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The Digi-notes (Ratio and Proportion) as presented here is prepared


strictly according to IBPS-PO, IBPS-Clerk, IBPS-SO and other PO/Clerk
level competitive exams. The main aim of the Digi-notes is to develop
the notion of the Ratio and Proportion so that candidate would be able
to handle the quantitative problems of the real world easily and
conveniently and hence in their competitive exams. Candidates are
advised to handle the Digi-notes by keeping in mind that they are going
to LEARN (NOT STUDY) the Ratio/Proportion so that you; yourself
would be able to minimize the steps required to conclude the answer of
the question and hence develop the SHORT TRICKS.

All the best

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Contents
1. Preface..2
2. Contents..3
3. Introduction..4
4. What is Ratio?....4
5. The Fundamental Property of Ratio.5
6. AnImportantResult..5
7. Questions...5

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Introduction:
The Ratio could be perceived as a special case of percentage. All the
concept related to approaching the of the Ratio questions could be
easily correlated with the approach what we had already developed in
the percentage Digi-notes (Specially the application of the Unitary
Method). Like percentage; ratio is extensively used in the Data Analysis.
So you are advised to go through the chapter thoroughly keeping in
mind to learn how we are approaching the question.
What is Ratio?:

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Mathematically:
Let a and b be the two quantities.
Then ratio of a and b is defined as the fraction a b .
This fraction is simply denoted as a : b when we are talking
about the ratio.
And is is read as a is to b.
Practically:
Since with the help of the fractions we are making
comparison between the quantities, therefore ratio is the
comparison between two quantities.

The fundamental Property of Ratio:


As the multiplication or division by the same number to the
numerator and denominator doesnt affect a faction; in the same
way the multiplication or division of each term of ratio by the
same non-zero number doesnt affect the ratio.
An Important Result:

I st Ratio A : B a : b
II Ratio B : C c : d
nd

Then combined Ratio A : B : C ac : bc : bd

It is to be noted that the individual ratios to be combined:


Should have one quantity in common.
And the common quantity of the Ist ratio should be at the
second place and that of the IInd ratio at the first place.

Questions:

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Que: If A, B, C are three quantities such that A:B = 5:4 and B:C = 3:2,
find:

1) B : C 2) A : C 3) (A + B) : (A - C)

Sol: We have = 5 3 3 4 4 2 = 15 12 8
Hence

1) B C = 12 8 = 3 2
2) A C = 15 8
3) (A + B): (A C) = (15 + 12): (15 8) = 27 7
Que: The sum of the money with A and B is Rs.500. If the ratio of the
money they had is 3:2, find the share of A.

Sol:
.500
= 3 = . 300
(3+2)

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Que: The ratio of the money with A and B is 7:3. If the difference of the
money they had is Rs.160, find the share of B.

Sol:
. 160
= 3 = . 120
(7 3)
Que: A sum of money is divided between two persons in the ratio of
3:5. If the share of one person is Rs.20 less than that of the other, find
the sum.

Sol:
. 20
= (5 + 3) = . 80
(5 3)
Que: The ratio of the shares of three persons A, B and C is 7:5:11. If the
difference of the shares of A and C is Rs.16000; find the total amount of
money with B and C.
Sol:
. 16000
= (7 + 11) = . 72000
(11 7)
Que: The ratio of the shares of three persons A, B and C is 12:9:11. The
total amount of the money with A and C is Rs.5600 more than the
money with B; find the difference of the amount of the money with B
and C.
Sol:
.5600
= (11 9) = . 800
(12+119)

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Que: The ratio of the incomes of four persons A, B, C and D is 5:3:9:4.
The sum of the incomes of A and C is 84000; find the difference of the
incomes of B and D?
Sol:
. 84000
= (4 3) = . 6000
(5 + 9)
Que: The ratio of the angles of a triangle is 10:11:15. Find the difference
of the second largest and the smallest angle of the triangle.

Sol:
1800
Required Differenec = (11 10) = 50
(10 + 11 + 15)
Que: The ratio of any two angles of a triangle is 5:9. If the third angle is
measured to be 110 degree, then find the difference of the other two
angles.

Sol:
18001100
Required Differenec = (9 5) = 200
(9+5)

Que: The ratio of the four angles of a quadrilateral is 9:10:14:3. Find the
sum of the second smallest and second largest angle of the
quadrilateral.

