Tip strip
Read the statement
Sorne people thinl< that there are now too many cars on the roads, and
The second line of the
lask in Iask 2 ditfers
that they are spoiling our towns and cities.
from paper to paper.
Make notes before you Do you agree or disagree?
start to write.
' You could give your
point of view and then Give reasons for your answer, and include any relevant examples from your own
provide illustrations/ knowledge or experience.
ev1dence, Or you can
explore one side of the
question and then give Write at least 250 words.
YOUr opinion and explain
the arguments you find
part1cularly persuasive.
' Aim to use a wide range
o vocabulary which
conveys your ideas
Prec1sely and expressively.
' Create a separate
Paragraph for each
ma1n idea .
swer the task question.
11 15
al! right to partly

agree or disagree.


examiner will ask you questions abo
In the first part of the speaking test. th~. r with. ut
yourself and about things you are famJ/ta

Watch the
full test on
your DVD.

Listen very carefully to the question so that your reply is relevant.

lf you don't understand the question, ask the examiner to repeat it, or tell the
examiner which word you don't understand.
The question word tells you what kind of information you should give. For
example, if the examiner asks a question beginning with 'Why ... ', you should give 1

a reason or reasons.
Take care when you hear 'like' in a question: 'Do you like ... ?' has a completely
different meaning to 'What is X like?'.
Reply to the examiner's questions as fully as you can: don't just say 'Yes' or 'No'.
You can make your reply full in various ways, such as giving examples.
lf you make a mistake while you are speaking, don't worry about it. You can
correct yourself, or just continue speaking.
Remember that the examiner will only assess your speaking ability, not the content
of your replies: there are no 'right' or 'wrong' answers to the questions.

Useful language

Communication strategies
Could you say that again please?
Wou/d you mind repeating the question?
What does X mean?

Giving personal information

Peop/e cal/ me X.
I come from X but l /ive in Y now.

Talking about everyday lite and habits

I usuallylgenerallylsometimes/often
Every morning/daylweek, . . .
On Mondays/Tuesdays ...

At the weekend, ...

In P'! two of the test, the examiner gives you a familiar topic to talk about. .Y~~e
are g1Ven a card with points to include in your talk, and you will neve one mm
to make notes befare you begin.

Read the card carefully, so that your talk is relevant to the topc you are given.
Decide exactly what you will talk about (which person, place, occasion, etc.).
Make a few notes about each separate point on the card (there are tour things
to include).
Use the card and your notes as a plan.
Begin talking when the examiner tells you to, and don't worry about the time:
you will be told when to stop talking.
Make sure you use the correct tense.
When you are moving from one idea to another, make the change clear to the
examiner by using linking words or phrases such as, 'Also .. .', 'Another thing
1 know is .. .',
lf you make a mistake while you are speaking, don't worry about it. You can
correct yourself, or just continue talking.

Useful language

Linking ideas and information

The placelpersonloccasionlactivity l'm going to talk about is ...
First of al/ ...
Secondly .. ./Next ...
Another thng I shou/d mention is ...
Regarding the X ...

Giving reasons
... because/solso that .
The main reason that .

Expressing likes and dislikes

The thing I particular/y like ...
f enjoyed it ...
ft made me feel happy ...
f was real/y p/eased .
didn't real/y like it .


In Pen 3 of the test the examinar will ask you soma q':'estions related to the to
of your tet in Psn 2, and then discuss your replie~ wit~ Y~ ~~e questions w~ic
be more general and tess personal than me questJOns m 0
er two Parts.

Listen very carefully to the queston so that your reply is relevant.

lf you don't understand the queston, ask the examiner to repeat it. or tell the
examiner which word you don't understand.
Reply to the examner's questions as fully as you can. You can make your reply full
in various ways. such as giving reasons for what you say, or providing examples.
lf you make a mistake while you are speaking, don't worry about it. You can
correct yourself, or just continue speakng.
Don't focus too much on accuracywhle you are talking, as it might affect your fluency.
Remember that the examner will only assess your speaking abilty, not the content
of your reples: there are no 'riqht' or 'wrong' answers to the questions.

Useful language
Expressing an opinion
l'm not sure. but ...
I agreeldon't real/y agree with that.
I think people general/y ...
I think one of the main reasons for this is ...
In my opinion it's better to .
t'm not sure how important .
Personal/y t'm againstlin favour of ...

X is betterlbiggerleasierlmore commonlless frequent than y
Compared to X . . .
More people ... than ...
By contras! with X ...

Qualifying statements
To a certain extent ...
People tend to ...
In general ...
On the whole ...
lt mightlmay/could be the case that ...
In certain circumstances ...
/t's possible/like/y/unlikely that ...

rest 1
Task achievement lt should be task-focused.
WRITING TASK 1 free of irrelevant mforrnation
and comment, and of the
sa111ple question
appropriate length.
see Test 1. Task 1 on page 2 9. Coherence and lt should be organised in
sa111ple answer
cohesion a loqrcal sequence, wnh
appropriate paragraph divisions,
and should use linkmg words
fht table sh~ the reeutte of three surveys, conducted
and phrases to show the reader
()\-tr 10 yearv!7, indicating changes in students
what the connection between
vieW5 about different sepecte of provision at one
the different parts is.
unJeurmined university.
Lexical resource The vocabulary should be
fj~t of all, the most significant changc is the accurate and appropriate.
con5iderable improvement in etudente' opinion of Grammatical range A variety of structures should
&he electronic reeourcee offered by this university. and accuracy be used as appropriate.
The number of positive responses almost doubled, Exam help
increasing from 45 percent, in 2000, to 88 percent, in
Look very carefully at the task input. including the
2010. Another intcresting point s a slight riee in the
instructions, the main title, the label on the two axes
spprobation of tcaching quality. In 2000, the quality
(graphs and bar charts). the column headings (tables).
of teaching was commended by 65 percent: of the
the segment labels (pie charts). the key, etc. Make sure
5wdenr;s. By 2010, this figure had rieen to 69 percent:
that you understand the information you have been
Oru: aspect of university provieion declined in popularity given befare you begin writing.
- ratings for the range of modules offered dec/ined by Decide what the main patterns are in the information.
5 percent, from 32 percent: in 2000 to 27 percent: in For example- what is the shape of the line in a line
2010. Attitudes to print reeourcee fluctuatcd slightly - graph, and what does this show? Or, where there are
~itive responses rose from 87 percent: in 2000 to two pie charts. how does the structure of one compare
89 percent in 2005 but: went down again to 88 percent: with the structure of the other?
in 2010. Finally, attitudes to buildingslteaching facilities Make a brief plan. Decide how you will orqamse the
were good and stable throughout at 77 pcrccnt. morrnauon you are going to report. Start with the
overall patterns and go on to support your statements
with specific details from the visual.
Wnte your answer according to your plan .
The answer would get a high IELTS band because: Check the length of your answer.
I A clear overview is presented at the beginning. Read your answer through and make any changes
I There is a clear overall progression throughout which you think will improve it.
the response. Correct the grammar. spelling and punctuation
1 Key fndings from the survey are clearly highlighted. as necessary.
Not every statistic is reported, indicating selection of Useful language
1 the proportion of X; the percentage of X; more than half
There is sorne good use of cohesive devices ('First of
of X; less tiien a third of X; a quarter
all', 'Another interesting point', 'Finally').
1 most of the X; sorne of the X; a bigger number of X ...
~orne appropriately sophisticated vocabulary is used
( approbation of teaching quality'). than of Y
There are virtually no errors of grammar, spelling rose; fell; increased sharply; gradually decreased;
or Punctuat1on. fluctuated; remained the same; went up;
~arking criteria went down; remained stable

~~s~110 the max1mum number of marks, you~ answer to over the whole period; during the first year; by the end of
the period
follo should reach the required level accordinq to the
wing critena:

shows tbet: indicates tbst; suggests that

Academic Writing Task 2
I A wide range of structures is used.
.ty of sentences are error-free.
Sample question The ma1or1 h
I Punctuat1on is accurate throug out.
See Test 1. Tasi< 2 on page 29.
Marking criteria
Sample answer or less the same as for Task 1, except ti..:\t
These are. more
ents for task ach1evemen t are rat h er more11"'
the requ1rem
lt 16 a isct: that ~ .
ror a vsnety of rea90n5, people live extensive. d df
uld be task-focuse an ree of 1rrel""a
longer than they used to. The queestion 15: eshould thl6 17e Your answ er Sho h "' nt
reason for ralsing the age at which people retire? . f t n and of the appropnate 1 engt as for Task 1
in arma 10 b ted to . .
At the same time, you w1ll e expec recognrse the
One advan~ge of increaesing the sge at which people 't of the essay topic, and where relevant, give
stop worlc 16 that lt wi/l help the i;tate l7y generating comp 1 ex1 y . d .
an account of differing viewpo1nt~d~n exp1enen~es. You
r:iore money. People in worlc pay the pensionis of tho9e should expand your ideas by prov1 ing exp anat1o~s and
tn retlrement, 60 the longer people estay in worlc. the les and most importantly, you should prov1de a
le55 the rest of the population wlll have to pay toward6 examp 11 b st r
clear conclusion for your essa~. usua Y Y a ing your OWn
position in relation to the top1c. .
Another advantage of having a later retirement age As the content of the writing in Task 2 is lo~ger and more
ia that sn occupation tendes to lceep people fullled complex than that for Task 1 , 1t 1s even more 1mportant
and even hea/thier; and 60 it is 17enecial to keep them that you plan and organise your essay cl~arl~. and create
working longer. Current./y the normal retirement age is suitable paragraphs to reflect that orgarnsat1on. In addition.
al7out 55 or 60. In the past. when people died younger; connections between sentences and paragr~phs s~ould be
they could look forward to only a few year-5 more llfe. made clear by the appropriate use of co~es1v~ dev1Ces such
Nowadays, they may have 30 or 40 year-5of leisure as adverbials. relative pronouns and con1unct1ons.
ahead of them, feeling that they no longer contril7ute
anything valual71e to oociety.
Carefully read the statements and the question(s}.
However; for me the disadvantages of postponing which together represent the tapie of your essay. Refer
retirement outweigh the advantages. Firstly, although to these frequently as you plan your essay, to make
older people obviously bring to their profeessiona sure that your writing is properly focused.
great deal of experience, they 13radually become less Note down any ideas that come into your head.
enthusiastic and less wllling to adapt to changes. Make a plan. Select the ideas you want to use, and
Young peopte are more adaptable and should not have then decide how you will organise them.
to wait until their eerore leave to get a job. Secondly. Write you(.answer according to your plan.
many peop'o simply don't want to spend so much of Check the length of your answer.
their fives working - they w8nt to epen time with their Read your answer through and make any changes
children or grandchildren. orto use that time for things which you think will improve it.
/ike travelllng before they grow too old to enjoy it. 1 Correct the grammar, spelling and punctuation as
therefore feel the retirement age should 17e raised only necessary
slightly. if at ali.
Useful language
a lot of people, some people; many people; a few people
The answer would get a high IELTS band because: on the one hand ... on the other hand; however;
.! There is a clear. direct and original opening response to nevertheless; although
the task. firstly, secondly; finally; then; next; furthermore;
.! The position is strong and consistent.
moreover; m addit1on; besides; as a result; for
.! Main points are clear and well-suppo~ed.
one thing ... for another thing; by comparison
.! Paragraphing is clear with central tapies clearly
it appears that; 1t is apparent that; it seems that; this
signposted. d 1
id of the debate are presente suconct Y suggests that; people tend to; it is Jikely
.! Bot h s1 es nion only
h h the task calls for the wnter s or i that; m general; generally; usually; normal/y
~a~t ofug h lpful to explore the other side as well).
1t 1s o ten e 1 1 in conclusion; to conclude; in summary
d. l'ne and point rs a litt e rrumrnat.
1- The conclu ing i od mix of stra1ghtforward language
.1 Vocabulary - a go
. t'cated sentence construct1on.
and sop h rs 1

