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Unit 1

EDUCATION

I Pre-reading
Task 1 In small groups, discuss the following questions about the academic tradition in
Croatia.
1) What is the structure of the Croatian academic system?
2) How long does each phase of education last?
3) Is public education in Croatia free? If not, what are the education costs?

Task 2 Study the following passage about different types of reading techniques.

College students all over the world have numerous assignments that require a lot of reading.
While reading academic texts in English, it is useful to be familiar with different reading
techniques which will help you become a more efficient reader. If you want to get a general
overview of an essay or an article, you should concentrate on the first and the last sentence of
each paragraph. This reading technique is called skimming. In contrast, reading for specific
information, e.g. times, dates or answers to specific questions is called scanning. When you
scan a text, in most cases you know what information you are looking for. Another common
reading technique is called intensive reading. It involves reading for details and is therefore
more time-consuming than the previous ones.

Task 3 Which of the above mentioned techniques would you apply in the following
situations?

1) You want to find out whether the reference book contains information on response
approach to psychological stress.
2) You are writing a term paper in the course on Emotion and Motivation and you have to
read a classic article (included in the required reading list) by Richard S. Lazarus who
is considered to be one of the most relevant authors in the topic you need to write
about.
3) You are about to read a Subject Index to find out which parts of the book refer to the
term 'reformation'.

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4) You are in a bookshop, deciding on which Dictionary of Philosophy to buy. You
decide to read the blurb on the covers of the ones you think would meet your needs.
5) You are about to read a chapter in a book to find whether it contains the information
you need in the discussion section of your term paper.

Task 4 Scan the text Higher education and answer the following questions.

1) What are the institutions of higher education in most English-speaking countries?


2) What requirements for university entrance should secondary school students in the
UK meet?
3) What is the difference between junior colleges or community colleges, and
traditional universities or colleges in the USA?

II Reading
Task 1 Read the whole text now and do the reading comprehension below.

HIGHER EDUCATION

Higher education, any of various types of education given in postsecondary institutions of


learning and usually affording, at the end of a course of study, a named degree, diploma, or
certificate of higher studies. Higher-educational institutions include not only universities and
colleges but also various professional schools that provide preparation in various fields such
as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. Higher education also includes teacher-
training schools, junior colleges, and institutes of technology. The basic entrance requirement
for most higher-educational institutions is the completion of secondary education, and the
usual entrance age is about 18 years. The system of higher education had its origin in Europe
in the Middle Ages, when the first universities were established. In modern times the nature of
higher education worldwide has been largely determined by the models established in
influential countries such as France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States.

The system of higher education in Great Britain

The autonomy of higher-educational institutions is strikingly pronounced in Great Britain. Its


universities enjoy almost complete autonomy from national or local government in their
administration and the determination of their curricula, despite the fact that the schools

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receive nearly all of their funding from the state. Entry requirements for British universities
are rather complex. A student must secure a General Certificate of Education by taking
examinations in various subjects and receiving passing marks in them. The greater the number
of advanced level passes, rather than General Certificate of Secondary Education (formerly
ordinary level) passes, that a student acquires, the better his chances are of entering the
university of his choice. (Britain has a centralized admissions bureau to which candidates for
admission are able to give their choice of universities in an order of preference.) This selective
admission to universities, combined with the close supervision of students through a tutorial
system, makes it possible for most British undergraduates to complete a degree course in
three years rather than the standard four years. Great Britains academic programs are more
highly specialized than their European continental counterparts. Most undergraduates follow
an honours course (leading to an honours degree) in one or, at the most, two subjects,
while the remaining minority of students take pass courses that cover a variety of subjects.
Great Britains model of higher education has been copied to varying degrees in Canada,
Australia, India, South Africa, New Zealand, and other former British colonial territories in
Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific.

