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Judul Asli: ANALYTICAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF CURTAILED SHEAR WALL ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF HIGH RISE BUILDING

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Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=2

ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

SHEAR WALL ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF HIGH

RISE BUILDING

Birat Dev Bhatta

Graduate Student, M.Tech. (Structure), SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

G. Vimalanandan

Asst. Professor (SG), Department of Civil Engineering,

SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Dr. S. Senthilselvan

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT

Dual structural systems in high rise buildings are effective in resisting lateral loads and show

excellent performance during earthquake. In this structural system, mostly shear walls are provided

for full height of building. However, the role of shear wall in the upper portion of building in resisting

the lateral load is minimal and exclusively taken care by the frames. Hence, elimination of shear

walls in upper portion of wall frame structure is not necessarily detrimental to the seismic

performance of building. This concept has been employed in 30 storeyed symmetrical RCC building

model with curtailment of shear wall up to different height of building. Dynamic Analysis of three

dimensional models were carried out in the STAAD. Pro software.

Key words: Curtailment, Dual Structural System, Response Spectrum, Shear Wall, Special Moment

Resisting Frame

Cite This Article: Birat Dev Bhatta, G. Vimalanandan and Dr. S. Senthilselvan, Analytical Study on

Effect of Curtailed Shear Wall On Seismic Performance of High Rise Building. International Journal

of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 2017, pp. 511519.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=2

1. INTRODUCTION

Dual structural system also known as wall frame structural system is categorized by its resistance to

horizontal loading by a combined action of shear wall and special moment resisting frames (SMRF). Shear

wall is attributed by its high in-plane stiffness hence effective in resisting seismic load in high seismic zone.

Columns are designed to primarily carry the gravity loads and the shear walls are designed to carry the lateral

loads. A central core or disperse shear walls interact with frame structure through rigid floor diaphragm.

Analytical Study on Effect of Curtailed Shear Wall On Seismic Performance of High Rise Building

These systems are stiffer as compared to rigid frame system. When the wall and frame are connected together

and subjected to horizontal loading, the deflected shape of the composite structure has a flexural profile in

the lower part and shear profile in the upper part. Axial forces cause the wall to restrain the frame near the

base and the frames to restrain the wall at the top. Consequently, the upper part of the shear wall could play

negative role and may lead to unreasonable design by introducing additional internal forces to the system.

However, the location of shear walls in building remarkably affected the maximum base shear caused by

earthquake. Shear wall should be placed in such a way that centre of mass and centre of rigidity coincide at

the same point which avoid the twisting effect in building during earthquake.

Nollet and Smith [1] generalized theory for the deflection of tall wall-frame structure on the basis of a

continuum model, to show that curtailment of the walls is not necessarily detrimental to the performance

under lateral. Indeed, if the walls are curtailed within a certain height region, forces in the upper part of the

frame are reduced while top deflection is negligibly affected. Malik and Badawi et al [2] analysed the

optimum level of shear wall curtailment in wall frame building under lateral load by revisited continuum

model and found that optimum level of curtailment always lies between the point of inflection and the zero

wall shear in the corresponding full height of structure. Vikas Govalkar et al [3] analysed the effect of

curtailment of shear wall in bare frame and infill frame and concluded that infill frame is superior to the bare

frame in the sense that when shear wall provided and curtailed, the infill frame shows better results than the

bare frame. B. Smith and A. Coull [4] affirmed that the potential advantage of a wall frame structure depend

on the amount of horizontal interaction, which is governed by the relative stiffness of the walls and frames,

and the height of the structure. Ishac and Heidebrecht [5] concluded that the dynamic analysis of high rise

buildings should be a prime essential because dynamic coupling amplifies the torsional response, and static

analysis cannot adequately determine stresses and deformations.

A thirty storeyed symmetrical building has been envisaged for this study. These building models are

characterized by ductile shear wall with special RC moment resisting frame (SMRF) with provision of shear

wall at the edges and central lift core which is indicated in Fig.1. Six different prototypes are generated

with the provision of shear wall up to 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% & 50% of gross height of building as

listed in Table 1.

