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UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION

Report Assignment 4

GROUP 14

GROUP PERSONNEL :
AGUS AMANDA TANOYO (1206254113)
CLAUDIA HARFIAN (1206239876)
DENA PRESTIA HALLATU (1206202141)
ERICCO JANITRA (1206249845)
ERWIN FIRMANSYAH (1206202053)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
DEPOK
NOVEMBER 2015
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

All plants, including cellulosic ethanol production plant must have an


Health, Safety, and Environemnt (HSE) analysis to support the production
process. First, there must be some commitment between the workers and the
management about health, safety, and environment about the rules of production
process following the Government Regulations. This commitment is incuding the
workers behaviour and management rules.
For supporting HSE, we need to analyze based on HAZID, and HAZOP.
For MSDS we have some raw materials and products. The most dangerous
material that we have based on MSDS is ethanol because it can lead to a fire
explosion.
To support our safety, we provide the personal protection equipment and
the emergency equipment such as fire extinguisher and hydrant. We also provide
the evacuation route and the assembly or meeting point in case of emergency.
The waste of our production is grouped in four types (solid, liquid, gas,
and noise). The solid waste are char and ash.. The liquid waste is from the
cleaning wash water and the household domestic water .e is high contain of BOD
and COD that will be treated is waste water treatment plant. The gas waste of our
plant is carbon dioxide gas which totally save to be put out in environment. The
sound (noise) waste is to be handled with safety range and the ear plug.
In this assignment we also make a plant lay out based on the HSE Analysis
and the battery limit for safety equipment. Our plant layout is divided into several
areas, which is production areautility area, waste treatment area, and supporting
area. Our plant will be built in 3 hectares land construction. The plant layout is
made in the 2D and 3D.

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LIST OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................... ii


LIST OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................... iii
LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................ iv
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................. v
CHAPTER 1 HSE MANAGEMENT ..................................................................... 1
1.1 HSE Aspect .............................................................................................. 1
1.1.1 HAZID .............................................................................................. 1
1.1.2 HAZOP ........................................................................................... 11
1.2 HSE Management ................................................................................... 34
1.2.1 Operational Details.......................................................................... 34
1.2.2 PPE .................................................................................................. 40
1.3 MSDS Main Materials............................................................................ 45
1.4 Emergency Action Plant ......................................................................... 47
1.4.1 Emergency Operating Procedures or Training................................ 47
1.4.2 Medical Emergency ........................................................................ 49
1.4.3 Emergency Escape Procedures ....................................................... 50
1.4.4 Fire Fighting .................................................................................... 50
1.4.5 Evacuation Route ............................................................................ 53
1.5 Waste Management ................................................................................ 53
1.5.1 Solid Waste ..................................................................................... 54
1.5.2 Liquid Waste ................................................................................... 54
1.5.3 Gas Waste........................................................................................ 55
1.5.4 Sound Pollution ............................................................................... 56
CHAPTER 2 PLANT LAYOUT .......................................................................... 58
2.1 Plant Location......................................................................................... 58
2.2 Area Plant Layout ................................................................................... 60
2.2.1 Total Factory Layout ....................................................................... 62
2.2.2 Process Layout ................................................................................ 64
2.3 Equipment Plant Layout ......................................................................... 65
2.3.1 2D Picture........................................................................................ 65
2.3.2 3D Picture........................................................................................ 66
2.4 Utilities ................................................................................................... 67
APPENDIX ........................................................................................................... 70

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) ................................................ 40


Figure 1.2 NPFA rating explanation ..................................................................... 46
Figure 1.3 Audible alarms (a) horn (b) sirine ....................................................... 49
Figure 1.4 Visible alarm (a) lightning (b) strobe light .......................................... 49
Figure 1.5 Fire extinguisher typ A ........................................................................ 51
Figure 1.6 Fire extinguisher type B....................................................................... 51
Figure 1.7 Fire hydrant .......................................................................................... 52
Figure 1.8 Safety shower....................................................................................... 52
Figure 1.9 Evacuation route map .......................................................................... 53
Figure 1.10 Anaerobic filter reactor ...................................................................... 55
Figure 2.1 Total factory layout.............................................................................. 63
Figure 2.2 Process layout ...................................................................................... 64
Figure 2.3 Equipments layout ............................................................................... 65
Figure 2.4 Equipments layout 3D ......................................................................... 66

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 HAZID parameters in considering hazard effect .................................... 1


Table 1.2 HAZID Parameters in hazard frequency................................................. 2
Table 1.3 Hazard identification ............................................................................... 3
Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis ................................................................................... 13
Table 1.5 Permissbile noise exposure ................................................................... 56

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CHAPTER 1
HSE MANAGEMENT

1.1 HSE Aspect


There are two aspects of health, safety, and environment that we describe
in our plant, which are HAZID (Hazard Identification) and HAZOP (Hazard and
Operability Study).

1.1.1 HAZID
Hazard Identification or commonly known as HAZID is an analysis of
hazard to prevent any of risk on industrial installation by observing some aspects.
In analyzing hazard identification aspect in industrial are information data,
location, risk, trigger factor of danger and hazard potential. Information data that
we needs are process flow diagram (PFD), piping and instrumentation diagram
(P&ID), equipment and building layout and record of events. Location analysis
includes operating facilities and supporting facilities. Trigger factor of danger
includes operation process, transportation, geography, meteorology and social
cultural. Hazard potential likes huge fire and explosion, drown and environmental
contaminant. For the risk analysis are consider from human resources,
environment and asset.
Identification of hazard in ethanol plant covers some aspects such as
environment, assets, and human resources. For this hazard identification we create
a reference parameter first and analyzing the impact of any risks and hazards.

Table 1.1 HAZID parameters in considering hazard effect


Parameter Minor Major Severe
HumanResource No injury Mediuminjury Fatal injury
Lossesaround
Lossesunder Lossesover USD
Assets USD100,000
USD100,000 1,000,000
-1,000,000
Noenvironmen Smallenvironmen Massiveenvironm
Environment
tal damage tal damage ental damage
(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

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Besides the parameter considering hazard effect, we also create a


parameter in hazard frequency or level hazard possibility

Table 1.2 HAZID Parameters in hazard frequency


Parameter Unlikely Likely Most
Onceor not More than
1-10
HazardFrequency atall in 10 10timesin 10
timesin10years
years years
(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

From those criteria, we can determine the hazard identification in our plan which
is tabulated in Table 1.3 below:

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Storage the
Biomass Controlling the level of
1 biomass as the Leakage Over capacity Minor Likely
Storage biomass in equipment
raw material
Installing
Unit for Short current Unstable
Minor Unlikely automaticshut down
Belt transporting the electrical electrical
2 circuitboard
Conveyor biomass to the
Biomass fall Thebeltrate istoo Controlling the rate of
crusher Minor Likely
down brought fast belt and biomass
Organize the biomass
Crusher damage Over capacity Severe Unlikely
entering crusher
Unit for biomass Surfacing tools that
3 Crusher
size reduction Load operation generate noise with a
Noise pollution Minor Most
noise silencer, and oblige the
use of earplug
Unit for
Installing
Screw transport the Short current Unstable
4 Minor Unlikely automaticshut down
Conveyor biomass before electrical electrical
circuitboard
enter the drier
Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_1)

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Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard


No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Biomass fall
Controlling rate of
down brought Thescrew rate
Minor Likely screw and biomass
by belt istoo fast
loaded
conveyor
Unit for drying
Regular checking and
the biomass to High High
temperature control
5 Rotary Drier meet the % temperature temperature Major Likely
provision and place the
moisture operation operation
reactor inside
specification
Unit for
Design equipment
exchangeheat Material Leakage of
Heat appropriatewith fluid
6 and increaseof condition equipment and Major Unlikely
Exchanger propertiesand check
energy (Corrosion) fouling
fouling periodically
efficiency.

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_2)


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
The chamber of
biomass Operating
Gasification combustion to Fire and/or temperature Installingand monitoring
7
Reactor produce energy explosion and/or pressure Severe Unlikely Pressure and
for steam is too high temperature control
generation
Unit for separate Cyclone will not
Installing flow control
the solid Fluids overflow work optimally
8 Cyclone Minor Unlikely and scheduling
material from in the cyclone and not
maintenance
gas separated
Provide heat and Operating Installing and
Char energy for Fire and/or temperature monitoring
9 Severe Unlikely
Combustor gasification explosion and/or pressure temperatureand pressure
process is too high control
Design equipment
Material Leakageof
Unit for cool the appropriatewith fluid
10 Cooler condition equipment and Major Unlikely
fluid process. propertiesand check
(Corrosion) fouling
fouling periodically

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_3)


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Unit for improve Regular checking and
High
WGS CO and H2 ratio High temperature temperature control
11 temperature Major Likely
Reactor by water gas operation provision and place the
operation
shift reaction reactor inside
Regular checking and
Fire and/or High pressure temperature control
Major Likely
CO2 Unit for separate explosion operation provision and place the
12 Removal the CO2 for the reactor inside
Absorber main stream Material
Equipment is Usingcorrosion
specification Major Likely
corroded inhibitorin equipment
damage
Regular checking and
High
Fire and/or temperature control
temperature Major Likely
CO2 Unit explosion provision and place the
operation
13 Removal forregenerate the reactor inside
Regenerator solvent used Material
Equipment is Usingcorrosion
specification Major Likely
corroded inhibitorin equipment
damage

