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Unit IV: Recruitment, Selection and Socialization

Concept of Recruitment

It is the process of identifying the appropriate sources of required human resources for the
organization, encouraging them to apply for jobs and making necessary efforts to register their
applications. It may be done from either internal sources or external sources or both. In the
words of DeCenzo and Robbins, Recruitment is the process of searching potential candidates
to fill the actual or anticipated vacancy in the organization. Likewise, according of Edwin B.
Flippo, Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them
to apply for jobs. Hence recruitment is the process of searching qualified candidates from
internal and external sources to fill the vacant positions. This is an important function of human
resource management as the acquisition of quality of human resource largely depends on how
well an organization searches the qualified candidates inside and outside the organization. It
includes the followings:

1. Identification & selection of sources of recruitment

2. Identification & selection of method of recruitment

3. Collection and registration of the applications

4. Developing the pool of candidates

Though it is basis for the selection, is not selection itself. Selection process starts only after

the recruitment process is over.

Sources of Recruitment

1. Internal Sources :

i. Promotion (people from lower levels) : It is a vertical movement of employees which helps
to fulfill the vacant positions in higher levels. Succession planning identifies whether to recruit
from within the organization, and also points out the number of employees and their potential.

ii. Transfer (people from other departments) : Transfer refers to the horizontal movement of
employees. It helps to address the changing needs of the organization and also to ensure
person-job fit.

iii. Rehires (pool of laid off employees) : It involves rehiring employees who had left the
organization or laid-off temporarily. Generally, downsizing and reengineering initiatives may
lead to lay-offs. They may be rehired because of their experience, familiarity with organization
culture, work systems etc.

iv. Job Rotation : It is a systematic effort of moving employees from job-to-job. Enhances
all-round skills in employees.

Advantages of Internal Sources of Recruitment

Increase morale and motivation among employees

Less training and orientation is required
Cost effective
Loyalty and commitment of employees is high

Disadvantages of Internal Sources of Recruitment

Limited Choice
Lack of new ideas, knowledge and enthusiasm
Promotion is generally based on seniority rather than on merit.

2. External Sources of Recruitment

i. Private Employment Agencies : They carry out recruitment function on behalf of their
client organization. They not only advertise but also screen the applicant and suggest client
organizations for placement on the defined job. Examples: ODC, People 2 People, Job Dynamics

ii. Educational Institutions : It is a good source for young, dynamic and energetic workforce.
College internship programs may serve as an important source of recruitment. It is a cheap
source of recruitment but candidates may lack practical experiences.

iii. Professional Associations : Professional associations like NEA, CAN, MAN, NMC etc.
maintain a roster of their members, from where prospective professional candidates may be

iv. Trade Unions : It is a good source for unskilled and semi-skilled manpower. This is common
in construction industry.

v. Unsolicited (uncalled or spontaneous) Application

Bio-data via. mail or internet

Advantages of External Sources of Recruitment

Greater choice for selecting qualified people

Inflow of new idea, knowledge, skills and enthusiasm
Helps in achieving balanced human resource mix
Favoritism and nepotism is minimum

Disadvantages of External Sources of Recruitment

High cost
Poor employee morale
Adaptability problems
Sometimes wrong selection

Methods of Recruitment

1. Internal Methods

i. Job Posting : This involves announcing job openings to all concerned employees and
asking the interested employees to apply for the jobs. Position, location, pay scale and the
required qualification all are clearly mentioned in the announcement itself. Some of the means
of vacancy announcement are:

- Bulletin/Notice boards
- In-house Newsletters
- Circulars or memos sent to supervisors
- E-mail
ii. Employee Referrals

Under this method, candidates for a defined job are recommended from within the
organization by the superiors. Sometimes, permanent employees may recommend or refer
temporary employees for making them permanent. Retrenched or retired employees or their
dependents can also be recommended by existing employees. The major drawback of this
method is that sometimes priority may be given to friendship rather than to their

iii. Human Resource Inventory Search :

It is the method of finding the details of employees through the existing HR inventory and
encouraging the qualified people to apply for a vacant position. It is regarded as superior
method as compared to employee referral method as it is more fact based rather than merely
relationships. The human resource inventory includes the various information such as personal
details (name, age, sex, marital status etc.), educational qualification, trainings taken, special
skills and competencies, performance ratings, salary, job and location preferences etc.

2. External Methods :

i. Advertising Method :

This is the most common method of external recruitment. The advertisement can be done
through print media like newspapers, magazines, trade journal etc. or through visual media
like hoarding board, poster etc. or through audio-visual media like radio, television, cinema etc.
It can be of two types:

1. Want Ads (Which detail all concerned information such as the name of employer,
phone number, office location, application procedure etc.)