General Training Marking criteria
WRITING TASK 1 To qam the maxrmurn number of marks, your answer to
Task 1 should reach the required level according to the
le question
sal11 P . w . ollowmq criteria:
see General Tra1rnng nting test, Task 1 on page 16S. Task achievement lt should be task-focused. free
le answer and of the of irrelevant 1nformat1on and
sal'Tl P appropriate length. comment.
CeJr Simort. Coherence and lt should be organised in
cohesion a loqical sequence, with
HOW are you my friend?Are you enjoying your summer in appropnate paragraph
flymouth? /'ve heard that, unfortunately, the weather i5 divisions, and should use linking
i-efY bad oer there. words and phrases to show the
Wefl. a5 you're in Enqland, I should a5k you whether reader what the connection
'f)U could buyju5t a couple of thinqs for me. You know between the different parts is.
that f'm a supporter of Plymouth Arqyle Football Club lexical resource The vocabulary should be
O could you just look tound the city to find an offlcia; accurate and appropriate.
r-5hirt of the current season, please? My etze is M. Grammatical range A variety of structures should
don't know if you can find them in Plymouth, but /a/so and accuracy be used as appropriate.
riud the ismoue Scottish Chocolate Chip 5hortbread Exam help
C811ed Walkers'; 1 totd you that both my perenz adore
Look very carefully at the task input, that is: the
Uiem and so do /! Final/y 1 a/so need a new wetsuit
description of the situation. the person you have to
b@u5e the one 1 bouqht fewyears ago is too smal/ now
send a letter to, and the three points that you have
arid / know that there are sorne qood shops in Plymouth
to include. Decide whether the letter should be quite
with that kind of thinqs.
informal (e.g. if it is to a friend) or more formal (e.g. to
Could you buy this thinqs for me and eend them to an official).
me to my ltalan edareee; please. Reply mt: a5 eoon as Decide what kind of information you will provide
po55ble, please. and t:njoyyour holiday. yourself, and make a few notes.
Using the three bullet points as your plan. write your
The answer would get a high IELTS band because: Check the length of your answer.
1 Answers all the requirements of the task fully and Re~d your answer through and make any changes
clearly (although it might be better to focus on one, or which you think will improve it.
possible, two items rather than three). Correcrthe grammar, spelling and punctuation as
I The ~urpose of the letter is clear and the tone is very
consistent and suitable for writing to a friend. Useful language
I The sequence of requests is logical and well separated. with referenceto; conceming X, about X
I Opening is efecnve and appropriate to context.
1 The vocabulary is sophisticated, natural and confidently unfortunately; f'm sorry to say that ... ; l'tn afraid that ... ;
used. There is good use of colloquial language suitable fortunately; luckily
for an informal letter. /'d be grateful if . . ; could you ... ; l'd like to ...
1 The~e are very few grammatical errors.
1 Yours sincere/y; Yours faithfully; Best wishes; Love
A w1de range of sentence structures used and different
tenses are used accurately.
Good use of paragraphing.

WRITING TASk 2 ./ There are hardly any errors in spelling and Word
Sampfe question formation.
See General Tra1ning Wnting test. Task 2 on page 165. , There 15 a wide range of complex structures is used .
Sample answer ./ The punctuation is accurate throughout.
Marking criteria
The import.ance of C8"5 is indlepucable. Over the lse;t
These are more or less the sa~e as for Iask 1, except that
the requirements for task ach1evement are rather more
~ewdecad~6 the 5ignificsnce of prvate tran!5portatlon
d~6 eteadily mc~ased. In thi6 eee;ay, /'m golng to extensive. . . . f
iecuss what factors favour mort or fewercsrs on Your answer should not conta1n irre1 ev~nt in orrnation or
the road6. The aepects /'m going to iocue on are roed opinion, and it should be of the a~p_ropnate len~th. You
design, safety and pollution. should back up your ideas by prov1ding explanat1ons and
examples, and most importantly, a~ the end of the essay
Fi~t of al/, 1 would like to consider whether the~ are
too many CaN> or too smal/ rosd6. Many towm; and
y ou should provide a .clear conclus1on,
. t usually by stating or
re-stating your own v1ew~o1n
citles real/y seem 9poilt by trafflc but this may be As the writing in Task 2 1s lon~er and more complex than
mainly due to the nsrrowness of the street5. They that for Task 1, it is even more 1mportant. that you plan and
real/y have to be widened so cars can get through organise your essay clearly, and crea te su1table paragraphs
easl/y, and lorriee can transport goods mo~ effectively to separate the different ideas. You should also make the
on them.
connections between sentences and paragraphs clear
Another reeeon for thinking that there are too many to your reader by using appropriate connectives
caro are the number of sccldente caused by them.
first. second. final/y, however, and so, as well as relat1ve
lf we had fewer cere, fewer peope would be njured or
pronouns like who and which.
killed on our roede. Exam help
Damage to the environment: is for many people the Carefully read the description of the problem or
most importent: evidence that ther is too much situation or opinion, and the question(s), which
trafflc on our roede. The effects on local sreee are together represent the topic and purpose of
eerioue. Cerbon monoxide and otner harmful cnemicsie your essay. Refer to these frequently ~s. yo~ plan
produced by cere damaging buildings and cause your essay, to make sure that your wnting 1s
reepiretory dieesee and other hea/th prooisme for properly focused.
reeidente. Noiec and emeile fromcsre a/so make our Note down any ideas that come into your head.
towns and ciue teee pleasant to live and work in. Select the ideas you want to use, and then decide
On a global sea/e, poutente are changing our cmste how you will organise them.
causing extreme weather which affects al/ our lives. Write YOllf answer according to your plan.
Check the length of your answer.
/ believe strongly that we must reduce the number Read your answer through and make any changes
of csre in citiee. Although moet: of us tove our cere. which you think will improve it.
and modern lifestyles make it difflcu/t to stop Correct the grammar, spelling and punctuation
our aependcncc on them, we should ~ake fewer as necessary.
journeys and use public trsneporteuon more as ~n.
environment-friendly eoiuuon to trafflc-clogged c1t1es.
Useful language
a lot of people; some people; many peop/e; a few people
on the one hand ... on the other hand; however;
The answer w ould get a high IELTS band because: nevertheless; although
lt covers all parts of the task. ..
./ t a clear and consistent posmon throughout. firstly; secondly; final/y; then; next; furthermore; in addition;
./ lt presen Is . matches the position drawn throughout besides; as a result; for one thing ... for another thing;
./ Theconcu~on d by comparison
the response a nd is clearly and. effectively presente .
h id are supported by evidence. it appears that; it is apparent that; it seems that; this
./ T e ~
The ideas are logically organised and the answer
eas suggests that; people tend to; it is /ikely that; in general;
general/y; usual/y; normal/y
progresses well. phing and each paragraph has a
.; There is clear pa~agra in conclusion; to conclude; in summary
clear central. topic. of vocabulary ('indisputable',
.; There is a wide rahnget ets' 'on a global scale') which
, ss of t e s re
narrowhne riter present meaning precisely.
helps t e w