A rectangular plan with 25mx 20m is considered with 5 bays in longitudinal direction and 4 bays in

transverse direction. Beam with (450x600) mm and that of column with (1150x1150) are provided throughout

the building height. Slab with thickness of 150mm and shear wall with 250mm are provided. Infill wall of

thickness 230 mm are considered. The end supports of column are considered as fixed.

Birat Dev Bhatta, G. Vimalanandan and Dr. S. Senthilselvan

Building Prototype Height of Shear Wall

S-100 100% height of frame

S-90 90% height of frame

S-80 80% height of frame

S-70 70% height of frame

S-60 60% height of frame

S-50 50% height of frame

3. METHOD OF ANALYSIS

The analysis of three dimensional building models was performed by the STAAD.Pro software as per IS

1893: 2000 (part-I). Frame is modelled as the special moment resisting frame with response reduction factor

of 5. Shear walls are modelled as a surface elements and the all the floor diaphragms are considered as rigid.

The effect of infill walls in resisting lateral load is ignored. Building is assumed to be situated in zone-V as

per codal provision. Building is categorized as general building with importance factor 1.0 with damping as

5%. The dead load and live load on building is assumed as 4.75 KN/m2 and 4 KN/m2 respectively as per IS

857 (Part-II). The seismic weight is calculated using full dead load and 50% of live load with no live load is

considered at the top storey. The dynamic analysis of building is carried out using a response spectrum

method. The load combination of different categories of load is performed as per guidelines in Clauses 6.3

of IS 1893 (Part I): 2000. Based on the guide lines in Clause 7.3 and Clause 7.8.2 of same code, the seismic

weight of the building and the corresponding base shear correction are performed.

Analysis of six different models were performed based on displacement, storey drift, bending moment, shear

force and axial forces which are presented as below. Frame 1-1 and 2-2 are assumed to represent the overall

behaviour of building model due to symmetrical nature of building. However, graphical presentations of S-

100, S-50 and S-80 models are only presented in this report for clarity.

Analytical Study on Effect of Curtailed Shear Wall On Seismic Performance of High Rise Building

Dual frame structural system resist the lateral load by the combine action of shear wall and the frame

structures. Analysis of models shows that around 70% of base shear is resisted by the shear wall frame and

remaining 30% of base shear is resisted by the remaining frame in all six models. The graphical representation

of this distribution of base shear is shown in fig. no.2.

10000

Base Shear (KN)

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

S-100 S-90 S-80 S-70 S-60 S-50

The lateral displacement of building at the top storey in contrast to S-100 decreases by 2.1%, 3.4% and 2.2%

in S-90, S-80 and S-70 whereas increases by 1.7% and 8.1% in S-60 and S-50. Curtailment of shear wall at

80% of building height shows least displacement as compared to full height of building as shown in Fig.1.

This is affirms that interruption of shear wall at the optimum level eliminates the reverse force and minimize

the deflection.

Inter storey drift of each model is calculated as per codal provision which demands the use of un-factor load

combination and whose value should not exceeds 0.004 times the storey height. The values of inter storey

drift in all the model are within permissible limit. Results show that inter storey drift in S-80 is minimum

than S-100 followed by S-90. Whereas the inter storey drift increases with S-70, S-60, S-50 as shown in

Fig.4. Analysis reveals that after the maximum inter-storey drift its value decreases with height.

Birat Dev Bhatta, G. Vimalanandan and Dr. S. Senthilselvan

30 30

S-100

28 28

26 S-80 26

24 S-50 24

22 22 S-100

STOREY NUMBER

20 20

S-80

18 18

S-50

STOREY NUMBER

16 16

14 14

12 12

10 10

8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3 3.3

Bending moment of beams in frame1-1 & frame 2-2 shows identical shape with varying magnitude as shown

in fig. 5 and Fig.6. In both frames, bending moment at top storey in S-100 is more than other models but

there is increment in bending moment at the location of termination of shear wall. Variation in the magnitude

of the bending moment in frame 1-1 to frame 2-2 is due to the presence of shear wall in frame 1-1 which

attracts more lateral load. There is a transition from flexural model to shear model at point of absolute

maximum bending moment. In both the frame, S-80 follows the same bending moment as of S-100 and there

is significant reduction in bending moment at the upper portion in S-80 in contrast to S-100.