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_4)


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Pressure control Using pump which
Unit for
isnot appropriates with fluid
14 Pump increasing Hot and fire Major Likely
runningwell, properties, installing
pressureof fluid
high cavitation flow control
Unit for
Operating
condensing Installing and
Fire and/or temperature
15 Condenser ethanol in monitoring pressure and
explosion and/or pressure Severe Unlikely
distillation temperature control
is too high
column
Unit for boiling Operating
Installing and
ethanolin Fire and/or temperature
16 Reboiler monitoring pressure and
distillation explosion and/or pressure Severe Unlikely
temperature control
column is too high
Surfacing tools that
Unit for gas Load operation generate noise with a
17 Compressor Noise pollution Minor Most
flowing noise silencer, and oblige the
use of earplug

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_5)


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Convert the
Regular checking and
syngas into High
Catalytic Fire and/or temperature control
18 ethanol by temperature Major Likely
Reactor explosion provision and place the
mixed alcohol operation
reactor inside
synthesis
Unit for expand
Regular checking and
the gas before High
Fire and/or temperature control
19 Turbine Gas entering the temperature Major Likely
explosion provision and place
distillation operation
inside
column
Unit for change Breaking the To much liquid Installing and
20 Flash Drum the phase from material and not in feed enter the Minor Likely controlling the flow of
gas into a liquid optimally work flash drum feed

Operating
Separation of Installingand monitoring
Distillation Fire and/or temperature
21 ethanol-water Severe Unlikely Pressure and
Column explosion and/or pressuree
(Purification temperature control
is too high
Ethanol)

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_6)


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Unit for reflux
Flow of
Reflux liquid in Flooding of Flow control and
22 operation is too Severe Unlikely
Drum distillation product monitoring
high
column
Unit storage for
Flow of
Ethanol the ethanol Flooding of Flow control and
23 operation is too Severe Unlikely
Storage before product monitoring
high
distributing
Routine inspections
High Pressure
Blowout and and controller
and High
high thermal Major Likely instrumentation for
Temperature in
exposure temperature and
Steam Unit for Process
24 pressure
Utility Unit produce steam
Noise pollution Noise due to Surfacing tools that
that can damage operation unit generate noise with a
Major Likely
the hearing of to produce silencer, and oblige the
workers steam use of earplug

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_7)


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Overflow from Low
Cold Utility Unit for provide cold utility temperature and Control the output
25 Major Likely
Unit cooling water which release to high capacity of temperature
the environment cooling water
Unit Protect the piping
Piping Damage and Corrosion and
26 distributing Major Minor network and control
Network leakage of pipe failure
fluid in process periodically
The contain of
Area for Over capacity
Waste the pool will Minor Minor Level Control System
treating the of pool
27 Treatment spill
waste in plant
Area Environmental
process Leakage of pool Minor Major Checking periodically
Pollution
Improve training and
Someone slip Minor Likely
move carefully
Laboratory Quality control Spill chemical
28 Do not bring any fire
Area assesment substances
Flame Severe Unlikely source and provide
some fire exthinguisher

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Table 1.3 Hazard identification (contd_8)


Unit Hazard Hazard Hazard
No Description Causes Prevention
Operation Potential Effect Frequency
Provide training to the
operator about the
Area for control Errors in
Control System will be working procedure and
29 operation in the operating Major Unlikely
Room shut down oblige supervisors to
plant procedures
perform daily briefing
before work
(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

1.1.2 HAZOP
Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) is a systematic approach to investigating each element of a process. It have function
to identify all of the ways in which parameters can deviate from the intended design conditions and create hazards or operability
problem. HAZOP is also used for identify and evaluate problems that may pose a danger to the individual employees, equipment
operation, or efficiency of the process operation. The goals after doing HAZOP are:
1. Identify safety, hazard and operational problems that related with process which are immediately threatens workers
safety/operation.
2. Determine the severity of identified problem effect.
3. Identify and evaluate the engineering and procedural safeguards.
4. Recommend additional engineering and procedural safeguards if it is needed.

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HAZOP is a study that typically involves the piping and instrument


diagrams (P&ID) or a plant model as a guide for examining every section and
component of a process. A HAZOP team consists of the experienced people and
comes from multi disciplines. The main HAZOP procedures are (Peter and
Timmerhaus, 1991) :
1. Collecting all process lineation for each process in the plant.
2. Process breakdown into little and more detail sub-process. To clarify the
breakdown of sub-process is given nodes in upper-ends of each sub-
process. Theres no particular rule about limiting the distance of process.
3. Searching all possibilities of deviation in each process through uses of
systematic questions (HAZOP model for question is made by using
keywords, intended to make the analysis process easier).
4. Scoring for each negative effects that is caused by every deviation
mentioned before. The criterion of harmful degrees for those negative
effects is determined by safety and efficiencies operational condition of
the plant in normal condition.
5. Determination of overcome action to every deviations happened.
Emphazing question systematic in HAZOP procedure aparently in the using two
groups of keywords, those are :
Primary keywords
All words that related to condition/parameter of a process, for example :
flow, pressure, temperature, viscosity, corrosion, erosion, level, density,
relief, composition, addition, and reaction.
Secondary keywords
All words when it is merged with primary keywords will show probability
of deviation that could be happened, for example : no, more, less, reverse,
and as well as.
The HAZOP analysis for cellulosic ethanol production is attached in Table 1.4
below.

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Back up
Schedulling
The rice Production raw
Biomass the raw
1 TT-101 Level Lower straw supply does not run material
warehouse material
is too small well must be
supply
ready
Damage to Canopy
adjecent over
Provide a
Spillage equipment conveyor
cover around
None from Scrappers
the slinger
conveyors prevent
Clean up conveyor to
C-101 return
2 Belt conveyor Flow prevent any
C-102 below belt
split soil
Spill to the
Front end damaging
building floor Flow
loader adjacent other
More of or damage to control
overfills equipment
other (FC)
Crusher
equipment

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_1)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Control the
Supply raw regular basis on
material is too a screen in the
much feed belt
conveyor
Supply is not
appropriate
Less power
portion Increasing the
Less of to move the
The production power
belt
capacity will
be decrease
Particle size is
not enough Decreasing a
Flow
Rotation Wrong set homogenous new set point
3 Hammer mills SR-101 More of Control
Speed point Stock of and controlled
(FC)
material will be periodically
used faster

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_2)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Provide
Low driving Need more
additional
Less of power time to crush
electrical
source the rice straws
power
Long time
drying
Low hot air
Lower Moisture Checking and Temperatur
temperature
4 Rotary dryer DE-101 Temperature content still repair hot air e control
high heat exchanger (TC)
High hot air Material
Higher
temperature damage
Decrease hot
Hot fluid
fluid flow to
flowrate is
E-101, E- Heat transfer heat the Flow
Temperature too much
5 Heat Exchanger 202, E-203, Higher may not reboiler control
E-402 Cold effectively Increase cold (FC)
flowrate is fluid flow to
too low the reboiler

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_3)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Decrease hot
Hot fluid
fluid flow to
flowrate is
heat the
too much
reboiler
Lower
Increase cold
Cold fluid
fluid flow to
flowrate is
heat the
too low
reboiler
Valve opens Check flow
More of Final
too wide control and Pressure
temperature
Flow maintain the control
Valve opens will not be
Less of controller (PC)
too small archieved
periodically
Low supply Check flow
Less of
steam flow Failure control and Flow
Gasification
6 R-101 Flow gasification maintain the control
reactor High supply
More of process controller (FC)
steam flow
periodically

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_4)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
High gas Check
Lower flow leave pressure
Pressure
the gasifier control and
Pressure control
Low gas maintain the
(PC)
Higher flow leave Explosion controller
the gasifier periodically
Residence Impurities will Analysis
Install filter at
Impurities Higher time is to disturbing the control
cyclone outlet
short process (AC)
FG-101, Input
Separation
7 Cyclone FG-102, doesnt Install
Less of takes longer Flow
FG-103 match with controller that
Flow time control
the spec can control
(FC)
Overload input capacity
More of Overloading
input

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_5)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Improper set
Calculate the
point of the Will be harm
set point
feed input if the exhaust Flow
accurately and
Flow More of flowrate gas release to control
clean the
from the (FC)
equipment
gasifier environment
periodically
cyclone
Will harm the
8 Char combustor R-102
Higher worker
surrounding
Improper
The heat of Install the Temperatu
furnace
Temperature combustion temperature re control
setting
isnt enough to controller (TC)
Lower temperature
the
gasification
reactions

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_6)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
The
compressor
Lack of requires more Increase the
Higher cooling power which is cooling water
water resulted to flow with valve Temperatur
more energies e control
Temperature
used (TC)
E-201, E- The product of
301, E-302, Cooling cooler will be Reduce the
9 Cooler
E-303, E- Lower water flow is out of cooling water
304 too high specification flow with valve
required
Input flow is
Pressure
too high or
release by Pressure
temperature Cooler will be
Pressure Higher opening the control
is much damaged
pressure (PC)
higher than
control valve
the set

