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# (A) For transient response, we have 4

specifications:

(a) Tr rise time =
n 1 2

(b) Tp peak time =
n 1 2

(c) %MP percentage maximum overshoot =
1 2
e x100%
4
(d) Ts settling time (2% error) =
n

## (B) Steady State Response

(a) Steady State error

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Question : How are the performance
related to and n ?
- Given a step input, i.e., R(s) =1/s, then the system output
(or step response) is;

## - Taking inverse Laplace transform, we have the step

response;

Where; or cos1 ( )
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Second Order System
C ( s) n 2
T ( s) 2
R( s) s 2n s n 2

## Mapping the poles into s-plane

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Lets re-write the equation for c(t):

Let: 1 2
and

## d n 1 2 Damped natural frequency

n d

Thus:

sind t
1 n t
c(t ) 1 e

where cos1 ( )
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Transient Response Analysis

## 1) Rise time, Tr. Time the response takes to rise from

0 to 100%

sind t 1
1 n t
c(t ) t T r 1 e

0 0

sin(d Tr ) 0
Tr
d Tr sin (0)
1
n 1 2
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Transient Response Analysis
2) Peak time, Tp - The peak time is the time required for
the response to reach the first peak, which is given by;

c(t ) 0
t T p

c(t )
t T p

1

(n )e nt sin(d t ) 1 e nt cos(d t ) n 1 2 0
n T 1 2
n nT p
e sin(d Tp )
n p
e cos(d Tp )

1
1 2
tan
tan(d Tp )

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We know that tan( ) tan( )
So, tan(d Tp ) tan( )

## From this expression:

d Tp
d Tp

Tp
d n 1 2
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Transient Response Analysis
3) Percent overshoot, %OS - The percent overshoot is
defined as the amount that the waveform at the peak time
overshoots the steady-state value, which is expressed as a
percentage of the steady-state value.

C (Tp ) C ()
% MP x100%
C ( )

OR

C max Cfinal
%OS x 100
Cfinal
C (Tp ) 1
e nt sind t x100%
1
x100%
1
n
1 1 2
e n
sin d x100%

d

sin x100%
1 1 2
e

sin( )
1 2

1 2
e x100% e x100%

1 2

24 24

Therefore, 1 2
% MP e x100%

## - For given %OS, the damping ratio can

be solved from the above equation;

ln%MP / 100

ln %MP / 100
2 2

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Transient Response Analysis
4) Setting time, Ts - The settling time is the time
required for the amplitude of the sinusoid to decay
to 2% of the steady-state value.
To find Ts, we must find the time for which c(t) reaches & stays
within +2% of the steady state value, cfinal. The settling time is
the time it takes for the amplitude of the decaying sinusoid in c(t)
to reach 0.02, or

nTs 1
e 0.02
1 2

4
Thus, Ts
n
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Transient Response Analysis
4) Setting time, Ts - The settling time is the time
required for the amplitude of the sinusoid to decay
to 2% of the steady-state value.
To find Ts, we must find the time for which c(t) reaches & stays
within +2% of the steady state value, cfinal. The settling time is
the time it takes for the amplitude of the decaying sinusoid in c(t)
to reach 0.02, or

nTs 1
e 0.02
1 2

4
Thus, Ts
n
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UNDERDAMPED

## Example 1: Find the natural frequency and damping

ratio for the system with transfer function
36
G( s) 2
Solution: s 4.2s 36
Compare with general TF

n= 6

=0.35

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UNDERDAMPED
Example 2: Given the transfer function

find Ts , %OS , T p
Solution:

n 10 0.75

## Ts 0.533s, %OS 2.838%, T p 0.475s

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UNDERDAMPED

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Overdamped Response
1
a=9

9 9
C ( s)
s( s 9s 9) s( s 7.854)(s 1.146)
2

## s= 0; s = -7.854; s = -1.146 ( two real poles)

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7.854t 1.146t
c(t ) K1 K 2 e K 3e

## OVERDAMPED RESPONSE !!!

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Underdamped Response
0 1
a=3

## c(t ) K1 e 1.5t ( K 2 cos 2.598t K 3 sin 2.598t )

s = 0; s = -1.5 j2.598 ( two complex poles)
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UNDERDAMPED RESPONSE !!!
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Undamped Response
0
a=0

c(t ) K1 K 2 cos3t
s = 0; s = j3 ( two imaginary poles)
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UNDAMPED RESPONSE !!!
36
Critically Damped System

a=6

1
3t 3t
c(t ) K1 K 2 e K 3te
S = 0; s = -3,-3 ( two real and equal poles)
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CRITICALLY DAMPED RESPONSE !!!
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Second Order System

39
40
Effect of different damping ratio,

Increasing

41
Second Order System
Example 4: Describe the nature of the second-order
system response via the value of the damping ratio for
the systems with transfer function

12
1. G( s) 2
s 8s 12

16
2. G( s) 2 Do them at home
s 8s 16

20
3. G( s) 2
s 8s 20

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Introduction
A general secondorder system (without zeros) is
characterized by the following transfer function.

