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IJ .J 1991

K U\l"an~'O

DECOMPOSITION MODELS FOR

THE EULER EQUATIONS

July 1990

~&~

-~O~ RHODE SAINT GENESE BELGIUM

~t7W

..... V=--

o I 1990 I 0238 I 381 VKI TN 172. JULY 1990

von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics

Chausse de Waterloo, 72

B-1640 Rhode Saint Gense-Belgium

DECOMPOSITION MODELS FOR

THE EULER EQUATIONS

July 1990

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ........................................................................ i

Acknowledgements ................................................... ~ . . . . . . . . .. ii

List of Symbols .............................................. '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. iii

1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1

2. WAVE MODELS FOR THE EULER SYSTEM ................................... 3

2.1 Simple wave solution ........................................................ 3

2.2 Simple waves for Euler system ............................................... 6

2.3 Roe's simple wave models ................................................... 7

2.4 The discrete models ......................................................... 8

3. CONSERVATIVE APPROACH

4. FLUCTUATION SPLITTING SCHEMES

4.1 Concept of fluctuation ...................................................... 18

4.2 Splitting ................................................................... 19

4.3 Determination of the eoefficients ai . .... .............. . ...... . ....... . ...... 20

4.3.1 Roe monotone seheme ........................................... ..... 20

4.3.2 Low diffusion seheme ........................ ............... .......... 21

5. RESULTS AND COMMENTS

5.1 Shear flow .................................................................. 22

5.2 Oblique shock reflection .................................................... 23

5.3 Ramp flow ................................................................. 24

5.4 Nozzle flow ................................................................. 24

5.5 Extension to quadrilateral eells ............................................. 25

5.5.1 Finite volume approach .............................................. 25

5.5.2 Triangle based scheme for quadrilaterals .............................. 27

5.5.3 Diagonal approach for quadrilaterals ... .............................. 28

References .................................................................. . .. 30

Figures ......................................................................... 31

Abstract

The subject of this work is the implementation of a new technique to solve the 2-D

Euler equations by modeling the solution with a discrete number of simple waves. The the-

ory of this decomposition was proposed by P. L. Roe in 1985 but was never put succesfully

into practice before.

plane waves. The traveling directions of these waves are not fixed in advance but depend

on the local flow gradient at each time step.

Three different wave decomposition models have been considered and implemented,

based on four acoustic waves, one entropy wave and respectively vorticity (model A), or

one shear wave propagating in the perpendicular direction to the streamlines (model B),

or one shear wave propagating in the direct ion of the pressure gradient (model C).

Different first order upwind fluctuation splitting schemes have been tested both for

triangular and quadrilateral cells.

Different test cases have been solved with the new method: shear flow, oblique shock

reflection, ramp flow, nozzIe flow; a comparison among the results obtained with the

different decomposition models and numerical schemes has been made.

Acknowledgements

The present research was carried out as part of the Brite/Euram Contract No AERO-

0003-C, issued by the European Communities.

The first author is deeply indebted to Professor M. Napolitano, from the University of

Bari, Italy, and to Professor H. Deconinck for involving him in this Brite/Euram Contract.

11

List of Symbols

a sound speed

B jacobian in the y direct ion

c sound speed

F flux in the x direct ion

G flux in the y direct ion

p pressure

r eigenvector of en

S surface of the eomputational cell

t time

T generie triangular eell

U conservative variables

x x component of veloeity

y y component of veloeity

n generic vector

a type of simple wave

a I coefficient for splitting

() acoustie wave angle

eigenvalue of en

p density

cp fluctuation

111

1. INTRODUCTION

The solution of inviscid Euler equations in one dimensional space has reached a high

level of precision and sophistication. One dimensional approximate Riemann solvers, in

fact, allow the recognition of non linear phenomena such as contact discontinuities, shocks,

expansion waves and they can treat them in the proper way, e.g. using the linear recon-

struction of the discrete data.

This is relatively easy because in a one space dimension we have only two possible

directions of propagation for the signais, and an upwind technique based on the propagation

properties of the flow is quite straightforward.

For the two dimensional case, it is possible to apply one dimensional Riemann solvers

along some particular directions. In classical approaches based on an operator splitting

these directions of propagation of the signals are the normals to the boundaries of each

cello However, in this way, every link with the local physical wave properties of the flow

is lost. For example, the local change in tangential velocity through the edge of a cell is

treated as a contact discontinuity by the one dimensional Riemann solver but in the reality

it could be due to a shock not parallel to the cell boundary (Fig. 1). Recent studies ([1],

[5], [7]) have put in evidence new types of approaches for the decomposition of the Euler

equations based on trajectories, used for the upwinding, which are not grid dependent,

but directly related to the local flow gradients. In this way we solve the problem along

preferential directions which change in space and time according to the flow behaviour.

Deconinck & Hirsch [5] proposed a decomposition based on 2-D characteristic theory.

They selected four characteristic compatibility equations which lead to an optimal decou-

pling of the Euler system. These equations represent respectively an entropy wave, a shear

wave and two acoustic waves with well defined propagation speed and intensity.

In the present work a different theory, which was proposed by Roe ([1], [4]) in 1985

and never applied successfully before, has been implemented. According to this theory

the Euler system is decomposed in six wave equations whose directions of propagation

and velocities depend on local flow gradients. They represent respectively four orthogonal

acoustic waves, one entropy wave and one shear wave (different wave models have been

obtained changing the last wave).

Once a suitable model has been identified (pattern recognition step), the problem is

essentially reduc.e d to scalar advection in two space dimensions. The class of advection

schemes used in the present work has been proposed by Roe in 1987, [2].

An extensive study of these schemes (known as fluctuation splitting schemes) has been

made in [3] for unstructured grids based on triangles with unknowns stored at the vertices.

The basic idea of these schemes is to distribute the flux balance over each triangle towards

the vertices with upwind weights calculated on the base of the convection velocity of the

waves obtained by the decomposition. Extension to cell vertex quadrilateral grids is also

considered in this report.

At the moment time integration is Euler explicit and the scheme is first-order accurate

in time and spacej extension to second order accuracy will be considered in the future. The

approach proposed by Roe is conservative as will be explained in the following chapters.

The code has been tested on a certain number of test-cases (oblique shock reflection,

shear flow with different angles, ramp flow, nozzle flow)j a comparison with the results

available in the literature has been made.

