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Designation: A 307 02

Standard Specification for

Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 307; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope * 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded

1.1 This specification2 covers the chemical and mechanical as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for
requirements of three grades of carbon steel bolts and studs in information only.
sizes 14 in. (6.35 mm) through 4 in. (104 mm). The fasteners 1.5 Supplementary Requirement S1 of an optional nature is
are designated by Grade denoting tensile strength and provided, which describes additional restrictions to be applied
intended use, as follows: when bolts are to be welded. It shall apply only when specified
Grade Description
in the inquiry, order, and contract.

Grade A Bolts and studs having a 2. Referenced Documents

minimum tensile strength of
60 ksi (414 MPa) and in-
2.1 ASTM Standards:
tended for general applica- A 36/A 36M Specification for Carbon Structural Steel3
tions, A 153 Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and
Grade B Bolts and studs having a
tensile strength of 60 to 100
Steel Hardware4
ksi (414 to 690 MPa) and A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing
intended for flanged joints in of Steel Products5
piping systems with cast iron
flanges, and A 563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts6
Grade C Nonheaded anchor bolts, A 706/A706M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed
either bent or straight, hav- Bars for Concrete Reinforcement3
ing properties conforming to
Specification A 36 (tensile A 751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for
strength of 58 to 80 ksi (400 Chemical Analysis of Steel Products5
to 550 MPa)) and intended B 695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically
for structural anchorage pur-
poses. Deposited on Iron and Steel7
D 3951 Practice for Commercial Packaging8
1.1.1 The term studs includes stud stock, sometimes re- F 606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Prop-
ferred to as threaded rod. erties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners,
1.2 This specification does not cover requirements for Washers, and Rivets6
machine screws, thread cutting/forming screws, mechanical F 1470 Guide for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechani-
expansion anchors or similar externally threaded fasteners. cal Properties and Performance Inspection6
1.3 Suitable nuts are covered in Specification A 563. Unless 2.2 ANSI/ASME Standards:
otherwise specified, the grade and style of nut for each grade of B 1.1 Unified Screw Threads9
fastener, of all surface finishes, shall be as follows: B 18.2.1 Square and Hex Bolts and Screws9
Fastener Grade and Size Nut Grade and StyleA
A, C, 14 to 112 in. A, hex
B 18.24.1 Part Identifying Number (PIN) Code System10
A, C, over 112 to 4 in. A, heavy hex 2.3 Military Standard:
B, 14 to 4 in. A, heavy hex
Nuts of other grades and styles having specified proof load stresses (Speci-
fication A 563, Table 3) greater than the specified grade and style of nut are also
suitable. 3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.04.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.06.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03.
1 6
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F16 on Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.08.
Fasteners and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F16.02 on Steel Bolts, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05.
Nuts, Rivets, and Washers. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.09.
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 2002. Published November 2002. Originally Available from American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd St., 13th
published as A 307 47 T. Last previous edition A 307 00. Floor, New York, NY 10036.
2 10
For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi- Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Three Park
cation SA-307 in Section II of that Code. Avenue, New York, NY 100165990.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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A 307 02
MIL-STD 105 Single Sampling Plan for Normal Inspec- Threaded components (bolts and nuts) shall be coated by the
tion11 same zinc-coating process and the suppliers option is limited
to one process per item with no mixed processes in a lot.
3. Ordering Information
3.1 Orders for externally threaded fasteners (including nuts 5. Chemical Composition
and accessories) under this specification shall include the 5.1 Grade A and B bolts and studs shall have a heat analysis