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_7)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Pressure
Close the
drop on The reaction
pressure
piping will not run
Lower control valve
before feed optimally even
so the pressure
enter the it could stop
will increase
cooler
The reaction
Pressure
does not go
drop in pipe
well since the
Lower before enter
optimum
WGS Pressure
condition is Pressure
reactor controling by
10 WGS reactor R-201 Pressure not maintained control
install the
Pressure (PC)
Explosion safety valve
drop in pipe
possibility due
Higher after enter
to excess
WGS
pressure
reactor

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_8)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Reduce the gas
Too much Absorber will flow with valve
Higher
CO2 gas explode or increase the Temperatur
Temperature water flow e control
The reaction (TC)
Lack of CO2 Increase the
Lower will not run
gas gas with valve
automatically
Pressure
Input flow is
CO2 removal release by
11 T-201 too high or Absorber will
absorber Higher opening the
temperature explode
pressure
is too high
control valve Pressure
Pressure Pressure control
Close the
drop on (PC)
The absorption pressure
piping
Lower will not run control valve
before feed
optimally so the pressure
enter the
will increase
absorber

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_9)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Input flow is Flooding, Closing the
too high, output inlet feed valve
Higher whether the composition so the inlet feed
output is too will not reach flow will
Level
low to desired point decrease
Level control
Output flow Brief retention Opening the
(LC)
is too high, time so the inlet feed valve
Lower whether the reaction will so the inlet feed
input is too not run flow will
low optimally increase
Amine storage
Input flow is Close the inlet
tank will
too high feed valve so Level
explode and
12 Amine storage TT-201 Level Higher whether the the inlet feed control
the amine
output is too flow will (LC)
could not be
low decrease
stored properly

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_10)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Feed
Lower flowrate is Weeping
Level
too low Install the
Level control
Feed flow level controller
(LC)
Higher rate is too Flooding
CO2 removal high
13 T-202
regenerator Steam Equilibrium
Lower flowrate is phase doesnt
Install the Temperatu
too small happen
Temperature temperature re control
Steam
Amine will be controller (TC)
Higher flowrate is
decomposited
too high
Pumpis not High input Controlling
More of Flow
E-204, E- running temperature flow before
14 Condenser Flow control
502 based on Low input come into
Less of (FC)
required temperature condenser

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_11)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Cooling
water
High input
Higher temperature
temperature
is not too
low Controlling the Temperatur
Temperature Low input temperature e Control
temparature periodically (TC)
Water input
Increase work
Lower temperature
in reboiler to
is too high
distillate the
feed
Inlet liquid
supposes to
Steam vaporize. So it Decrease steam Temperatur
E-205, E-
15 Reboiler Temperature Higher flowrate is makes another flow to heat the e control
501
too high component join reboiler (TC)
into top
product flow

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_12)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Inlet liquid
supposes to
vaporize. So it Increase inlet
Feed inlet is
makes another flow to heat the
too low
component join reboiler
into top
product flow
Decrease steam
Steam flow
flow to heat the
rate is to low Reboiler is not
reboiler
Lower enough to heat
Increase inlet
Feed inlet is the inlet flow
flow to heat the
too high
reboiler
Check flow
Increase steam
control and Flow
Valve opens flowrate and
Flow More of maintain the control
too wide steam
controller (FC)
temperature
periodically

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_13)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Decrease steam
Valve opens flowrate and
Less of
too small steam
temperature
The
The gas Install the Temperatur
condenser
Temperature Higher doesnt temperature e control
doesnt work
V-201, D- condense controller (TC)
16 Reflux drum properly
501
Flow
Flow Low Install the flow
Flow More of control
disturbance production controller
(FC)
Inlet flow is Decrease flow
More of too high Overpressure into
K-301, K- Flow
4 Stages Failure in compressor
17 302, K-303, Flow Control
Compressor control Increase flow
K-304 Compressor (FC)
Less of system of into
will be broken
compressor compressor

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_14)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Inlet flow is
too low
Suction Switch into
Compressor
Higher pressure is secondary
will be broken
too high pump
Reverse flow Pressure
Pressure occur control
Suction Control
Compressor (PC)
Lower pressure is pressure
cant distribute
too low periodically
the gas to the
next process
Lack of Increase the
Reactor will
Higher cooling cooling water
explode
water flow with open Temperatur
18 Catalytic reactor R-401 Temperature Reduce the e control
Cooling The reaction
cooling water (TC)
Lower water flow is will not run
flow with close
too high optimally
the valve

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_15)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Input flow Pressure
is too high released by
Reactor will
Higher or open the
explode
temperature pressure
is too high control valve Pressure
Pressure Pressure control
Close the
drop on (LC)
The reaction pressure
piping
Lower will not run control valve
before feed
optimally so the pressure
enter the
will increase
reactor
Feed
Lower flowrate is Pressure
Pressure does Pressure
K-401, K- too small controlling by
19 Expander Pressure not fit with the control
402 Feed install the
specification (PC)
Higher flowrate is safety valve
too high

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_16)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Pressure
Vapour
Flash drum release by
Higher pressure is
will explode opening the
too high Pressure
pressure valve
Pressure control
Separation
Vapour Reduce the (PC)
process will
Lower pressure is pressure on
not run
too low separator
optimally
Flash drum
20 V-401 Ineffective Clsing the inlet
separator
Gas flow is separation feed valve so
Higher
too high process, the inlet flow
flooding will decrease Level
Level Liquid cannot Opening the control
enter the inlet feed valve (LC)
Gas flow is
Lower column due to so the inlet
too low
pressure of flow will
vapour increase

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_17)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Water willalso
transformed
Higher into vapor and
be carried with
the ethanol
The separation
Problem Check the
could not be Temperatu
Distillation with the distillation
21 T-501 Temperature done re control
column distillation colun properly
optimally and (TC)
column and routinely
there will be
Lower
ethanol that is
carried with
water as the
bottom
product

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_18)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Pressure
Input flow is
Distillation release by
too high or
Higher column will opening the
temperature
explode pressure
is too high Pressure
control valve
Pressure control
There is Close the
(PC)
problem The reaction pressure
Lower with the will not run control valve
previous optimally so the pressure
pump will increase
Input flow is Flooding, Close the inlet
too high, output feed valve so
Higher whether the composition the inlet feed
Level
output is too will not reach flow will
Level control
low to desired point decrease
(LC)
Output flow Distillation
Open the inlet
Lower is too high, require higher
feed valve
or so temperature

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_19)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Input flow Pressure
is too high The ethanol release by
Higher or product could opening the
temperature be damaged pressure
Pressure
is too high control valve
Pressure control
Close the
Problem The ethanol (PC)
pressure
with the product
Lower control valve
pump (P- become out of
22 Ethanol storage TT-501 so the pressure
502) spec
will increase
Storage tank
Input flow will explode Close the inlet
is too high and the feed valve so Level
Level Higher whether the ethanol the inlet feed control
output is too product could flow will (LC)
low not be stored decrease
properly

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_20)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Pump Process flow
None
clogged is hampered
Excessive
More of impeller Broken pump Regular
performance maintenance Flow
Flow Processing and control the control
Pump
P-202, P- Less of liquid supply pump (FC)
blockage
203, P-204, hampered periodically
23 Pump P-501, P-
Pump Reverse flow
502, P-503, Reverse
clogged occur
P-504
Suction Decrease the
Pumps quickly
Higher pressure is inlet flow to
broken Pressure
too high pump
Pressure control
Suction Switch into
Cavitation (PC)
Lower pressure is secondary
may occur
too low pump

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Table 1.4 HAZOP analysis (contd_21)


Equipment/ Equipment Possible Action
No Parameter Guideword Consequences Safeguard
Operation Unit Code Causes Required
Reverse flow
occur
Control
Pump cant
pressure
distribute the
periodically
liquid to the
next process
(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

1.2 HSE Management


1.2.1 Operational Details
1.2.1.1 Start Up System
Before we start to run the plant, we must do the commisioning to ensure whether the system is working and ready for the
operation. The commisioning consist of mechanical, utilities and operational test. In the below, we are going to explain about all of
commisioning test :
1. Mechanical completion and integrity checking
This part involves checking that everything has been built there as per specification. The qualified personnels will check all of
electrical systems, instrumentation, and control systems. In this stage also includes inspection, pressure testing, cleaning and
flushing and the last is machinery checkout.