30

S-100 30

28 S-100

S-80 28

26 S-80

S-50 26

24 S-50

24

22

22

20

STOREY NUMBER

20

STOREY NUMBER

18

18

16

16

14

14

12

12

10

10

8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Bending Moment (KNm) Bending Moment (KNm)

Figure 5 Bending Moment of Beam in 1-1 Figure 6 Bending Moment of Beam in 2-2

Analytical Study on Effect of Curtailed Shear Wall On Seismic Performance of High Rise Building

There is linear variation in axial force of column in all models with respect to height of building in both

frames 1-1 and 2-2 as shown in fig. 8 & Fig.9. However there is sharp change in the value of axial force in

models where curtailment is carried out. S-80 Models have followed almost same bending moment as of S-

100 despite of curtailment of shear wall. But in S-70, S-60 & S-50 the value of bending moment goes on

increasing at the termination level respectively. Curtailment of shear up wall does not necessarily pose any

change in axial force in column in frame 2-2. Obviously, the magnitude of the axial force in frame 1-1 is

more than frame 2-2 due to the presence of shear wall. The axial force in S-100 model at the bottom in frame

1-1 is 2000 KN as compared to frame 2-2. Fig. 7 & Fig. 8 affirms that there is no any change in the value

of axial force at the top storey even after successive curtailment of shear wall.

30 30

S-100 S-100

28 28

S-80 S-80

26 26

S-50 S-50

24 24

22 22

20 20

STOREY HEIGHT

18 STOREY NUMBER 18

16 16

14 14

12 12

10 10

8 8

6

6

4

4

2

2

0

0

0 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 24000

1000 4000 7000 10000 13000 16000 19000

Axial Force (KN) Axial Force (KN)

Figure 7 Axial Force in Column in frame 1-1 Figure 8 Axial Force in Column in frame 2-2

The variation of maximum bending moment in column is due to the interaction between structural wall and

frame. Structural wall being stiff at the bottom storey attract more bending moment. However at the top

storey, bending moment increases due to the negative role of shear wall in resisting lateral load as indicated

by Fig.10 & Fig.11.

Birat Dev Bhatta, G. Vimalanandan and Dr. S. Senthilselvan

30 30

S-100 S-100

28 28

S-80 S-80

26 26

S-50 S-50

24 24

22 22

STOREY NUMBER

20 20

18 18

STOREY NUMBER

16 16

14 14

12 12

10 10

8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 200 350 500 650 800 950 1100 1250

Bending Moment (KNm) Bending Moment (KNm)

Shear force in a column in both frame 1-1 and 2-2 have max value at the level of termination of shear wall

in all the cases as shown in Fig.11 & Fig.12. Shear force at top storey decreases with the level of curtailment

of shear wall. Comparative model analysis shows that S-80 model has the minimum Shear Force. Shear force

at the second storey change abruptly and is counter balanced by the shear wall which is being very stiff at

the lower level.

30 30

28 28

26 26

24 24

22 22

STOREY NUMBER

20

STOREY NUMBER

20

18 18

16 16

14 14

12 12

10 10

8 8

6 6

S-100 S-100

4 4

S-80 S-80

2 2

S-50 S-50

0 0

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Shear Force (KN) Shear Force (KN)

Figure 11 Shear Force of Column in frame1-1 Figure 12 Shear Force of Column in frame2-2

Analytical Study on Effect of Curtailed Shear Wall On Seismic Performance of High Rise Building

5. CONCLUSIONS

Dynamic analysis of wall frame structure was performed with varying level of curtailment of shear wall in

building models. Comparative analyses of models were carried in terms of storey drift, lateral displacement,

bending moment, shear force and axial force which are summarized as below.

