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Lucrri tiinifice - vol.

55, Seria Zootehnie



Elena Bocioc1, V. Cristea1, N. Patriche2, Iulia Grecu1,

Sndia (Placint) Ion1, M.T. Coad1, T.I. Ionescu1
University Low Danube of Galai,, Department of Aquaculture,
Environment Science and Cadastre, Galai, Romania
Institute for Research and Development in Aquatic Ecology,
Fishing and Aquaculture, Galati, Romania

Dynamics of water quality parameters in an intensive recirculating system of juvenile carp
(Cyprinus carpio) is dependent on many factors, the most important being the stocking density,
feeding intensity and biochemical composition of the feed. The objective of this work is the
monitoring of chemical parameters of physical environment in culture conditions in a recirculating
system using a probiotic feed and monitor the evolution of these parameters during the experiment.
We have evaluated the main water quality parameters, namely temperature, the pH, oxygen,
ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and chlorine. Temperature, water and oxygen and the reaction caused by
sensors in the automatic control system quality water, and for other parameters was used to
determine colorimetric method with kits with Merck type Spectroquant Nova 400. With the use of a
probiotic feed containing 30% protein and varying concentrations of probiotic BioPlus 2B,
consisting of Bacillus licheniformis (DSM 5749) and Bacillus subtilis (DSM 5750) in a ratio of 1:1,
recycled water quality was maintained in the allowable spread of culture supported by the species.
During the experiment, their values were within the following spacing: ammoniacal nitrogen
(N-NH4+) from 0,17 to 0,86 mg / l; Nitrites (N-NO2) 0,24 to 0,54 mg / l; Nitrate (N-NO3) 16,7 20,4 mg / l
and chlorine (Cl-) 23,4 to 32,3 mg / l.
Key words: recirculating system, probiotic feed, water quality, carp

INTRODUCTION spacing, negative affect and in many cases

The main technological goal to be achieved irreversible development of biological material.
in an intensive recirculating system consistes in Quality control of water with a very high organic
giving ecophysiological medial conditions to loading, specific situation recirculating
the particularities of culture species. aquaculture systems, requires appropriate and
Water quality in a recirculating culture prudent use of integrated hardware management
system is determined, how critical it in DO techniques applied.
concentration, unionized ammonia nitrogen, Water quality culture, that it can maintain
nitrite and CO2. Concentration levels of nitrates, the optimal requirement imposed by
pH and alkalinity water constitutes also technology, affecting feed conversion
important parameters of water quality (Cristea efficiency. A poor quality water leads to a high,
and others 2002). Water chemistry has a decisive uncompetitive, the feed conversion ratio, which
influence on the development of biological require high operating costs of the system.
material, directly or indirectly on it, organic or
inorganic substances solvent at the process water, MATERIAL AND METHODS
in amounts corresponding to the physiological, Research in this paper fall within the type
ensuring a normal development. Any diversion experimental investigations have been
of these substances in concentrations optimal conducted in a recirculating system for

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Universitatea de tiine Agricole i Medicin Veterinar Iai

intensive aquaculture in the Department of 5750) in a ratio of 1:1. Distribution of

Aquaculture, Cadastre and Environmental biological material in the four recirculating
Sciences, University "Dunarea de Jos". system unit growth was 80 fishes / breeding
Biological material, a batch of 320 fishes with an initial biomass of 28 kg/m3.
of juvenile carp, increased intensive Basically, the pilot recirculating system
aquaculture recirculating system using a feed was organized the expriment consists of four
Classic Aller-type (30% protein content) has units with a capacity increase of 1m3 each
been incorporated / supplement of a probiotic question, a quality water conditioning
product of different concentrations BioPlus compartment (Fig. 1.).
2B, consisting of Bacillus licheniformis
(DSM 5749) and Bacillus subtilis (DSM

Fig. 1. The configuration of the experimental recirculating system.

For each water quality parameters and equipment and whose range of measurement
methods used to determine specific is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Equipment used for monitoring the water quality parameters during the experiment
Indicators/ Quality Measuring
Equipment used Determination method
parameters range
WATT Sensolyt 700 IQ 0,0-7,89
Oxygen Sensor measuring method
(SW) type sensors mg/l
WATT Sensolyt 700 IQ 6,5-8,1 unit.
pH Sensor measuring method
(SW) type sensors de ph
WATT Sensolyt
Temperature Sensor measuring method 19-26,2 C
Merck kit 1.14752
Ionized ammonia 0,53-1,65
+ colorimetric metod for
N-NH4 Spectroquant Nova 400 mg/l
Merck kit 1.14776
Nitrite-nitrogen 0.02-1,04
- Spectroquant Nova 400 colorimetric determination
NO2 mg/l
Merck kit 1.14942
- Spectroquant Nova 400 colorimetric determination 4,5-26 mg/l
Merck kit 1.14897
- 29,4-31,7
Cl Spectroquant Nova 400 colorimetric determination

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Lucrri tiinifice - vol. 55, Seria Zootehnie

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION temperature, oxygen and pH's with sensors

Research undertaken have made the mounted at each unit growth, namely the
assumption that the intensity of feeding, periodic determination of nitrates, nitrites,
biochemical composition of food, ammonia and chlorine; values so determined
metabolism intensity, the quantity of food were compared with those optimal for the
unused affect water quality in breeding. species cultured admissible addressed in the
Findings of the culture system water study (Table 2).
quality monitoring was done by daily