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Pressure testing
The purpose of pressure testing is to confirm that the mechanical
integrity of the plant, verifying capability of containing the pressures it
has been designed to hold, ensure there are no leaks and verify that the
plant can be reliably made leak free, identify any vulnerabilities well
before the plant is placed into service, and to meet the requirements of
legislation, local, international and industry standards.
Water for testing and flushing should contain a rust inhibitor - one
low in chloride content for stainless steel lines. After testing, water
should be drained completely from all lines that do not normally carry
water, steam or steam condensate. All low points should be checked
for presence of water. Lines should be dried by blowing hot air, dry
inert gas or instrument air. On the vacuum system, final checks are
best performed by pulling a vacuum and observing the rate of pressure
rise in the blocked in system. Excessive leaks can then be located by
applying a mild positive pressure and testing each flange with bubble
solution.
Isometric drawings of all systems to be tested should be displayed
on a board and marked up as each section is tested. Hydro testing of
piping and equipment according to code requirements to confirm
mechanical strength should be carried out on groups of equipment
naturally suggested by design pressure and function. All water, steam,
condensate, oil, gas and process steam piping should be hydro tested.
Major equipment that has already been tested as part of manufacturing
may be isolated by blanks.
Cleaning and flushing
Need to ensure no construction debris is left in pipes of vessels -
welding rods, bolts, gloves, rags etc. Before flushing is started, check
the process thoroughly to ensure screens have been installed in front of
pump suctions.
Regardless of whether pipes are cleaned with water, steam, air or
nitrogen, flow velocities should be high enough to ensure that pipes

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will be suitably scoured. Need to ensure that the debris from one piece
of equipment will not simply be flushed into another.
2. Utilities commissioning
Utilities commissioning usually represents the first phase of
commissioning, as these usually need to operational first, before the rest of
the plant can be commissioned. First of all, check supply pressures of all
services (steam, cooling water). At the most distant points, open drains,
vent valves or pipe flanges and purge until fluids come out clean and rust
free. Purge/blow out lines to each piece of equipment. Circulate water to
waste water system until water lines clear and clean. Flush waste water
and drain systems to ensure no blockages. Check operation of steam traps.
Drain condensate to waste water until it is clean.
3. Operational Testing
A period of 2-3 weeks is usually sufficient for operational testing, after the
mechanical dry running of individual pieces of equipment and hot testing
complete. Air and water tests should be set up in a closed loop with fluid
continuously recycled, with loops as large a possible. The loop should
ideally be the same loop that will be subject to solvent testing. Tests
should continue for several days in order to give all shifts a chance to
conduct the same tests. All shifts should be given the opportunity to start
up and shutdown each closed loop test.
4. Start Up Sequence
Following the proper start-up sequence also helps ensure that system
operating parameters conform to design conditions so that productivity
goals can be achieved. Measurement of initial system performance is an
important part of the start-up process. Documented results of this
evaluation serve as benchmarks against which ongoing system operating
performance can be measured.
Typical Start Up Sequence:
a. Check all valves to ensure that settings are correct. The feed pressure
control and concentrate control valves should be fully open.

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b. Use low pressure at a low flow rate to flush the air out of the elements
and pressure vessels. Flush at a gauge pressure of 30 to 60 psi (0.2
0.4 MPa.
c. During the flushing operation, check all pipe connections and valves
for leaks. Tighten connection where necessary.
d. After the system has been flushed for a minimum of 30 minutes, close
the feed pressure control valve.
e. Ensure that the concentrate control valve is open. Starting against a
closed or almost closed concentrate valve should cause the recovery to
be exceeded which may lead to scaling.
f. Slowly crack open the feed pressure control valve (feed pressure
should be less than 60 psi/0.4 MPa).
g. Start the high pressure pump.
h. Slowly open the feed pressure control valve, increasing the feed
pressure and feed flow rate until the design concentrate flow is
reached. The feed pressure increase to the elements should be less than
10 psi (0.07 MPa) per second to achieve a soft start. If the feed
pressure and/or the feed flow rate are ramped up too quickly, the
housing of the elements may be damaged by excessive forces in flow
direction and/or in radial direction - especially if air is in the system -
leading to telescoping and/or fiberglass shell cracking.
i. Slowly close the concentrate control valve until the ratio of concentrate
flow approaches, but does not exceed the design ratio (recovery).
Continue to check the system pressure to ensure that it does not exceed
the upper design limit. Repeat steps until the design concentrate flows
are obtained.
j. Calculate the system recovery and compare it to the system's design
value.
k. Allow the system to run for one hour.
l. Take the first reading of all operating parameters.
m. Check feed conductivity from each pressure vessel to verify that all
vessels conform to performance expectations.

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n. After 24 to 48 hours of operation, review all recorded plant operating


data such as feed pressure, differential pressure, temperature, flows,
recovery and conductivity. At the same time draw samples of feed,
concentrate and result of reaction for analysis of constituents. Compare
system performance to design values.
o. Confirm proper operation of mechanical and instrumental safety
devices. Lock the system into automatic operation.
The normal start-up sequences are typically automated through the use of
programmable controllers and remotely operated valves. The calibrations
of instruments, the function of alarms and safety devices, corrosion
prevention and leak-free operation have to be checked and maintained on
regular basis.

1.2.1.2 Shut Down System


There are two kinds of ethanol plant shut down, i.e. planned shutdown and
emergency or unplanned shutdown. An example of planned shutdown is as
preparation for turnaround or yearly preventive maintenance programs.
Emergency plant shutdown can be triggered by many factors, such like electric
power failure, machinery failure, instrumentation trouble and many more.In both
shutdown cases, there are safety precautions for shutdown activities that need to
be taken into account. Such safety precautions are required to prevent potential
hazards that commonly appear during plant shut down.
1. Release pressure that may be trapped between two closed valves or closed
process equipment loops.
2. During normal operation there may be a leak through steam valve. Insert a
blind plate to stop process heating by steam, otherwise pressure inside will
build up and may create over pressure or over heating condition.
3. Always measure oxygen concentration inside tank or reactor at the safe
level, where a job will be conducted.
4. Flammable gas concentration may zero in tank or column, but beware of
nitrogen hazard, since nitrogen could make oxygen level less than safer
concentration.

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5. Maintain nitrogen blanket for tank containing flammable liquid during


plant shut down. Flammable vapor is still released.
6. When pressure indication just relies on pressure gauge consider error
indication. Seek another one for comparison.
7. Do not just rely on pressure gauge indication to make sure zero pressure.
Open all available drain or vent valves to release the remaining pressure.
Beware of pressure that trapped in a dead zone.
8. Bring any high temperature process to ambient. It is not only saving
energy but also eliminate one hazard source. Except there is a strong
requirement keeping that high temperature.
9. During plant shut down period, it is usually performed many jobs in the
same time. Be careful not to use same hoses or transferring pump to avoid
unintended reaction.
10. There will be much flammable or combustible material spread around the
plant site. Do not dispose used absorbent materials that still contain
flammable liquid into trash bin.
11. Utilization of temporary lines or hoses may increase in shutdown period.
Dispose damaged hoses and only use good hoses with the right
specifications.
12. Several equipments or pipelines are designed to be used only in shutdown
time. Be careful, because some part of the equipments or pipes may have
been corroded and would not be able to hold certain pressure rating.
13. Used drums are usually used during plant shutdown in order to recover
lubrication oils, chemicals or catalysts. Use only used drums that are
originally used for those chemicals or ones that have been washed and
cleaned up.
14. Temporary electric connections are commonly used for driving portable
pumps or exhaust blowers in shutdown time. Put extra care to avoid
electric spark generation because many flammable materials exposures.

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Knowing about those safety precautions, here is the procedure for shutting
down ethanol plant.
1. Stop biomass, water, air and MDEA stream by closing the lid stream
valve.
2. Stop each stream pump of biomass, water, and MDEA.
3. After the raw material stream being stopped, then we stop the heat
exchanger system of water stream through reactor.
4. After we stop the heat exchanger system, then we can stop scrubbing and
CO2 removal.
5. After all raw material reacted in the chamber reactor then the product
stream formed, we can start to stop separation/distillation unit process.
6. Stopping distillation unit process can be done by stopping the tray system
first then the upper and bottom stream include the arrangement to stop
reboiler and condenser temperature.
7. In the process to shut the system down, we have to maintain the change
of temperature to prevent its equipment to be broken or inaccurate.
8. Finally, the last instrument to be turned off are the regeneration and
recycle system of each stream to make sure all the last process is
correctly done. After this, the plant will be completely stopped.

1.2.2 PPE

Figure 1.1 Personal Protective Equipments (PPE)


(Source: www.glogster.com)

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When engineering, work practice and administrative controls are not


feasible or do not provide sufficient protection, employers must provide personal
protective equipment (PPE) to their employees and ensure its use. Personal
protective equipment, commonly referred to as "PPE", is equipment worn to
minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as
gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard
hats, respirators and full body suits.
The requirement for PPE is to ensure the greatest possible protection for
employees in the workplace, the cooperative efforts of both employers and
employees will help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful work
environment. For the employers, they are responsible for:
Performing a "hazard assessment" of the workplace to identify and control
physical and health hazards.
Identifying and providing appropriate PPE for employees.
Training employees in the use and care of the PPE.
Maintaining PPE, including replacing worn or damaged PPE.
Periodically reviewing, updating and evaluating the effectiveness of the
PPE program.
In general, employees should:
Properly wear PPE,
Attend training sessions on PPE,
Care for, clean and maintain PPE, and
Inform a supervisor of the need to repair or replace PPE.
All PPE clothing and equipment should be of safe design and construction,
and should be maintained in a clean and reliable fashion. Employers should take
the fit and comfort of PPE into consideration when selecting appropriate items for
their workplace. PPE that fits well and is comfortable to wear will encourage
employee use of PPE. Most protective devices are available in multiple sizes and
care should be taken to select the proper size for each employee. If several
different types of PPE are worn together, make sure they are compatible. If PPE
does not fit properly, it can make the difference between being safely covered or

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dangerously exposed. It may not provide the level of protection desired and may
discourage employee use. Personal protection equipment can be divided into:
1. Eye and Face Protection
Eye protection is suggested to be routinely considered for use by
carpenters, electricians, machinists, mechanics, millwrights, plumbers and
pipefitters, sheetmetal workers and tinsmiths, assemblers, sanders,
grinding machine operators, sawyers, welders, laborers, chemical process
operators and handlers, and timber cutting and logging workers.
Employers of workers in other job categories should decide whether there
is a need for eye and face PPE through a hazard assessment. Examples of
potential eye or face injuries include:
Dust, dirt, metal or wood chips entering the eye from activities such as
chipping, grinding, sawing, hammering, the use of power tools or even
strong wind forces.
Chemical splashes from corrosive substances, hot liquids, solvents or
other hazardous solutions.
Objects swinging into the eye or face, such as tree limbs, chains, tools
or ropes.
Radiant energy from welding, harmful rays from the use of lasers or
other radiant light (as well as heat, glare, sparks, splash and flying
particles).
The eye and face protection selected for employee use must clearly
identify the manufacturer. Any new eye and face protective devices must
comply with ANSI Z87.1-1989 or be at least as effective as this standard
requires. This include goggles and the mask.
2. Head Protection
Employers must ensure that their employees wear head protection if any of
the following apply:
Objects might fall from above and strike them on the head;
They might bump their heads against fixed objects, such as exposed
pipes or beams; or
There is a possibility of accidental head contact with electrical hazards.