2

2. WAVE MODELS FOR THE EULER SYSTEM

2.1 Simple wave solution

Roe's decomposition is based on the concept of the "simple wave solution" of the

Euler equations. Let us consider the system in its quasi linear form

(2.1)

where U is the vector of the primitive variables (p, u, v,PY, and A and Bare the jacobian

matrices. A simple wave is by definition a solution of system (2.1) of the type:

u= U(v) (2.2)

scalar pa.rameter :

v = v(x,y,t) - (2.3)

Solutions within this particular class will be used as building blocks to construct the general

solution of the system. From the definition of simple wave (eqs. 2.2 and 2.3) it results:

au = dU ov (2.4)

dv

Hence the u varies only with the variation of v which is equivalent to say that U is constant

on the lines v=cst in a 2D plane. This means that it is possible to write the gradient of U

in the following form:

vu = dU Vv (2.5)

dv

where the gradient of v ca~ also be expressed as :

Vv =1 Vv 1n (2.6)

Substituting the simple wave solution in eq.(2.1), the following relation is obtained :

ovdU dU

atdv +(Anx+Bny)IVvl dv =0 (2.7)

3

which shows that ~~ is a right eigenvector of the matrix C n = Anx + Bny with corre-

sponding eigenvalue ). :

dU

-=r (2.8a)

dv

(2.8b)

oU _ dU dU ov

-on = n . VU = n 1Vv 1n-

dv

=1 Vv 1-dv = -

on

r

ov ov

-r+C - r =0 (2.9)

ot non

Using eq.(2.8b), eq. (2.9) can also be expressed as

ov ov

- +).- = 0 (2.10)

ot on

Equation (2.10) is the weIl known advection equation which has traveling wave solutions

of the form :

v = v(xn x + yny - ).t)

The solutions of eq. (2.10) are wavelike solutions traveling in the generic direction

n with speed),. The speed of each wave is represented by the eigenvalues of the matrix

Cn. This matrix, in a 2D space, has four eigenvalues (and corresponding eigenvectors)

describing four different types of simple waves. The type of the wave will be indicated

with "a".

For each of these waves, from the Euler system (2.1), an advection equation is obtained

with solution

v~ = v~(xnx + yn y - ).~t)

which means that we are considering the variations of the parameter v~ associated with

the simple wave of type "a" traveling in the "n" direction.

4

The simple wave solution U~ is obtained by solving the ordinary differential equation

(2.8a) and the sealar wave equation (2.10) : from equation (2.8a) we obtain

(2.12)

where

q = xn x + yny - ~t (2.13)

From eq.(2.14a) it follows that we ean write a perturbation in the x-y plane due to simple

wav~ 0: traveling in direct ion n as:

(2.14b)

with ~; =1 Vv!: 1and where ~; defines the "strength" or "intensity" of the simple wave

and VU~ represents the eontribution to the variation of the primitive variahles U due to

the simple wave of type 0: traveling in the n direction.

bations. Hence we ean write for the most general case

2~ 2~

8=0 Cl' 8=0 Cl'

with n= 1xcos8 + 1ysin8. The summation is extended to all types of waves (0: = 1, ... ,4)

and to all their possible directions of propagation (8 = 0, .. , 27r). In practice, models have

to be built with a discrete number of simple waves.

In this work, different wave models will he implemented based on a particular choice

of six waves, as proposed by P. Roe.

5

2.2 Simple waves {or Euler system

In this section the four possible types of simple wave solutions for the 2D Euler system

will be examined in more detail. To each eigenvalue and eigenvector of the matrix en,

a particu1ar wave is associated. The former in fact represents, as we have seen in the

previous chapter, the speed of propagation of each wave; the lat ter is used to project the

variation of the scalar parameter v!: on the primitive variables as equation (2.8a) suggests.

Entropy wave : (0' = 1)

The propagation speed and the eigenvectors are respectively:

r l = (I,O,O,OY

In this case the eigenvector is not depending on the traveling direct ion n of the wave. The

intensity of this wave is proportional to the entropy and it is again independent from n:

1

1Vv~ 1=1 Vp- 2c Vp 1

This solution does not exist for ID flows. The intensity of the wave is :

which represents the projection of the velocity vector gradient Vu along the wave front

(perpendicular to n). Propagation sp eed and corresponding eigenvector are given by :

The intensity is given by : 1Vv~ 1=1 nx Vu + ny Vv + :c 'lp 1and we have:

,3

An

--+ c

=un

6

Second acoustic wave : (0' = 4)

The intensity is given by : 1\lv~ 1=1 -n x \lu - ny \lv + ie \lp 1and we have:

\4

An = --

U n - c 4

rn = '12 P

t,-nx,-ny,pc

)T

Hence the acoustic disturbances propagates with a speed Un +c and U n - c in the direction

n.

Equation (2.15) shows that, in order to reconstruct the general solution of the Euler

system, we could superpose the effects of all possible waves. This is rat her complex in a 2D

flow. The waves, in fact, can propagate in infinitely many directions and there are other

physical phenomena, like vorticity and shear flows, which do not exist e.g. in the 1D case.

The first problem to solve is then the choice of a discrete number of waves to compose

a flow model. These will be chosen such that the traveling orientation is not fixed in

advance but is depending on flow properties, in order to have a good simulation of the

physics of the phenomena.

Assuming locallinear variation of the flow variables on each cell of the computational

domain, it follows that there are only eight degrees of freedom in the choice of the wave

model. The choice concerns both the types of waves and their traveling directions. Con-

sidering the LHS of equation (2.15), we can discern the following eight parameters (in

primitive variables ):

These eight derivatives can be calculated at each time step for each cell (if linear variation

of the data is supposed); hence, it follows tha:t ,only eight degrees of freedom are available

in the choice of the wave model.

7

Roe's decomposition is based on the idea of incorporating into the models all the

elementary types of 2D flows. Hence, we have to consider acoustic waves, shear waves

(which are directly related to the shear flows) and entropy waves (useful, for example, .

in the description of shocks). They are combined such that their global effect results in

gradients at time level 1 which match the gradients of the known solution at time step

1, providing eight conditions on the strengths and orientations to be used. The other

properties have to be defined from physical arguments. One such argument is that locally

lD flow has to be decomposed using one entropy and two acoustic waves traveling in the

direct ion of the local flow.

Two parameters determine one wave: its intensity and its direct ion of propagation .