2
G (s) n
OpenLoopTransferFunction
s ( s 2 n )

C( s ) n2
2 ClosedLoopTransferFunction
R( s ) s 2 n s n2
Introduction
C( s ) n2
2
R( s ) s 2 n s n2

## damping ratio of the second order system, which is a measure

of the degree of resistance to change in the system output.

## n undamped natural frequency of the second order system,

which is the frequency of oscillation of the system without
damping.
Example#1
Determine the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio
of the following second order system.

C( s ) 4
2
R( s ) s 2 s 4

## Compare the numerator and denominator of the given transfer

function with the general 2nd order transfer function.

C( s ) n2
2
R( s ) s 2 n s n2

n2 4 n 2 rad / sec
2 n s 2 s
n 1
s 2 2 n s n2 s 2 2 s 4
0.5
Introduction

C( s ) n2
2
R( s ) s 2 n s n2

## The closedloop poles of the system are

n n 2 1

n n 2 1
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
Depending upon the value of , a secondorder system can be set
into one of the four categories:
1. Overdamped when the system has two real distinct poles ( >1).

c b a
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
According the value of , a secondorder system can be set into
one of the four categories:

2. Underdamped when the system has two complex conjugate poles (0 < <1)

c b a
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
According the value of , a secondorder system can be set into
one of the four categories:

## 3. Undamped when the system has two imaginary poles ( = 0).

j

c b a
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
According the value of , a secondorder system can be set into
one of the four categories:

4. Critically damped when the system has two real but equal poles ( = 1).
j

c b a
TimeDomainSpecification
For0< <1andn >0,the2nd ordersystemsresponseduetoa
unitstepinputlookslike

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TimeDomainSpecification
The delay (td) time is the time required for the response to
reach half the final value the very first time.

12
TimeDomainSpecification
The rise time is the time required for the response to rise from 10%
to 90%, 5% to 95%, or 0% to 100% of its final value.
For underdamped second order systems, the 0% to 100% rise time is
normally used. For overdamped systems, the 10% to 90% rise time is
commonly used.
TimeDomainSpecification
Thepeaktimeisthetimerequiredfortheresponsetoreach
thefirstpeakoftheovershoot.

14
14
TimeDomainSpecification
The maximum overshoot is the maximum peak value of the
response curve measured from unity. If the final steadystate
value of the response differs from unity, then it is common to
use the maximum percent overshoot. It is defined by

## The amount of the maximum (percent) overshoot directly

indicates the relative stability of the system.

15
TimeDomainSpecification
The settling time is the time required for the response curve
to reach and stay within a range about the final value of size
specified by absolute percentage of the final value (usually 2%
or 5%).

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SPlane
Natural Undamped Frequency.

j
Distance from the origin of s
plane to pole is natural
undamped frequency in n

SPlane
Let us draw a circle of radius 3 in splane.

## If a pole is located anywhere on the circumference of the circle the

natural undamped frequency would be 3 rad/sec.

3 3

3
SPlane
Therefore the splane is divided into Constant Natural
Undamped Frequency (n) Circles.

SPlane
Damping ratio.

## Cosine of the angle between j

vector connecting origin and
pole and ve real axis yields
damping ratio.

cos
SPlane
For Underdamped system 0 90 therefore, 0 1

SPlane
For Undamped system 90 therefore, 0

SPlane
0
Foroverdampedandcriticallydampedsystems
therefore, 1

SPlane
Drawavectorconnectingorigin ofsplaneandsomepointP.

j
P

45

cos 45 0.707
SPlane
Therefore,splaneisdividedintosectionsofconstantdamping
ratiolines.

Example2
Determine the natural frequency and damping ratio of the poles from the
following pzmap.
1.5
0.91 0.84 0.74 0.6 0.42 0.22

0.96
1

0.99
0.5

0

-0.5
0.99

-1
0.96

## 0.91 0.84 0.74 0.6 0.42 0.22

-1.5
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
Example3
3
0.7 0.56 0.42 0.28 0.14
2.5
Determine the natural
frequency and damping ratio of 2 0.82
2
the poles from the given pz 1.5
map. 0.91
1
1
0.975
Also determine the transfer 0.5

## function of the system and state

0
whether system is
underdamped, overdamped, 0.975 0.5
undamped or critically damped. -1
1
0.91
1.5
-2 0.82
2

2.5
0.7 0.56 0.42 0.28 0.14
-3
-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
Example4
The natural frequency of closed Pole Zero Map

## loop poles of 2nd order system is 2 3

0.5 0.38 0.28 0.17 0.08 2.5
0.64
rad/sec and damping ratio is 0.5. 2
2

1.5
0.8
1
Determine the location of closed 1
0.94 0.5
loop poles so that the damping 0
ratio remains same but the natural 0.94 0.5
undamped frequency is doubled. -1
1
0.8
1.5
-2
2
0.64

## C( s ) n2 4 0.5 0.38 0.28 0.17 0.08 2.5

2 2 -3
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
R( s ) s 2 n s n
2
s 2s 4
Example4
Determine the location of closed loop poles so that the damping ratio remains same
but the natural undamped frequency is doubled.
5

4
0.5
3

1
4 2
0

-1

-2

-3
0.5
-4

-5
-8 -6 -4 -2 0