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Hard hats must have a hard outer shell and a shock-absorbing lining that
incorporates a headband and straps that suspend the shell from 1 to 1 1/4
inches (2.54 cm to 3.18 cm) away from the head. This type of design
provides shock absorption during an impact and ventilation during normal
wear.
3. Foot and Leg Protection
Safety footwear must meet ANSI minimum compression and impact
performance standards in ANSI Z41-1991 (American National Standard
for Personal Protection-Protective Footwear) or provide equivalent
protection. This kind of protection will include the safety shoes. Safety
shoes have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that protect the
feet against hot work surfaces common in roofing, paving and hot metal
industries. The metal insoles of some safety shoes protect against puncture
wounds. Safety shoes may also be designed to be electrically conductive to
prevent the buildup of static electricity in areas with the potential for
explosive atmospheres or nonconductive to protect workers from
workplace electrical hazards.
4. Hand and Arm Protection
If a workplace hazard assessment reveals that employees face potential
injury to hands and arms that cannot be eliminated through engineering
and work practice controls, employers must ensure that employees wear
appropriate protection. Potential hazards include skin absorption of
harmful substances, chemical or thermal burns, electrical dangers, bruises,
abrasions, cuts, punctures, fractures and amputations. Protective
equipment includes gloves, finger guards and arm coverings or elbow-
length gloves. Gloves made from a wide variety of materials are designed
for many types of workplace hazards. In general, gloves fall into four
groups:
Gloves made of leather, canvas or metal mesh;
Fabric and coated fabric gloves;
Chemical- and liquid-resistant gloves;
Insulating rubber gloves

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5. Body Protection
Employees who face possible bodily injury of any kind that cannot be
eliminated through engineering, work practice or administrative controls,
must wear appropriate body protection while performing their jobs. In
addition to cuts and radiation, the following are examples of workplace
hazards that could cause bodily injury:
Temperature extremes;
Hot splashes from molten metals and other hot liquids;
Potential impacts from tools, machinery and materials;
Hazardous chemicals.
Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials, each effective against
particular hazards, such as:
Paper-like fiber, used for disposable suits provide protection against
dust and splashes.
Treated wool and cotton, adapts well to changing temperatures, is
comfortable, and fire-resistant and protects against dust, abrasions and
rough and irritating surfaces.
Duck, is a closely woven cotton fabric that protects against cuts and
bruises when handling heavy, sharp or rough materials.
Leather, is often used to protect against dry heat and flames.
Rubber, rubberized fabrics, neoprene and plastics, protect against
certain chemicals and physical hazards. When chemical or physical
hazards are present, check with the clothing manufacturer to ensure
that the material selected will provide protection against the specific
hazard.
6. Hearing Protection
Some types of hearing protection include:
Single-use earplugs, are made of waxed cotton, foam, silicone rubber
or fiberglass wool. They are self-forming and, when properly inserted,
they work as well as most molded earplugs.

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Pre-formed or molded earplugs, must be individually fitted by a


professional and can be disposable or reusable. Reusable plugs should
be cleaned after each use.
Earmuffs, require a perfect seal around the ear. Glasses, facial hair,
long hair or facial movements such as chewing may reduce the
protective value of earmuffs.

1.3 MSDS Main Materials


A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that contains
information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental)
and how to work safely with the chemical product. It is an essential starting point
for the development of a complete health and safety program. It also contains
information on the use, storage, handling and emergency procedures all related to
the hazards of the material. The MSDS contains much more information about the
material than the label. MSDSs are prepared by the supplier or manufacturer of
the material. It is intended to tell what the hazards of the product are, how to use
the product safely, what to expect if the recommendations are not followed, what
to do if accidents occur, how to recognize symptoms of overexposure, and what to
do if such incidents occur.
Employers must make sure that all controlled products have an up-to-date
(less than three years old) MSDS when it enters the workplace. The MSDSs must
be readily available to the workers who are exposed to the controlled product and
to the health and safety committee or representative. If a controlled product is
made in the workplace, the employer has a duty to prepare an MSDS for any of
these products.
Employers may computerize the MSDS information as long as all employees
have access to and are trained on how to use the computer, the computers are kept
in working order, and that the employer makes a hard copy of the MSDS available
to the employee or safety and health committee/representative upon request.
There are two common symbols used on labels to quickly provide
information of the relative hazards of a material. One is called the National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA) warning diamond. The other is the Hazard

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Materials Information System (HMIS) system. Both systems use a numerical


rating of hazards in each of three sections (health hazard, fire/flammability hazard
and reactivity hazard). The key to the hazards associated with the numerical
ratings is provided below.

Figure 1.2 NPFA rating explanation


(Source: NPFA)

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for
indicating the health, flammability, reactivity and special hazards for many
common chemicals through use of the NFPA 704 Diamond. The hazard rating for
the laboratory is determined by looking at all the chemicals, gases and special lab
uses in the laboratory and coming up with a rating for each hazard category based
on criteria established below. The rating summary are as follows:
Health (Blue) Detailed Description of Health Rating
4: Danger May be fatal on short exposure. Specialized protective
equipment required
3: Warning Corrosive or toxic. Aviod skin contact or inhalation
2: Warning May be harmful if inhaled or absorbed
1: Caution May be irritating
0: No unusual hazard

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Flammability (Red)Detailed Description of Flammable Rating


4: Danger Flammable gas or extremely flammable liquid
3: Warning Flammable liquid flash point below 100F
2: Caution Combustible liquid flash point of 100 to 200F
1: Combustible if heated
0: Not combustible
Reactivity (Yellow) Detailed Description of Reactivity Rating
4: Danger Explosive material at room temperature
3: Warning May be explosive if shocked, heated under confinement or mixed
with water
2: Warning Unstable or may react violently if mixed with water
1: Caution May react if heated or mixed with water but not violently
0: Stable Not reactive when mixed with water
For our plant we are going to summarize the main material in our plant
into their proper MSDS. There are MSDSs for ethanol, water, MEA, and CuO as
catalysts. The MSDS can be seen at the Appendix section.

1.4 Emergency Action Plant


There are several emergency action responses if some incident happen that
will be executed for the safety of the employee and others element of plant, such
as:

1.4.1 Emergency Operating Procedures or Training


The emergency procedures should include instructions for dealing with
fires, leaks and spills. The procedure should describe how to :
1. Raise the alarm and call the fireman.
2. Tackle a fire or control spills and leaks (when it is safe to do so).
3. Evacuate the site, and if necessary nearby premises.
These instructions consist of a four step procedure that employees
should follow during a fire accident. This procedure must be memorized by all
employees. Experience has shown that the best response to a plant fire is first,
sound the alarm, then let others know there is a fire, then combat the fire if

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possible, and the last, evacuate if necessary.The plan works best when expressed
as an easily recalled acronym, such as SAFE:
a. S Sound the alarm
Either sound it yourself or call out to someone else to sound it. This allows
the fire department to be on its way while other activities are being
performed.
b. A Alert others
Quickly tell others in the area of the fire. Do this in a calm, firm manner.
Do not cause a panic. Secure the area for the fire department. Close all
doors and windows to prevent the spread of smoke and flames. Call
security to give verification and information about location of fire.
c. F Fight the fire
Do this only in the case of a manageable fire, one that you have the
training and experience to fight. For example, fire in a wastebasket. If it
possible two employeesshould fight the fire together using two fire
extinguishers. If you have any doubt about your ability to fight the fire,
then do not attempt to combat it.
d. E Evacuate the area
If necessary.
Alarm which used for evacuation system is an alarm system standard from
OSHA. It applies to provide an early warning for emergency actions or reaction
time for employees to safely escape the work place, the immediate work area, or
both. Type of alarms which used in this plant is:
1. Audible Alarm
Audible alarm which used consists of horn and sirens. Horns produce a
very loud distinctive sound that immediately attracts attention. Horns can
be useful to call attention to critical situations. Signals other than those
used for evacuation purposes do not have to produce the temporal coded
signal. Thus, sirens produce a loud piercing wail that makes them ideally
suitable for initiating a site-wide evacuation

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Figure 1.3 Audible alarms (a) horn (b) sirine


(Source: Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2014)

2. Visible Alarm
Visual alarm which used consists of flashing/steady lights and strobe
lights. Steady lights are well suited for areas where ambient noise makes
audible signals difficult to hear, for an example in area where the
compressor is in. These types of lights come with different colored covers
for increased attention and can be ordered with rotating or flashing lights.
Strobe lights use high intensity flash tubes that are ideally suited for areas
where high ambient light levels make traditional rotating or flashing lights
difficult to distinguish or where ambient noise makes audible signals
difficult to hear.