. To fix a model it is possible to choose only eight parameters in the RHS of equation

(2.15), in order to "match" them with the locallinear gradient au. In this way we get a

system in which the unknowns represents the variables which determine the decomposition

(intensities and propagation directions of the waves).

Roe proposed two different models [1] consisting in the following choices:

1. One entropy wave with unknown direction "<jJ" and intensity "j3" (2 unknowns).

2. Two acoustic waves of the first type traveling orthogonal to each otherj the direction

of propagation is given by one angle "()" and the intensities are "al" and "a2" (3

unknowns).

3. Two acoustic waves of second type traveling in the opposite direct ion of the waves in

2) with intensities "a3" and "a4" (2 unknowns). Seven parameters have been chosen

till this pointj we have still the fr:ee choice of another variabIe to fix the decomposition.

This last choice concerns the effect of shear or vorticity and can be made in several

8

ways in order to obtain a relatively easy algebra in solving the resulting system. In

the models proposed by Roe the following contributions are considered:

4. MODEL A : the last unknown is represented by the local uniform vorticity "w" (on

each cell of the computational domain).

is added to the model, with unknown strength "k".

6. MODEL C: In this work an original model has also been implemented which presents

a different choice about this last point: the last unknown is represented by a shear

wave traveling in the direct ion of the pressure gradient, with unknown intensity "k".

This idea is coming from the Euler wave-decomposition due to Deconinck-Hirsch ([5],

[7]), based on the characteristic theory, in whieh the authors have already used this

kind of shear wave.

A sketch of the waves composing the models is given in figures 2, 3 and 4, where a

section of the Mach eone is shown at a fixed time level with all the wave fronts traveling

in the appropriat.e directions.

Henee, mat.ching the derivatives of the flow variables (p, u, v,p) with the ehosen pa-

rameters by means of equation (2.15), a non-linear system (system 1) of eight equations

in eight unknowns is obtained. This system, as it is shown in the following pages, is ana-

lytieally solved and gives us all the geometrieal and physieal informations eoneerning the

deeomposition. As the solution shows, all parameters dep end on flow gradients and they

will be ealculated at eaeh time step for eaeh eell: in this way the deeomposition is based

only on flow properties and there is no influence of the mesh direetions on it.

The following conclusions can be obtained about the deeomposition to underline the

physieal meaning of the models: the entropy wave direct ion (angle j3) coineides with the

9

local entropy gradient direct ion and the intensity of this wave is the entropy gradient

modulus.

Besides, for model A the principal acoustic wave direct ion (angle 8) coincides with

the principal axis of the strain rate tensor:

=( Uz

u,,~v., Vy

)

It is easy to demonstrate that this direction is perpendicular to the discontinuity in

the case of a shock and that it has an inclination of 45 with the discontinuity in the case

of a slip line. These conclusions have also been numerically verified (see chapter 5).

10

ISYSTEM -11

II II . II . II 1 ap

al COSu + a2cos u - a3 sznU - a4 sznu = - 2 -a

pc x

. II . II II II 1 ap

alsznu + a2 sznu - a3COS U - a4COS u = -2-a

pc y

211 211 . 211 . 211 1 au

alCOS u + a2cos u - a3 szn u - a4 szn u = --a

c x

= ~c aauy

w

al sinOcosO - a2sinOcosO - a3sinOcosO + a4sinOcosO - 2

c

2c

= ~c aavx

1 av

. 211

al szn u + a2szn

. 211

u-

211 211

a3cos u - a4cos u = --a

c y

av + au)

( ax ay

tan20 =

( au _ av)

ax ay

al - a2 = 2c ax + ay + ( ax ay ax ay

( aX ay aX ay

al + a2 = 1

pc2

(a p

ax cosO + ap .)

ay smO

a3 + a4 = -pc12 -axp (a .)

cosO - - smO

ay

ap

11

w -

_(ovOX _ou)

oy

(Op

1

p

~a )

f3cos<f> = p ox - c ax 2

p)

f3sin<f> = p (Op

1

oy -

1

c2

a

ay

12

3. CONSERVATIVE APPROACH

is conservative, e.g. at steady state the conserved quantities (mass, momentum and en-

ergy), within the computational domain, are allowed to change only because of variations

occurring on the boundaries of the domain [1].

In the next pages, the results of the previous chapter will be extended to a conservative

methodology.

Consider the computational domain divided in a certain number of triangula~ cells (in

general unstructured); the variables are stored at the vertices of these cells. Extension to

quadrilateral cell is easy and will be considered later. According to the conservation form

of the Euler equations :

Ut + Fx + G y = 0

.an estimation of the variation in time of these variables, averaged on each cell, is given by

(Fig. 5) :

Ut = ~[Fi(Yi+l - Yi-l) - Gi(Xi+l - xi-dl = -~F\ .ni

(3.1)

2ST 2ST

,where ST is the area of eachtriangle and ni is the inner scaled normal to the edge opposite

to node "i" (Fig. 5); the surnrnation is extended to the contour of the triangle.

The solution is updated distributing this variation among the vertices of each cell as

will be discussed in chapter 4. The distribution can be made in an upwinding way with

respect to the traveling direction of each wave. The basic idea is to place the changes only

on the nodes towards which the wave is moving. The select ion of the vertices and the

weighting factors used to split the contribution of each wave dep end on the orientation of

the wave with respect to the cell. Different kinds of upwind schemes can be constructed

choosing in different ways the weighting factors. In any case, with the following approach,

all these schemes are conservative.

In fa.ct, if we sum up eq.(3.1) for all the cells of the domain, we obtain thetotal change

13

by (Fig. 6):

(3.2)

where the summation is extended to the closed line 1-2-3-4-5-6 in figure 6. For this it

results : !.l.Uj = O. So it is proven that the conserved variables cannot vary due to events

occurring on interior boundaries: that is what wasrequested by a conservative method.

The following step is to decompose the global averaged variation in time given by eq.

(3.2) into several contributions due to each wave in order to apply upwind schemes for

updating. Hence, let us consider again the simple wave solutions of the Euler system.

(considering the contribution from one wave). Taking the derivative of eq. (3.3) with

respect to time, since (from eq. (2.12)) ~ = -.x~ it results :

( ot = oq ot r =

n n -Qn n

r

n

(3.4)

Equation (3.4) shows that the variation in time of the conservative variables, due to

the passage of a simple wave, is equivalent to the product of the intensity Qn and the wave

speed .~ multiplied by the eigenvector r~ which project the effect of that wave on the

conserved variables.

where .~, Qi are, respectively, the speeds and intensities of the acoustic waves and .x~, (3

are the speed and intensity of the entropy wave.