fer to the multi-Rom for the audioscripts
~~~ .. 7 greenhouses PARAGRAPH 6
'The Trust also operates a Green
rest 1
Grants scheme. where res1dents
can clarrn 50 percens-o the cost of
equipment .... Purchases mduded ...
CflON 1 greenhouses . '
SE ( n) accountant 2 over SO
1 f:rnrly (membership) 4 nine/9 s doctor 8 F PARAGRAPH 7 tells us that electricity
3 (sw1rnming) pool 7 pay (extra) 8 social events was avauable pnor to the installat1on
of the gnd, mostly via dreset
: air condit1oning 1 O (the) restaurant

e o 9 T PARAGRAPH 8 tells us that. 'tbe

secrioN ~2 F 13 14 ts e
~! ~ 17/18 B/E 19/20 A/O
work by the E1gg Hentage Trust
to reduce energy use has resulted
in ~1go1f1,s;!n1 (fd!.!ct1Qns in 'arbQD
seCTION 3 emis~iQns . . . '
21 C 22 A 23 B 24 A 25 B
26 E 27 G 28 A 29 D 30 B 10 NG The passage does say in PARAGRAPH 5
that: 'New energy supphes are being
sECTION 4 developed, including sustainably
31 ice age 32 invisible 33 infection(s) harvested forests to supply wood
34 flavour 35 fungus/fungi 36 sexes for hestinq', but this does not go as
37 extmction 38 lowland 39 shelter(s) far as saying that wood will be the
40 cuttmgs main source.
11 T PARAGRAPH 9 tells us that: 'A
reliable electricity supply has brought
improvements ... for example ... the
READING PASSAGE 1 elimination of the coostem noise of
100/a PARAGRAPH 1 diese/ generators.
hundred/ 'For the island community of about a 12 F PARAGRAPH 9 tells us that: 'Every
one hundred residents ... household has the same five kW cap,
hundred irrespective of income ... '
2 50 percenV PARAGRAPH 1 13 T<> PARAGRAPH 9 tells us of the
f1fty percent ' ... C02 emissions ... are 20 percent variety of jobs created by the new
lower than the UK average, and electricity grid.
electricity use is
SO percent lower.'
3 water PARAGRAPH 2
' ... most of its electricity from 14 F PARAGRAPH F g1ves predictions of the
renewable sources, mainly water, wind numbers of temporary and home-
and solar power.' based workers likely to be seen in
4 20 years time.
energy PARAGRAPH 3
monitors :A.11 households and businesses have 15 B PARAGRAPH B explains that in the
energy monrtors, which display current industrial age comparues structured
and cumulative electricity usage ... ' their organisations along mechanistic
5 lines, i.e. 'systems of strict tuererchice;
diesel PARAGRAPH 4 structures and hrm means of control. '
generators 'Demand is also managed by warning
the entrre island when renewable 16 G PARAGRAPH G warns business leaders
energy generation is lower than that the pace of change is f ast and
demand, and disel generators are that they need to be aware of and to
operating to back it up ... ' analyse factors whrch cause change in
6 their world.
insulation PARAGRAPH 6
17 A PARAGRAPH A describes the
'Eigg Heritage Trust has installed .
rnsulation in ali of its own propert1es agricultura! age which was one of
'relative organisat1onal stability.'

at no cost to the tenants ... , '

18 e PARAGRAPH C shows that in the later 28 e PARAGRAPH 4
'Such findings suggest that our
pan of the industrial age, demand experiencescreate para/le/, and POssib
for products was high, outstripping
independent stages of m:mory, each ~
supply: thrs rneant that customers with a diHerent Me span.
were pleased to obtam goods and
could not be too dernanding about PARAGRAPH 5 ---.......
29 A
the particular f eatures of the product. The writer uses an :xample of en
19 e PARAGRAPH C explains that: everyday task ~walkmg up stairs) to
'In the neo-industrial age ... as illustrate how nnportant to our lives
technological advancements brought it is to crea te immediate memory (A).
about mcreased productivity, supply B is tempting, but does not spell out
overtook demand. ' the importance of memory creation 10
20 B enable unconscious task performance.
PARAGRAPH B notes that in the e is not dealt with in the fihh
industrial age, organisations were: paragraph. D is not suggested.
"'task-oriented", with effort being
put into increasing production 30 D PARAGRAPH 6 shows the observatio;
through more effective and efficient by Kami and Sagi to confirm other
production processes.' findings: '... there are a/so other kinds
21 A 0 evidence indicating more directly
PARAGRAPH A describes the
that the memories consolidate over
agricultura! period as being one where
time after learning ... 'Kami and Sagi's
both customer and labour markets
were local. work supported previous findings (O).
lt did not cast doubt on earlier wo
22 e PARAGRAPH C says that: 'In the (as in A) and used a visual test (not
neo-industrial age, people became involving hearing, as in ().
more discriminatingin the goods and
services they wished to buy, . . . tbe 31 B PARAGRAPH 7
emphasis moved towards adding value ' ... different regions of the brain
to goods and services ... r were predominantly active at different
times over a period of severa/ hours
23 B PARAGRAPH B says that the industrial after the training.' (B) The experiment
age 'was characterisedby a series of by Shadmehr and Holcomb used
inventions and mnovations... r
only one task, so A cannot be
24 temporary PARAGRAPH F correct.' They found that ... subjects'
' ... Leach anticipates that: "In performance remained stab/e for
20 years time, 2025 percent of o
severa/ hours after completion of the
the workforce will be ternporary training.' This contradicts C. There is
workers ... "' no reference to a 'treatrnent', as in D.
25 home PARAGRAPH F 32 NG In PARAGRAPH 6 we learn that
' . . . 50 percent will work from home ' ... the performance of human
in some form.

subjectstrained in a visual skill did

26 factors PARAGRAPH G not improve until eight hours after
'... it is crucial tbet organisational the training was completed, and that
managers and decision makers are improvement was even greater the
aware of. and able to analyse the following day.' The passage doesnot
~ :Vhich trigger organisational say how often the training was 91~
change.' 33 y
PARAGRAPH 8 shows that the rats

carne to associate a tone of specific
READING PASSAGE 3 frequency with footshock.
34 y
The author states that the fish were ' ... the selectivity of the neurons'
injected before and aher t.he fish response to the specific tone used
were trained: therefore A rs the in training continued to increase for
correct answer. severa/ days after the training was

PARAGRAPH 9 contradicts the
(s N statement: '/t is not mtumvely obvious
at 77 percent. Fmally, there were poor ratings at th~ered
beqmrunq of the penod for the range of modules 0
why our lastmg memories consolidate (32 percent in 2000} and they got worse, falhng steadi 1 Y
slowly. from to 30 percent in 2005 and 27 percent in 201 O.

~ ----
'Ali species of animals studied to
date have both sbon- and Jong-term
Task 2 Model answer
Currently, in many countnes. the age at which people stop
paid work tends to be between 55 and 65. In the past,
memory; and ali are susceptible to
wrth few people living beyond the age of 80, rt was rare
retrograde amnesia. ihe passage
for anybody to enJOY more than 20 years of retirement.
does not show a difference between
the stability of long term memory of However nowadays, that figure rs much more likely to be
humans and of other species, but 30, or even 40 years. This is often oted as a reason for
neither does it specif1cally say they are requmng people to work to a later age.
the same. Advocates of this pomt of v1f!tN dairn that rt rs extremely
i....-- expensive to support people for so long in retirement.
PARAGRAPH 1 Pensions are paid for partly by people m their workmq lives,
37 f
The answer must be 'new' as 1f but today pension schemes usually yield far less money
subjects could already do the task they

1 than necessary because they were designed to mamtain
could not be 'trained' to do u.
people for much shorter penods. lncreasmqly, rt is argued,
E PARAGRAPH 6 the burden falls on younger people who end up workinq
138 Tbe hypothesis tbet lasting memory harder to pay for the enjoyment and relaxation of the old in
consolidates slowly over time is their extended reurernent Thrs, they say, is fundamentally
supported pnmarily by clinical and unfair,
1 experimental evidence... ' Although 1 acknowledge the validity of this argument,
39 H PARAGRAPH 9 1 beheve it is outwerqhed by two very powerful counter-
' ... maybe we consoltdate memories arguments. Firstly, when older people retire later they
slowly because our mammalian brains deprive young people of the opportunity to work and
are large and enormously complex. develop professionally. Secondly. 1 beheve that people aren't
We can readily relea these ideas. just valuable members of society when they are eaming
Ali soeces of animals stud1ed to money. Retired people can contribute a great deal through
date have both short- and long-term shanng in farmly respcnsbihnes such as chrld care, and also
memory; and ali are susceptible to in the wider community, by doing voluntary work. 1 think
retrograde amnesia ' we should mamtain the current reurernent age and allow
40 A PARAGRAPH 9 people to flourish in d1tferent ways when they finish paid
'Consolidation of memory clearly
emerged early in evolution, and was
conserved. ' 1
Test 2

Task 1 Model answer 1 Lamerton 2 42 West Lane
roe table shows the change in attitude, over ten years, of 3 11111 June/l 1.06/06.11 4 cook 5 equipment
ltudents ata particular university to different aspects of its 6 food-handling 7 First Aid 8 (college) tutor
academ1c provision. 9 0208 685114 1 O colour/color blindness
firstly, the most strikmq set of statistics relate to approval
for electronic resources. There was a sharp increase in the SECTION 2
l'\Jmber of students giving these resources a good rannq, 11 A 12 A 13 B 14 A 15 e
Particularly in the first five years: from 45 percent in 2000, 16 e 17 A 18 B 19 e 20 B
to 72 percent in 2005, and 88 percent in 201 O There
vias ~lso an overall improvement in raunqs for teaching SECTION 3
Quality, though the increase was relanvely small (65 percent
1112000 ' .
21 e 22 G 23 A 24 E 25 F
dec . ns1ng to 69 percent in 201 O) and there was a 26 o 27 G 28 e 29 A 30 E
afl~ne m the_ interim (63 percent in 2005). T~~re was also
Oer ctuation in attitudes to print resources, nsing from 87 SECTION 4
i... cent to 89 percent in the first five years and then falhng 31 heavy 32 surgery 33 beetles 34 gas
"JOOe 35 moving 36 surf ace area 37 tubes
~ild Percent in 201 O. Good ratings for the uruversity s
ings and teaching facilities were identical throughout. 38 pressure 39 subrnarines/a submarine 40 fuel


13 NG There is nothing in the passage wh
comments on funding for sports ic~
READING PASSAGE 1 science and related degrees.
1 unfit
... many of the men who were READING PASSAGE 2
essesse: for military duty had been
dedared~.' 14 v Paragraph A explains t.he size, output
2 schools and costs of a large wind turbine lor
PARAGRAPH 2 prvate use.
'... the solution in the providingof
Physica/ Education (PE)programs in 15 il Paragraph B estimates the greenhouse
~ ... .' gas emissions ~i.e. the e~vironmental
3 PE teachers cost) involved m produc1ng and
'... installing the turbine.
better prepared and specifically
educated PE teachers.' 16 iv Paragraph C describes the carbon
4 surplus savings (i.e. the environmental
'... the ~ benefits) of using a turbine to produce
of Australians
electricity rather than the typical grid.
graduating with a PE degree ... '
5 employment 17 IX Paragraph D shows the financia!
opportu nitie~ '... obliged institutionsdelivering incentives given by the UK government
caree~routes to encourage individuals to install
this qualificationto identify new
emglQ~ment OQQOrtuniti~s ... '
6 T 18 Paragraph E questions the
PARAGRAPH 5 confirms that business
government's spending on subsidies
people now see sport as having good
to individuals, arguing that the money
potential asan investment.
7 may have been better spent on
NG Although the passage shows that offshore wind farms.
Rupert Murdoch has invested in a
19 vi Paragraph F accepts that there has
range of sport ventures, the passage
does not state that he has a personal been sorne benefit in the subsidies to
interest as distinct from a business
interest. 20 VIII Paragraph G suggests that by
