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4CoolingLoadCalculation
4.1SpaceHeatGainandSpaceCoolingLoad

Space heat gain is the rate at which heat enters a space, or heat generated within a
spaceduringatimeinterval.

Spacecoolingloadistherateatwhichheatisremovedfromtheconditionedspaceto
maintainaconstantspaceairtemperature.

Figure3showsthedifferencebetweenthespaceheatgainandthespacecoolingload.
The difference between the space heat gain and the space cooling load is due to the
storage of a portion of radiant heat in the structure. The convective component is
convertedtospacecoolingloadinstantaneously.

???

Figure 3 Differences between Space Heat Gain and Space Cooling Load

4.2CoolingLoadTemperatureDifference(CLTD)andCoolingLoadFactor(CLF)

Coolingloadtemperaturedifferenceandcoolingloadfactorareusedtoconvertthespacesensible
heatgaintospacesensiblecoolingload.

4.2.1CoolingLoadTemperatureDifference

ThespacesensiblecoolingloadQrsiscalculatedas:

(5)

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whereA=areaofexternalwallorroof

U=overallheattransfercoefficientoftheexternalwallorroof.

CLTD values are found from tables, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, which are designed for fixed
conditionsofoutdoor/indoortemperatures,latitudes,etc.Correctionsandadjustmentsaremadeif
theconditionsaredifferent.

4.2.2CoolingLoadFactor

Thecoolingloadfactorisdefinedas:

(6)

CLFisusedtodeterminesolarloadsorinternalloads.SomeCLFvaluesareshowninTable3.

Table1CoolingLoadTemperatureDifferenceforConductionthroughWindowGlass

Solar time, hour 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


CLTD,oC 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 4 5 7 7 8 8 7 7 6 4 3 2 2 1

Thevaluesarecalculatedforaninsidetemperature(Ti)of25.5oCandoutdoordailymeantemperature(Tom)of29.4oC.

CorrectCLTD=CLTD+(25.5Ti)+(Tom29.4)

Table2CoolingLoadTemperatureDifference(40degreeNorthLatitudeinJuly)forRoof

andExternalWalls(Dark)

Solar time, hour 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


Roof 14 12 10 8 7 5 4 4 6 8 11 15 18 22 25 28 29 30 29 27 24 21 19 16
External wall 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 10 10 9

North 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 6 8 10 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 13 13 12 11 10

Northeast 11 10 8 7 6 5 5 5 7 10 13 15 17 18 18 18 18 18 17 17 16 15 13 12

East 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 5 7 10 12 14 16 17 18 18 18 17 17 16 15 14 12

Southeast 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 4 5 7 9 11 13 15 16 16 16 15 14 13 12

South 15 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 4 5 5 7 9 12 15 18 20 21 21 20 19 17

Southwest 17 15 13 12 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 5 6 6 8 10 12 17 10 11 12 11 11 19

West
14 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 15 17 18 17 16 15

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Northwest

Thevaluesarecalculatedforaninsidetemperatureof25.5oCandoutdoordailymeantemperatureof29.4oC.

Correctionvaluesfor22degreenorthlatitudeinJulyareasfollows:

Roof:+0.4oC

Wall:NNEESESSWWNW

+1.8oC+1.5oC0.4oC2.3oC3.6oC2.3oC0.4oC+1.5oC

Table3CoolingLoadFactorforWindowGlasswithIndoorShadingDevices

(NorthLatitudeandAllRoomConstruction)

Solar time, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

hour
Orientation:

North 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.73 0.66 0.65 0.73 0.80 0.86 0.89 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.75 0.78 0.91 0.24 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.10

Northeast 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.56 0.76 0.74 0.58 0.37 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03

East 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.47 0.72 0.80 0.76 0.62 0.41 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03

Southeast 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.30 0.57 0.74 0.81 0.79 0.68 0.49 0.33 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.18 0.13 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04

South 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.09 0.16 0.23 0.38 0.58 0.75 0.83 0.80 0.68 0.50 0.35 0.27 0.19 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05

Southwest 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.38 0.59 0.75 0.81 0.81 0.69 0.45 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.06

West 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.31 0.53 0.72 0.82 0.81 0.61 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06

Northwest 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.30 0.52 0.73 0.82 0.69 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06

Horizontal 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.12 0.27 0.44 0.59 0.72 0.81 0.85 0.85 0.81 0.71 0.58 0.42 0.25 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06

4.3SpaceCoolingLoads

Spacecoolingloadisclassifiedintothreecategories:

4.3.1ExternalCoolingLoads

Externalcoolingloadshavethefollowingcomponents:

4.3.1.1SolarHeatGainthroughFenestrationAreas,Qfes

(7)

whereAs=unshadedareaofwindowglass

Ash=shadedareaofwindowglass

max.SHGFsh=maximumsolarheatgainfactorfortheshadedareaonwindowglass(Table4)
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max.SHGF=maximumsolarheatgainfactorforwindowglass(Table5)

SC=shadingcoefficient(Table6)

ThecorrespondingspacecoolingloadQfsis:

(8)


Table4MaximumSolarHeatGainFactorofShadedArea

Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

SHGFsh, W/m2 98 107 114 126 137 142 142 133 117 107 101 95

Table 5 Maximum Solar Heat Gain Factor for Sunit Glass on Average Cloudness Days

Month Maximum solar heat gain factor for 22 degree north latitude, W/m2

North Northeast / East / west Southeast / South Horizontal



northwest southwest

January. 88 140 617 789 696 704

February. 97 265 704 759 578 808

March. 107 404 743 663 398 882

April 119 513 719 516 210 899

May 142 572 687 404 139 892

June 180 589 666 355 134 880

July 147 565 671 391 140 877

August 123 502 694 496 223 879

September 112 388 705 639 392 854

October 100 262 676 735 563 792

November 88 142 606 786 686 699

December 84 101 579 790 730 657

Table 6 Shading Coefficient for Window Glasses with Indoor Shading Devices

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Window Nominal Solar Shading coefficient


glass transmission
thickness,

mm

Venetian Roller shade, opaque Draperies, light colour


Medium Light Dark White Openb Closedb


Clear 3 12 0.78 0.79 0.64 0.55 0.59 0.25 0.65 0.45

Heat 56 0.46 0.57 0.53 0.45 0.30 0.49 0.38


absorbing

Heat 10 0.34 0.54 0.52 0.40 0.28


absorbing

Reflective
coated

0.25 0.23 0.23 0.21
SCa=0.30
0.33 0.29 0.33 0.28
SCa=0.40
0.42 0.38 0.41 0.34
SCa=0.50
0.50 0.44 0.49 0.38
SCa=0.60

Insulating
glass:

Clear out 6 0.80 0.57 0.51 0.60 0.25 0.56 0.42


clear in

SCa=0.84

Heat 6 0.56 0.39 0.36 0.40 0.22 0.43 0.35


absorbing
outclear
in

SCa=0.55

Reflective

SCa=0.20
6 0.80 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.16
SCa=0.30
0.27 0.26 0.27 0.25

SCa=0.40
0.34 0.33 0.36 0.29

a Shading coefficient with no shading device.

b Open weave means 40% openness, and closed weave indicate 3% openness.

Table 7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for Window Glasses

Window Glass Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K

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Summer (outdoor wind velocity = 3.33m/s) Winter (outdoor wind velocity = 6.67m/s)

3 mm 5 mm 6 mm 12 mm 3 mm 5 mm 6 mm 12 mm

thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness thickness

Singleglazed 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.3 6.1 5.7 5.4 4.6

Reflective 4.7 5.0

Doubleglazed 6mm airspace 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.8

Double glazed 12mm airspace

2.8 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.4

4.3.1.2ConductionHeatGainthroughFenestrationAreas,Qfe

Thespacecoolingloadduetotheconductionheatgainthroughfenestrationareaiscalculatedas:

(9)

whereA=fenestrationarea

U=overallheattransfercoefficientforwindowglass(Table7)

CLTD=coolingloadtemperaturedifference(Table1)

4.3.1.3ConductionHeatGainthroughRoofs(Qrs)andExternalWalls(Qws)

The space cooling load due to the conduction heat gain through roofs or external walls is
calculatedas:

(10)

whereA=areaforexternalwallsorroofs

U=overallheattransfercoefficientforexternalwallsorroof

CLTD=coolingloadtemperaturedifference(Table2)

4.3.1.4ConductionHeatGainthroughInteriorPartitions,CeilingsandFloors,Qic

The space cooling load due to the conduction heat gain through interior partitions, ceilings and
floorsiscalculatedas:

(11)
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whereA=areaforinteriorpartitions,ceilingsorfloors

U=overallheattransfercoefficientforinteriorpartitions,ceilingsorfloors

Tb=averageairtemperatureoftheadjacentarea

Ti=indoorairtemperature

4.3.2InternalCoolingLoads

4.3.2.1ElectricLighting

Space cooling load due to the heat gain from electric lights is often the major component for
commercialbuildingshavingalargerratioofinteriorzone.Electriclightscontributetosensible
loadonly.Sensibleheatreleasedfromelectriclightsisintwoforms:

(i)convectiveheatfromthelamp,tubeandfixtures.