following: conforming to the requirements specified in Table 1 based on
3.1.1 ASTM designation and year of issue, the steel producers heat analysis.
3.1.2 Name of product, bolts or studs; and bolt head style, 5.2 The purchaser shall have the option of conducting
that is, hex or heavy hex, product analyses on finished bolts in each lot, which shall
3.1.3 Grade, that is, A, or B, or C. If no grade is specified, conform to the product analysis specified in Table 1.
Grade A is furnished. 5.3 In case of conflict or for referee purposes, the product
3.1.4 Quantities (number of pieces by size including nuts), analysis shall take precedence.
3.1.5 Fastener size and length, 5.4 Bolts and studs are customarily furnished from stock, in
3.1.6 WashersQuantity and size (separate from bolts), which case individual heats of steel cannot be identified.
3.1.7 Zinc CoatingSpecify the zinc-coating process re- 5.5 Application of heats of steel to which bismuth, sele-
quired, for example, hot-dip, mechanically deposited, or no nium, tellurium, or lead has been intentionally added shall not
preference (see 4.5). be permitted for Grade B bolts and studs.
3.1.8 Other FinishesSpecify other protective finish, if 5.6 Chemical analyses shall be performed in accordance
required. with Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology A 751.
3.1.9 Specify if inspection at point of manufacture is re-
quired, 6. Mechanical Properties
3.1.10 Specify if certified test report is required (see 8.2), 6.1 Grades A and B bolts and studs shall conform to the
and hardness specified in Table 2.
3.1.11 Specify additional testing (8.3) or special require- 6.2 Grade A and B bolts and studs 1 in. in diameter or less,
ments. other than those excepted in 6.4, shall be tested full size and
3.1.12 For establishment of a part identifying system, see shall conform to the requirements for tensile strength specified
ASME B18.24.1. in Table 3.
6.3 Grade A and B bolts and studs larger than 1 in. in
4. Materials and Manufacture diameter, other than those excepted in 6.4, shall preferably be
4.1 Steel for bolts and studs shall be made by the open- tested full size and when equipment of sufficient capacity is
hearth, basic-oxygen, or electric-furnace process. available and shall conform to the requirements for tensile
4.2 Bolts shall be produced by hot or cold forging of the strength specified in Table 3. When equipment of sufficient
heads or machining from bar stock. capacity for full-size bolt testing is not available, or when the
4.3 Heat Treatment: length of the bolt makes full-size testing impractical, machined
4.3.1 Cold headed fasteners with head configurations other specimens shall be tested and shall conform to the require-
than hex shall be stress relief annealed. ments specified in Table 4.
4.3.2 Stress relieving of hex head fasteners shall be at the 6.4 Grades A and B bolts and studs less than three diameters
manufacturers option. in length or bolts with drilled or undersize heads are not subject
4.4 Bolt and stud threads shall be rolled or cut. to tensile tests.
4.5 Zinc Coatings, Hot-Dip and Mechanically Deposited: 6.5 Grade C nonheaded anchor bolts shall be tested using
4.5.1 When zinc-coated fasteners are required, the pur- machined specimens and shall conform to the tensile properties
chaser shall specify the zinc-coating process, for example hot specified for bars in Specification A 36. Properties are shown in
dip, mechanically deposited, or no preference. Table 4 for information. In the event of conflict Specification
4.5.2 When hot-dip is specified, the fasteners shall be A 36 shall control.
zinc-coated by the hot-dip process in accordance with the 6.6 In the event that bolts are tested by both full size and by
requirements of Class C of Specification A 153. machine test specimen methods, the full-size test shall govern
4.5.3 When mechanically deposited is specified, the fasten- if a controversy between the two methods exists.
ers shall be zinc-coated by the mechanical-deposition process
in accordance with the requirements of Class 50 of Specifica-
TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements for Grades A and B Bolts and
tion B 695. Studs
4.5.4 When no preference is specified, the supplier may
Heat Analysis Product Analysis
furnish either a hot-dip zinc coating in accordance with Carbon, max 0.29 0.33
Specification A 153, Class C or a mechanically deposited zinc Manganese, max 0.90 0.93
Phosphorus, max 0.04 0.041
coating in accordance with Specification B 695, Class 50. Sulfur, max
Grade A 0.15
Grade B 0.05 0.051
11 A
Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, Resulfurized steel is not subject to rejection based on product analysis for
700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS. sulfur.