Sol:
3600
Required Differenec = (9+10+14+3) (10 9) = 100

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Ques: P, Q and R are three numbers. The ratio of P and Q is 2:3 and that
of Q and R is 2:1. If the sum of P and R is 980; find Q.
Sol:
We have, : : = 4 6 3
980
Hence; = (4+3) 6 = 840

Que: The salary of Amit is 3/4th of the salary of Raju; while the salary of
Raju is 25% less than the salary of Sohan. The difference of the salaries
2
of Amit and Sohan is Rs.9800; find 14 7 % of the sum of the salaries of
Raju and Sohan.
Sol:
A:R=3:4
R : S = 75% : 100% = 3 : 4
Hence A : R : S = 9 : 12 : 16
9800 1
Required Sum = {169 (12 + 16)} 7 = . 5600

Que: Rs.5600 is divided among three persons A, B and C in such a way


that; A received 2/5th of the total share of B and C together. Find:
1) Share of A
2) Share of B
3) Share of C
4) Total share of A and B
5) Total share of B and C
6) Total share of C and A

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Sol:
A:B C 2:5
Hence :
5600
1 A 2 Rs.1600
7
2 CND
3 CND
4 CND
5600
5 B C 5 Rs.4000
7
6 CND

Que: Rs.15600 is divided among three persons A, B and C in such a way


that; A received 2/3rd of the total share of B and C together while B
received 3/7th of the total share of A and C together. Find the share of
C.
Sol:
A : B C 2:3
and B : A C 3:7
Hence :
15600
A 2 Rs.6240
5
15600
and B 3 Rs.4680
10
Hence
C Rs.15600 Rs.6240 Rs.4680 Rs.4680

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Que: Divide Rs.1540 among A, B, C such that A shall receive 2/9 as
much as B and C together and B shall receive 3/11 as much as A and C
together.

Sol:
A:B C 2:9
and B : A C 3 :11
Hence :
1540
A 2 Rs.280
11
15600
and B 3 Rs.330
14
Hence
C Rs.1540 Rs.280 Rs.330 Rs.930

Que: Rs.2575 is divided among three persons A, B and C in such a way


that if each of their shares be reduced by Rs.25; the ratio of their
remainders would be 2 : 3 : 5. Find the sum of the shares of B and C.
Sol:
2575 25 25 25
BC 8 25 25 Rs.2050
10

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Que: The ratio between two numbers 3:4. If each number be increased
by 6, the ratio becomes 4:5. Find the two numbers.

Sol:
N1 : N 2
3 : 4
4 : 5
1 6
N1 3 3 6 18
N 2 4 4 6 24

Que: The ratio between two numbers 5:1. If each number be decreased
by 6, the ratio becomes 7:1. Find the difference between the numbers.

Sol:

N1 : N 2
5 : 1 30 : 6
7 : 1 28 : 4
26
1 3
N1 ~ N 2 24 24 3 72

Que: The ratio between two numbers 3:4. If each number be increased
by 2, the ratio becomes 7:9. Find the sum of the two numbers.

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Sol:
N1 : N 2
3 : 4 6 : 8
7 : 9 7 : 9
1 2
N1 N 2 14 14 2 28

Que: The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 3:2 and their expenditures
are in the ratio 5:3. If each saves Rs.200, what is the difference of their
incomes?

Sol:
A : B
I 3 : 2 6 : 4
E 5 : 3 5 : 3
1 Rs.200
A ~ B 2 200 2 Rs.400

Que: The incomes of Ram and Shyam are in the ratio 8:11 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 7:10. If each of them saves Rs.500, then
find the sum of their Income.

Sol:

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R : S
I 8 : 11
E 7 : 10
1 Rs.500
R S 19 19 500 Rs.9500

Que: The students in the three classes are in the ratio 2:3:5. If 20
students are increased in each class the ratio changes to 4:5:7. What
was the total number of students in the three classes before the
increase?

Sol:
I st : II nd : III rd
2 : 3 : 5
4 : 5 : 7
2 20
I st II nd III rd 10 20 10
2
100

Que: An amount of money is distributed among A, B and C in the ratio


1:2:9. If C gives Rs.500 from his share to B, the new ratio becomes
1:3:8. Find the total amount of money.

Sol:

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A : B : C
1 : 2 : 9
1 : 3 : 8
1 Rs.500
A B C 12 500 12
Rs.6000
Que: An amount of money is distributed among A, B and C in the ratio
6:19:7. If C gives Rs.200 from his share to B, the new ratio becomes
3:10:3. Find the total amount of money.