(ii)radiationabsorbedbywalls,floors,andfurnitureandconvectedbytheambientairafteratime
lag.

Thesensibleheatreleased(Qles)fromelectriclightsiscalculatedas:

(12)

whereInput=totallightwattageobtainedfromtheratingsofallfixturesinstalled

Fuse = use factor defined as the ratio of wattage in use possibly at design condition to the
installationcondition

Fal = special allowance factor for fluorescent fixtures accounting for ballast loss, varying from
1.18to1.30

Thecorrespondingsensiblespacecoolingload(Qls)duetoheatreleasedfromelectricallightis:

(13)

CLFisafunctionof

(i)numberofhoursthatelectriclightsareswitchedon(for24hourscontinuouslighting,CLF=
1),and

(ii)typesofbuildingconstructionandfurnishings.

Therefore,CLFdependsonthemagnitudeofsurfaceandthespaceairflowrates.

4.3.2.2People

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Humanbeingsreleasebothsensibleheatandlatentheattotheconditionedspacewhentheystay
init.Thespacesensible(Qps)andlatent(Qpl)coolingloadsforpeoplestayinginaconditioned
spacearecalculatedas:

(14)

(15)

wheren=numberofpeopleintheconditionedspace

SHG=sensibleheatgainperperson(Table8)

LHG=latentheatgainperperson(Table8)

Adjusted values for total heat shown in Table 8 is for normal percentage of men, women and
children of which heat released from adult female is 85% of adult male, and that from child is
75%.

CLFforpeopleisafunctionof

(i)thetimepeoplespendingintheconditionedspace,and

(ii)thetimeelapsedsincefirstentering.

CLFisequalto1ifthespacetemperatureisnotmaintainedconstantduringthe24hourperiod.

Table 8 Heat Gain from Occupants at Various Activities (At Indoor Air Temperature of 25.5 oC)

Activity Total heat, W Sensible heat, W Latent heat, W

Adult, male Adjusted


Seated at rest 115 100 60 40

Seated, very light work, writing 140 120 65 55

Seated, eating 150 170b 75 95

Seated, light work, typing, 185 150 75 75

Standing, light work or walking slowly, 235 185 90 95

Light bench work 255 230 100 130

Light machine work 305 305 100 205

Heavy work 470 470 165 305

Moderate dancing 400 375 120 255

Athletics 585 525 185 340


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b Adjusted for latent heat of 17.6W person released from food.

4.3.2.3PowerEquipmentandAppliances

Inestimatingacoolingload,heatgainfromallheatproducingequipmentandappliancesmustbe
takenintoaccountbecausetheymaycontributetoeithersensibleorlatentloads,andsometimes
both. The estimation is not discussed in this lecture note. For more information, Chapter 26 of
ASHAREHandbook1993Fundamentalscanbereferred.

4.3.3LoadsfromInfiltrationandVentilation

Infiltration load is a space cooling load due to the infiltrated air flowing through cracks and
openings and entering into a conditioned room under a pressure difference across the building
envelope.Theintroductionofoutdoorventilationairmustbeconsideredincombinationwiththe
infiltratedair.Table9showsthesummeroutdoordesigndrybulbandwetbulbtemperaturesat22
degreenorthlatitude.

Infiltrationandventilationloadsconsistofbothsensibleandlatentcoolingloads.Eqns(3)and(4)
arevalidtoestimatethesensibleandlatentcoolingloadsrespectively.


Table9SummerOutdoorDesignDryBulbAndWetBulbTemperaturesAt22DegreeNorthLatitude

Solar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
time,
hour
Dry bulb 28.4 28.3 28.2 28.1 28.0 28.0 28.2 29.0 29.9 30.8 31.8 32.2 32.8 33.0 32.7 32.5 31.8 31.1 30.4 29.7 29.1 28.8 28.6 28.4
temp.
oC
Wet bulb 25.8 25.7 25.7 25.6 25.6 25.5 25.7 26.4 26.7 27.0 27.5 27.6 27.8 28.0 27.9 27.6 27.4 27.1 26.8 26.7 26.5 26.3 26.1 25.9
temp.
oC

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