8 T PARAGRAPH 6 shows that there spending on turbines individuals may
are: 'new and developing career paths have less money to spend on carbn-
for graduates of human movement producing consumer goods.
science, sport science, exercise science 21 B PARAGRAPH A:
and related degrees. ' ... a 15-kW micro-turbine... is
9 T PARAGRAPH 7 shows the mutual capable of delivering 25,000 kilowatt-
dependence of business and university hours of electricity each year if placed
courses. Businesses need returns on on a suitable windy site. '
their money, so universities must PARAGRAPH D: 'The carbon
provide courses which enable this. investment pays back in just over
ayear, and every year after that
10 F PARAGRAPH 8 notes the opposite, i.e.
is a 25-tonne carbon saving. (lt's
governments have focused ~oo heavily
important to remember that ali these
on cure rather than prevennon.
sums re/y on a wind turbine having a
11 T PARAGRAPH 8 says: favourable location.)'(B)
'/f tbe change 1s not brought about 22 E PARAGRAPH D again:
for philosophicalreason~, .'t will oc~ur
'The UK government. .. introduced
natural/y, because insuff1oent fundmg
a subsidy for renewable energy that
will be available to address the ever-
pays producers ... 24p per energy
increasing costs of medica/support. ' unit '(E)
12 F PARAGRAPH g says that graduates of 23 offshore wmd PARAGRAPH E
human movement. exercise science farms
'... had the government invested
and sport science degrees. 'who
its money in ottshore wind farm..J,
already have the ski/Is, knowledge~nd
instead of subsidising smaller domestic
understanding to initiatecomrr;umty
turbines, they would have broken
health education programs ...
even after eight years. '

'In addtion, such investment he/ s 33 NG
There is nothmq in the passage to
to promote and sustain 2fvel .P
t~hnQlogy.' QQIQg 1nd1cate whether there are plans for
further excavation.
v i.-- .
negat1ve PARAGRAPH G 34 N
zs ... it is actual/y quit~ difficu/tto s n
, 3
... there is OQ re' dos;1Jmen1a~
money ~1thout havmg a negati oe d ev1dence. Our entire knowledge comes
carbon 1mpact. ' ~
,__ from the ceramic material itself ... '
L.- cars PARAGRAPH G 35 y
'So if the subsidy encourages '
... the length of a man 's arm limits
people to spend their money on a the sue of a smaller pot to a capacity
car~on-reducing technology such as of about twenty litres .. '
a wmd ~urbme, rather than on carbon- 36 N
producmg goods like ~ ... , PARAGRAPH 6
i..-- '... merchants handling a commodity

RfADING PASSAGE 3 such as wine would have been 2.bJe.jQ
determine easily the amount of wine
27 B PARAGRAPH 2 they were transporting ... '
'Th~ pottery found includes a wide 37 y
v~wety Qf f!,.!n~iQn~ types like storage 'In one case the dev1at1on from the
ars, smaller ~ontamers, pouring required size appears to be as much as

= ~~
vessels, cookmg pots, drinking vesse/s
on, ~hich ali relate to specific
acttv1t1es ...
38 y
1 Q tQ ZQ percent '
... regular trade routes within the
28 D PARAGRAPH 2 Aegean led to mcreased movement
'Given tbe large number of shaR~ of goods . . The increased demand
produced ... it has general/y been for ~ndar!.;!1sed exchnges,
assumed that most ... Akrotiri inextricably linked to commercia/
pottery was produced by specialised transactions, might have been one
craftsmen ... ' of the main factors which led to the
29 A PARAGRAPH4 standardizationof pottery production. '
'Standard measures may already have
been in operation, such as those 'Even where there is no noticeable
evidenced by a graduated series of externa/ difference between pots
lead weigbts - made m disc form - .. meant to contain tbe same quantity
found at tbe site.' of a commodity, differences in their
30 E capacity can actual/y reach one or
PARAGRAPH 4 two litres.'
'The existence of units of capacity 40 B
in Late Bronze Age times is a/so Only B summarises the overall purpose
evidenced, by ne nQ11iQn Qf !,.!nit~ of the passage, showing the place of
Qf liguid measure for wine QO pottery production in Akrotiri within
~ ex~vated container~.' the overall socio-economic context.
' .. the length of a maa's rm hmi1~
he size of a smaller pot to a capacity
of about twenty litres; that is a/so the Task 1 Model answer
t--.. maximum a man can comfortably carry.' The diaqrarn shows the different stages in the process of
32 e PARAGRAPH 8 convertmq an animal hide mto leather goods.
' ... it would be ... difficult for them The first stage rs to hang out the hide on a line, in the
to achieve the exact see required open atr to dry. After this, 1t is transported by lorry to the
every time, without any mechanical factory far processing. On arrival, it is submerged 1n vats
means of regulating symmetry and of soap and water, and washed and then transferred to
wall thickness .... Even where there another vat where it is soaked in lime. Having been cleaned
is no noticeable externa/ difference in this way. the hide is then sent to a large rolling machine
between pots meant to contain . where it 1s smoothed and flattened. In the next stage it
the same quantity of a commod1ty, is submerged in a liquid called tannin, which is a mixture
differences in their capacity can of vegetable matter and water. Th1s is followed by the
actual/y reach one or two litres. ' polishing stage where small roflers are moved over the


surface to produce a shine. The leather is then transported
SECTION 4 . 32 autobiography
to a different factory where 1t is man uf actured into the
31 English hterature34 pract1cal skills
leather products we see in the shops, for example, shoes.
handbags and sports equ1pment. 33 lab(oratory) 36 experimental
35 nov1ces/beginners rk 39 editor
37 video 38 tramewo
Task 2 Model answer
40 sequence/order
Although sorne prople would argue that we don't
change in any fundamental ways as we develop from
young children to adults, 1 feel there are sorne marked
dif_f erences in our social behavcur as we get older.
F1rstly, most young children tend to express themselves
much more openly than they do when older, showing great
extremes of happiness and misery. However, when they
1 10/ten
'At one time, there may have been
are adults they learn to hide their real feelings. This can as many es, ten million of trese fittle
mean that children have very volatile relationships - for anmals ...
example, groups of youngsters will often fall out and row cats and PARAGRAPH 1
with each other at one moment, and then immediately foxesl ... their populatons ... were
afterwards they have mended their differences and are foxes and destroyed by the introductonof ~
back as close companions. Sorne people say this change cats and fQxes ... '
in behaviour is good, that showing extreme feelings is PARAGRAPH 2
3 morutored
selfish and being a member of any community requires '... scientists from the Parks and
moderation of expression. Other people condemn this WldlifeCommisson of the Northern
change, saying childrsh openness about feelings is more Terrtorymo~itored these two
honest and as such, it should be valued. In many cultures populations.
there are proverbs which say something like 'truth comes
4 tire PARAGRAPH 2
from mouths of the very young', and adults sometimes
'... a wild-~ destroyedthe entire area
lament the fact that they no longer feel things as deeply
occupiedby the remaining colony. '
as they did when they were children. They regard this as a
great loss. . 5 extinct PARAGRAPH 2
In my view, it is a good thing if adults can retam sorne . '... in Odober 1991, a wld-fire
childlike qualities in their social behaviour throughout their destroyedthe entire area occuped
life. 1 feel that, within reason. it is healthy to show feelinqs by the remaining colony Thus t~e
openly because it leads to stronger relationships. However, mala was final/ypronounced extind
adults should always keep in mind the consequ~nces of in the wild.'
expressing what they feel ~he mo~ent they f eel 1t. Th~y 6 5/five PARAGRAPH 3
need to realise that sometrrnes saying what they feel is months ... the fema/e can breed when she is
simply selfish and if it hurts others. then they should keep just fiv~ mQnth~ old ... '
their thoughts to themselves. 7 15/fifteen PARAGRAPH 3
weeks ... the mother carries her young ... in
her pouch for about fifl~n weeks ..
8 (strong) PARAGRAPH 4
medicinal '... dscuss tbis with the leaders of the
powers Yapa peop/e. Traditionallythe mala .
1 grey/gray 2 3 teacher 4 shopping had been an important animal in thelf
5 (f)1, 100 6 tax 7 tyre/tire 8 headlight culture, wth strong medicinal oowers
1 o London for old people. '
9 Thursday
9 skills and
SECTION 2 knowledge/ 'The skills nd knowledge of tbe Y~pa
11 A 12 A 13 B 14 e 15 H knowledge would play a significant and end~nng ,
18 A 19 B 20 D and skills role in ths and al/ other mala pro;~
16 F 17 E
10 F
PARAGRAPH 5 shows that although
SECTION 3 an electric fence was able to protecth
21 e 22 e 23 A 24 B
the mala, they could not survive in t e
25/26 B/E 27/28 ()D 29/30 B/D 'unfenced wild'.

T PARAGRAPH 5 shows that 24 Astrakhan PARAGRAPH F
the reintroduct1on programme had to
be abandoned 'The f1rst ettempts to organise
procedures and carry out proad!Ve
There is no information in the passage steps to control plague date to tbe
as to whether the mala population aftermath of tbe 1727-1728 epKiemJC
size incrcased in sue. in Astrakbao.
PARAGRAPH 7 confirms that the 25 houses PARAGRAPH F
scienusts felt the programme had 'The ~ of infected cetsot were
surpassed their expectations. to be burned along with ali of tbe ,
personal property they contamed ..
14 ii Section A describes how in the '. . lerters brought by couriers were
seventeenth century Russian heated above a ~ before bemg
authorities used a variety of means to cop1ed.'
find out about and prevent the import
of plague from foreign countries. READING PASSAGE 3

15 V Section B shows that there was sorne 27 N PARAGRAPH 1 states that:

success in preventmq the import of the 'Even if the claims of miscondud
plague. though not total prevention. and incompetence were eventual/y
Section C explams how Russ1an proven to be largely untrue, ar
involvement in wars with other confined to a few mdividuals, tbe
countries allowed the spread of the damage was done. The oerceived
plague to Russian soldiers. wrongdoings of a few people had
raised doubts about the many. '
17 vii Section O describes how the Tsar 28 y PARAGRAPH 2 conrms the
Peter 1 tried to limit the spread of the
statement by saying that the
plague in a vanety of ways.
scientists kept a low profile and
18 iv Section E summarises the measures hoped for the best.
taken by the Russ1an authonties as 29 N PARAGRAPH 2 shows the reaction
being limited in their success by be1ng of news reports to be hostile.
too piecemeal.
30 y PARAGRAPH 3 says that:
19 VIII Section F shows how a coherent '{Ralph Cicerone) concluded that
preventive strategy was developed for 'tbe perceived misbehav1or of even
more systematic control of plague. a few saentius can diminish the ,
20 and B and PARAGRAPH A says that: .. cred1bi/1ty of science as a whole.
21 o 'lnformation on diseaseoutbreak 31 NG PARAGRAPH 4
occumng abroad was regular/y Although the passage states
reported to the tser': coun through that the US public's confidence
various means, mcluding . . in scienusts. as a source of
undercover agents... '(B) mforrnanon about global warming,
PARAGRAPH B says that: had dropped between 2008 and
' ... fore1gn vessels were not allowed 201 O, rt does not tell us whether
to dock in Russ1an oons if there confidence has increased or
was credible information about the decreased since 201 O.
existenceof epdemks in countries y
from whence they had departed.'(D)
32 In PARAGRAPH 6, the writer
suggests that climate sciencists
22 and A and PARAGRAPH C explains that: should take professional advice to
23 E '... none of the occurrences was of help to rebuild their reputation.
the same sea/e as in the past... '(A)
PARAGRAPH E summarises the ad-hoc
The first step Gaines-Ross suggests
nature of the anti-plague measures:
'take the heat - leader iitst',
'... al/ of the measures hada
meaning that the heads should
provisionalcharader: they we~e
intended to respond to a speatic