14

Summing up all contributions coming from the four acoustic waves and the entropy

wave, equation (3.4) becomes:

(3.5)

where au represents the averaged variation over the cell of the conservative variables. For

model A there is no shear wave; for model B it can be easily proven that, for the particular

traveling direction chosen, the speed of the shear wave is zero, and for this reason the sum

in equation (3.4) is limited to five terms in these two cases. For model C it is necessary

to add the contribution A6r~ = k.~r~ where .~ and k are the speed and the intensity of

the shear wave; hence, the sum in eq. (3.4) has to include also this wave because, in this

case, the shear wave speed is not zero.

The rum, now, is to calculate the Ai within each cell in such a way that the total

effect of the perturbation (eq. (3.5)) in that cell will produce the correct conservative flux

integral over the cello

Using the results concerning the decomposition of chapter 2 and substituting in eq.

(3.4) the expressions for ai, {3, and . i , the consistency of the method has been checked

and it has been shown that it is necessary to add a correction in the momentum equations

amounting respectively to (-~pvw) and (~puw) in the RHS of eq. (3.4) in order to take

into account the contribution of vorticity for model A.

The equations are shown on the followng pages; of course, W = 0 for models Band C

while A6 is zero for mode Is A and B.

The LHS of each eq. (3.5) is obtained from the conservative expression (3.1), for each

cello For 0, 4> and w the values calculated according to the decomposition described in

chapter 2 will be assumed. Hence eq. (3.5) represents a system of four equations in five

unknowns (Ai) (i=1, .. ,5) for models A and B, while, adding the contribution from A6, we

obtain a system of four equation in six unknowns for model C. It is necessary to add one

equation to close the system for models A and B : Roe [1] proposed to use arelation among

15

the parameters Ai for (i=I, .. ,4) which does not derive from the conservative formulation :

pa 2 pa

The demonstration of eq. (3.6) is given in [1]. For model C we need two more relations

to close the system : we can use equation (3.6) also in this case and we will add the relation

A6 = k>'~ using for >.~ and k the values obtained from system 1.

So we have, for each model, a complete system for the parameters Ai which represent

the effect of each wave on the conservative variables according to eq. (3.5) (see System 2).

Each of these informations is then treated independently from the others, implement-

ing an upwind splitting for each cell based on the traveling speed of the particular wave:

then the solution will be updated on the nodal points summing up the contributions, from

16

ISYSTEM - 2, Models A, B I

For model B : w = 0

4. -(pe)t = pAI(h + aucosO + avsinO) + pA 2 (h - aucosO - avsinO) + pA3(h - ausinO +

avcosO) + pA 4( h + ausinO - avcosO) + ! pA 5 ( u 2 + v 2 )

ISYSTEM - 2, Model C I

aA6sinb

aA6cosb

avcosO) + pA 4(h + ausinO - avcosO) + ! pAs (u 2 + v 2 ) + aA6 (vcosb - usinb)

17

4. FLUCTUATION SPLITTING SCHEMES

4.1 Concept of fluctuation

In the previous chapters we have seen how the model for the decomposition of the

Euler system is chosen and how the parameters of the model are calculated based on the

flow gradients. This calculation is made for each cell of the computational domain. AIso,

we have seen how to calculate an averaged value, on the area of the cell, of the variation

in time for the conservative variables. But the values of the unknowns are stored on

the vertices of each cell; so we need an algorithm to distribute the global mean variation

calculated on the cell towards the vertices, to be able to update the solution at these points.

This algorithm is based on the concept of "fluctuation" and it has been studied in

detail in [3] for the case of scalar advection. The principles of the method will be briefly

described for a triangular mesh, but the concepts are easily extended to any kind of cells

(Fig. 7). The fluctuation is defined for a triangle T as:

( 4.1)

Assuming a mean value Ut for the conservative variables on each cell, we obtain :

where Sr is the area of the triangular cello Since the variation of the data is linear on the

edges of the cells, the integral in eq. (4.2) can be approximated with the following formula

(4.3)

where the index i represents the vertices of the triangle and ni is the inner normal to the

edge opposed to vertex i according to the notation in figure 7; c is the perimeter of the

cello So we have:

- -~tFi ni

Ut = 2Sr

which allows to calculate the averaged variation in time of the conservative variables for

each cello Putting these values in the LHS of system 2 of chapter 3 (eq.3.4 plus eq.3.5) it

is possible to caIculate the parameters Ai which are directly related to the fluduation.

18

In fact, from equation (3.5)

(4.4)

Equation (4.4) shows that the [Ai], multiplied by the corresponding eigenvectors, give the

contribution of each wave to the fluctuation. Hence, for each wave it will be possible to

apply the algorithm of "fluctuation splitting" in an upwind way with respect to their speed.

4.2 Splitting

(4.5)

in which we put in evidence that the global fluctuation has been divided in several contri-

butions due to each wave "k". Let us now consider the wave "k" traveling in the direction

m with speed . The fluctuation associated with this wave is:

k

<PT =

Jf

JT Utk dS = -Ut'

k

ST ( 4.6)

(4.7)

where "i" is the index of the vertices of the cell and 'ESi = ST. Si is a part of the area of

the triangle associated to each node. In this work it has been considered [6] Si = t ST as

shown in figure 8. From eq. (4.7) it is easy to calculate the updating contribution to node

"i" due to the wave k:

(4.8)

19

This is, naturally, the contribution coming from one triangle T on the node "i"; the global

variation due to the wave k over one vertex is given by :

k

'Uj = L 'Ufi

T

which represents the summation of all contributes coming from the surrounding triangles

to node "i" as shown in figure 9. In eq. (4.8) the parameters ai are the coefficients which

define the splitting : they establish which part of the global fluctuation <Pk has to be sent

to each node "i" (Fig. 10). Of course, one must have for consistency and conservation :

~iai = 1. Upwind schemes can be obtained if the parameters ai depend on the orientation

of the speed of each wave. The idea is to send informations only to those vertices which

are downstream with respect to the propagation of the waves.

A wide variety of numerical upwind schemes can be obtained just changing the defini-

tion of the parameters ai. Classical upwind schemes can be expressed within the fluctuation

splitting approach, e.g. for a central scheme we have ai =t for i = 1, .. ,3.