2. Blind Box Ads (Which do not detail all information & just ask interested candidates to
apply to a post box number.

ii. Employee Referrals Method :

Under this method, current employees recommend their friends and relatives from outside the

iii. Educational Institution Placement Method :

Some educational institutions establish job placement cell in their organization. Sometimes,
they make necessary effort to locate job opportunities for their students, and at other times,
employers themselves come in contact to such placement cells to locate appropriate
candidates for the vacant positions in their organization.

iv. Internet Search :

Under this, bio-data by prospective candidates is searched in the internet and they are
encouraged to apply for the job. It is cost-effective and suitable for hi-tech employees.

v. Contract

Under this method, Candidates for a job is located through the labor contractors. Under this
method, labor supplier charges certain commission to the employer for making their workers
available to the employer. It is popular in sugar mills, construction companies and in security
services in Nepal.

Recruitment Process

An effective recruitment process involves the following major steps/ activities.

1. Identification & selection of sources of recruitment

2. Identification & selection of method of recruitment
3. Collection and registration of the applications
4. Developing the pool of candidates
5. Following up on applicants to evaluate the effectiveness of the recruitment effort.

The ideal recruitment program is the one that attracts relatively larger number of qualified
applicants who will survive screening process and accept positions with the organizations, when
offered. Recruitment programs can miss the ideal in many ways; by failing to attract and
adequate applicant poll by under/ overselling the organization, or by inadequately screening
applicants before they enter the selection process. Thus, to approach the ideal condition,
individual responsible for the recruitment process must know how many and what types of
employee are needed; where and how to look for individuals with the appropriate qualification
and interest; what inducement to use for various types of applicants groups; how to distinguish
applicants who are unqualified from those who have reasonable chance of success; and how to
evaluate their work.

Factors Governing Recruitment

1. External factors

i. Supply and demand : Supply and demand also govern the recruitment process. If the
demand for a particular skill is high relative to the supply; an extraordinary recruitment effort is

ii. Unemployment rate : Unemployment rate is higher the recruitment process is simpler.
The number of unsolicited applicants is usually greater and the increased sized of the labor
pool provides better opportunity for attracting qualified applicants. It helps to increase
unemployment rate drops recruitment efforts must be increased and new sources.

iii. Labor market : Labor market condition in a local area is of primary and importance in
recruiting for most non-managerial supervisory and middle management position.

iv. Political factor :Reservation of jobs for female, minorities and other backward classes is a
political decision which influences recruitment.

2. Internal factors :

i. Recruitment policy : Most of the organization has internal (from its own employee) and
externally (from outside the organization). It prefer internal sourcing because own employee
know the company well and can recommend candidates who fit the organizations culture.

ii. HRP: Hunan resources planning inside the organization should be manageable. They cannot
attract prospective employee in sufficient numbers and with required skilled overnight. It
takes time to examine the alternative regarding the appropriate sources of recruits and the
most productive methods for obtaining them.

iii. Size : It is another factor having its influence on the recruitment process .an organization
with one hundred thousand employees will find recruiting less problematic than an organization
just one hundred employee.

iii. Cost of recruiting : Recruiting costs are calculated per new hire and the figure is
considerable nowadays .so it should be operated with in budgets. The best solution is to use
proactive personnel practices to reduce employee turnover thus minimizing the need for

iv. Growth and expansion : It will have more recruiting on hand than which finds its fortunes

Concept of Selection

Selection is the process of choosing the most suitable candidate for a particular position from
among the prospective candidates. Selection process is concerned with hiring as well as
rejecting the applicants.

According to Schmitt and Schneider, Selection is the process of gathering information for the
purpose of evaluating and deciding who should be hired, under legal guidelines, for the short
term and long term interests of the individual and the organization. Likewise, according to
Werther and Davis, The selection process is a series of steps used to decide which recruits
should be hired. In fact, it is a two-way process. The employer chooses the employee and the
employee chooses the employer. The selection process seeks to achieve the best fit between
the job and the person. It is a very important HRM function as it has long term implications to
the organization. A right selection leads to higher productivity, good employee-employer
relations, employee commitment etc. where as if the selection is poor, it may lead to high
employee turnover, absenteeism, accidents, productivity losses and increase in costs of

Differences between Recruitment and Selection

i. Meaning: Recruitment is the process of finding appropriate candidates and encouraging

them to apply for a job where as selection is the act of choosing the most appropriate
candidate/s from among the recruits.

ii. Aim: The main aim of recruitment is to attract more and more candidates for vacant
positions where as the main aim of selection is to reject unsuitable candidates and pick only the
most suitable candidates. iii. Time of Occurrence: Recruitment comes first. Selection process
starts only when the recruitment process is over.

iv. Interaction: Recruitment does not bring employee-employer face-to-face while selection
does it.