Figure 1.4 Visible alarm (a) lightning (b) strobe light


(Source: Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2014)

1.4.2 Medical Emergency


Whenever an employee or visitor is injured or develops a medical
emergency condition on plant property, follow the protocol below and notify your
immediate supervisor as soon as possible. Medical emergency instruction:

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a. Dial the plant infirmary and inform the nurse of emergency and its
location in the plant.
b. If the nurse cannot be reached, dial emergency call, and inform any
hospital or fire department of the medical emergency. Give the dispatcher
the nature and location in the plant of medical emergency.
c. Unless you have been designated by management to be a first aid
responder, do not provide first aid. Make the victim as comfortable as
possible until medical help arrives

1.4.3 Emergency Escape Procedures


The purpose of the escape procedure is to help the employee evacuate to
predetermined assembly areas whenever the alarm sounds. Here is the procedure
of emergency escape:
a. In the event of an emergency, employees shall activate fire pull stations
without exposing themselves to serious hazards and leave the work area as
soon as possible via the emergency route assignments posted in your
immediate work area.
b. All primary emergency escape routes and designated meeting locations
shall be provided to each employee by departmental managers as part of
the emergency planning process. These primary route and designated
meeting locations must be approved by the plant manager.
c. An orderly evacuation shall be supervised by departmental managers, line
supervisors, and designated wardens who will check all rooms/enclosed
spaces and report any problems via telephone or radio to plant security.
d. Each local manager or supervisor shall provide for the specialized
evacuation of any handicapped employees.

1.4.4 Fire Fighting


A fire fighting strategy should consider :
Appointment of fire wardens, with subsequent training.
Location plans of safety shower, fire hoses, extinguishers, and water
sources.

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Access for emergency services.


Provision of firewater lagoons.
There are several important aspects in fire fighting equipments, which are:
a. Fire Extinguisher
Fire extinguisher is the equipment that is used to extinguish the fire in
small scale. This equipment usually in tubular form and used to extinguish
the fire in the emergency situation. Fire extinguisher which will be used in
our plant is class B fire extinguisher. This type usually used for flammable
liquids and gases. We chose this type because some raw materials that we
use are flammable.

Figure 1.5 Fire extinguisher typ A


(Source : Cityofangelsfire, 2014)

Figure 1.6 Fire extinguisher type B


(Source : Cityofangelsfire, 2014)

b. Fire Hydrant
Fire hydrant is a permanent system that is used to extinguish the fire. It
uses pressurized water which flowed through pipes and fire hose to
extinguish the fire. In our plant, there are class 2 of building hydrant
system. This type has 1,5 inch diameter of a hose. This type usually used
for untrained people.

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Figure 1.7 Fire hydrant


(Source : Firesafetyengineering)

c. Safety shower and eyewash station


Safety showers and eye wash stations are the emergency facilities which
shoud be available in every chemical laboratory. They are used by
laboratory workers in case of splash of toxic or corrosive chemicals or fire.
This equipment should also provide a drainage system for the excess water
and should not come into contact with any electrical equipment that may
become a hazard when wet, and should be protected from freezing when
installing emergency equipment outdoors. Whereas, an emergency
blangket should be available near the shower to prevent from shock and
cover the place for removal of clothes.

Figure 1.8 Safety shower


(Source: Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2014)

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1.4.5 Evacuation Route


Evacuation areas in purpose to prevent impact of fire or gas emission
should be addressed in an emergency evacuation procedure. The procedure should
also identify responsible personnel whose duties during area evacuation include:
Responsibility for a specific area;
Collecting ID badges from plant racks;
Ensuring roll calls are undertaken to identify missing persons;
Communication of missing persons to central emergency services.
Evacuation routes which applied to the plant are centered on the assembly
point. Evacuation routes are shown in Figure 1.8. The red arrows indicate
evacuation routes from each point of the plant leading to meeting point.
Evacuation route is based on ease of evacuation, evacuation distance and
environmental conditions of evacuation route.

Figure 1.9 Evacuation route map


(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

1.5 Waste Management


To manage the waste of our plant, we have to identify the waste at first.
So, these are the waste of our plant:

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CO2
Char
Ash
Waste Water
Household waste
Sound (noise)
All of these wastes can be directly discarded, recycled, or used again to
main process. Government gives boundary for every industrial to process their
waste based in Human Safety Environment. We have grouped all of the waste
based on the type or phase. There are such as solid waste, liquid waste, gas waste,
and sound (noise) waste. Management for the waste will be explained below:

1.5.1 Solid Waste


The solid wastes are char, and ash. The char will be recirculated into the
combustion chamber to provide the heat needed for biomass gasification. For the
ash, prior to a re-use the bottom ash must be prepared and stored such that it
complies with the quality requirement for the later use. In most cases the slag is
transported from the incineration to the treatment plant via conveying equipment.
Then, the slag is sieved and crushed. Iron scrap and non-ferrous metals such as
aluminium, copper and brass are separated from the slag and used as raw
materials in metallurgical works. Residues not burned are treated and removed in
a classifier.

1.5.2 Liquid Waste


Liquid waste of this pant is including the waste water and also the house
hold waste from domestic water. The utility section in our plant is also making
waste which is also will be treated in waste water treatment. Based on Keputusan
Gubernur No. 82 tahun 1985, for this kind of industry, the number of COD and
BOD are about 100 and 70 mg/l. due to the very big gap between parameter and
the fact in the field, we have to apply wastewater treatment.
In order to reduce organic compounds in wastewater streams from ethanol
plants, some technology providers have incorporated the use of anaerobic

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digestion by the filter reactor. Anaerobic digestion is a process in which


microorganisms convert organic matter into biogas in the absence of oxygen. It is
an energy-efficient process that is typically utilized to treat high-strength
industrial wastewater that is warm and contains high concentrations of
biodegradable organic matter (measured as BOD, COD, and/or TSS). Anaerobic
processes use substantially less energy, require less chemicals, and incur lower
sludge handling costs compared to aerobic treatment options. In addition, the
biogas produced in the anaerobic process is a source of renewable energy that can
be used to displace fossil fuels such as oil or natural gas, or to generate electricity.
In sewage treatment systems, an anaerobic filter (AF) is a form of anaerobic
digester. The digestion tank contains a filter medium where anaerobic microbial
populations organisms that live in the absence of oxygen can establish
themselves. Such filters are commonly employed in the treatment of waste water.
Wastewater streams are directed to an anaerobic (without oxygen) reactor that
degrades the organic compounds. This process produces methane gas which can
be used as an alternative energy source for the boiler or dryer.

Figure 1.10 Anaerobic filter reactor


(Source: http://www.metal.ntua.gr/~pkousi/e-learning/bioreactors/page_18.htm)

1.5.3 Gas Waste


Carbon dioxide is produced during combustion process to supply heat for
the gasification and also in the water gas shift reactor. Another gas waste in this
plant is excess hydrogen produced from water gas shift reactor. We can be
directly released gas waste into the environment by way of venting for CO 2

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emission can be directly discharge into the air because it is not dangerous
emission. The hydrogen will also be sold to our plant costumer.

1.5.4 Sound Pollution


There are several equipments that can cause quite high intensity noise such
as compressor, crusher and pump. Operation of rotary tools in the plant, such as
pumps, crusher and compressor motors drive is a source of noise. The noise level
rotary tools are depending on the type rotary tools, capacity, performance, area
and equipment operating effectiveness of treatment or preventive maintenance
programs are conducted.
Noise can also be caused by damage to the mechanical system on the
appliance. To reduce the noise level, performed regular maintenance and
replacing parts causing noise. For workers who are in area that generate noise
should be equipped with ear protection (ear plugs or ear muffs). For those
equipments, we can add the dampening noise. Noise standards set by OSHA are
as follows:

Table 1.5 Permissbile noise exposure


Duration per day (hours) Sound level (dB)
8 90
6 92
4 95
3 97
2 100
1.5 102
1 105
0.5 110
0.25 or less 115
(Source: OSHA)

The noise levels that exceed the threshold may cause disruption to the
workforce and this limit is called critical level of intensity. The disorder may
include:

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Hearing Problem
The immediate and acute effect of noise pollution to a person, over a
period of time, is impairment of hearing. Prolonged exposure to impulsive
noise to a person will damage their eardrum, which may result in a
permanent hearing impairment.
Effects on general health
Health effects of noise include anxiety and stress reaction and in extreme
cases fright. The physiological manifestations are headaches, irritability
and nervousness, feeling of fatigue and decreases work efficiency. For
example, being pounded by the siren of fire fighters, police or ambulance
in your city all night everyday leave people (especially elderly people)
stresses and tired in the morning.
To overcome this problem, we must control the noise effect on the
workers by:
1. Reduce the noise transmission to workers
This can be done by insulating the noisy equipments or insulate the
workers workplace to prevent high noise transmission.
2. Eliminate noise directly from the source
This can be done by not using noisy equipments from the first place. But,
since this method is nearly impossible because the need of rotating
equipments we can do the third method below,
3. Personal Protection
Efforts to protect employees from noise in the work environment can
applied by wearing ear protection devices or personal protective
equipment, in the form of ear plugs and ear muffs

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CHAPTER 2
PLANT LAYOUT

2.1 Plant Location


The plant location selection has to consider several factors that affect the
investors to build a plant, such as capital and operating costs. The plant location is
also affects the continuity of the plant production, meanwhile the right chosen
location is the location where the unit cost of production and distribution either
raw materials or product will be low. In other hand, the price and volume sales of
our ethanol products will be able to generate maximum profits for our company.

