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Space heat gain is the rate at which heat enters a space, or heat generated within a
spaceduringatimeinterval.

maintainaconstantspaceairtemperature.

The difference between the space heat gain and the space cooling load is due to the
storage of a portion of radiant heat in the structure. The convective component is

???

Figure 3 Differences between Space Heat Gain and Space Cooling Load

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whereA=areaofexternalwallorroof

U=overallheattransfercoefficientoftheexternalwallorroof.

CLTD values are found from tables, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, which are designed for fixed
theconditionsaredifferent.

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## Solar time, hour 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

CLTD,oC 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 4 5 7 7 8 8 7 7 6 4 3 2 2 1

Thevaluesarecalculatedforaninsidetemperature(Ti)of25.5oCandoutdoordailymeantemperature(Tom)of29.4oC.

CorrectCLTD=CLTD+(25.5Ti)+(Tom29.4)

andExternalWalls(Dark)

## Solar time, hour 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Roof 14 12 10 8 7 5 4 4 6 8 11 15 18 22 25 28 29 30 29 27 24 21 19 16
External wall 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 10 10 9

North 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 6 8 10 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 13 13 12 11 10

Northeast 11 10 8 7 6 5 5 5 7 10 13 15 17 18 18 18 18 18 17 17 16 15 13 12

East 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 5 7 10 12 14 16 17 18 18 18 17 17 16 15 14 12

Southeast 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 4 5 7 9 11 13 15 16 16 16 15 14 13 12

South 15 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 4 5 5 7 9 12 15 18 20 21 21 20 19 17

Southwest 17 15 13 12 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 5 6 6 8 10 12 17 10 11 12 11 11 19

West
14 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 15 17 18 17 16 15

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Northwest

Thevaluesarecalculatedforaninsidetemperatureof25.5oCandoutdoordailymeantemperatureof29.4oC.

Correctionvaluesfor22degreenorthlatitudeinJulyareasfollows:

Roof:+0.4oC

Wall:NNEESESSWWNW

+1.8oC+1.5oC0.4oC2.3oC3.6oC2.3oC0.4oC+1.5oC

(NorthLatitudeandAllRoomConstruction)

Solar time, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

hour
Orientation:

North 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.73 0.66 0.65 0.73 0.80 0.86 0.89 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.75 0.78 0.91 0.24 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.10

Northeast 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.56 0.76 0.74 0.58 0.37 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03

East 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.47 0.72 0.80 0.76 0.62 0.41 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03

Southeast 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.30 0.57 0.74 0.81 0.79 0.68 0.49 0.33 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.18 0.13 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04

South 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.09 0.16 0.23 0.38 0.58 0.75 0.83 0.80 0.68 0.50 0.35 0.27 0.19 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05

Southwest 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.38 0.59 0.75 0.81 0.81 0.69 0.45 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.06

West 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.31 0.53 0.72 0.82 0.81 0.61 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06

Northwest 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.30 0.52 0.73 0.82 0.69 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06

Horizontal 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.12 0.27 0.44 0.59 0.72 0.81 0.85 0.85 0.81 0.71 0.58 0.42 0.25 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06

4.3.1.1SolarHeatGainthroughFenestrationAreas,Qfes

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max.SHGF=maximumsolarheatgainfactorforwindowglass(Table5)

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Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

SHGFsh, W/m2 98 107 114 126 137 142 142 133 117 107 101 95

Table 5 Maximum Solar Heat Gain Factor for Sunit Glass on Average Cloudness Days

Month Maximum solar heat gain factor for 22 degree north latitude, W/m2

## North Northeast / East / west Southeast / South Horizontal

northwest southwest

## December 84 101 579 790 730 657

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## Window Nominal Solar Shading coefficient

glass transmission
thickness,

mm

absorbing

## Heat 10 0.34 0.54 0.52 0.40 0.28

absorbing

Reflective
coated

0.25 0.23 0.23 0.21
SCa=0.30
0.33 0.29 0.33 0.28
SCa=0.40
0.42 0.38 0.41 0.34
SCa=0.50
0.50 0.44 0.49 0.38
SCa=0.60

Insulating
glass:

clear in

SCa=0.84

## Heat 6 0.56 0.39 0.36 0.40 0.22 0.43 0.35

absorbing
outclear
in

SCa=0.55

Reflective

SCa=0.20
6 0.80 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.16
SCa=0.30
0.27 0.26 0.27 0.25

SCa=0.40
0.34 0.33 0.36 0.29

b Open weave means 40% openness, and closed weave indicate 3% openness.