The theory and the criteria on which the choice of the parameters ai can be based

are described in [2] and [3]. A detailed description of these criteria is beyond the aims of

this report.

In the present work, two types of numeri cal schemes, for each model, have been

implemented. The first scheme results in a monotone solution and it is due to P. Roe [2].

If we indicate with m the wave speed direction, we can have two different situations

on a triangular mesh, as shown in figures 11 and 12 :

* Case (1) : "one inflow si de"

* Case (2) : "two inflow side"

In the fi.rst case we can send the fluctuation due to this particular wave t the vertex

20

which is downstream in the direction of m. But in the second case (two inflow sides) it is

necessary to split the global fluctuation between the two vertices which are downstream.

It has been proven that one always gets a monotone solution in case (1). So in the second

case we can try to reduce the problem to the simpIer case of "one inflow side" in order to

get a monotone solution.

Hence, the wave speed vector is divided into two components parallel to the two edges

of the triangle in which the vector m is entering (Fig. 13). Then it is possible to treat each

of these components as case (1), associating to each of them a part of the fluctuation.

al = 0

(m n2)(ffi [12)

2Sr

(m n3)(ffi .. [13)

Q3 = 2Sr

where n is the normal to the edges and represent the edges of the triangles.

The second scheme which has been implemented is a low diffusion upwind scheme.

The case of one inflow side is treated as before. For the case of two inflow sides there is a

simp Ie geometrie interpretation (Fig. 14) : the amount of the fluctuation sent to a vertex

is proportional to the projection of the corresponding edge on the norm al direction to the

wave speed vector. It results :

al = 0;

where ei is the projection of the wave speed vector on the normal to eaeh edge. The same

seheme is known as a-weighting seheme in the fini te element literature [2]. The sum of the

coeffieients is again one to ensure conservation, but the condition for monotonieity is not

fulfilled.

21

5. RESULTS AND COMMENTS

As this report describes the fust successful implementation of Roe's simple wave mod-

els, much emphasis is put on the validation and comparison of the methods, the models

and the fluctuation schemes. Therefore we fust consider some elementary flow problems,

each having a particular difficulty of Euler flow, such as a contact discontinuity or shock.

The results are compared with classical TVD schemes based on lD Riemann solvers.

As a first test case a shear flow aligned wi th the grid (45) has been considered.

Then, to eliminate the influence of the grid direction, a shear flow at 22.5 degrees has

been solved with the three models and numeri cal schemes. All the results presented have

been obtained on the triangular grid with 31 31 nodes shown in figure 15.

Figures 16, 17 and 18 show respectively the results obtained with models A, Band

C using low diffusion scheme. The flow is supersonic with Mach numbers based on x-

resp. y-component of the velo city given by MI = 3. and M 2 = 1.24. All the results are

monotonie as is shown by the cuts in the middle (x=O.5) and on the right boundary, both

for density and Mach number.

The best results in this case are obtained by model B that shows the lowest diffusion.

This behaviour was expected because in model B the shear wave is traveling in the direction

perpendicular to the streamlines which is the more relevant physical direction in this case,

the pres su re being uniform all over the flowfield.

In figure 19 the static pressure is shown which is constant for all modeIs, with little

oscillations. Figure 20 shows the wave speed vectors for the first acoustic wave: they have

an inclination of 45 with the streamlines as predicted by the theory (see chapter 2).

In figure 21 the comparison between the solutin obtained with model Band a classical

finite volume approach based on Roe F.D.S. first order is shown. Astrong improvement

22

in capturing the discontinuity, obtained with the wave decomposition method, is evident.

It is also interesting to compare the result form model B (first order) with a second order

Roe F.D.S. (Fig. 22) : the two results are very similar. This improvement is mainly due

to the decoupling of the wave decomposition solver from the grid directions. In fact, in the

classical finite volume approaches, typically we solve the Riemann problem at the edge of

each cell of the"computational domain : this feature does not allow a proper treatment of

discontinities which are not aligned with those edges. This can be illustrated by computing

the same shear flow at 00 so that it is aligned with the mesh. For this case Roe first order

F.D.S. resolves the discontinuity in two cells (Fig. 23). On the other hand, in the case of

a shear flow with inclination 22.5 0 , the same scheme smears very much the discontinuity.

In the wave decomposition approach the traveling direction of the waves was calculated

taking into account only the flow properties, e. g. referring always to the direct ion of some

physical meaningful gradient.

An oblique shock reflection on a flat plate has been considered as second test case.

The inlet Mach number is M=2.9 and the inclination of the first branch of the shock is 29 0

with the plate. A symmetrie triangular grid with 61 21 points (Fig. 24) has been used.

Figures 25, 26 and 27 show the results obtained respectively with models A, Band

C using Roe-monotone scheme. Note that monotonicity is only guaranteed for the scalar

case and only if the linearization is done correctly [3]. Indeed, for the system case, not all

the results are really monotone: model C shows the best solution and it is the only one

which gives really monotone results.

In model C the shear wave is traveling in the direction of the pressure gradient and

this helps to explain its bet ter performance: in a shock, in fact, the pressure gradient

direct ion is more relevant than the normal to the streamlines.

Figures 28, 29 and 30 show the cuts for density and Mach number at y=0.5 and y=O

23

(lower solid wall) and the convergence history, respectively for models A, B and C.

The convergence stops for values of the residual around 10- 2 to 10- 3 . This is due

to the random change of the wave speed directions in the regions of uniform flow because

of finite precision arithmeties. In these areas, in fact, the gradient is very small and the

decomposition is not well defined. However, since the fluctuations vanish also in uniform

flow regions, there is nothing to be send in these random directions. Nevertheless, a

numerical noise is generated which inhibits convergence to machine zero.

avoid the application of the decomposition in those regions. An attempt to freeze the

wave speed directions, after a certain number of iterations, will be also made to verify if

lower values of the residual ean be reached (calculations with double precision will be also

made).

A ramp with inclination of 20 0 with respect to the horizontalline has been considered.

The grid is shown in figure 31; it contains 61 31 nodes. The flow is supersonic with inlet

Mach number M=3. At the moment only model C has been tested on this case.

Figure 32 shows the isolines for Mach and density as wen as Mach distribution at

y=0.5 and on the lower boundary.