Figure 2.1 Indramayu Area


(Source: www.republika.co.id)

Therefore, we decide to build the plant in Indramayu, West Java. It is the


district where the biggest rice production in Indonesia, which means produce the
highest rice straw too. The consideration is also goes to some factors, there are
primary and secondary factors to be considered.
a. Primary Factor
Communication and electricity infrastructure
There is some industrial district in Indramayu, West Java, actually in
Losarang. It means the communication and electricity is already
provided

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Availability of raw material


The material chosen to be our main raw material is rice straw.
Indonesia is one of the biggest rice productions in Asia which is also
produce the rice straw too. In Indonesia, the district where the biggest
rice production is located in West Java, especially Indramayu regency.
The rice straw production reach until 12 to 15 ton per hectare per
harvest, but it will be varied depends on location and variety type of
the rice plant.
Transportation
There are potential industrial areas in Indramayu, likes Losarang,
Kadanghaur. In industrial area, transportation infrastructure will be
provided. In the presence of subway Cipali (Cikopo-Palimanan) it
helps the mode of transportation around the Java Island.
Labor
As a potential industrial area, Indramayuhas a reserve of human
resources reliable in quality and quantity. In addition, the availability
of labor from the area around and outside Indramayu is also relatively
large.
b. Secondary Factor
Government policy
Because of our plant location is in industrial area, the permits of plant
construction will be managed by the owner. In Indramayu the zone of
industry has been persistent and all of the administration in Bappeda
Physical aspects of location
According to geography data, Indramayu regency is located in 1070
52 - 1080 36 East Longitude and 60 15 - 60 40 South Latitude.
From the topography observation, Indramayu almost plain or slightly
area with the land declination average in 0-2%.
Based on these criteria, it can be concluded that the area of Losarang, Indramayu,
West Java is the most strategic location to build our plant

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Figure 2.2 Plant location


(Source: www.maps.google.com)

2.2 Area Plant Layout


The design of the plant layout will determine the efficiency of the
production process and influence how long survival or success of an industrial
workplace. A good plant layout design can simplify the process of monitoring the
production process and also facilitate resetting plant layout if there are plans in the
future plant expansion.
The plant layout is made by considering the following:
The space available must be enough for the whole plant and its supporting
facilities.
Spacing between process instruments is ruled by Inside Battery Limit
(IBL), and the spacing between supporting facilities is ruled by Outside
Battery Limit(OBL).
Safety is the main consideration in the plant layout
The value of IBL and OBL is given in Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4 below :

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Figure 2.3. Outside Battery Limit Values


(Source: Process Control: Structures and Applications, 2010)

Figure 2.4. Inside Battery Limit Values


(Source: Process Control: Structures and Applications, 2010)

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Our plant has a total area of 3 hectares. In this plant, the area are divided
into two big groups which are inside battery limit and outside battery limit.
Battery limit are the area that are related with the plant process such as the main
processes and water treatment. Outside battery limit are the area that is not related
with the main processes of the plant, such as the office, canteen, and others. The
main process is located in the middle of the factory area. It is because the main
process needs a lot of space, and for the safety reason the office that contain lots
of person need to be located near the exit door so if there are some explosion the
worker can leave the area immidiately

2.2.1 Total Factory Layout


Our plant has a total area of 3 hectares, with length about 190 m and width
160 m. The total factory layour of cellulosic ethanol plant can be seen in Figure
2.1 below.

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Figure 2.1 Total factory layout


(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

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2.2.2 Process Layout

Figure 2.2 Process layout


(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

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2.3 Equipment Plant Layout


2.3.1 2D Picture

Figure 2.3 Equipments layout


(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

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2.3.2 3D Picture

Figure 2.4 Equipments layout 3D


(Source: Authors personal data, 2015)

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2.4 Utilities
Utlilities are section or equipments that can improve of support the works
of main equipments. The layout of our plant utilities can be seen in Figure 2.3
which surround by a red dot lines. Our plant utilities consist of cooling tower,
high pressure steam, and generator set for electricity.

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CHAPTER 3
CONCLUSION

1. The most dangerous area is in the ractor area, due to the flammable material
inside reactors.
2. There are several equipments which needs more attention due to its severe
hazard effects, such as crusher, gasification reactor, char combustor,
condenser, reboiler, distillation column, reflux drum, sorage ethanol, also
laboratory area.
3. In HSE management, our plant has our own start up system and shut dwon
system to prevent accidents while starting up or shutting down thee plant.
4. Every employees must wear full PPE to enter the plant area, which is goggles,
helmet, ear plug, mask (if needed), gloves, coverall, safety shoes, and ID card
to plant.
5. Our plant slogan in emergency operation is SAFE (Sound the alarm, Alert
others, Fight the fire, Evacuate the area).
6. If medical emergency occurs, employee can be take to clinic. If they need
further checkup, then they will be take to the nearest hospital.
7. Out plant have a solid waste, liquid waste, gas waste that will be treated in
waste treatment area. For sound pollution, to reduce the noise level, performed
regular maintenance and replacing parts causing noise.
8. Our plant location is in Losarang, Indramayu, which is the biggest rice
producer in Indonesia. Also, Losarang is an industrial estate in Indramayu.
9. The area of our plant is 3 hectares, which include the plant area, office area,
and other additional areas. The plant area about 100 x 60 meters.

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REFERENCES

Badger, P. (2002). Ethanol from Cellulose: A General Review. pp. 17 - 21.


Biozio. (2011). Sample Content of the Comprehensive Cellulosic Ethanol Report.
India: Clixoo Solutions Private Ltd.
Dr. -Ing. Evita H. Legowo, Y. K. (2007). Biofuel Development In Indonesia.
USDA Global Conference on Agricultural Biofuels: Research and
Economic. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Ministry of Energy and Mineral
Resources (ESDM) Republic of Indonesia.
Jlio C. C. Mirandaa, G. H.-G. (2015 ). Syngas to Higher Alcohols Using Cu-
Based Catalyst A Simulation Approach. Chemical Engineering
Transaction Vol. 43 .
Marina O.S. Diasa, A. V. (2009). Production of bioethanol and other bio-based
materials from sugarcane bagasse: Integration to conventional bioethanol
production process. chemical engineering research and design 87 , 1206
1216.
Nasr, S. L. (n.d.). Howstuffworks Science. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-tech/energy-
production/cellulosic-ethanol2.htm
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). (2011). Process Design and
Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol. US:
NREL.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). (2007). Research Advanced
Cellulosic Ethanol. US: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Olewski, L. N. (21 - 26). Kinetics of The Overall Higher Alcohol Synthesis
Reacting System. Chem. Pap. 57(1) , 2003.

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APPENDIX

1. ETHANOL MSDS
Product Name : Ethanol
CAS : 64-17-5
Chemical Formula : C2H6O

Hazard Identification
- Eye Contact: Irritating to eyes.
- Skin Contact: May cause skin irritation. Prolonged and/or repeated contact
may cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis. May be absorbed through the
skin.
- Serious Skin Contact: Not available.
- Inhalation: Irritating to nose & throat.
- Serious Inhalation: Chronic inhalation and ingestion may cause effects similar
to those of acute inhalation and ingestion. Prolonged or repeated skin contact
may cause defatting and dermatitis. Prolonged or repeated exposure may
cause adverse reproductive effects. May cause fetal effects.
- Ingestion: May be fatal or cause blindness if swallowed. May cause systemic
toxicity with acidosis. May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause central
nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by
headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause
collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure.
- Serious Ingestion: Not available.

First Aid Measures


- Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes,
occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.
- Skin: Get medical aid. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water
for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.

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- Ingestion: If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
Induce vomiting by giving one teaspoon of Syrup of Ipecac.
- Inhalation: Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air
immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is
difficult, give oxygen.
- Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Fire and Explosion Data


- Flammability of the Product : Highly flammable.
- Auto-Ignition Temperature : 362.78oC.
- Flash Points : 13oC.
- Flammable Limits : Not applicable.
- Products of Combustion : Carbon Monoxide, water.
- Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not applicable.
- Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not Applicable
- Fire Fighting Media and Instructions: In case of fire, use water, dry chemical,
chemical foam, or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to cool fire-
exposed containers. Water may be ineffective. Do NOT use straight streams of
water. For large fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant
foam, or water spray. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until
well after fire is out.
- Special Remarks on Fire Hazards : As in any fire, wear a self-contained
breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or
equivalent), and full protective gear. Vapors may form an explosive mixture
with air. Vapors can travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Use water
spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Containers may explode in the heat
of a fire. Flammable liquid and vapor..
- Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards : May form explosive peroxides.
Vapors may be heavier than air. They can spread along the ground and collect
in low or confined areas.