## Window Glass Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K

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Summer (outdoor wind velocity = 3.33m/s) Winter (outdoor wind velocity = 6.67m/s)

3 mm 5 mm 6 mm 12 mm 3 mm 5 mm 6 mm 12 mm

thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness

## 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.4

4.3.1.2ConductionHeatGainthroughFenestrationAreas,Qfe

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whereA=fenestrationarea

U=overallheattransfercoefficientforwindowglass(Table7)

4.3.1.3ConductionHeatGainthroughRoofs(Qrs)andExternalWalls(Qws)

The space cooling load due to the conduction heat gain through roofs or external walls is
calculatedas:

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whereA=areaforexternalwallsorroofs

U=overallheattransfercoefficientforexternalwallsorroof

4.3.1.4ConductionHeatGainthroughInteriorPartitions,CeilingsandFloors,Qic

The space cooling load due to the conduction heat gain through interior partitions, ceilings and
floorsiscalculatedas:

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whereA=areaforinteriorpartitions,ceilingsorfloors

U=overallheattransfercoefficientforinteriorpartitions,ceilingsorfloors

Ti=indoorairtemperature

4.3.2.1ElectricLighting

Space cooling load due to the heat gain from electric lights is often the major component for
commercialbuildingshavingalargerratioofinteriorzone.Electriclightscontributetosensible

(i)convectiveheatfromthelamp,tubeandfixtures.

lag.

Thesensibleheatreleased(Qles)fromelectriclightsiscalculatedas:

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whereInput=totallightwattageobtainedfromtheratingsofallfixturesinstalled

Fuse = use factor defined as the ratio of wattage in use possibly at design condition to the
installationcondition

Fal = special allowance factor for fluorescent fixtures accounting for ballast loss, varying from
1.18to1.30

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CLFisafunctionof

(i)numberofhoursthatelectriclightsareswitchedon(for24hourscontinuouslighting,CLF=
1),and

(ii)typesofbuildingconstructionandfurnishings.

Therefore,CLFdependsonthemagnitudeofsurfaceandthespaceairflowrates.

4.3.2.2People

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Humanbeingsreleasebothsensibleheatandlatentheattotheconditionedspacewhentheystay
spacearecalculatedas:

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wheren=numberofpeopleintheconditionedspace

SHG=sensibleheatgainperperson(Table8)

LHG=latentheatgainperperson(Table8)

Adjusted values for total heat shown in Table 8 is for normal percentage of men, women and
children of which heat released from adult female is 85% of adult male, and that from child is
75%.

CLFforpeopleisafunctionof

(i)thetimepeoplespendingintheconditionedspace,and

(ii)thetimeelapsedsincefirstentering.

CLFisequalto1ifthespacetemperatureisnotmaintainedconstantduringthe24hourperiod.

Table 8 Heat Gain from Occupants at Various Activities (At Indoor Air Temperature of 25.5 oC)

## Athletics 585 525 185 340

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b Adjusted for latent heat of 17.6W person released from food.

4.3.2.3PowerEquipmentandAppliances

both. The estimation is not discussed in this lecture note. For more information, Chapter 26 of
ASHAREHandbook1993Fundamentalscanbereferred.

Infiltration load is a space cooling load due to the infiltrated air flowing through cracks and
openings and entering into a conditioned room under a pressure difference across the building
envelope.Theintroductionofoutdoorventilationairmustbeconsideredincombinationwiththe
infiltratedair.Table9showsthesummeroutdoordesigndrybulbandwetbulbtemperaturesat22
degreenorthlatitude.

Table9SummerOutdoorDesignDryBulbAndWetBulbTemperaturesAt22DegreeNorthLatitude

Solar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
time,
hour
Dry bulb 28.4 28.3 28.2 28.1 28.0 28.0 28.2 29.0 29.9 30.8 31.8 32.2 32.8 33.0 32.7 32.5 31.8 31.1 30.4 29.7 29.1 28.8 28.6 28.4
temp.
oC
Wet bulb 25.8 25.7 25.7 25.6 25.6 25.5 25.7 26.4 26.7 27.0 27.5 27.6 27.8 28.0 27.9 27.6 27.4 27.1 26.8 26.7 26.5 26.3 26.1 25.9
temp.
oC

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