outbreak, and wete not designed 34 e PARAGRAPH 9 says that, contrary
as a coherent set of measures to be to the PR advice, 'many climate
implementedsystematically at the first researchers have avoided
, the media

sign of plague. '(E) and the public ...

35 e Task 2 Model answer .
P~RAGRAPH 12 says that make the assumptron that the producti 0n
71imate sc1entists should not be Many peop 1 e . d h.
of more and more goods is always a goo t ing tor ali
concedmg to unfounded . They say that this growth generates wealth
arguments which are based on econom1es. f 11
. f the wealthy few but or a strata of society
pre1udicerather than evidence ... ' not ust or . b
36 D that increasing product1on nngs 1mmedi~t" e
PARAGRAPH 14 They argue
benefit to rich industrialists but that, rn t~rn. they Provicte
Uses the terrn marathon to indicate r and buy goods and. servces rom, Oth er
the time rt will take to rebuild ernp 1 oymen t fo . Al . .
eople in the communrty. so rt rs argued
confidence: a marathon race being 1 ess wea lth Y P .11 .
that the wealthy individuals w1 P.Y more in taxes and thus
a long distance race rather than a from growth will benefit everyone. through
short sprint. t h e money . d th t h .
improved health and educat1on_, an . a a app1er, more
stable and more developed society will result. .
... sorne of the televant statistics H ever other people argue that such growth m
had been withheld from pro~:ctio~ can have the opp?site effect. They contend
38 that any riches tend to be daimed by th~ few and trickle
F PARAGRAPH 6 down to very few others in th~ communi.ty. Also, wealthy
'... climate science needs people know how to use a vanety of devr.ous measures to
professional help to rebuild its evade paying tax. Another argu~ent aqamst such growtn
reputation. lt cou/d ... follow tbe is that even if this wealth does filter down to all c1t1zens 11
advice given by Leslie Geines-Ross, does not in itself bring about a better society. lnstead it
a 'reputation strategist' at Public can produce a consumerist mentality which draws a simple
Relations (PR) company Weber equation between having 'things' and being happy This is
bad for the moral and spiritual life of the country and also
39 D PARAGRAPH 6 can damage the environment as people want more and
'In her recent book ' ... 2 steps more objects. creating pollution through production and
tQ safeguarding and recov~ring disposal of waste.
reputation'. Gaines-Ross's On balance, 1 feel that a compromise position is the
strategy ... ' healthiest one - sorne economic growth should be
40 A PARAGRAPH 12 encouraged as long as there are safeguards intended to
'tt is a/so importen: to engage with ensure fair distribution of wealth and reduce the negative
tbose critics.' impact on the environment.

Test 4

Task 1 Model answer

Firstly, generally speaking, graduate unemployment rose SECTION" 1
for both groups from 2008 to 2009. Although women's 1 hairdresser 2 tablets 3 sunglasses
unemployment levels were the same for April 2008, July 4 lock 5 adaptor/adapter 6 taxi
2008 and April 2009, all otherfigures rose. Secondly, there 7 Jefferey 8 0777594128 9 church
was generally more unemploymen~ for. both genders during 10 301h April/30.04/04.30
the autumn and winter months, wrth figures for both
genders peaking in October (e.g. formales: 16 percent in SECTION 2
October 2008 and 22 percent October 2009). 11 C 12 A 13 A 14 e 15 B
Perhaps the most striking trend, though, is for a greater 16 C 17/18 D/E 19/20 CJE
percentage of male than female gradua~es to be out of
work at all times of the year. Also there rs gre.ater seasonal SECTION 3
variation for men than women: the gender drfference. 21 e 22 s 23 e 24 A 25/26 CJE
. h more marked in October of both years and this 27 /28 D/E 29/30 CJE
rs mue h h
reac h es a p eak in October 2009 ' where t ere rs an erg t
ercent difference between women and m.en. . SECTION 4
P . loyment of women graduates rs relatively stable 31 call centre 32 inconclusive
Fina 11 y, emp . b h
whole two-year penod. lt on 1 y varres y e19 t 33 methodology/methods
throug h ou t the
cent in April 2008 to 14 percent m cto er
b 34 unequal
percent (srx per ' 35 female/women 36 response 37 control
st n's unemployment fluctuates more 38 sample/group
2009) By con t ra , me 39 their/other colleagues
. . bl with a range from eight to 22 percent. 40 confidential
notrcea y,

13 branches PARAGRAPH 9
'The organsation has now a/so
READING PASSAGE 1 established branches in New Zealand,
T PARAGRAPH 2 South Afr1ca and Jreland, as we/l as ...
1 Australia. '
'His.father ... ran the Brash retail music
business that had been founded in
1862 ... sge~ialising in RianQs.' READING PASSAGE 2
i.--- 14
F PARAGRAPH 3 111 PARAGRAPH A identifies the variety of
Brash's first job was with Myer occupations undertaken around the
department stores befare he joined the Thames river in medieval times and
family business. outlines what each involved .
.....--- 15
T PARAGRAPH 3 VI PARAGRAPH B describes the physical
'After initially complaining of his difficulties of transporting goods and
extravagance. his father grew to accept the ways men worked to overcome
the change, and gave Geoff increasing those.
responsibility ... ' 16 ix PARAGRAPH C outlines the change in
~ status of river work over the centuries,
4 T PARAGRAPH 4 tells us that after
World War 11 Brash's had focussed on from well-regarded in the fourteenth -
'white goods' before Geoff Brash took eighteenth centuries to disreputable
over in 1957. in the late eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries.
5 NG Although the passage describes
relationships with businesses in Japan 17 iv PARAGRAPH D describes the
and China, it does not tell the reader composition of 'a workforce of many
if Brash considered opening stores in thousands congregated in a relatvely
other countries. small area. '
18 PARAGRAPH E shows the river
6 (a) share PARAGRAPH 5
community as being '... a world apart
scheme 'Alfred Brash hada/so been a pioneer
with its own language and laws. '
in introducing a share scheme for
his staff .. .' 19 vii PARAGRAPH F outlines the great
numbers of people employed on a
7 Roland/ PARAGRAPH 6 casual basis compared to a relatively
Roland 'He developed a relationship with ... , small number of permanent workers.
group/ the founder of Japan 's Roland
, 20 and Cand Paragraph A identifes nine different
the Roland grQJ.!Q ...
group 21 E occupatons of workers making their
living by the river.(C)
8 (a) trade PARAGRAPH 7 Paragraph B details the heavy lifting
fair 'In 1965, Brash ... attended a and carrying required of the men when
!rd~ fir ... ' quays and streets were unsuitable for
9 jazz PARAGRAPH 7 wagons or large carts.(E)
' ... a trip that reintroduced jzz to Aand Paragraph D notes the many
many Chinese musicians. ' 23 e thousands of people employed in
10 1998 PARAGRAPH 8 a small area and describes the East
'The company was sold to Singaporean End as 'tbe most intensively inhabited
interests and continued to trade until region of London. '(A)
, Paragraph F notes ' ... crowds of casuals
1998 , ..
watng for work at the dock gates ... '
11 education PARAGRAPH 9 and '... some 2, 500 casual workers
' ... promoting mu/ti-media music who were hired by the shift.'(C)
making and education for teachers
and students' 24 regular PARAGRAPH F
wage '... 400-500 permanent workers who
12 technology PARAGRAPH 9 earned a regular wagg ... But there
' ... offer teachers and young people were some 2, 500 casual workers who
the opportunity to get exposure to were hired by tbe shift. '
- the latest music technology ... '

power 35 A
'Steam PO't\!fr could not be used for '... preschoolers may b_e unab/e to
the cranes ... because of the danger nderstand that there 1s a direa link
of fire. ~etween how the control!er is used 1
26 p1cturesque PARAGRAPH F and tne activitie~ that appear before
them on screen.
'This was pan of the life of the river
unknown to tbose who were intent 36 PARAGRAPH 4
uoon its more Dictyr~g~~ aspects. ' the vast majority are stifl unable
t~ read and wrne. Thus, using
READING PASSAGE 3 text-based menu selections is
27 NG not viable. '
Although the passage tells us in
PARAGRAPH 1 how many preschool 37 B PARAGRAPH 3 tells us that in ,
children in the US had played video 2007 statf at Nickelo~eon had en
games, there is no comparison with idea that their new Nintendo DS
usage in other countries. might be suitable for preschoolers.
28 y
PARAGRAPH 1 says: 38 e PARAGRAPH 3 shows that the aim
' ... we predict that preschoolers of the study was to find out what
will both continue and increasingly preschoolers might be able to do
begin to adopt video games for with a hand-held game and what
personal enjoyment. the literature could tell them about
29 NG child development.
Although we are told in
PARAGRAPH 1 that 'once a game 39 A PARAGRAPH 5 suggests that one of
system enters the household it is the limitations of game cartridges
potentiallyavailable foral/ family is the limited memory capacity and
members, including the youngest' that spoken instructions use a lot
this does not necessarily mean of memory.
that parents are explicitly giving 40 B B is the best title as the passage
their permission far children to use deals with a piece of research
the game.
which helped to design video
30 N PARAGRAPH 2 notes that research games far preschool children.
in this field tends to facus on The passage does not deal with
marketing and fault finding rather the issues.
than original design far targeted
31 y PARAGRAPH 2 says that
... research has to be undertaken
in order to truly understand Task 1 Model answer
those audiences, [preschoolers or The two pie charts show that low and high income .
senior citizens/ their abilities, their groups spend their disposable income (earni~gs ~xclud1ng
perspective, and their needs.' house rent or purchase) on similar items but in dfterent
e proportions. .
'In addition to their stil/ developing Regarding the low income group, the highest proporuon
motor ski/Is ... many of the major of their money is spent on food and drink - 29 percent,
stumbling blocks are cognitive.' compared to just 15 percent for the high income group.
This is closely followed by 24 percent paid out on fuel
'they are Jess exact with their stylus bills, which contrasts with a much lower figure far this
movements ... Ibutl their fingers are item far the high income group (only 7 percent). The
so small that they mimic the stylus most popular tem far the high earners is recreation and
very effectively, and therefore by cultural activities - 21 percent compared with 11 percent
using their f ingers they can often by the low earning group. The higher group also spend
be more accurate in their game a much higher proportion than the lower income group
interactions. on restaurants and hotels (12 percent and 4 percent
PARAGRAPH 4 respectively) and on transportation (16 percent and 9
34 F
'Though preschoolers ... unders:and percent respectively). The proportion of expenditure on
that pictur~s can stand for real-ltfe clothing for the two groups is very similar, with only ~ne
objects ... percent difference between the two (six percent for h19h
income group and f1ve percent for the low).

k 2 Model answer 2 T PARAGRAPH 2 goes on to say that by
ras -0uld argue that technoloqies developed in recent being able to diredly participate in
f;?'" whave had a s1gnificant impact on the way books and coral-reef f ishinq. the independence
01S are shared. The Internet enables very cheap, or even and unportance of women are
~ompletelY free. acc~~ to words and. sounds. enhanced.
fo( many peopl~ this 1s a very neg~t1ve development. Firstly, T PARAGRAPH 2 shows that the coral-
heY make the point that downloadinq words and music reef enables to acquire important skills
t thout paying rs morally wrong - it is, after all, a farm of and knowfedge far later life.
;eahng, just as much as i~ someone had shop-lifted a CD.
4 T PARAGRAPH 3 confirms that
secondly, they dairn that 1f nobody actually buys music or on Ulith1 Atoll 'women have a d1stinct
t)O()ks ihen the ~ple who_ ~roduc~ thern, far example, role, and rights, in the d1stnbution of
novelists. 1oumahsts or rnusioans. w1ll no longer be able to fish estebes.'