Table 2. Optimal admitted levels of the main physical and chemical water
parameters of a recirculating aquaculture system for CYPRINUS CARPIO
Parameter analyzed Measure Optimal
unit value
Temperature C 21-27
mg/l 6-8
Dissolved oxygen % 70-105
Cl mg/l 1-100
pH u pH 7,0-8,0
Ammonia nitrogen (NH3) mg/l <0,02
Total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) mg/l <2,00
Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2 ) mg/l <0,10
Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 ) mg/l <30,00

Evolution of water quality parameters between pH and alkalinity, and how to use
Temperature this relationship in order to maintain
Carp, euriterm species, tolerates a optimum water reaction imposed by the
temperature range 32C rather than three, nitrification process (figure 2). Management's
which makes it the most widespread species pH in a closed cycle aquaculture involves
in freshwaters. When water temperature evaluating the alkalinity consumption rate
drops below 10C, the intensity of feeding (nitrification rate) and the type and amount of
carp is reduced, and at temperatures below supplement to be used to recover lost
7C the feeding process stops. For optimal alkalinity.
thermal comfort spread growth is faster,
more efficient feed conversion and increased Dissolved oxygen
resistance to disease (Masseria et al., 1999). Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the
During the experiment, temperature of the most important water quality parameters that
culture medium was within the optimum determine, in so limited, the bearing capacity,
spacing, in terms of physiological respectively stocking densities in a
requirement of the species (fig. 2). recirculating system. The limitation comes
from the relatively high oxygen requirement
pH of aerobic organisms within the system,
In the process of nitrification resulting H+ relatively low solubility of oxygen in water,
ions to consume water alkalinity and lower the absence of photosynthesis and water
pH of the system. To the extent that pH is purifying reduced rate.
allowed to fall, the rate of nitrification, Oxygen dissolved in water management
respectively the fish productivity of the of aquaculture farming system requires
system will register lower values. Therefore, knowledge of a variety of aspects, namely:
the management and operation of a the properties of gas dissolved in water;
recirculating system design requires a good operating principle, performance indicators
knowledge of the fundamental relationship and methods of design and installation of

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Universitatea de tiine Agricole i Medicin Veterinar Iai

various types of equipments aeration or varied between admissible and optimal

oxygenation. Dissolved oxygen concentration values of the studied species (figure 3).

Figure 2. Variation of temperature and pH.

Figure 3. Dynamics dissolved oxygen.

Nitrogen compounds this parameter is presented graphically in

Decomposition of nitrogen compounds is figure 4.
of great importance in aquaculture because During the experiment, nitrite
some degradation products, mainly ammonia concentration varied between 0,24- 0,54 mg/l
-NH3 and nitrites -NO2 are toxic; to a lesser and averaged 0.30 mg/l biofilter effluent
extent and nitrates are toxic when NO3, by level, well above acceptable limits for the
accumulation, reaching high levels. In intensive growth of carp. Figure 5 presents
recirculating systems, waste organic matter the dynamic evolution of nitrites in the
(food consumed, manure) is decomposed by breeding system. During the experiment
heterotrophic bacteria in the simplest organic conditions growth of carp in a recirculating
compounds, the final product of this process system, nitrates have been values generally
is ammonia, unstable compound that is lower than 30 mg/l; lower values in the
converted into ammonia. second half of the experimental period can be
During the period analyzed, the values of explained by increased frequency of washing
ammonium (NH4+) values were recorded in the filters in mechanical filtration step,
the spread of 0,17 to 0,86, the evolution of during which water was removed with
washing (Figure 6).

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Lucrri tiinifice - vol. 55, Seria Zootehnie

Figure 4. Dynamics evolution ammonium (N-NH 4 )

Figure 5. Dynamic evolution of nitrites (N-NO2 )

Figure 6. Dynamic evolution of nitrates (N-NO 3 )

Chloride anion washing machine filtrulul regular urban water

Chloride anion (Cl-) was determined network, recognized for high chloride content.
colorimetrically and the values were substantially Amplitude variation chloride anion concentration
the same in all breeding, fitting into gap 23.4- in all sampling points in terms of process water
32.3 mg/l, relatively high concentration of with the maximum, average and minimum is
chloride anion may be associated with frequent presented in Figure 7.

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Universitatea de tiine Agricole i Medicin Veterinar Iai

Figure 7. Chloride anion concentration variation (Cl )

CONCLUSIONS Romanian Government. The authors thank to

Water quality parameters were the management staff of the project for their
maintained within acceptable limits for support.
growth of juvenile carp throughout the
experimental period; when these parameters BIBLOGRAPHY
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elimination proceeded to intensive consisting Aquaculture. Birmingham Publishing Co.,
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Recirculating aquaculture systems engineering,
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did not adversely affect water quality Talpe, M., 2009. THE WATER QUALITY
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS [4] Masser, M.P., J. Rakocy, T.M. Losordo. 1999.
Researches was conducted in the Recirculating aquaculture tank production
framework of the project POSDRU systems: Management of recirculating systems,
Management System of Scholarships for SRAC Publication, No 452.
PhD Students no. 6583 - SIMBAD and [5] Richard W. Soderberg, 1995. FLOWING
Efficiency of PhD Students Activity in WATER FISH CULTURE, Lewis Publishers,
Doctoral Schools no.61445 - EFFICIENT, ISBN 1566700817, p. 122-124.
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