Anda di halaman 1dari 23

RENCANA DAN PROSEDUR TANGGAP DARURAT

Dr. RICKI M. MULIA, ST. MSc


Biodata
Nama : Instansi : Ricki Marojahan Mulia Kepala Seksi Analisis Pusat Higiene Peru
sahaan, Kesehatan Keselamatan Kerja Disnakertrans Prov. DKI Institusi Program Do
ktor Ilmu Lingkungan, Universitas Indonesia Faculty of Enviromental Science, Dep
artment of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University (The Netherland) Post
graduate Diploma, Occupational Health and Safety Diploma Science 1997 - 1998 Gel
ar Doktor (Cum Laude) M.Sc. dan Waktu 2009 - 2012 2000 - 2002
Management. University of Queensland - Australia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Sum
atera Utara Sarjana Teknik 1989 - 1995
PUBLIKASI 1. Mulia Ricki M. (2005) Kesehatan Lingkungan, Penerbit Graha Ilmu, Yo
gyakarta 2. Mulia, Ricki M., Kusnoputranto H., Moersidik ,Setyo S., Sihombing R.
(2012). Optimization Operational Variable of Bench Scale Biological Flue Gas De
sulphurisation Application in Sulfuric Acid Industry. World Applied Sciences Jou
rnal 18(9): 1310-1314, 2012. ORGANISASI Asosiasi Ahli Hiperkes dan Keselamatan Ke
rja DKI Jakarta Asosiasi Laboratorium Lingkungan DKI Jakarta Member of Toast Maste
r International, Jakarta City Hall - Indonesia Anggota Panitia Teknis, Komite Akr
editasi Nasional LAIN-LAIN 1. Penanggung jawab Mata Ajar Higiene Industri 1 di M
agister Kedokteran Kerja dan Spesialis Kedokteran Okupasi Fakultas Kedokteran Un
iversitas Indonesia 2. Email: Ricki_M@yahoo.com Facebook: Ricki Mulia
Keadaan Darurat
Keadaan darurat (emergency) adalah suatu kondisi/situasi yang abnormal dan berba
haya yang membutuhkan penaganan segera untuk mengendalikan, membetulkan dan meng
embalikan pada kondisi sebelumnya atau kondisi yang selamat . (Pusperkes,2001)
Ricki M. Mulia
Types of Emergency
Earthquakes Hurricanes Tornadoes Energy/utility outages Fire hazards Hazardou
aterials releases Terrorism
Sources: http://www.osha.gov
Workplace Emergency
An unforeseen situation that threatens your employees, customers, or the public,
disrupts or shuts down your operations, or causes physical or environmental dam
age.
(Sources: http://www.osha.gov)
Industrial Emergency Sources: (Depnaker,2001/p.4)
Local Emergency On-site Emergency Off-Site Emergency
Industrial Emergency
Local Emergency
Timbul akibat kejadian yang berdampak pada bagian-bagian tertentu dalam suatu lo
kasi industri. Mis. Kebocoran kecil drum bahan kimia berbahaya di gudang.
On-site Emergency
Timbul akibat kejadian yang berdampak pada manusia, harta benda dan lingkungan d
imana dampak dapat menyebar ke seluruh bagian lingkungan kerja. Mis. Pecahnya pi
pa instalasi bahan kimia berbahaya di industri.
Off-Site Emergency
Kejadian berdampak pada seluruh lingkungan kerja dan lingkungan luar.
WHAT PRICE SAFETY
DIRECT COST
INJURIES
Medical cost Funeral cost
PROPERTY DANAGE
Loss and damage
First aid expenses Cost of Investigation
INJURIES
ASSOCIATED COST
Overhead cost while production is stopped Rental of equipment to replace damaged
equipment
Cost of processing report
WAGE LOSSES
Iddle time Manhours spent in cleaning up accident area Time spent repairing damage
d equipment
PRODUCTION LOSS
Product spoiled by accident
OFF THE JOB ACCIDENTS
Training replacement worker
INTANGIBLES
Lowered employee morale Unfavorable public relations
Ricki M. Mulia
HIDDEN COST
Phases of Emergency Management
Prevention
Recovery
Preparedness
Response
Sources: Safety Engineering UQ
Emergency prevention
Merupakan tahapan atau langkah pencegahan terjadinya bencana.( Arie Priambodo, p
.17)
Emergency preparedness
Merupakan kesiapsiagaan terjadinya bencana.( Arie Priambodo, p.17) dalam menghad
api
Langkah awalnya adalah melakukan perencanaan dengan benar
Employee emergency plans
1. "Emergency action plan elements." The emergency action plan should address em
ergencies that the employer may reasonably expect in the workplace. 2. "Emergenc
y evacuation." At the time of an emergency, employees should know what type of e
vacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. 3. "Emer
gency action plan training." The employer should assure that an adequate number
of employees are available at all times during working hours to act as evacuatio
n wardens so that employees can be swiftly moved from the danger location to the
safe areas. 4. "Fire prevention housekeeping." The standard calls for the contr
ol of accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials. 5. "Maintenanc
e of equipment under the fire prevention plan." Certain equipment is often insta
lled in workplaces to control heat sources or to detect fuel leaks.
Sources: http://www.osha.gov
Emergency Preparedness
Key Principles
Containment, suppression and control of incident Rescue and treatment Communicatio
n Time of event considered (after hours contact?)
Structured and co-ordinated approach
Sources: Safety Engineering UQ
Mitigate hazards according to the hierarchy of controls
Elimination or substitution:
Whenever possible, eliminate the hazard from the work area (e.g., repair or remo
ve fallen electrical power lines before allowing other work to proceed in the ar
ea). Although desirable, elimination and substitution may not be options for mos
t airborne/chemical hazards created by a natural disaster.
Engineering controls:
Take steps to reduce or eliminate exposure to a hazard, such as by guarding the