rnake a living from such ~ork. Event_ually new work will stop
5 NG While the passage notes in
l)elng created. no one will perform hve and whole industries
PARAGRAPH 3 that the canoes are
w,11 cease to function .. They say that_ eventually the only way to 'made from mahogany logs from
rnake money from wnt1ng and muse will be through things nearby Yap /stand . . . : 1t does not
like celebrity endorsements, and mediocrity will flourish. speofy where the canoes are actually
1 believe. however. that freer access to books and music on constructed.
the Internet is a liberating development, allowing more people
6 F PARAGRAPH 3 tells us that
enjoy what was once the preserve of the few. lt is particularly
reef fisheries give women greater
good that young people can freely experience a wide range control over the household income
of mus!C and writing. 1 feel the only way to prevent accessing and allow them to in negotiate for
boOks and music ~s by stricter monitoring and harsher penalties loans or credit.
and that this would be extremely damaging, because it would
7 F PARAGRAPH 4 says that
increase surveillance and control. 1 believe it would stifle
coral reef fisheries are 'relativefy stable
creativity and undermine creative industries much more than
compared with other fisheries, or
free access is said to do now. 1 believe writers and musicians land-based agricultura/production.
will find a way of benefiting from the new situation and good
artists will be able to make a living as they always have done. 8 sea PARAGRAPH 5
cucumbers 'In Palau, sea cucumbers growing on
Test 5 the reef are se/dom eaten during good
weather in an effort to conserve their
9 agricultura! PARAGRAPH 6
SECTION 1 .. '. - _ in coastaf communities in northern
1 weekend(s) 2 plasdeco 3 clear Mozambique, reef harvests provide
4 late/unreliable 5 cheaper 6 messy key sources of food and cash when
7 designs 8 expensive 9 painting gricultural production is low ...
1 O ladder(s)
10 scuba PARAGRAPH 7
SECTION 2 diving 'In the Caribbeanafone, tours besed
11 B 12 C 13 A 14 B 15 e on scuba-diving ...
16 e 11 1 18 H 19 D 20 G 11 communi- PARAGRAPH 7
cations 'The upgrading of roads and
SECTION 3 com~unications ... maya/so bring
21 D 22 B 23 A 24 H 25 F benef1ts to focal communities.'
26 E 27 /28 B/E 29/30 NC
12 sustam- PARAGRAPH 7
SECTION 4 ability 'There 1s growingre<ognft1on that
31 common 32 woodland/woods/farest(s) 33 tail ~!.!Stainb1lit~ 1s a key requirement ...
34 grey/gray 35 humans/people 36 memory 13 conflict PARAGRAPH 8
37 hearing 38 birds 39 year 40 water 'Where tourism development has not
been carefuffy pfanned ... ~ has
sometimes arisen betvveen tourism
and local. smaff-scafe fishers.
F PARAGRAPH 2 tells that
.. in a coral-reef fishery the physicaf 14 V The theme of PARAGRAPH A is that
accessibiHty of the reef opens up '.. in order to learn science, people

opportunfties for direct participation often have to change the way they
by wornen .. .' think in ordinary situations ...
d1scovery PARAGRAPH D
15 11 24 p1aget's hypothesis about how
PARAGRAPH 8 tllustrates learning
the problem of superficial cognitJVe change occurs was lat
understand1ng by explatning how translated mto en educationaf er
students can learn tnformation but approach which is ?,~W termed
be unable to apply n -~f~QveD'. learoing .
16 \11 PARAGRAPH C explams Piaget's idea teacher PARAGRAPH D
that learntng results from conflicts 25 'Discovery leammg mit1ally took
between existmq concepts and new what is now consuiered the 'lone
mforrnauon which challenges them. /earner' route. Tne role of the 1

17 1 PARAGRAPH D shows that i.eacher was to selec;t ~1tuat1ons that

'discovery learmnq' had initially challenged tbe pup1/s reasonmg ,
been seen as a lone learner being PARAGRAPH D
26 peers/
challenged to re-thmk, but later the ... it was subsequently proposed
role peers can play in learning had that interpers<?nal conflict, espec10~ 1
been proposed. wfth ~ m1ght play an 1mportanr
18 ix PARAGRAPH E outlines a study in role in promoting cognitive change
which it was found that 'progress
was . . observed ... m a second test
given around four weeks after the

19 viii
group work. ' 27 o PARAGRAPH 2 emphasises the
fascination monumental ruins
PARAGRAPH F describes a study
whteh investigated whether the hold for us and our wonder at the
exchange of ideas in pair work mysteries they hold. This might be
could aid learning. termed a 'rornantic' appeal.
20 and B and PARAGRAPH C 28 e PARAGRAPH 3
21 o According to Piaget. learning takes 'Ibls suspicion of unmtended
place when pupils are actively ecological suicide (ecocide) has been
engaged in solving problems that confirmed ... by archaeologists,
challenge their current thinking (B). climatologists, historians,
Although the teacher is important (as paleontologists, and palynologists
in A). it is the inner dynamics of the (poi/en scientists).'
pupil's thinkmg wrnch is key. 29 A PARAGRAPH 4 notes that many
Young children - according to Piaget -
do not always accept the need to . civilisations 'declined rapidly
after reaching peak numbers and
change their ideas tn the f ace of new
power ... '
and conflicttng information: they may
reject the new information to preserve
their old way of thinktng.(D) 'Today many people feel
Repetition and consistency of input that envronmental problems
(C) is not mentioned and children's overshadow al/ the other threats to
ability to help each other (E) was not global civaisetior; '
noted by Piaget. 31 y
PARAGRAPH 5 notes the build up of
22 and Aand PARAGRAPH E toxic substances as one of tour new
23 E 'Howe compared tne progress environmental threats.
of 8 12 year-old children m 32
understanding what influences PARAGRAPH 5 shows that there is
motion down a slope.' (A) much debate about the seriousness
of the current environmental
Howe and colleagues created two problems. ~
groups according to a pre-test; a 33 NG
post test was given immediately after The passage states in PARAGRAPH
the sessions and another four weeks 6 that:
later. (E) 'We differ from past societles in
The children did not work in mixed- some tesoeas tbst put us at /ower
ab1ltty groups (B), the talkauveness of risk than them . We a/so dlffer from
the children is not mentioned (C); past societies in some respects that
the teacher was not actively involved put us at greater risk tben them'
(D). but. u _does not compare individual
societies past and present.

The final sentence of PARAGRAPH 6
warns us that wc can learn lessons
The excepuon to th1s pattern - of warmer weather being
damper - is January/February and September where there
from the past but we must be a re relat1vely hiqh temperatures (22-23() but low rainfall
careful about the comparisons. (1 ess than 20mm).
'The monumental rums left behind T.ask 2 Model answer
by those past societ1es hold a 1 strongly agree with the suqqesuon that humankind
tesoneuor, for ali of us. s hould consume less meat and mstead have more
PARAGRAPH 4 V egetables m their dret, and 1 beheve that a number of
36 A
' ... 1t {1s/ temptmg to draw analog1es s teps can be taken to persuade people to do trus
between the course of human Firstly, 1 feel that educauon has a maor role to play m
sooeties and the course of bring1ng about thrs change of hfestyle. A well-mformed
individual human lives.. But that mmonty of the world's populatton may be fully aware of
metaphor proves erroneous for the fact that rt is much cheaper and more envrronmentally
many past soaee: ... sound to eat vegetables, thereby cuttmq out one whole
.- stage of producuon, rather than consuming the animals
whrch graze on veqetanon. However, 1 believe that the
'These env1ronmental problems
maonty are not consoous of this. Figures should be made
include the same e1ght that
widely available showmq the savinqs to be made from this
undermined past sooeties, plus
four new ones ... ' option - both finanetal and ecological. From a young age,
~ children should also be taught this as an essential part of
38 D PARAGRAPH 6 the curriculum and to set an example, school meals should
... sorne of those {differences} often be redesigned to reflect a shift from meat to vegetables.
mentioned include our powerful A second measure would be financial. laxes can be put
technology (i.e. its beneficia/ on meat to make it a luxury rtern to be ea ten fairly rarely,
effects) ... We a/so differ from past at most three of four times a week. rather than two or
societies in some respects that put three times a day as is the practice in many parts of the
us at greater risk than them: again, developed world. There is. however, a danger in too much
our potent technology (i.e. its , interference in people's choice. lt is often the case that
unintended destructive effects) ... resistance builds up aqamst lectunng and fiscal penalties,
39 E PARAGRAPH 6 meaning that people will react by ignoring all the advice.
'We shouldn 't be so nai've as to Perhaps a compromise position would be to encourage.
think that study of the past will tess wastage in food production and retail, particularly rn
yield simple solutions, directly the developed world. Huge amounts of perfectly usable
transferable to our soaeues today.' food are thrown away by households and restaurants
40 A Only A sums up the argument. The and supermarkets. Less wastage would mean less food
issues mentioned in B, C and D are production in the first place.
either not referred to in the passage
or form only a small part of the Test 6

1 Moonfleet 2 f1elds 3 shops
4 summerhouses 5 nver 6 dining
Task 1 Model answer 9 parking 1 O agent
7 sea 8 garden
The graph shows the average weather condiuons in one
reg1on of East Africa. lt shows that there are s1gnificant
differences in the average monthly preci~itation and sorne 14 B
11A 12B 13(
variat1on in temperature. The range of ramfall figures 19/20 B/E
15/16 B/D 17/18 A/C
ts very large a cross the year (from approx1mately f ive to
280 m1llimetres) whereas the temperature only fluctuates
by three degrees, from 20.5-23.SC. f 21 A 22 B 23 A 24 e 25 B
Broadly speaking, in this region penods of h1gh rai~ a 11 28 A 29 D 30 e
26 B 27 B
tend also to be periods of slightly hotter weather, wit~ two
noticeable peaks m the year. Temperatures ar~ fa_irly ht~h
in March and April (just over 23(). which coincides with
31 (very) thin 32 court documents
a time of very heavy rainf all (wrth a top figure of 280mm 33 high-qualtty 34 buned 35 th1ckness
in April). Both ramfall and temperature figures fall "' t~e

36 bleached/whitened 37 dialect 38 basehne
middle of the year (to a yearly low of 20 SC, and JUSt we 39 evolut1on 40 trade routes
mm of rain 1n July).
PARAGRAPH 9 describe: the
popularity of f abnc d~s1gns
originally used for a simple wrap,
use of beads for accessory
an d .
READING PASSAGE 1 items and eventng wear.
1 la beis PARAGRAPH 1
'During the 7 950s ... There were no
celebrity designers or m~dels, nor READING PASSAGE 2
were there any l.aQfils ... PARAGRAPH H .
2 bargain PARAGRAPH 1
14 'This r~2Qrt. th~r~fQre, is W!.!'11.1red
'even ... high-society women ...
were proud of getting a bargaio'
a sustainable commumty, ...
ound the ind1v1dualcomponents of


'{In} the 7 960s... {there was} an .... ihe tQwn is bis~ledby the. . .
acceptance of innovative types of east-west railway, and people ltv1ng m
material sucb as ~ and coated Ladygrove ... felt an.d still feel c~t ~ff
polyester ' from the town and ns commumty.
'The following decade witnessed an from now on public finance will
increase in the export of traditiooal ~~~d to provide a greater proportion
materials ... of infrastructureproject costs.'

5 masculine PARAGRAPH 4
'In India too, contours became
'... the development of job
more ms~yline ...
opportunities in ~~e
railway industry,
6 showy PARAGRAPH 5 and in a /arge, mtl1tary ordnance
'designers decided to get ~ was the spur to Didcot's
themselves noticed by making expansion.
~outfits ...


7 ethnic PARAGRAPH 6 ' ... discussions with the local

'In the last decade of the community about their aspirations
millennium, the market shrunk for the town as well as Q!.00
and fil.b.ok wear made a
stakehQlders, will be undertaken ...
comeback.' PARAGRAPH E