The system of higher education in the United States

The system of higher education in the United States differs from its counterparts in Europe in
certain ways. In the United States, there is a nationwide assumption that students who have
completed secondary school should have at least two years of university education. Hence, a
great number of junior colleges and community colleges have sprung up to provide two
years of undergraduate study, in contrast to the traditional universities and colleges, where a
majority of students complete four years of study for a degree and where substantial numbers
go on for one to three years of postgraduate study in a graduate school. Universities that
provide four-year study courses are either privately funded foundations or are state or city
foundations that depend substantially on the government for financial support. Private
universities and colleges depend largely on tuition charges levied on students. The individual
state governments fund the nations highly developed system of state universities, which
ensure the provision of higher education for the vast majority of those willing and
academically qualified to receive such education. In the American system, the four-year, or
bachelors, degree is ordinarily obtained not by passing a finals examination but rather
by the accumulation of course credits, or hours of classroom study. The quality of work

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done in these courses is assessed by means of a continuous record of marks and grades in a
course transcript. The completion of a certain number (and variety) of courses with passing
grades leads to the bachelors degree. The first two years of a students studies are generally
taken up with prescribed courses in a broad range of subject areas, along with some
elective courses selected by the student. In the third and fourth years of study, the student
specializes in one or perhaps two subject fields. Postgraduate students can pursue either
advanced studies or research in one of the many graduate schools, which are usually
specialized institutions. At these schools students work toward either a masters degree
(which involves one to two years of postgraduate study) or a doctoral degree (which involves
two to four years of study and other requirements). A marked feature of American education
that derives from the German model is the de-emphasis on lecture and examination. In both
of these countries, students are evaluated according to their performance in individual courses
where discussion and written essays figure importantly. The American model of higher
learning was adopted wholesale by the Philippines and influenced the educational systems of
Japan and Taiwan after World War II.

(adapted from Encyclopaedia Britannica)

III Reading comprehension


Task 1 According to the text Higher education, are the following statements true or false?
Correct the false ones.

1) The basic entrance requirement for most institutions of higher education is the
completion of secondary education.
2) Most higher-educational institutions in Great Britain are state funded and thus
government dependent.
3) The more examinations at advanced level secondary students take, the better
chances of entering the university of their choice they have.
4) Great Britain and its European continental academic counterparts have fairly the same
academic programs.
5) Students in Great Britain may take either honors or pass courses.
6) Undergraduate programs of traditional American universities and colleges last for four
years.

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7) The costs of the American private universities and colleges are paid by students.
8) In the American higher-educational system, continuous assessment is favored over the
final examination.
9) Prescribed courses are not required to be taken.
10) Both in Germany and in the USA, a students success is the result of accumulated
course credits rather than of examinations.

IV Vocabulary in context
Task 1 The bold typed words from the text are given in the table below followed by their
dictionary definitions. Match each word with the correct definition. If you are not sure about
the meaning of some words, check the context in which they were used in the text.

entrance age, curriculum, tutorial system, undergraduate, honours course, pass course,
bachelors degree, elective course, masters degree, lecture

a) ____________________________ the subjects that are taught by a school, college etc, or


the things that are studied in a particular subject
b) ____________________________ a student at college or university, who is working for
their first degree
c) ____________________________ a British university course that is above the basic level
in one or two particular subjects
d) ____________________________ a first university degree, such as a B.A, B.S., or B.Sc.
e) ____________________________ a university degree such as an MA, M.S., or M.Sc., that
you can get by studying for one or two years after your first degree
f) ____________________________ age to become a member of or become involved in a
profession, university, society etc
g) ____________________________ a period of teaching and discussion with a tutor,
especially in a British university
h) ____________________________ a course that students can choose to take, but they do
not have to take it in order to graduate
i) ____________________________ a long talk on a particular subject that someone gives to
a group of people, especially to students in a university
j) ____________________________ a course that provides an overview of subjects that

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would be otherwise studied in depth in honours courses

Task 2 Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate words from Task 1. Use the correct forms of
the words.