The Selection Process : There are no universally applicable steps of selection process. It
differs from organization to organization particularly according to the nature of job. However,
following steps can be suggested for a formal comprehensive selection process.
Selection Steps Reason for Rejection

1. Application Form Evaluation Under-qualified

2. Preliminary interview Below average in ability
3. Selection Test Poor scores
4. Selection Interview Poor knowledge, skills and attitudes
5. References checks Non-verifiable or poor
6. Physical Examination Physically unfit
7. Final Selection Decision Candidate rejects the job offer

Figure: The Selection Process

1. Application Form/ Bio-Data Evaluation: The recruitment process generally generates a

large number of filled-in application forms or bio-data from prospective candidates. Such forms
or bio-data generally consist of the following information.

- Personal information such as name, address, sex, age, marital status etc.
- Academic qualification
- Trainings, workshops and seminars
- Work experience
- References etc.

After a careful scrutinization of the forms or bio-data, under-qualified and forms with false
information are rejected. Others are considered for further steps.

2. Preliminary Interview : It is held for initial screening of candidates. It is short, and

interaction is held between the

prospective candidate and the employer, generally represented by junior managers or officers.
The preliminary interview is generally used to quickly check on language, skills, qualifications,
experience, interests, and also to brief the candidates about the specific job requirements. If
the candidate is found unfit, he/she is screened out. Sometimes the candidate may withdraw
himself/herself from the process due to various reasons.

3. Selection Tests : In this stage, standardized written tests are conducted for the successful
candidates in the preliminary interview. Selection tests measure certain abilities and skills that
provide objective information on how well the applicant can be expected to perform the job.
The various types of selection tests may be attitude tests, aptitude tests, personality tests,
situation tests, vocational tests etc. Note that selection tests should be impartial and the result
of the test may have to be kept confidential depending upon the situation.

4. Selection Interview : The selection interview, which is also known as final interview, is a face-
to-face interaction between the prospective employee and the employer. The selection
interview further explores the skills and competencies of candidate to ensure the person-job fit.
The major concerns of selection interview are to identify the candidates:

- ability to do the job and career goals;

- enthusiasm to do the job;
- ability to work under pressure;
- personality and communication skills; and
- general knowledge.

The selection interview may be unstructured or structured or semi-structured depending upon

the nature of job and the interest of the interviewer.

5. Reference Checks : Sometimes reference checks may be regarded very important and
sometimes it may be skipped by the employers. Generally, the references given by the
applicant is used to investigate the candidates past employment record, reputation, and
character. They may be contacted through telephone or e-mail or personal visit. However,
telephone call is much quicker and popular. The main drawback of reference check is that it
tends to be biased in favor of the candidate, and thus exclusive reliance on them is not

6. Physical Examination (Medical Test) : Certain jobs require certain physical qualities like
clear vision, perfect hearing, unusual stamina, clear tone etc. Physical examination reveals
whether or not a candidate possesses these qualities. Such examination can be held by the
company doctor or by a doctor approved by the company. The medical examination should
disclose the physical characteristics of the individual that are significant from the standpoint of
his/her efficient performance of the job. To be noted, it must comply with the legal

7. Final Selection Decision : This is the final step in the selection process. The final selection
decision is generally made by HR department in consultation with the concerned department of
an organization. It depends upon information received from the application form, referees, test
results, interview ratings, medical report etc. The final selection decision may:

i. Reject the candidate

ii. Hold the candidate (keeping his/her name as an alternative candidate for some time)
iii. Hire and place

Selection Methods

1. Qualification and Experience Method : Bio-data is submitted. Qualification and

experience of each candidate is carefully examined and the most appropriate candidate is
selected. Generally used for the selection of specialists.

2. Work proficiency method : Technical competencies and work proficiency is tested.

Generally used for the selection of technical manpower e.g., typist, driver, mechanist etc.

3. Written Test Method : Candidates are asked to give a written test. Those scoring the
highest marks are selected. It is generally done for junior level positions.

4. Interview Method : Candidates are taken face-to-face interviews. Generally used for higher
level positions.

5. Written Test and Interview Method : Both written test and interviews are taken.
Combined score is taken for final selection. Generally used for higher level posts.

6. Comprehensive Selection Method : Candidates are required to go through a series of

steps to get selected. The different steps may be application form evaluation, selection tests,
group discussions, selection interviews, physical examination etc. This method is one of the
widely used methods.

Barriers of effective selection

The main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment .the
objective is often defeated because of certain barriers. Following are the barrier of effective

1. Perception: Our inability to understand other accurately is probably the most fundamental
barrier to selecting the right candidates.

2. Fairness : Fairness in selection requires that no individual should be discriminated against

on the basis of religion, region, race or gender.