8 T PARAGRAPH 7 tells us that at the 'In 1990 QYbli~-sector nanse was
beginning of the 21 \I century, used to buy the land required for
new designers and models, and the Orchard Centre development,
more sensible designs helped the comprising a superstore. parking and
lndian fashion industry accelerate a new street of stores running parallel
once again. to Broadway.
9 NG Although the passage tells us in 20 e PARAGRAPH C
PARAGRAPH 7 that r India is the
'Didcot failed to develop Broadway
third largest producer of cotton ... r as a compact town centre, and
it does not tell us how much cotton
achieved only a ~trig of shQQ~ along
India exports.
one side of the main street hemmed..
10 T PARAGRAPH 8 describes the many in by low density housing and service
advantages enjoyed by the .lndian trade uses. -
garment and fabric industries. 21 E PARAGRAPH E
F PARAGRAPH 8 makes it clear that 'Popu/ation growth in the new
changes in the rate of exchange housing a reas failed to spark
between the rupee and the dollar adequate grivate-s~tQr inve~tm~nJ .
have depressed prices, making and the limited investment which
exports more attractive. did take place - Diocot Market Place
12 F PARAGRAPH 9 tells us that in development ... -
Chapa the range and quality of 22 A PARAGRAPH E
raw silks churned out here are
'. . the Orchard Centre development.
good despite the crude production
methods and equipment.

comprising a :i!,,merstQre. gar~in~
ne~ Wf~!of store~ ... ~


23 D .. the improved railway crossing at ', . any grven language is a complex

Marsh Bridge ... Such pro1ects were system shaped by man y f'sctots,
delayed due to diff:1.1lties io s~uring includmg culture, qenettcs and

Q!.!bli~ f inan~e. history.

affordable ... the requirement for developers tinqurstic elements may build on
that forty percent of the units in a human reasornnq We perceive the
new housmg development should be world in a certam way before we
IQW ~QS1 bsmes ... ' learn to speak.
infrastruc- PARAGRAPH H 35 e PARAGRAPH 8
ture 'The Government's Sustainable Notes that middle ear infections
Communities Plan seeks a holistic are common among mdrqeoous
approach to new urban development Austrahan children and therr
in which ... infrastructure of all language lacks sounds wtuch would
kinds are carefullyplanned and be difficult to hear, given an ear
delivered ... ' infection. There may be a cause-
strategic PARAGRAPH 1 and-effect relationship here .
master plan 'discussionswith the local 36 B PARAGRAPH 9
community ... as well as other 'tevinson and Evans are not the
stakeholders, will be undertaken ... first to question the theory of
and will lead to the development of a universal grammar, but no one has
strategic master glan. ' summarised these ideas quite as
READING PASSAGE 3 37 D The passage compares in an
y PARAGRAPH 1 says that one of objective manner the differing views
the most influential ideas is that of of linguists.
universal grammar which prevailed 38 B PARAGRAPH 2
from the 1960s for the next five '... Arrernte ... has VC syllables but
decades. no CV syllables. '
28 N PARAGRAPH 2 shows that 39 A PARAGRAPH 3
'linguists have identified many 'otnets. such as Lao ... have no
universal language rules. However, .. adjectives at ali.'
there are almost always exceptions. ' 40 D PARAGRAPH 4
29 y PARAGRAPH 3 confirms that sorne 'Even apparently indisputable
linguists are controversia! in arguing universals have been found
that languages, such as Straits lacking. Ihls includes recursion ...
Salish do not even have distinct Amazonian Piraha does not have
nouns or verbs. this quality.'
30 NG Although the passage tells us
that sorne linguists are pleased
to move away from the search
for universal language rules. it Task 1 Model answer
does not say if this is a majority The plans show the changes to a health centre ove~ the
of linguists. last six years. Since 2005, the centre has expanded rn a
31 N PARAGRAPH 5 number of different ways. Firstly, an extension has been
The Evans and Levinson ideas added to accommodate a minor operations room. Also,
suggest that human brains are the interior has been s1gnificantly remodelled. In 2005,

different depending on the there was a large entrance area with wide doors anda
language environment. lot of open space for waiting, with the reception desk in
32 y the middle. There were only three consulting rooms and a
... evety time a language ~ecomes physiotherapy room. Thrs room has stayed the same size

extina. humanity loses an imoottsnt but the consulting rooms have been made smaller and
piece of diversity.' increased to four in number. The office has been made


38 site/location/place
36 grass 37 solar
srnaller and the reception desk put in front of it. A children's 40 wornen
play area has been added in the comer near the entrance. 39 walls
Outs1de there have also been changes. The car park has
bcen expended wrth room for 18 more cars. The garden is
decrea!>ed in size to accommodate the extra parking space.
Task 2 Model answer PARAGRAPH 3
1 hot tar
' ... b.Q1..1! onto w~ich a /ayer of
In many parts of the world, and in many different sectors,
stone chips was teid - became
more and more people are staying at home rather than
known as "tarmacadam" ...
cornmutinq to work.
. Opponents of home-working say that being together 5/five cm/ PARAGRAPH 3
2 'lmmediate/y above this ... and ...
in a ~orkplace with colleagues is an important part of centimetres
keep1_ng people healthy and happy. Stayinq at home, never compacted to a thickness of just fiYf
meeting people can lead to depression. They also say that,
from a professional point of view, it is important to spend
~otim~tre.s '
3 water
time in formal and less formal situations with co-workers. ... stone dust mixed with water .. .'
Although it is argued that interaction can happen via PARAGRAPH 2 says that new roads
computers, especially with a visual element such as video 4 F
were generally of inferior quality,
conferencing, they don't believe this can ever replace face and that the achievements of Roman
to face contact. builders were largely unsurpassed
For me, the advantages of working from home more until the eighteenth century.'
than outweigh the disadvantages. Firstly, many workers
prefer home working, saying they function more effectively NG Although PARAGRAPH 4 states that
because they can relax, without the pressure and waste privately owned toll roads were built
of the long commute. With new technologies placing in the nineteenth century, it does not
comrnent on who could afford to
people in the same room metaphorically, it is becoming
much easier to do this. With less travel there is a smaller use them.
carbon footprint. although this is a claim which has yet to 6 T PARAGRAPH 5 confirms that the
be preved because many people choose to live in remoter advent of heavy traffic meant that
areas and car use is not significantly reduced when working roads were inadequate:
at home. ', . . tbe ever-increasing use of motor
Finally, what clinches the argument for me is the fact vehicles threatened to break up
that working at home enables many people to join the roads built to nineteenth-century
workforce who would not otherwise be able to do so. standards ... '
This option is particularly liberating for women because 7 NG Paragraph 7 details the development
they often have more caring responsibilities. of high speed roads but does not
To sum up, 1 believe strongly that working from home is mention the use or non-use of speed
the f airest and most efficient option for most people. restrictions.
8 Roma ns PARAGRAPH 8
Test 7
'The development by the Romans of
the arched bridge ... r
9 stone PARAGRAPH 8
1 terminal 2 Pantera 3 east 'Most were built of ~ ... '
4 07765 328411 5 hotel (restaurant) 6 raincoat 10 light PARAGRAPH 1 O
7 (walking) shoes 8 Mountain Uves 'Sucb bridges are nevertheless
9 chocolate(s) 1 O (a) calendar li9b1 .. .' -
11 longest PARAGRAPH 1 O
SECTION 2 'The 1998 Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in
11 C 12 B 13 A 14 A 15 e
20 E Jap~n has aspan of 1,991 metres.
16 B 17 F 18 B 19 D
wh1ch is the IQng'st to date.' ~
12 steel
21/22 ND 23/24 B/E 25/26 B/C 'Cantilever bridges ... exploit the
27 C 28 B 29 D 30 F potential of ~ construction. ...:__
13 stable
SECTION 4 'Although the suspension bridge ~an
31 rainfall 32 air/plane 33 freezing span a wider gap, the canti/ever is

unsuccessful 35 cheap/inexpensive relatively~ ... r


14 e growth
Homo neanderthalensis lived n 'The newly evo/ved regions of DNA
Europe and parts of Asia. as did a/so mclude a gene called RUNX2,
Horno sapiens. which controls booe growth. That
~- PARAGRAPH B may account for d1fferences in tbe
15 B ~ of the skul/.. '
... interlopers in the form of Homo 26 1 i ttle-f i nger PARAGRAPH G
sapiens, who were spreading out bon e
from Africa. 'Another of hls teams has revealed
~~ the existence of a h1therto
unsuspected species of human,
. . . the arnva/ of Homo sapiens using mitochondria/ DNA found in
in a region was always quickly a little:finger bone.
followed by the disappearance of

17 e
PARAGRAPH E tells us that
the two species, i.e. Homo
27 y
PARAGRAPH 1 tells us that
neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens the f irst commercial fishermen
were inter-fertile. cast their nets and hooks over a
thousand years ago.
18 A PARAGRAPH E says that y
28 PARAGRAPH 2 supports the
' ... no Neanderthal mitochondrial
statement by stating that, in general,
DNA has turned up in modern
humans.' we view the oceans as something
which should be open to all.
19 D PARAGRAPH D explains the change 29 N PARAGRAPH 2 contradicts the
in thinking about the relationship statement when it says that
between the two species: '... most marineproteaeo areas
'Previous genetic analysis ... had al/ow some fishing to continue.
suggested no interbreeding between
30 NG The passaqe focuses on ways of
Neanderthals and modern humans.
The new ... examination ... shows protecting supplies of fish; it does
this conclusion is wrong. ' not discuss the option of hmiting
consumer demand.
20 B The final sentence of PARAGRAPH 31 N PARAGRAPH 4 makes it clear
B explains that we do not yet know
that destruction of the variety of
why the arrival of Homo sapiens in a " mammals has been much easier
region was always quickly followed by than their recovery will be to
the disappearance of Neanderthals. manage.
21 G PARAGRAPH G says that Neanderthals D
32 The writer means that pleas from
and modern humans share the same fisheries' managers for more time
version of a gene which is involved in to make their models work, delay
the ability to speak. action which might lead to real
22 A PARAGRAPH A sets out the success.
groundbreaking nature of the . 33 e None of the statements A, B or D
analysis by Svante Paabo and his is supported by the passage, but in
colleagues. PARAGRAPH 5 the writer says:
23 E PARAGRAPH E notes that it is 'Ibe Common Fisheries Policy
exemplifies the worst pitfalls: flawed
strange, 'the: no Neanderthal
mode/s .... ' Which agrees with
mitochondrial DNA has turned up
statement C.
in modern humans, sin~e th.e us~al
pattern of invasion in h1stoncal times 34 A In PARAGRAPH 6 the writer says:
was for the invaders' males ,to mate 'We can go a long way to a.voi~ing
,_ with the invadeds' fema/es. this catastrophic mistake w1th simple
24 common-sense management r
in ter- PARAGRAPH E thus supporting statement A.
breeding . even after severa/ hundred

Statements B. C and D are
/crossbreed- th~usand yeers of separati~n., the contradicted in the passage.
ing two species were inter-fert1l.e.

35 B Task 2 Model answer .
lt IS WI d e1 Y agree
d that a happy and stable

relat1onship 1-
'b.y the nineteenth century it was 11
marnage is the bedrock of any commu~1ty, wnh a greater
stil/ felt, iustifiably, tbet the plentiful
resources of the sea were ... beyond likelihood of responsible partners, ~n~ '~ c~1ldren result,
the ~ach of fishing, and so ~ harmonious families. Because ~f thi~, 1t is important to
~as httJe need tQ restrio fbiog Q[ support the institution of mam~ge in ev~~ way Possible.
~reate R(Qte~ted sueas, One important question in relation ~o this is: at what age
36 F should couples be allowed to marry.