A Laval nozzle test case has been considered. The geometry is shown in figure 33 and

taken from [8]: there are two eosine shaped walls yielding a 10% constriction at the throat.

A symmetrie triangular mesh is used, wi th 63 . 33 nodal points.

Three supersonic test cases have been solved respectively with inlet Mach number

M=3., M=3.5, M=1.75; last two results earl be compared with the data available in [8].

24

The results are shown in figures 34, 35 ' and 36. The case with inlet Mach number M=3.5

presents a solution which is very similar to the one obtained in [8] using a second order

scheme with limiter function. The nonlimited F.D.S. solution shows better resolution of

the shocks, however, at the price of some unphysieal oscillation around it. The third case

(M=1.75) presents a good solution for the first shock originating at the wall of the nozzle

but the second reflected shock is smeared too mueh. Compared with a classical TVD finite

volume solution (Fig. 36) one sees again that the second order unlimited version resolves

this shock in a bet ter way, however, with some oscillations. The classical second order

limited version keeps monotonicity but smears the second shock almost in the same way

as the present scheme : but we have to remember that this scheme is only first order in

space.

The scheme is anyway monotone and an extension to second order win surely improve

the solution in the more complicate test cases.

The code has a1so been tested using a general unstructured division of the computa-

tiona1 domain in quadrilaterals. Two different approaches have been considered to have a

numerical splitting of the fluctuation on each cello The fust one mimics a classical finite

volume scheme in the case of the scalar equationj the second one is the average of two

upwind schemes based on triangle fluctuation splitting.

a) Basic scheme for scalar equation: In this case eaeh cell is divided in four parts connecting

the mid points of two opposite sides as shown in figure 37. Following the notation in the

figure, we ean express the fluctuation on each cell as

25

au

-at +71 Vu = 0

where Ui, i=1, .. ,4, are the unknowns stored in the vertices of eaeh eeIl, and ni, i=1, ... ,4,

are the sealed normals to the internal sides of the four quadrilaterals in whieh eaeh eeIl is

divided.

We split in this way the fiuctuation in the sum of four eontributions: eaeh of them

ean be assigned to one of the vertices in an upwind way with respect to the eonveetion

speed 71. For example, the quantity 71 . nl (UI - U2) will be used to update the point 2 if

a . nl > 0 otherwise it will update the point 1. The same criterion is applied to the other

terms of the sum in equation (5.1). It ean be easily demonstrated that this is a positive

sehemes and that it is equivalent to the first order upwind seheme using for node ij the

finite volume obtained tracing the subdivision as shown in figure 38.

b) finite volume with simple wave modelling for sealar case: We solve the sealar dveetion

equation in the foIlowing form:

(5.2)

where

Vu

and

m = I Vu I

So we get for the fiuctuation an expression similar to (5.1):

Distributing the four terms in the sum (5.3) aeeording to an upwind criterion (as we h ave

seen for equation (5.1)) with respect to the wave speed 1m we get a monotone solution.

e) non monotonie low diffusion seheme for quadrilaterals : Starting from equation (5.2) ,

we replaee the differenees u i - Uj by

(5.4)

26

where rij is the vector corresponding to the i-j side of the quadrilateral. The gradient in

the R.H.S. is evaluated on each cell using the Gauss theorem:

where Si are the outer normals and S the surface of the quadrilateral, Fig. 39; the sum-

mation is extended over the four sides of the cello Substituting expres sion (5.4) in (5.3) we

obtain the following formula for the fluctuation:

1

~ = 2Sm I Vu I [(m nd(m. r12) + (m n2)(m rH) + (m n3)(m. r23)+

(m n4)(m. r43)] (5.5)

where the product m I Vu I represents the residual to split among the vertices of the

I

quadrilateral according to the fourl coefficient in the sum in eq. 5.5. For example the

quantity

This scheme has been used for Euler equations: the global residual on each cell has

been split in six contributions each due to one particular simple wave; then the splitting

of these residual towards the vertices of the quadrilateral follows the procedure described

before.

A shear flow test case has been solved with this scheme: the solution is shown in

figure 40. Model C has been used with the same values of Mach number and grid (31 . 31)

we used for triangular cells. The comparison between the two solutions shows an evident

improvement of resolution for this approach in capturing the discontinuities: however, the

solution is not more monotone as could be expected.

Another approach has been considered to solve the Euler equations on a domain

divided in quadrilateral cells. As shown in figure 41, each cell is divided in two triangles

27

considering both the diagonals one can trace in a quadrilateral. Four different triangles

are, in this way, obtained and for each of them the decomposition is applied according

to the triangular fluctuation splitting. Half of the fluctuation due to each of the four

triangles is then split towards the vertices of the original quadrilateral to update in those

points the solution. In this way we still have a conservative algorithm because the sum

of the fluctuation of two triangles (which compose the quadrilateral) gives the fluctuation

calculated on the quadrilateral.

This approach has been tested on the shear flow and the oblique shock reflectionj

decomposition model C has been used.

Results are respectively shown in figures 42 and 43. The cuts put in evidence that

the solution is monotone everywhere and the discontinuities are captured slightly better

for the shear flow than using the fi.rst approach with triangular cells.

We have to remark, however, that this method is two times more expensive than the

first from the point of view of the CPU time (the grids used are the same showed before).

I

We describe in this section a new monotone scheme to split the fluctuation on quadri-

lateral cells for the 2-D scalar advection equation

Ut +a Vu = 0

(5.6)

where the ni are the scaled inward normals to the edges of the cell (Fig.44). Let us consider

the case with two inflow sides (Fig. 44). In order to have a positive scheme the global

fluctuation is splitted into three parts and the updating will be made in the following way:

(5.7)

28

(5.8)

(5.9)

and it is easy to verify that the coefficients of the unknowns in eqs. (5.7), (5.8), (5.9)

are positive for 6.t small enough.

In the case with one inflow side (Fig. 45) only the two vertices downwind with respect

to the advection speed will be updated: the fluctuation will be splitted into two part.s

between the nodes 1 and 4, being

The extension of this scheme to the Euler system follows the same criteria we have seen

for the finite volume scheme, but, also in t.his case, we willioose monotonicity introducing

the gradient calculated on the cell (see section 5.5.1).

29

References

1. ROE, P. L.: Discrete models for the numerical analysis of the time dependent multidi-

mensional gas dynamics. J. Computational Physics, Vol. 63, 1986, pp 458-476.