In all the models, around 70% of total base shear is resisted by the shear wall which signifies the characteristic

dual frame system. Even after the curtailment of the shear wall in various levels, there is no significant change

in the time period of building.

The inter storey drift results affirms that shear wall curtailment up to one fourth of building height reduces

inter storey drift and lateral displacement of building at the top storey. Inter storey drift increases with further

reduction of shear wall height in building.

There is significant reduction in the bending moment of beam at the top storey with increasing level of

curtailment of shear wall which indicates that shear wall plays negative role at the top storey of building in

resisting the lateral load. However, significant increment in bending moment can be observed at the junction

of curtailment of shear wall. But this increment in value is insignificance in case of 80% curtailment of shear

wall.

There is no significant change in the axial force at the top and bottom of building models in the column even

after the curtailment of shear wall. However, there is sharp increment in value at the junction of curtailment of

shear wall in external frame. Interestingly, there is no change in value of axial force in column in internal frame

despite the curtailment of shear wall at different level.

Bending moment of the column decreases with the increment in the level of curtailment at the top storey and

remains constant at the bottom storey in all the model. However, this value increases with the level of

curtailment at the junction. It is evident from the graph that curtailment of shear wall up to 80% of building

height dont have detrimental effect on the bending moment of the column.

Shear force in the column decreases with the level of curtailment of shear wall at top storey and value remain

constant at the ground storey. However, there is sharp increment in shear force at the junction of termination

of shear wall with its decreasing height. This increment in the shear force at the junction in S-80 is minimum

with respect to other model and which is even less than the shear force of S-100 top at top storey.

Hence, Dynamic analysis of building models with curtailment of shear wall at different levels reveal that

curtailment up to one fourth height of 30 storey building has ideal performance against seismic load. So, it

also affirms that curtailment of shear wall ultimately reduces the cost of structure and improves the seismic

performance of building.

REFERENCES

[1] Nollet M.J. (1991). Behavior of wall frame structures: A Study of the interactive behavior of continuous

and discontinuous wall-frame structures. Ph.D. thesis, McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada.

[2] Malik Atik, Badawi, Isam Shahrour. (2014). Optimum level of shear wall curtailment in wall-frame

buildings J.Stru.Eng., 2014, 140(1): 06013005.

[3] Vikas Govalkar, P.J. Salunke, N.G. Gore. (2014). Effect of curtailment of shear wall in bare and infilled

frame. IJESE.,ISSN: 2319-6378, Volume -2 Issue-9, July 2014.

[4] B.S. Smith, A. Coull. (1991). Tall building structures, Analysis and design. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

page.255.

[5] N. Subramanian (2015). Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. Oxford University Press.page.644-

645.

Birat Dev Bhatta, G. Vimalanandan and Dr. S. Senthilselvan

[6] Dr. S. B. Shinde and N.B. Raut, Effect of Change in Thicknesses and Height in Shear Wall on Deflection

of Multistoried Buildings. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 7(6), 2016, pp.587

591.

[7] S.P.Pawar, Dr.C.P.Pise, Y.P.Pawar, S.S.Kadam, D. D. Mohite, C. M. Deshmukh and N. K. Shelar, Effect

of Positioning of RC Shear Walls of Different Shapes on Seismic Performance of Building Resting On

Sloping Ground. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 2016, pp.373384

[8] T. Chrysanidis, V. Panoskaltsis and I. Tegos, Preliminary Design and Analysis of Cost Parameters of a

High-Rise Building: Braced Shear Wall Core System. International Journal of Civil Engineering and

Technology, 7(5), 2016, pp.137152

[9] K Venkatesh and T. Venkatdas, Study On Seismic Effect of High Rise Building Shear Wall/Wall Without

Shear Wall, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(1), 2017, pp. 852862.

[10] M.Ishac, and A. Heidebrecht, Dynamic Response of Asymmetric shear wall frame building structure,

7th World Conference Proceedings Earthquake Engg. Symposium London, Vol. 2, 1977.

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