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A 307 02
TABLE 2 Hardness Requirements for Bolts and Studs TABLE 4 Tensile Requirements for Machined Specimens

Grade Length, in. HardnessA Grade A Grade B Grade C

Brinell Rockwell B Tensile strength, ksi 60 min 60100 5880
Yield point, min ksi ... ... 36
min max min max Elongation in 2 in., 18 18 23
A Less than 3 3 diaB 121 241 69 100 min, %
3 3 dia and longer ... 241 ... 100
B Less than 3 3 diaB 121 212 69 95
3 3 dia and longer ... 212 ... 95
C All No hardness required 7.2 Unless otherwise specified, Grade A bolts shall be hex
As measured anywhere on the surface or through the cross section. bolts with dimensions as given in the latest issue of ANSI/
Also bolts with drilled or undersize heads. These sizes and bolts with modified ASME B18.2.1. Unless otherwise specified, Grade B bolts
heads shall meet the minimum and maximum hardness as hardness is the only
requirement. shall be heavy hex bolts with dimensions as given in the latest
issue of ANSI/ASME B18.2.1.
TABLE 3 Tensile Requirements for Full-Size Bolts and Studs 7.3 Unless otherwise specified, bolts and studs to be used
with nuts or tapped holes which have been tapped oversize, in
Bolt Threads Stress Tensile Strength, lbfB accordance with Specification A 563, shall have Class 2A
Size, per inch Area,A threads before hot-dip or mechanically deposited zinc coating.
Grade Grade B
in. in.2
A, minC After zinc coating the maximum limit of pitch and major
minD maxD
diameter shall not exceed the Class 2A maximum limit by more

14 20 0.0318 1 900 1 900 3 180

5 16 18 0.0524 3 100 3 100 5 240 than the following amounts:
38 16 0.0775 4 650 4 650 7 750 Diameter, in. Oversize Limit, in. (mm)A

716 14 0.1063 6 350 6 350 10 630
14 0.016
516, 38 0.017

12 13 0.1419 8 500 8 500 14 190 716, 12 0.018

9 16 12 0.182 11 000 11 000 18 200 916 to 34, incl 0.020

58 11 0.226 13 550 13 550 22 600 78 0.022
34 10 0.334 20 050 20 050 33 400 1.0 to 114, incl 0.024
78 9 0.462 27 700 27 700 46 200 138, 112 0.027
134 to 4.0, incl 0.050
1 8 0.606 36 350 36 350 60 600 A
118 7 0.763 45 800 45 800 76 300 These values are the same as the overtapping required for zinc-coated nuts in
114 7 0.969 58 150 58 150 96 900 Specification A 563.
138 6 1.155 69 300 69 300 115 500 7.4 The gaging limit for bolts and studs shall be verified
during manufacture or use by assembly of a nut tapped as
112 6 1.405 84 300 84 300 140 500
134 5 1.90 114 000 114 000 190 000 nearly as practical to the amount oversize shown above. In case
2 4 2.50 150 000 150 000 250 000 of dispute, a calibrated thread ring gage of that same size
214 4 3.25 195 000 195 000 325 000 (Class X tolerance, gage tolerance plus) shall be used. Assem-
212 4 4.00 240 000 240 000 400 000 bly of the gage, or the nut described above, must be possible
234 4 4.93 295 800 295 800 493 000 with hand effort following application of light machine oil to
3 4 5.97 358 200 358 200 597 000 prevent galling and damage to the gage. These inspections,
314 4 7.10 426 000 426 000 710 000
when performed to resolve disputes, shall be performed at the
312 4 8.33 499 800 499 800 833 000 frequency and quality described in Table 5.
334 4 9.66 579 600 579 600 966 000
4 4 11.08 664 800 664 800 1 108 000 8. Number of Tests and Retests
Area calculated from the equation:
As= 0.7854 [D (0.9743/n)]2
8.1 The requirements of this specification shall be met in
where: continuous mass production for stock, and the manufacturer
As = stress area, shall make sample inspections to ensure that the product
D = nominal diameter of bolt, and conforms to the specified requirements. Additional tests of
n = threads per inch.
1 lbf = 4.448 N.
Based on 60 ksi (414 MPa).
TABLE 5 Sample Sizes and Acceptance Numbers for Inspection
Based on 60100 ksi (414690 MPa). of Hot-Dip or Mechanically Deposited Zinc-Coated Threads