Technology, CoA Report No 8720, 1987.

3. DECONINCK, H.; STRUIJS, R.; ROE, P. L.: Fluctuation splitting for multidimen-

sional convection problems: an alternative to finite volume and finite element

methods. in VKI LS 1990-03 "Computational Fluid Dynamics".

4. ROE, P. L.: A basis for upwind differencing of the two dimensional unsteady Euler

equations. Cranfield Institute of Technology.

ods for the multidimensional Euler equations. Lecture Notes in Physics Vol. 264

"10th Int. Conf. on Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics" , 1986, pp 216-221.

schemes for the compressible flow equations. von Karman Institute, Internal

Note, 1989. (unpublished)

7. DECONINCK, H.: A survey of upwind principles for the multidimensional Euler equa-

tions. in von Karman Institute LS 1987-04 "Computational Fluid Dynamics".

8. POWELL, K. G. & van LEER, B.: A genuinely multidimensional upwind cell vertex

scheme for the Euler equations. NASA TM 102029, 1989.

30

FIc.. 1 - HJFLUENCE OF THE GRID ON THE NUMERICAL METHOD

Waves for discrete model A Waves for discrete model B model C

, y{Dt y{Dt Waves for discrete

xJDt x/Dt

x/Dt

FIG. 2 - WAVE FRONTS FOR MODEL A FIG. 3 - WAVE FRONTS FOR MODEL B FIG. 4 - WAVE FRONTS FOR MODEL C

2 2

3 3

1 1

1 2

3

6

3

1

4 IN THREE EQUAl PARTS

2

2

3

m

1

FIG. 9 - CONTRIBUTIONS FOR UPDATING 1

FIG. 13 - ROE MONOTONE SCHEME

FIG. 11 - ONE INFLOW SIDE

2.

2

3 m ........

~

3

1

1

FIG. 10 - FLUCTUATION. SPlITTING FIG. 12 - TWO INFLOW SIDES FIG. 14 - lOW DIFFUSION SCHEME

, , , , , , , , , 1 1 1

1'\ V 1'\ V l"'- V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ IL i"'- IL' 1'\ V "\V i"\V I"'- VI'\ Vi"'- ~~ IL' ~~

V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V l"'- V 1"\ V I"- VI'\ V'\ V 1"\V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\V 1"\ V"'-

1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1"- V I"-V "'\V I"-V 1"- VI"- V 1"'- l,I'l", l-(. ""'oL

V 1'\ V I'\. V i'\. V I'\. V I'\.V 1"- V I'\. V 1'\ V'\. VI'\. V I'\. V 1'\ V I"-V I'\. V '\.

1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ IL i"'- IL ;"-/ '\/ '\lt'" I", /1"- V~ /~ / l':- IL

V 1'\ V 1'\ V "\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V l'\ lt'" l'\ L'\. V "\/ IL' l'\/ 1'\/ ~IL' ~ IL l':-

o

'"

"\ V "\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V '\./ 1'\ V '\.V 1'\ /1'\ V",- Li"'- IL I"'- IL

V ,'\ V '\. V I'\. V I'\. V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V '\V 1'\ V I'\. V '\.V !'\ .{ '\1,1' L\ l,I' l"-

'\. / '\ V '\. V '\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V "\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V !'\. V "\/ '\V '\. V 1'\ V

V '\ V '\ V I'\. V I'\. V 1'\ V 1"- V 1"- V 1'\ V I'\. V '\. V 1'\ V !'\V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\

1'\ V I'\. V "'\ V '\ V I'\. V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1"- V !"- V 1'\ V 1'\ V [../ 1"'\ V

V 1'\ V I'\. V I'\. V 1'\ V "\ V I'\. V '\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\

1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1"'- V '\ V I'\. V !'\. '/ '\ V '\. V I'\. V I'\. V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V

."

lt'" ~ V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. IV 1"'- 1/ 1"'\ V 1"'- V "'- IL l':- IL I"'- IL i"'- IL I'\. V I'\. V 1"- V 1'\

["-. V 1'\ V l'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ IL ~ IL ~ IL I"'- IL ~ ~ l':- ~ I"'- ~ !'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V

o V 1'\ V 1"\ IL' 1'\ V l"- V I'\. V ~ / I"'- IL I"'- IL I"'- IL i"'- IL ~ / 1'\ V '\. V 1"- V 1'\

1'\ V 1'\ V I'\, V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ IL ~ IL I"'- IL I"'- IL ~ / i"'- IL ~ lL l':- IL i"'- IL l"'- IL

V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V l"- V 1'\ V ~ / l"'- V I"'- IL I"'- IL ~ IL D, / "'- IL ~ ~ ~ IL l':-

1'\ V 1'\ V l"'- V 1'\ V l"'- V 1'\ IL ['-. V' l"'- V l"'- V' I"'- / I"'- IL' ['-. lI" l':- IL i"'- IL I"'- IL

V 1'\ V I'\.V 1'\ V l'\ L' I'\,V ~ ~ I"'- IL I"'- ~ I"'- ~ ~ L "'- IL ~ / ~ IL l"'-

"" "'"

1'\ V 1'\ V ['\ V 1'\ V 1'\V 1'\ IL 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ 1I l':- IL i"'- IL l"'- IL

V 1'\ V ['\ V 1'\ V ['\ V ['\ V I", / l"'- V 1'\ V ~ V l"- V l"- IL' '\ IL IL ~ ~ l"'-

"" "'"""

1'\ V 1'\ V ['\ V 1'\ V 1'\V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V ['\ 1/ IL IL I"'- IL

V f'. 1/ ['\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1"-V 1"- V 1'\

['\ V 1'\ V ['\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1"'- V 1"'- V [,,- IL

V f'. 1/ 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ 1/ 1'\ 1/ 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1"- V 1'\ V 1'\ IL l"- IL L\ l,I' l"-

['\ 1/ 1'\ 1/ ['\ V 1'\ 1/ 1'\ 1/ 1'\ V ['\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V I" V I" V I" V 1'\ V

V 1'\ 1/ 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V I" V 1"- V 1'\ V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V I" V 1"- V 1"-

['\ 1/ 1'\ 1/ l"'- V I'\. V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1"- V 1"- V I'\. V 1"- V 1"- V 1"- V 1"- [../ 1"- V 1"- l,I'

o

o V 1'\ V 1'\ V ['\ V 1'\ V 1'\ V 1"- V 1"- V 1"- V 1'\ V I'\. V 1'\ V 1"- V I" V 1"'\V 1"- 8

o

0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00

/

10101 p......, (.t., .I.S) AMD

SHEAR 22 . 5 AMO

~ .. SHEAR 22 . 5 AHO

4.8 4 .8

4 .6 4.6

.