There are a number of reasons for rnakmq the minimul'll
. mo.dern fisbing te~hoQIQgies
legal age for matrimony as late as possible. Many would
lea ve f1sh no place to bide ...
37 D argue that people in their 20s are able to make much more
PARAGRAPH 1 rational and informed decisions than teenagers can. Older
'... the only refuges from fishing are people will have seen enough of the world to ~now that
those we deliberately creete'
that the feelings they hold for someone ~t. given moment
may not last. They will realise that superficial characteristics
'creating marine reserves ... has
like physical beauty or sporting prowe~s ma~ not be the
been tried and refined for the test
fifty years. ' only ones to bring happiness in a r~lat1on.sh1p. Older
38 1 couples are likely to give more consideration to 1s~ues such
PARAGRAPH 1 as income and job prospects, but also to less obv1ous but
'... the sea trails far behind the ~
important personality traits such as tolerance. kindness or
in terms of the area and the quality
of protection given.' moral strength.
However, other people contend that it is unrealistic to
39 H PARAGRAPH 5 make couples wait until their 20s befare marrying. They
'To some people, creating marine suggest that as soon as the boy and girl have reached
re:erves is en admission of failure.' puberty they should be allowed to marry. To prevent
40 e PARAGRAPH 6 them doing so would result in resentment between the
'lf we don't break out of this ~ generations. frustration and an increase in the numberof
of failure, humanity will lose a unsupported pregnancies. lf married teenagers are given
key source of protein, and much enough help and support, they can have chlidren when
more besides. Disrupting natural they are young and healthy enough to enjoy them.
ecosystem processes ... could have Taking into account both these sets of arguments, 1 feel
ramifications for human life itself. ' that 21 is probably too old but that 18 should be made
the legal mnimum at which couples can marry.

General training
Task 1 Model answer
The pie charts indicate that there are sorne major
differences but afso a number of similarities in the
proportion of time younger and older peopfe spend on 1 E 'Pink, blue, green, si/ver or brown -
six different activities in the Internet. please state preference.'
The most noticeable difference relates to the most 2 B 'this set is suitable for a broad range
popular activity for each of the groups. Social networking of sizes'
is the most favoured activity for the younger group, 3 E
accounting for 24 percent of their time on the Internet. 'This tem is not available for
This contrasts with just eight percent spent on this by overseas delivery'
4 D 'foral/ young children who want
60 to 70 year olds. The largest percentage of Internet time
for older users (29 percent) was spent on making bookings, to copy adults and do sorne real
for example for travel, while for younger users this was woodworking.'
their least popular activity. at just five percent. 5 A 'A great product for keeping
In other activities there were surprisingly similar young children entertained in the
percentages for the two groups. Bo~h groups spent a bath. ' (implies the product 1s made
fairly large amount of time researching, for example, to be used in water) _
health matters (26 percent for older people, 20 percent 6 F
'A great creative kit for making an
for younger). The younger ~ge gro~p spent 2 ~ percent adorable ballerina do//.' -
of their time accessing muste and films but th1~ was only 7 e
four percent more than the older age group. Finally, there 'This smal/ xylophone ... -
8 F
was only two percent difference betwee~ the ~wo groups The letter tells us in PARAGRAPH 1
in the proportion of time they spent buyinq thinqs on that the Campbell Hotel 1s 'one of .
the Internet. Scotland's oldest family-run hotels.

PARAGRAPH 2 says 'We beve
reserved a twin room for you ...
22 online
... Qnline oetwQrking, using
In the UK. a twin room means a corporate sites such as Linkedln,
room with two beds. has a/so given employees tbe ability
V- NG The letter does not say whether to liaise with
people doing similar
10 prices will be reduced or not for work ...
guests who do not have breakfast. 23 building PARAGRAPH 5
....---- PARAGRAPH 3 says 'We are trade '/For people who 're working in
11 T
currently offering a special rate for digital media it's everything}, but
Sunday nights - f 25 per person ... ' in the building trade it's almost
(as opposed to the fSS normal pointless ... '
rate). 24 formal PARAGRAPH 7
12 T PARAGRAPH 4 of the letter informs
guests that: 'Check-in is from
courses 'Apart from on-the-job training,
there are self-help books ... as well
2 p.m ... .' as formal courses.'
~ 25 Staff PARAGRAPH 7
13 NG The letter does not indicate whether
dinner in the Loch Restaurant must Development ... decide what their genuine

be pre-booked. areas of weakness are, and then

talk about them with their ~
14 F PARAGRAPH 6 of the letter says Development coordinator ...

that: 'ti cancelled up to 24 hours

before the day of arrival no fee will 26 job PARAGRAPH 8
be charged. lf cancelled later ... shadowing ... temporary roles or job-

then the first night will be charged shadowing can give you a more
in iuli.' rounded view of tbe organisation.'
27 targets PARAGRAPH 1 O
SECTION 2 'One of the key ski/Is is dealing
with your boss, and part of tbet is
15 website PARAGRAPH 2 knowing what your boss is being
'Check our website to learn about judged by. They al/ have targets ... '
volunteer positions
, available in
your area. SECTION 3
16 officer PARAGRAPH 3 28 111 PARAGRAPH A
'Contact the DNR officer who is describes the wide range of
designated for the project ... ' e
geographical areas in which the
17 schedule PARAGRAPH 4 Spotted Flycatcher has been
'Arrive on time (ora little early) to observed at different times of
work on the project for which you the year.
registered to work. The schedule 29 V PARAGRAPH B outlines records kept
you agree to is important: be sure in the eighteenth century of very
to cal/ if you will be absent or need regular patterns of the bird's arrival
to leave early. in England and compares this with
18 public PARAGRAPH 5 bullet point 1 modern records.
'/f working with tbe public in your 30 i PARAGRAPH C shows how the
volunteer position, al/ questions female undertakes most of the nest
from them ... are to be passed on building and incubation, but that
to your supervisor.' the male ensures the eggs are kept
19 opinion PARAGRAPH 5 bullet point 1 warm while the female leaves the
'Avoid expressing a personal nest to feed.
~ opinion. 31 VIII PARAGRAPH D does briefly refer to
20 hours PARAGRAPH 5 bullet point 2 predators, but mainly describes the
Keep a note of your ~ ... turn way the parent birds care for the
....__ in your records to your supervisor. ' chicks in the early days .
21 needs PARAGRAPH 5 bullet point 3 32 IV PARAGRAPH E describes the way the
'Yout supervisorwill be happy to birds change their insect-catching
discussany concerns that you may pattern according to changes in
have, as well as any special~ ...


have two younger brothers. 1 thought you might
33 ix
PARAGRAPH F outhnes the As you estions about what he would enoy.
appearance of the brrd and other have sorne sugg a couple of boo ks J asrrune

would be
means of rdennhcauon. lf you cou Id c h oo Se f h
d money to cover the cost o t e books
34 vi1 veryd happy to lshenopeyou don't rnrnd my asking you to do
PARAGRAPH G shows the work an postage. , yth' 1
being carned out to gather and this. and d o 1 et me know tf there s an ing can send you
understand data on dechmnq from here to say thank you.
numbers as a f1rst step towards
conservauon. Best wishes
35 drab/dull Sasha
PARAGRAPH A: 'Oespite its
rather <iY.ll plumage Task 2 Model answer
PARAGRAPH F: 'The Spotted Unquestionably there are many more cars on the roads
Flycatcher lacks the more brightly now than there were even ten years ago but whethe: there
marked plumage of many other are 1QQ many, and they are ruining our urban areas, rs a
buds, and . . . it can be m1staken for matter of sorne dispute. . .
another, equal/y -@b soecies ... ' The main arguments against this point of v1ew are as
36 perch PARAGRAPH F: ' ... se/dom seen on follows. Firstly, we cannot clai~ ~hat there are too many
the ground, but usual/y feed from cars in a given place if the majority of people there feel
a~ making sallies after aerial the numbers are acceptable. Secondly, rt is wrong to
insects.' deprive people of the right to drive their ow~ c~rs. P~blic
37 family PARAGRAPH F: ' ... it is rare to transport is often so poor that it is not a realistic optron
see severa/ Spotted Flycatchers Only private cars can enable people to go about their daily
together unless they happen to be lives efficiently and comfortably. for example, commuting
a family ... ' to work and going shopping. Thirdly. in most urban areas,
38 snapping PARAGRAPH F 'the audible snapping even the most congested ones, it is still possible to drive
sound sound that the bill sometimes round fairly easily. Buses and bicycles often have special
makes when the bird snatches lanes so all forms of transport can co-exist happily together.
an insect from the elr.' However, 1 feel strongly that there are too many cars in
39 D PARAGRAPH A tells us that the birds our towns and cities. Roads are becoming more dangerous,
have been sighted in the northern with many more serious road accidents occurring, affeding
hemisphere (Britain) and the everyone, including those in cars. Pedestrians and cyclists
southern hemisphere (Africa). (D). have less and less space and freedom to move safely.
Statements A. B and e are Another point to consider is that large numbers of cars
contradicted in PARAGRAPHS A are causing severe pollution, making the air of our cities
and B of the passage. unpleasant.jit times. almost unbreathable. There has
40 B PARAGRAPH D confirms that the been a sharp rise in the number of people suffering from
nest may be used for more than one respiratory diseases. and old and valued buildings are being
brood (B). destroyed by chemicals from car exhausts.
A cannot be chosen as PARAGRAPH, alth~ugh many people fiercely defend the right of
C describes the nest as 'delicate'. choice to dnv~ cars in cities, 1 believe steps should be taken
C and D are also contradicted in to. r~duce their number befare they end up taking over and
PARAGRAPH C. ruming our urban environments.

General Training Writing

Task 1 Model answer
Dear Alice
1 hope you're well and enjoying being back at university
after the holiday.
1 wonder if you could do me a favour. Would it be
possible to buy sorne books suitable for a 14 year old
boy? My friend (Jasmine) has a son who is not doing
particularly well in his English classes at school. His English
is actually quite good. but he's lost motivation and Jasmine
wondered whether it might help if he could be persuaded
to do sorne more reading in the language. As you know,
it's very difficult to get hold of English books here and the
ones in the bookshops are rather boring for a teenage boy.


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Practice Tests Plus offer teachers all they need to prepare their students for
the Cambridge ESOL exams. Practice Tests Plus provide authentic practice,
comprehensive guidance and strategies for dealing with each part of the exam.

This edition of Practice Tests Plus IELTS 3 includes:

seven complete practice tests.
additional Reading and Writing modules for General Training candidates.
audio CDs with complete material for the Listening tests.
detailed overviews of each exam paper.
guidance, strategies and tips on each paper.
Speaking and Writing files with model answers and usef ul language.
annotated answer keys.

Speaking test Multi-ROM with DVD

complete Speaking test video
examiner's feedback on student performance
photocopiable worksheets and teaching ideas
sample writmg answers with examiner's feedback

Online exam practice at

see inside front cover for access to a free IELTS Reading and usterung pracuce papee


ISBN 978-1-4082-6790-5

1 11
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