Lot Size Sample SizeA,B Acceptance NumberA

6.7 For bolts and studs on which both hardness and tension 2 to 90 13 1
tests are performed, acceptance based on tensile requirements 91 to 150 20 2
shall take precedence in the event that there is controversy over 151 to 280 32 3
281 to 500 50 5
low readings of hardness tests. 501 to 1 200 80 7
1 201 to 3 200 125 10
7. Dimensions 3 201 to 10 000 200 14
10 001 and over 315 21
7.1 Unless otherwise specified, threads shall be the Coarse A
Sample sizes of acceptance numbers are extracted from Single Sampling
Thread Series as specified in the latest issue of ANSI/ASME Plan for Normal Inspection, Table IIA, MIL-STD-105.
B1.1, and shall have a Class 2A tolerance. B
Inspect all bolts in the lot if the lot size is less than the sample size.

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A 307 02
individual shipments of material are not ordinarily contem- organization that supplies the fastener to the purchaser and
plated. Individual heats of steel are not identified in the finished certifies that the fastener was manufactured, sampled, tested
product. and inspected in accordance with this specification and meets
8.2 When specified in the order, the manufacturer shall all of its requirements.
furnish a test report certified to be the last completed set of
mechanical tests for each stock size in each shipment. 12. Rejection and Rehearing
8.3 When additional tests are specified on the purchase 12.1 Disposition of nonconforming lots shall be in accor-
order, a lot, for purposes of selecting test samples, shall consist dance with Guide F 1470, specifically sections on disposition
of all material offered for inspection at one time that has the of nonconforming lots, suppliers option, and purchasers option.
following common characteristics:
8.3.1 One type of item, 13. Product Marking
8.3.2 One nominal size, and
13.1 Grades A and B Bolts and Studs:
8.3.3 One nominal length of bolts and studs.
13.1.1 Bolt heads and one end of studs shall be marked with
8.4 From each lot, the number of tests for each requirement
a unique identifier by the manufacturer to identify the manu-
shall be as follows:
facturer or private label distributor, as appropriate. Additional
Number of Pieces in Lot Number of Samples
800 and under 1 marking required by the manufacturer for his own use shall be

801 to 8 000 2 at the option of the manufacturer.
8 001 to 22 000 3 13.1.2 In addition to the requirements of 13.1, all bolt heads,
Over 22 000 5
one end of studs " in. and larger, and whenever feasible studs
8.5 If any machined test specimen shows defective machin- less than " in. shall be marked with a grade marking as
ing it shall be discarded and another specimen substituted. follows:
8.6 Should any sample fail to meet the requirements of a Grade Marking
specified test, double the number of samples from the same lot A 307A
shall be tested, in which case all of the additional samples shall B 307B

meet the specification. 13.1.3 All markings shall be located on the top of the bolt
9. Test Methods head or stud end and shall be raised or depressed at the option
of the manufacturer.
9.1 Grades A and B bolts and studs shall be tested in 13.2 Grade C Anchor Bolts:
accordance with Test Methods F 606. 13.2.1 The end of Grade C anchor bolts intended to project
9.2 Grade C nonheaded anchor bolts shall have machined from the concrete shall be color coded green.
specimen tension tests made on the bolt body or on the bar
13.2.2 When permanent marking of manufacturers identi-
stock used for making the anchor bolts. Tests on finished
fication and grade identification is required, Supplementary
anchor bolts shall be made in accordance with Test Methods
Requirements S2 and S3 shall be specified.
F 606 and tests on bar stock in accordance with Specification
13.3 Grade and manufacturers or private label distributors
A 36 and Test Methods A 370.
identification shall be separate and distinct. The two identifi-
9.3 Standard square and hex head bolts only shall be tested
cations shall preferably be in different locations and, when on
by the wedge tension method except as noted in 6.4. Fracture
the same level, shall be separated by at least two spaces.
shall be in the body or threads of the bolt without any fracture
at the junction of the head and body. Other headed bolts shall
14. Packaging and Package Marking
be tested by the axial tension method.
9.4 Speed of testing as determined with a free running 14.1 Packaging:
crosshead shall be a maximum of 1 in. (25.4 mm)/min for the 14.1.1 Unless otherwise specified, packaging shall be in
tensile strength tests of bolts. accordance with Practice D 3951.
14.1.2 When special packaging requirements are required,
10. Inspection they shall be defined at the time of the inquiry and order.
10.1 If the inspection described in 10.2 is required by the 14.2 Package Marking:
purchaser it shall be specified in the inquiry, order, or contract. 14.2.1 Each shipping unit shall include or be plainly marked
10.2 The inspector representing the purchaser shall have with the following information:
free entry to all parts of the manufacturers works that concern ASTM designation and grade,
the manufacture of the material ordered. The manufacturer Size,
shall afford the inspector all reasonable facilities to satisfy him Name and brand or trademark of the manufacturer,
that the material is being furnished in accordance with this Number of pieces,
specification. All tests and inspections required by the specifi- Purchase order number,
cation that are requested by the purchasers representative shall Country of origin.
be made before shipment, and shall be conducted as not to
interfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works.
15. Keywords
11. Responsibility 15.1 bolts; carbon steel; steel; studs
11.1 The party responsible for the fastener shall be the