3. Validity :It is a test that helps that predicts job performance of an incumbent. A test that
has been validated can differentiate between the employee who can perform well and those
who will not .It is just test and does not predict job success accurately.

4. Reliability : A reliable method is one which will produce consistent result when repeated in
similar situations. It is a test may fail to predict job performance with precision.

5. Pressure : Pressure is brought on the selectors by politicians, bureaucrats, relatives, friends,

and peers to select particular candidates. Candidates selected because of compulsion are
obviously not the right ones.

Recruitment and Selection Practices in Nepal

A. Recruitment Practices

1. Importance of recruitment : Recruitment is an important aspect of human resources

management in Nepal. Employment opportunities are rather limited because of poor economic
growth and slow pace of industrialization. The labor market is glutted with the candidates
seeking jobs. Organizations do not face problem in attracting a large pool of prospective
candidates to fulfill their human resource needs.

2. Sources of recruitment : Nepalese organizations use a mix of internal and external

sources of recruitment: The civil services act and rules specify the following sources for
recruitment of government employees, For all open competition-oriented posts, recruitment 'is
done by the public service commission. The concerned ministry should request recruitment for
specified vacancies. Minimum qualification has been laid down for each post. The "general
principles" prescribed by the Public Service Commission are generally followed by all the
enterprises for their recruitment. Friends and relatives are the main source of recruitment for
unorganized private sector. But the public companies do seek candidates from the labor
market. In industries, job posting and employees referrals serve as a important methods for
internal recruitment.

Methods used for external recruitment are:

1 Advertisement: "Gorkhapatra" and "Kantipur" are the important daily newspapers for
making recruiting advertisement.
2 Employment exchanges: Nepal lacks employment exchanges.
3 Walk-ins: This method is used for recruitment of factory workers, manual workers on
daily wages basis and even teachers in private school.
4 Labor contractors: They supply non-skilled laborers in industries. Construction industry
depends heavily on labour contractors for supply of laborers.
B. Selection Practices

1] The selection process in civil service consists of:

Application forms are evaluated. Screening test is administered for officer level new entrants.

Selection test is administered; they are written test.

Selection interview is held. It is generally semi-structured conducted by a panel.

Hiring decision is made.

Medical examination is done.

2] The role of political interference is important in the selection of candidates for public

sector jobs.


Concept of Socialization

It is process of mutual adaption of the new employees and the new employer to one another
and providing information about the job characteristics. In the course of such familiarization
with each other employees learn the e organizational culture, values, attitudes, behavior,
peers and the supervisor. It also enhances the new comer's commitment, job satisfaction, job
performance and the desire for personal control. "Socialization refers to the adoption that take
place when an individual passes from outside to the organization to the role of an inside
member." DeCenzo and Robbins. "Socialization is the ongoing process through which an
employee's begins to understand and accept the values, norms and beliefs by others in the
organization. Burna and Nota From the above definitions we can rightly conclude that
socialization conveys three types of information to the new employees. They are general
information of the work, a review of an organization history and a detailed presentation of
organizations policies and procedures.

Socialization Process

Socialization is a step-by-step process of introducing the new employees with organizations

culture, norms, values, working environment, relationships and the behavior which are
necessary to function comfortably and effectively in the organization. It is systematic and
planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organization. That is
why it does not occur in vacuum.



Pre-arrival Encounter Metamorphosis


Fig. Socialization Process

1. Pre-arrival stage: It is apparent that individual decisions to join an organization are often
based on incomplete, inaccurate, and sometimes distorted information. As a result, wrong
expectations and desires emerge. It is therefore valuable if parts of the socialization process
occur before a new employee joins the organization. During this time there is a need for the
preparation of individuals, prior to their entry, for an occupational or organizations position. In
some jobs, particularly of people such as doctors and engineers and accountants, they will
have to undergo a considerable degree of prior socialization in training and in educational

2. Encounter stage: The extent to which the outcomes of the socialization process are
affected depends on the intensity of the reality shock on the job. This shock will arise when
there is a confrontation between the individual belief systems regarding jobs and co-workers
and the organizational reality. The greater the differences between the expectation and reality,
the higher the intensity of the reality shock. Thus the employee must undergo socialization to
minimize such differences.

3. Metamorphosis: This is the stage when the new recruits work out ways of dealing with the
problem discovered during the encounter phase. Once this process is completed, the real career
of the recruits will start in the organization. The final result of metamorphosis refers to the
point in the socialization sequence where new recruits can be said to be comfortable in the
organizational environment. They feel accepted by their peers. Their competencies and skills
will be recognized by other organizations members. The successful metamorphosis should have
a positive impact on the output components- productivity, commitment and labor turnover. It
means employee's commitment and organizational productivity should increase and the
propensity to the organization should decrease.