The general name for the first university degree is the ___________________________. It is
usually taken in final examinations at the end of the third year of study, although some degree
courses do vary in length in different parts of Britain (such as Scotland with a four-year MA
degree). Some degrees depend entirely upon the examination results, while others include
continuing assessment over the period of study. The majority of students aim for a good
degree in order to obtain a good job, or to continue in higher education by doing research
(__________________ and doctorates). All areas of the _______________________ are
covered by numerous courses. In addition to the core courses, there is also a variety of
___________________ which students choose according to their preferences. Lectures,
tutorials and laboratory work are organized at the university level. _____________________
refers to teaching college students in small groups.

(adapted from British Civilization)

Task 3 Read the section The system of higher education in the United States and find:

a) the adjectives (and their adverbial counterparts, if possible) that correspond to the meaning
of the adjective big/in big number
What is the difference, in your opinion, between the adjective big and the adjectives used in
the text?

b) all expressions with the noun course

Give their Croatian equivalents.

V Vocabulary development
Words in a language can be combined in a range from totally free combinations (a grey cloud)
to the totally fixed or idiomatic ones (cloud nine). Between these two poles, there is a broad
range of words that combine with each other in an unpredictable way. These combinations

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differ from weak (ask a question) to strong ones (a burning questions) and they are called
collocations. In order to speak or write naturally, it is important to know how words combine
in a given language.

Task 1 Choose one word from the box that best collocates with the set of words and
expressions below.

take up, examination, degree, education, schools

1. a) publicly-funded _______________
b) single sex _______________
c) co-educational _______________

2. a) _________________ a course
b) _________________a post
c) _________________ new duties

3. a) to earn _______________
b) a single/joint honours _______________
c) university_______________

4. a) entrance ________________
b) end of year ________________
c) A-level _________________

5. a) full-time_________________
b) higher_________________
c) tertiary__________________

Task 2 Discuss the meanings of the collocations in Task 1 with your partner. What are their
Croatian equivalents? Choose five collocations and use them in your own sentences.

Task 3 The following sentences contain common miss-collocations referring to education.


Correct them and compare with your partner.

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1. My mother is a professor at the local high school.
_________________________________________________________
2. Ive been studying hard these days. I'm passing the final exam next week.
_________________________________________________________
3. All lectures and tutorials will be spoken in English.
_________________________________________________________
4. You are considered a regular student if you are taking 12 or more credits per semester.
________________________________________________________
5. My roommate offered me free instructions in German.
_________________________________________________________

Task 4 In addition to traditional, paper dictionaries, online dictionaries provide a valuable


help to students of English. Visit the website http://www.ldoceonline.com/ and read the usage
note on the word teacher in different educational areas. Compare it with the Croatian
equivalents and outline the differences.

Task 5 In pairs, look at the sets of words and expressions below. Some sets have the words of
the same meaning. Which are these? Use a dictionary if necessary. What are their Croatian
equivalents?

a) department/ faculty/school of
b) undergraduate student/(post)graduate student/doctoral student
c) compulsory subject/core subject/prescribed subject
d) non-compulsory subject/elective subject
e) subject exemption/prerequisite
f) arts and letters/humanities/social sciences
g) course/subject
h) semester/term
i) degree/certificate/diploma
j) single major/double major

VI Speaking
Task 1 In small groups, answer the following questions.

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1) What is the name of your university and faculty?
2) How many departments are there at your faculty and what are their names?
3) How is your first undergraduate semester structured in terms of courses and
assessment?
4) How long does it take to complete the postgraduate course at your faculty?
5) Does your faculty offer any doctoral programs? If yes, what are they?

Task 2 Discuss the following issues.

1) What are the advantages of single course programs compared to dual/double course
programs and vice verse?
2) What are the positions you may apply for after graduating?

VIII Self study


Using the Internet. Go to the Oxford University home page (http://www.ox.ac.uk/) and
compare its undergraduate program with the undergraduate program of your department by
answering the questions below.