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A 307 02


The following supplementary requirement shall apply only when specified in the purchase order or

S1. Bolts Suitable for Welding carbon equivalent (CE) not exceeding 0.55 when calculated as
S1.1 The material described in this section is intended for follows:
welding. This supplemental section, by additional chemical CE = % C +
composition restrictions and by a carbon equivalent formula, % Mn % Cu % Ni % Cr % Mo % V
provides assurance of weldability by chemical composition 6 1 40 1 20 1 10 2 50 2 10
S1.2 Welding technique is of fundamental importance when S1.6 Analysis ReportsIf requested on the order or con-
bolts produced to this supplementary section are welded. It is tract, the chemical composition of each heat of steel used and
presupposed that suitable welding procedures for the steel the calculated carbon equivalent for each heat shall be reported
being welded and the intended service will be selected. to the purchaser.
S1.3 All of the requirements of this supplemental section S1.7 Product (Check) Verification AnalysisChemical
apply in addition to all of the chemical, mechanical, and other analyses when made by the purchaser or a representative on
requirements of the base specification, Specification A 307 for bolts from each heat of steel, shall not exceed the values
Grade B. specified in S1.5.2 by more than the following amounts:
S1.4 Because of the embrittling effects of welding tempera- %
tures on cold-forged steel, this supplemental section is limited Carbon +0.03
to hot-forged bolts, or, if not forged, then to bolts produced Manganese +0.06
Phosphorus +0.008
from hot-rolled bars without forging or threaded bars, bars Sulfur +0.008
studs, or stud bolts produced from hot-rolled bars without Silicon +0.05
forging. Cold-forged bolts, or cold-drawn threaded bars, if they
are given a thermal treatment by heating to a temperature of not S2. Permanent Manufacturers Identification
less than 1500F (815C) and air-cooled are also suitable. S2.1 The end of the anchor bolt intended to project from the
S1.5 Chemical Requirements: concrete shall be steel die stamped with the manufacturers
S1.5.1 Heat Chemical AnalysisMaterial conforming to identification.
the following additional analysis limitations shall be used to
NOTE For marking small sizes, customarily less than " in., consult
manufacture the product described in this supplementary
the anchor bolt manufacturer for the minimum size capable of being
requirement. marked.

Carbon 0.30 %, max

Manganese 1.00 %, max S3. Permanent Grade Identification
Phosphorus 0.04 %, max
Sulfur 0.05 %, max S3.1 The end of the anchor bolt intended to project from the
Silicon 0.50 %, max
concrete shall be steel die stamped with the Grade identifica-
S1.5.2 Carbon Equivalent (SourceSpecification A 706/ tion 307C.
A 706M)In addition to the heat chemical analysis require- S3.2 The requirements in S2.1 for marking small sizes shall
ments in S1.5.1, the heat analysis shall be such as to provide a also apply to Supplementary Requirement S3.


This section identifies the location of selected changes to this standard that have been incorporated since the
00 issue. For the convenience of the user, Committee F16 has highlighted those changes that impact the use of
this standard. This section may also include descriptions of the changes or reasons for the changes, or both.

(1) Deleted the metric units from Table 4. (2) Corrected the carbon equivalent formula for nickel in

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