':

4 .4

.

4 .4

. ,2 >(

)C

4 .2

a:

i

l!! 4 . 11 !... 4 .

...oe

% %

oe

" 3 .8 " 3.8

3 .6 3 .6

3 .' 3 .4

3.2

1 .0 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8

Y COOROINATE Y COORDtNATE

macis umba (o\cp 0.1) BMD

10101 p..... re (.Iep .10-8) BMD

5 .e

4 .8 4.8

4 .6

4.4

'"CD

....

X

4.2

i

:r:

~ 4 .e

z:

3 .8

3 .6

3 .4

.4 .5 .6 .7 .8

y eOORDINATE y eOORD ( NA TE

moela ........ (.Iep 0.1) CND ""al p..,...,. (olep .1.S) CMD

4 .8

4 .6 4 .6

4.4 4.4

on

,::

Cl:

.2

.

" 4.2

lI!

~ 4.'

~I:

i..a 4 .8

I:

3.8 3.8

3 .6 3.6

3.4

Y CooADINATE Y CooRD I NA TE

SHEAR 22 . 5 AND

1see

1eee

b5ee

beee

on

55ee

!

w

cr: 5eee

a ~

'"cr:w

0.. 45ee

u

0-

4eee

'"

0-

U>

35ee

3eee

SHEAR FLOW 122 . 5 DEG. J x-e .s

75ee

25ee 78ee

2999

9 .1 .2 .3 . .5 .b .7 .8 .q

Y COOROINATE

1 .9 &518

&8.e

MODEL A

55.9

5 5eee

U>

'"

w

cr:

0..

u 4588

;:

~ .eee

SHEAR 22 . 5 eND

75ee 35ee

1ees

3eee

b5ee 25ee

..

~

beee

5599

2eee

e .1 .2 .3 .. .5 .b .7 .8 .q 1

Y COOROI"AT E

.

><

w

cr: 5ese

::>

U>

MODEL B

U>

W

cr: 45ee

0..

~

~ .eee

'"

35ee

3eee

25es

2eee

9 .1 .2 .3 .. .5 .b .7 .8 .q 1.e

Y caORO I HA TE

MODEL C

FIG. 19 - STATIC PRESSURE FOR SHEAR FLOW

In

!:!2o

t"'-

o

o o

o

o

o

In

o

.

In

N

o

o

o

O~~~~ __~__L-~~~~_ _~~_ _~~_ _- L_ _~~_ _~~_ _~~_ _~~~O

.

O. 00 00 25 O. 50 00 75 1. 00

WAVE DE COMPOSITION ( MO~EL B ) FIRST ORDER

4. 4

.5 .b .7

mach number

ISOMACH LINES

ROE

~~~~

.1--'--:'2.2 .3 .4

FIG. 21 - COMPARISON

WITH RO~E~W~E~ VOLUME

. . . MODEL

FIRST BAND

ORDER FIN ITE

WAVE DECOMPOsITION ( MODEL B ) FIRST ORDER

_.6

-.

1.. 2

.. ...

~

3 .8

3.6

3.'

3.2

.1 .2 .3 . .5 .6 .7 .1 .9 1.'

r COOllOI .... n

mach number

ISO MACH LINEs

~ ..

_ .8

.6

.'

' .2

.1

3 .8

3 .6

3._

.1 .2 .3

.' .~ .6 .7 .9 .9 l .t

WITH ROE F.D.S. SECOND ORDE~

DISCONTINUTY ALIGNED WITH THE GRID

J.2

3.1

2.1

2.6

c----c----c----c---

. -c 2. '

____ C----C----C----C----t

C - - - - C - - - - C - - - - C - -_ _ C_ _ _ _ C

<::::----t--

C-C_ :

: - - c - _- C - C 2.2

C

-C----C

l[ caordinate l[ coordinate

ISOMACH LINES MACH (X=l)

.e

'.6

...

' .2

' .1

J.I

J .&

J .'

3 . 2, .1 .2 .l ,4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 L'

X coordin ..te

ISOMACH LlNES MACH (X =l)

FIG. 23 - RESULTS FROM CLASSICAL FIRST ORDER ROE F.D.S. FINITE VOLUME

0.0 O.S 1.0 1.5 Z.O Z.S '.0 '.1 0

'"cl ..

cl

C>

cl

...cl

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Z.O Z.S '.0 S.S 0

FIG. 24 - GRID FOR THE OBLIQUE SHOCK TEST CASE 61-21 NODES

Maeh number (step 0.05)

Mach number (step 0.05)

Maeh number (step 0.05)

oaSH 29 ARH

.0' r-------~--------

0'

.r'

.cr<

.cr<

.cr<

x COORDINATE

3 . 111 3 .0

2.'1 ,~ 2 . '1

."

2.9 2.9

2 .7 2 .7

2.6 2.6

! a:

lol

2 .5 al 2 .5

i

%

u

2 .

~

%

u

c

2. 4

c "

'" 2.3 2.3

2 .2 2 ,2

2 .1 2.1

2 .' 2 , 111

1 . '1 1.'1

111 ,5 1.0 1.5 2 . 111 2 ,5 3.111 3 ,5 4 ,0 4 .5 111 ,5 1.111 1.5 2 ,' 2.5 3 . 111 3,5 4 ,0 4. 5

X COORD I NA TE X COOADINATE

OBSH 29 BRH

10' . 65

.61

,0'

.55

. 511

....e;; . 45

z

~ .411

. 35

'0"'

. J9

'0" . 25

. 29 2 .5 J.I 3 .5 4 . 11 4.5

9 .5 1.8 1.5 2 .11

X COOADIH~TE

'000 ,"'"

"'"

J . II

J.I

2.q

~ 2 .9

2 .8

2 .8

2.7

2.7

~

2.6

!

2 .6

.

'l'

a: 2 . 5

a: 2 . 5 w

CD

\ol zo

CD

i 2.4

"

z 2.4

X ~

u u

c c

z zo 2 . 3

2 .J

2 .2

2.2

2.1

2.1

2 .9

2.9

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