pinch points associated with a machine's moving parts, providing ventilation to
a permit-required confined space, using heavy equipment with temperature-control
led cabs, and placing barriers around the swing radius of rotating heavy equipme
nt.
Work practice or administrative controls:
Implement work procedures that reduce the probability of exposure. For example,
use well-rested crews and daylight hours to perform higher hazard or unfamiliar
tasks, take frequent breaks during hot weather, remove non-essential personnel f
rom the area during certain task/operations, and decontaminate equipment and per
sonnel after contact with contaminated floodwater or chemicals. When possible, u
se water to suppress dust and work up-wind in dusty conditions. Where extensive
hot work is performed in the form of cutting and burning, use extended length to
rch handles to increase the distance from the individual's breathing zone to the
generation of toxic fumes.
Personal protective equipment (PPE):
If other controls are not available, infeasible, or do not provide sufficient pr
otection, select and use PPE appropriate for the hazard and level of exposure. O
SHA provides additional assistance on selecting and using PPE. Sources: http://w
ww.osha.gov
Work Practices for basic safety
Establish and maintain evacuation routes and an alerting system to notify individ
uals in case an evacuation becomes necessary. Provide, maintain, and inspect fire
protection and suppression equipment for the fire hazards in the work area. Ensu
re that first aid supplies and services, and medical care are readily available.
Drink water from sources proven to be safe for drinking. Do not consume food or b
everages that were exposed to floodwaters or perishables that may have spoiled.
Additionally, do not eat, drink, or smoke in areas containing debris, floodwater
s, or sludge. Wash hands before eating, drinking, smoking, or using the restroom.
If potable water is not available, use hand sanitizer or commercial sanitizing
wipes. Minimize accumulation of trash and keep garbage in closed containers. Use i
nsect repellent containing DEET or Picaridin to prevent insect bites. Minimize th
e creation or disturbance of dust and work upwind of dusty activities when possi
ble. Provide prompt first aid for cuts and scrapes. Antibiotic resistant bacteria
can result in severe injury and illness. Wash and sanitize cuts and scrapes wit
hout delay and report the injury to your supervisor. Bandage/cover cuts and scra
pes and keep them from coming in contact with polluted or contaminated floodwate
r. Seek medical help at the first sign of infection. Sources: http://www.osha.go
v
Employee Organizational Structure
Facility Emergency Controller
( Site Manager)
Response Controller ( Operational Manager)
Security and Communication ( Security Officer)
Personnel ( Personnel Manager)
Health ( Safety Manager)
Sources: Safety Engineering UQ
Emergency Response
Emergency response or responding to emergencies
means a response effort by employees from outside the immediate release area or
by other designated responders (i.e., mutual aid groups, local fire departments,
etc.) to an occurrence which results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolle
d release of a hazardous substance. Responses to incidental releases of hazardou
s substances where the substance can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwise cont
rolled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area, or by
maintenance personnel are not considered to be emergency responses within the sc
ope of this standard. Responses to releases of hazardous substances where there
is no potential safety or health hazard (i.e., fire, explosion, or chemical expo
sure) are not considered to be emergency responses.
Sources: http://www.osha.gov
Emergency Response
Emergency Response
Response merupakan tindakan tanggap bencana yang meliputi dua unsur penting :( A
rie Priambodo, p.17)
1. Penyelamatan Tindakan tanggap bencana ditujukan untuk menyelamatkan dan menol
ong jiwa manusia. 2. Pertolongan Tindakan tanggap bencana juga ditujukan untuk m
enyelamatkan material yang berhubungan dengan keberlangsungan hidup.
Emergency Recovery
Recovery merupakan tahap atau langkah pemulihan sehubungan dengan kerusakan atau
akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh bencana.
Tahap recovery meliputi:
Pemulihan Pengawasan
Spills and Emergencies
Spill liquids often may be diluted and neutralize In some cases, eliminated by s
preading an absorbent material such as clay absorbent (i.e.calcium bentonite) Pl
acing pillows or pads an absorbent material on the liquid, after which the absor
bent material is collected into container for later disposal Use correct PPE
Ricki M. Mulia
Personal Decontamination
Always wash their hands with soap and water before eating, drinking, smoking, app
lying lip balm or cosmetics to prevent contamination of their mouth, nose or eye
s with hazardous materials or infectious agents. Use a waterless alcohol-based h
and cleaner if water is not available. Shower and change into clean clothes at th
e end of each workday. Separate work clothes from their general laundry to preven
t exposing family members to hazardous materials and infectious agents.
Sources: Sources: http://www.osha.gov