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Accidental Release Measures


- General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment
- Spills/Leaks: Absorb spill with inert material (e.g. vermiculite, sand or earth),
then place in suitable container. Remove all sources of ignition. A vapor
suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.

Handling and Storage


- Handling: Wash thoroughly after handling. Use with adequate ventilation.
Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with
eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid
and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid
contact with heat, sparks and flame. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not
pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to
heat, sparks or open flames.
- Storage: Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of
ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-
ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

Physical and Chemical Properties


- Physical State: Liquid
- Appearance: clear, colorless
- Odor: aromatic odor
- pH: No data
- Vapor Pressure: 25 mm Hg
- Vapor Density: 1.6 (ethanol)
- Evaporation Rate:2.0
- Viscosity: Not available.
- Boiling Point: 173.3 deg F
- Freezing/Melting Point:-90 deg C
- Autoignition Temperature: 685 deg F ( 362.78 deg C)
- Flash Point: 13 deg C ( 55.40 deg F)
- Decomposition Temperature:Not available.

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- NFPA Rating: (estimated) Health: 1; Flammability: 3; Reactivity: 0


- Explosion Limits, Lower:3.3 (ethanol)
- Upper: 19 (ethanol)
- Solubility: Soluble in water.
- Specific Gravity/Density:0.7905
- Molecular Formula:Mixture.
- Molecular Weight:Not available.

2. WATER MSDS
Product Name : Water
CAS : 7732-18-5
Chemical Formula : H2O

Hazard Identification
- Non Toxic

Hazard Identification
- Eye Contact: Not applicable.
- Skin Contact: Not applicable.
- Serious Skin Contact: Not available.
- Inhalation: Not applicable.
- Serious Inhalation: Not available.
- Ingestion: Not Applicable
- Serious Ingestion: Not available.

Fire and Explosion Data


- Flammability of the Product : Non-flammable.
- Auto-Ignition Temperature : Not applicable.
- Flash Points : Not applicable.
- Flammable Limits : Not applicable.
- Products of Combustion : Not available.
- Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not applicable.

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- Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not Applicable


- Fire Fighting Media and Instructions : Not applicable.
- Special Remarks on Fire Hazards : Not available.
- Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards : Not available.

Accidental Release Measures


- Small Spill: Mop up, or absorb with an inert dry material and place in an
appropriate waste disposal container.
- Large Spill: Absorb with an inert material and put the spilled material in an
appropriate waste disposal.

Handling and Storage


- Precautions: No specific safety phrase has been found applicable for this
product.
- Storage: Not applicable.

Physical and Chemical Properties


- Odor : odorless
- Taste: Not available.
- Molecular Weight: 18.02 g/mole
- Color: Colorless.
- pH (1% soln/water): 7 [Neutral.]
- Boiling Point: 100C (212F)
- Melting Point: Not available.
- Critical Temperature: Not available.
- Specific Gravity: 1 (Water = 1)
- Vapor Pressure: 2.3 kPa (@ 20C)
- Vapor Density: 0.62 (Air = 1)
- Volatility: Not available.
- Solubility: Not Applicable

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3. MEA MSDS
Product Name : Monoethanolamine
CAS : 141-43-5
Chemical Formula : NH2CH2CH2OH

Hazard Identification
- Eye Contact: Vapors and contact may cause severe irritation, burns, redness,
pain, and blurred vision.
- Skin Contact: May cause irritation, redness, burns, and pain. May be absorbed
through the skin; symptoms may parallel inhalation. .
- Serious Skin Contact: Not available.
- Inhalation: Vapor may cause irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may
include sore throat, coughing, respiratory distress, headache, lethargy, and
narcosis. Exposure to higher concentrations may cause pulmonary irritation,
and kidney and liver damage. .
- Serious Inhalation: Not available.
- Ingestion: May cause mucosal burns of the mouth and esophagus, abdominal
pain, nausea, and vomiting. May cause systemic poisoning with symptoms
paralleling inhalation.
- Serious Ingestion: Not available.

First Aid Measures


- Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes,
lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention
immediately.
- Skin: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing
before reuse. Call a physician.
- Ingestion: Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician
immediately.

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- Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If


breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician.

Fire and Explosion Data


- Flammability of the Product : flammable.
- Auto-Ignition Temperature : Not applicable.
- Flash Points : Not applicable.
- Flammable Limits : Not applicable.
- Products of Combustion : Not available.
- Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not applicable.
- Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not Applicable
- Fire Fighting Media and Instructions : Water spray, dry chemical, alcohol
foam, or carbon dioxide. Water spray may be used to keep fire exposed
containers cool. Water may be used to flush spills away from exposures and to
dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures.
- Special Remarks on Fire Hazards : In the event of a fire, wear full
protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus
with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure
mode.
- Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards : Above flash point, vapor-air
mixtures are explosive within flammable limits noted above.

Accidental Release Measures


- Ventilate area of leak or spill.
- Remove all sources of ignition.
- Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8.
- Isolate hazard area.
- Keep unnecessary and unprotected personnel from entering.
- Contain and recover liquid when possible.
- Use non-sparking tools and equipment.
- Collect liquid in an appropriate container or absorb with an inert material (e.
g., vermiculite, dry sand, earth), and place in a chemical waste container.

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- Do not use combustible materials, such as saw dust.


- Do not flush to sewer

Handling and Storage


- Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area.
- Protect against physical damage.
- Isolate from any source of heat or ignition.
- Isolate from oxidizing materials.
- Avoid contact with copper and copper alloys.
- Material is suitably handled in stainless steel equipment.
- Do not use aluminum for storage of aqueous solutions.
- Outside or detached storage is preferred.
- Isolate from acidic materials.
- Monoethanolamine is generally stored in plain steel equipment.
- Product may solidify at room temperature.
- Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain
product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed
for the product.

Physical and Chemical Properties


- Appearance: Clear, colorless liquid
- Odor: Ammonia odor.
- Solubility:Miscible in water.
- Specific Gravity: 1.02
- pH: 12.1 (25% solution)
- % Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F): 0
- Boiling Point: 170C (338F)
- Melting Point: 10C (50F)
- Vapor Density (Air=1):2.10
- Vapor Pressure (mm Hg): 0.4 @ 20C (68F)
- Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1): 1
- Flash point:85C (185F)CC

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- Autoignition temperature: 410C (770F)


- Flammable limits in air % by volume: lel: 5.5; uel: 17

4. CuO MSDS
Product Name : Copper(II) Oxide
CAS : 1317-38-0
Chemical Formula : CuO

Hazard Identification
- Eye Contact: Causes eye irritation. May result in corneal injury. May cause
conjunctivitis.
- Skin Contact: Causes skin irritation. May cause skin discoloration. .
- Serious Skin Contact: Not available.
- Inhalation: Causes respiratory tract irritation. May cause ulceration and
perforation of the nasal septum if inhaled in excessive quantities. Inhalation of
fumes may cause metal fume fever, which is characterized by flu-like
symptoms with metallic taste, fever, chills, cough, weakness, chest pain,
muscle pain and increased white blood cell count.
- Ingestion: May cause central nervous system depression, kidney damage, and
liver damage. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and
diarrhea. May cause circulatory system failure. May cause vascular collapse
and damage.
- Serious Ingestion: Not available.

First Aid Measures


- Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes,
occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.
- Skin: Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15
minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing
before reuse.
- Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4
cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid.

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- Inhalation: Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing,


give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical
aid. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
- Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively.
- Antidote: The use of d-Penicillamine as a chelating agent should be
determined by qualified medical personnel.

Fire Fighting Measures


- General Information: As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus
in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full
protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be
generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use extinguishing media
appropriate to the surrounding fire. Substance is noncombustible.
- Extinguishing Media: Substance is noncombustible; use agent most
appropriate to extinguish surrounding fire.

Accidental Release Measures


- General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment.
- Spills/Leaks: Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal
container. Clean up spills immediately, observing precautions in the Protective
Equipment section. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.

Handling and Storage


- Handling: Wash thoroughly after handling. Use with adequate ventilation.
Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with skin and
eyes. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.
- Storage: Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-
ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

Physical and Chemical Properties


- Physical State: Solid
- Appearance: black to brown black

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- Odor: odorless
- pH: Not available.
- Vapor Pressure: Not applicable.
- Vapor Density: Not available.
- Evaporation Rate:Not applicable.
- Viscosity: Not applicable.
- Boiling Point: Not available.
- Freezing/Melting Point:1326 deg C
- Autoignition Temperature: Not applicable.
- Flash Point: Not applicable.
- Decomposition Temperature:Not available.
- NFPA Rating: (estimated) Health: 2; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 0
- Explosion Limits, Lower:Not available.
- Upper: Not available.
- Solubility: Insoluble in water
- Specific Gravity/Density: 6.3-6.5
- Molecular Formula:CuO
- Molecular Weight:79.5454

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