Anda di halaman 1dari 51

0401592

Electrical
Substations
Proposed by: Prof. Abdullah Al-Odienat
2nd Semeter, 2016/2017

Course Description
The electric power substation, whether generating station
or transmission and distribution, remains one of the most
challenging and exciting fields of electric power
engineering. Recent technological developments have had
tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and
operation. The objective of Electric Power Substations
Engineering is to provide an extensive overview of
substations, as well as a reference and guide for its study.
The course is designed to help students to understand the
substation structure, components, design and safety.
Course outline
Introduction to substation
Definition
Role of substations in a power network
Types of substations

Substation configurations
Common configurations
Single bus with sectionaliser
Single main bus with transfer bus scheme
Dual main and transfer bus
Air-Insulated Substations (AIS)
Gas-Insulated Substations (GIS)
Breaker and half scheme
Introduction
Double breaker and double bus scheme
Substation equipment and ratings
System studies for substation design
Introduction to disconnectors and circuit breakers
Layout of substation
Requirements of capacitor bank outdoor
MV substation design and specifications
Sizing of main equipment of MV substations
Supply to MV substations
Layout of typical MV indoor substation
Network connections
Substation sizing Main equipment
HV incoming supply
Operating requirements of substation
A substation is a part of an
electrical generation, transmission,
and distribution system.

Substations transform voltage from high to low, or


the reverse, or perform any of several other
important functions. Between the generating station
and consumer, electric power may flow through
several substations at different voltage levels. A
substation may include transformers to change
voltage levels between high transmission voltages
and lower distribution voltages, or at the
interconnection of two different transmission
voltages.
Substations may be owned and
operated by an electrical utility,
or may be owned by a large
industrial or commercial
customer. Generally substations
are unattended, relying
on SCADA for remote
supervision and control.
The word substation comes from the
days before the distribution system
became a grid. As central generation
stations became larger, smaller
generating plants were converted to
distribution stations, receiving their
energy supply from a larger plant
instead of using their own generators
Substations may be described by their
voltage class, their applications within the
power system, the method used to
insulate most connections, and by the
style and materials of the structures used.
These categories are not disjointed; for
example, to solve a particular problem, a
transmission substation may include
significant distribution functions.
Introduction
Sub Stations are important link between Generating
stations and Distribution networks.
They step down the EHV to HV as per the requirement
of the customers.
Stability of the system, reliability of power depends on
the type of layout chosen and components used in the
sub stations.
Hence great care has to be taken to select the layout
and critical equipment for the SS.
Electrical substations and switchyard
Functions of a substation
Supply electric power to consumers continuously
Supply of electric power within specified voltage
limits
Shortest possible fault duration
Optimum efficiency of electrical network
Supply of electrical energy to consumers at
lowest cost
Power network

TS Terminal substation
ZS Zone substation
Substation types
Based on service
Transformer Substation Transform
power from one voltage to another voltage
Switching Substation Switching of
power lines without transforming voltages
Converting Substation Conversion of
AC - DC AC (for HVDC transmission)
Based on voltage
High voltage Substation - 11kV
and 66kV
Extra high voltage Substation -
132kV and 400kV
Ultra high voltage Substation
Voltages above 400kV
Based on installation
Outdoor Substation
Indoor Substation (Air insulated or gas
insulated)
Usually for < 66kV
Heavily polluted areas
Adverse climatic conditions
Need for high reliability
Space constraints
TYPES OF SUBSTATIONS
ON THE BASIS OF SERVICE ON THE BASIS OF
REQUIREMENT CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES

TRANSFORMER SUBSTATION
OUTDOOR SUBSTATION

SWITCHING SUBSTATION
INDOOR SUBSTATION
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
SUBSTATION

UNDERGROUND SUBSTATION
FREQUENCY CHANGER SUBSTATION

POLE MOUNTED SUBSTATION


INDUSTRIAL SUBSTATION

CONVERTING SUBSTATION
TRANSFORMER SUBSTATION:
Those substations which change the voltage
level are called transformer substation.
SWITCHING SUBSTATION:
These type of substations simply perform the
switching operation of power lines.
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
SUBSTATION:
Those sub-stations which
Improve the power factor
Of the system are called
Power factor correction
Substation.
These are
Generally located at the
Receiving end of transmission
lines.
They generally use synchronous
condensors as power factor
improvement equipment
CONVERTING SUBSTATION:
Use to convert ac power into dc power by
using static converting devices like SCRs.
Used for traction, electroplating and welding.
OUTDOOR SUB-STATION:
We prefer this type of substation when voltage is
above 66kv , because for such voltage the clearance
between conductor and the space required for
switches,C.B., and other equipement becomes so great
that it is not economical to install the equipment
indoor.
Indoor Air insulated
Indoor Gas insulated
INDOOR SUB-STATION:
UNDER GROUND SUB-STATION:
This type of sub-station is prefered in highly
populated areas, where the space available is
limited and costly too.
POLE MOUNTED SUB-STATION:
This is an outdoor sub-station with equipment
installed overhead on H-pole or 4-pole structure
Used for voltages upto 11kv (33kv in some cases) .
Outdoor
GAS INSULATED
SUBSTATION
Planning criteria
Load forecast (average load, peak load, base load, etc.)
Security of supply (frequency and duration of outages)
Power quality (harmonics, voltage flickers, BIL, etc.)
Voltage limits (permissible voltage drop, etc.)
Site conditions (IP rating(Ingress Protection), soil resistivity, etc.)
System safety
System flexibility
System reliability
System earthing
System protection
Substation engineering is a complex
multidiscipline engineering function.
It could include the following engineering
disciplines:
Environmental
Civil
Mechanical
Structural
Electricalhigh voltage
Protection and controls
Communications
Principles of design
General requirements

Installation and equipment shall be capable of


withstanding electrical, mechanical, climatic and
environmental influences anticipated at site
Design should take into account:
Purpose of the installation
End customers requirements such as power quality,
reliability, availability
Ability to withstand effects of transient conditions
Switching large loads, short power outages and re-
energization
Safety of substation personnel and the public
Ease of extension (if required) and maintenance
Approach to substation design
Collect field level data
Projection of future growth
Analyze data for optimized location of substation
Decide on basic system parameters
Decide substation configuration
Arrive at equipment ratings/sizing
Select appropriate equipment
Ensure maintainability
Ensure expandability
Types of layouts
Single Busbar System
Single Busbar System sectionalising
arrangement
Double Busbar system
Single Busbar with ring Bus
Double Busbar with Transfer Bus
One and Half Breaker arrangement
Mesh type arrangement
ELECTRIC POWER
SUBSTATIONS ENGINEERING
Second Edition
Edited by
John D. McDonald