1. Which courses may the first-year students of Oxford University take?


2. How are they assessed?
3. What are the language requirements for international students?

IX Grammar

PRESENT TENSES

Task 1 Discuss the differences in meaning between the following pairs of sentences. Which of
the following uses typically refer to the Present Simple and Present Continuous Tense:

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state event - temporary situation - fact- complaints arrangements for near future habit
activity in progress at the moment of speaking

1. What does your father do? What is your father doing in the garden?
2. Where does he go for his summer holiday? Where is he going for his summer
holiday?
3. People munch when eating popcorn. He is always munching noisily.
4. I enjoy watching the sunset. We are enjoying our stay here.
5. He has a two-bedroom apartment. We are having a meeting tomorrow at
10 am.
6. I think you are a nice person. I am thinking about moving to London.

Present Simple generally refers to:

- facts or generalizations
The sun rises in the East.
She likes walking in the rain.

- actions that are repeated (hobbies, daily routine etc.)


I go to the cinema once a week.
He never goes on foot.

- newspaper headlines
German car industry shuts down.

- instructions and itineraries


You chop the onion first.
On day two we visit Brighton.

- "historic present" in narrative and funny stories

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And then he jumps out of the car, takes his gun out of the jacket and
points it at the kidnapper.

Present Continuous/Progressive generally refers to:

- actions which are in progress at the moment or generally in progress but not happening
now.
We are learning English grammar now.
Im studying to become a lawyer.

- temporary situations
Im commuting by bus this week.

- complaints and irritation (with always, constantly, forever)


You are always interrupting me.
He is constantly coming late.

- verbs describing change and development


He is getting bald!
More and more students are taking up on foreign language courses.

(adapted from Advanced Language Practice)

STATIVE VERBS

o used normally in simple tenses


o describe states rather than actions
o used to describe mental processes, emotional states, or senses (eg. know,
understand, mean, realize, prefer, enjoy, love, like, miss, smell, taste, etc)

Examples:
1. He is a rich man who owns (*is owing) 3 private jets.
2. This book belongs (*is belonging) to your grandfather.
3. I doubt (*am doubting) he can help me.

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4. We don't understand (*are not understanding) what you want (*are wanting) us to do.
5. This place smells (*is smelling) awful.

Task 2 Underline the correct form of the verb and explain the reasons for your choice.

1. Look at John! He tastes/is tasting the wine as if he were an expert.


2. I don't belong/am not belonging here because this is not my home.
3. I like this fragrance. It smells/is smelling so nice!
4. He realizes/is realizing that his fans are what keeps/is keeping his career alive.
5. Police are always complaining/always complain about their poor pay and hard
working conditions.
6. I am not hearing/don't hear any strange noise coming from the cellar.
7. It is depending/depends on what you need it for and how much you are prepared to
study.
8. In allowing yourself to be led now by the same illogical but kind motive, you are not
being/are not as silly as you think.
(source: BNC)

Task 3 Put each verb in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous tense.

1. Young people under 15 _________________ (drink) more and more alcohol.


2. It is difficult to talk with her. She forever ___________________ (interrupt) other
people.
3. Thomas is away on a business trip so his colleague _________________ (handle) his
work.
4. Lewis seems to have got the message, so I _________________ (doubt) if he'll try to
make a story out of it.
5. Phrases such as out of date and old fashioned suggest that we always
________________ (move on) to better things.
6. I'm sure there are many for whom information technology is a way of life who
____________ (despise) the imperfections and impurity of the English language.
7. I have to wear make-up on stage but I ____________ (prefer) to let my skin breathe
and just wear the minimum

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8. Soccer boss Ken Bates last night confessed he ______________ (have) an affair with
a woman football writer.
9. Each programme _____________ (consist) of an independent story encapsulating
specific language teaching items within a comic situation.
10. We _______________ (weigh) up the pros and cons of their offer.

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