Sol:
A : B : C
6 : 19 : 7 6:19:7
3 : 10 : 3 6:20:6
1 Rs.200
A B C 32 200 32
Rs.6400
Que: In 40 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and water is
3:1. Find the quantity of water to be added to make this ratio 2:1.

Sol:
M :W
3 : 1 6:2
2 : 1 6:3
40 liters 1 5 liters
8

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Que: In 60 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk to water is
7:3. Find the quantity of water to be added to make the ratio of milk to
water 3:7.

Sol:
M :W
7 : 3 21:9
3 : 7 21: 49
60 lietrs 40 80 liters
30
Que: A mixture contains alcohol and water in the ratio 8:3. On adding 3
litres of water, the ratio of alcohol to water becomes 2:1. Find the
difference of quantities of alcohol and water in the original mixture.

Sol:
A :W
8 : 3 8:3
2 : 1 8:4
3 liters 5 15 liters
1

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Que: A mixture contains wine and water in the ratio of 3:2.If 4 litres of
water is added to the mixture, wine and water in the mixture become
equal. Find the sum of the quantities of wine and water in the original
mixture.

Sol:
Wn : W
3 : 2 3:2
1 : 1 3:3
4 liters 5 20 liters
1

Que: The ratio of number of boys and girls in a school is 2:3. If 200 boys
are additionally admitted in the school the ratio changes to 5:6. Find
the difference of the number of boys and girls in the school originally.

Sol:
B :G
2 : 3 4:6
5 : 6 5:6
200 2 400 Boys
1

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Que: The ratio of As and Bs income last year was 3:4. The ratio of their
own incomes of last year and this year is 4:5 and 2:3 respectively. If the
total sum of their present incomes is Rs.4160, then find the present
income of A.

Sol:
1 year
[------------------------]
Past Present
A: B 3 : 4
A 4 3 : 5 3
4 4
B 2 4 : 3 4
2 2
AP : BP 5 3 : 3 4 5 : 8
4 2
AP 4160 5 Rs.1600
13

Que: One year ago, the ratio between Laxmans and Gopals salaries
was 3:5. The ratio of their individual salaries of last year and present
year are 2:3 and 4:5 respectively. If their total salaries for the present
year are Rs.4300, find the difference of the salaries of Laxman and
Gopal.

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Sol:
1 year
[--------------------------]
Past Pr esent
L :G 3 : 5
L 2 3 : 3 3
2 2
G 4 5 : 5 5
4 4
AP : BP 3 3 : 5 5 18 : 25
2 4
AP 4300 7 Rs.700
43

Que: A vessel contains liquids A and B in the ratio 5:3. If 16 litres of


mixture are removed and the same quantity of liquid B is added, the
ratio becomes 3:5. What quantity does the vessel hold?

Sol:
3 5 16
5 liters
8 8 8
2
10 liters
8
Qantity of
8
Mixture in 1 10
Vessel 2

40 liters

Question: A bucket contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in the


ratio 7:5. If 9 litres of the mixture is replaced by 9 litres of liquid B, then
the ratio of the two liquids become 7:9. How much of the liquid A was
there in the mixture?

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Sol:
7 7 9
7 liters
16 12 12
7 21
liters
48 4
Qantity of
21 48
Mixture in 1
Vessel 4 7

36 liters
36
A 7 21 liters
12

Proportion:
Let a , b, c and d are the four quantities.
If we calculated the ratios a : b and c : d in that order and find that
a:b c:d
Then we say that a, b, c and d are in proportion in that order.
Hence equality of ratios is called proportion. Here
a is called the first proportional.
b is called the second proportional.
c is called the third proportional.
d is called the fourth proportional.
Since we have
a:b c:d
a c

b d
ad bc
Product of Product of

Extremes Means

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Continued Proportion:
Let a , b and c are the three quantities.
If we calculated a : b and b : c in that order and find that
a:b b:c
Then we say that a, b and c are in continued proportion in that
order. Thats why it is called continued proportion because b is in
continuation in the equality of the ratios. Here
a is called the first proportional.
b is called the mean/second proportional.
c is called the third proportional.
Since we have
a:b b:c
a b

b c
ad b 2
Product of Square of

Extremes Mean

Que: Given three quantities in the same unit as 5, 10 and 25. Find the
following in proportion to these quantities:

1) First Proportional
x, 5, 10, 25 are in proportion
25x 5 10 x 2
2) Second Proportional
5, x, 10, 25 are in proportion
10 x 5 25 x 12.5

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3) Third Proportional
5, 10, x, 25 are in proportion
10 x 5 25 x 12.5
4) Fourth Proportional
5, 10, 25, x are in proportion
5 x 10 25 x 50
Question: Given two quantities in the same unit as 5 and 25. Find the
following in proportion tom these quantities:

5) First Proportional
25 x 5 2 x 1

6) Mean Proportional
5 25 x 2 x 5 5

7) Third Proportional
5 x 25 2 x 125
Question: Divide Rs.1350 into three shares proportional to the numbers
2, 3, and 4.

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Sol:
9 Rs.1350
1350
1 150
9
1st 150 2 Rs.300
2 nd 150 3 Rs.450
3 rd 150 4 Rs.600

Que: Divide Rs.391 into three parts proportional to the fraction , 2/3
and .

Sol:
1 2 3
: : 6:8:9
2 3 4
23 Rs.391
391
1 17
23
1st 17 6 Rs.102
2 nd 17 8 Rs.136
3 rd 17 9 Rs.153

Question: Divide 581 into three parts such that 4 times of the first may
be equal to 5 times the second and 7 times the third.

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Sol:
2 nd : 1st 4 : 5
1st : 3 rd 7 : 4
2 nd : 1st : 3 rd 28 : 35 : 20
83 581
581
1 7
83
1st 35 7 245
2 nd 28 7 196
3 rd 20 7 140
Que: Divide Rs. 2430 among three persons A, B, C such that if their
shares be diminished by Rs.5, Rs.10 and Rs.15 respectively, the
remainders shall be in the ratio 3:4:5.

Sol:
Re mainder 2430 (5 10 15) Rs.2400
12 Rs.2400
2400
1 Rs.200
12
A 3 200 5 Rs.605
B 4 200 10 Rs.810
C 5 200 15 Rs.1015
Que: Rs.425 is divided among 4 men, 5 women and 6 boys such that the
share of a man, a woman and a boy may be in the ratio of 9:8:4. What
is the share of a woman?

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Sol:
4M : 5W : 6 B 9 4 : 8 5 : 4 6
9 : 10 : 6
25 Rs.425
425
1
25
425
5W 10 10 Rs.170
25
170
1W Rs.34
5
Que: Divide Rs.1320 among 7 men, 11 women and 5 boys such that
each womanmay have 3 times as much as a boy, and a man as much as
a woman and a boy together. Find how much each person receive?

Sol:
B : W : M 1: 3 : (1 3) 1: 3 : 4
5 B :11W : 7 M 1 5 : 3 11: 4 7
5 : 33 : 28
66 Rs.1320
1320
1 20
66
7M 28 20 28 Rs .560
11W 33 20 33 Rs .660
5B 5 20 5 Rs.100

Que: A certain sum of money is divided A, B and C such that for each
rupee A has, B has 65 paisa and C has 40 paisa. If Cs share is Rs.8, find
the sum of money.

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Sol:
A : B : C 100 : 65 : 40 20 : 13 : 8
8 Rs.8
8
1
8
8
Sum of Money 41 41 Rs.41
8

Ques: 465 coins consist of rupee, 50 paisa and 25 paisa coins. Their
values are in the ratio 5:3:1. Find the number of each coin.

Sol:
Values 5 : 3 :1
100 100 100
No. of Coins 5 : 3 :1
100 50 25
5:6:4
15 465
465
1 31
15
Rs. 1 Coins 5 31 5 155
50 Paise Coins 6 31 6 186
25 Paise Coins 4 31 4 124

Que: A sum of Rs.11.70 consists of rupees, 50 paisa and 5 paisa coins in


the ratio 3:5:7. Find the number of each kind of coins.

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Sol:

No. of Coins 5 : 3 :1
100 50 5
Values 3 : 5 :7
100 100 100
60 : 50 : 7
117 1170 Paise
1170
1 10
117
Values of
60 10 60 600 Paise
Rs. 1 Coins
600
Rs. 1 Coins 6
100
Values of
50 10 50 500 Paise
50 Paise Coins
500
50 Paise Coins 10
50
Values of
7 10 7 70 Paise
5 Paise Coins
70
5 Paise Coins 14
5

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