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# Test 1 (20%)

## 1a. i. Why is electricity the most convenient form of energy?

It is the most convenient form of energy because it is easy to produce, transport, use and
control.

## ii. How is the total installed capacity of a power plant decided?

Total installed capacity is decided by
i. First maximun power demand estimated
ii. Growth of demand
iii. Reserve capacity required

## iii. What are fixed costs?

Fixed cost are annual costs for interest, depreciation, insurance, taxes, capital, land and
construction cost. (and estimate income)

iv. Explain the effect of load factor on the cost of electricity generated
The effect of load factor on the cost of electricity generated is as shown in figure below.
When the LF is lower, then the cost of electricity will be higher and the higher the LF, then
the cost will be reduced.

Cost of Generation

## v. How can the cost of power generation be reduced?

The cost of power generation could be reduced by running at high load factor

1b. A power station has an installed capacity of 210 MW. The cost of the station is RM 1200 x
103 per MW. The fixed costs are 14% of the cost of investment. On full load at 100% load
factor, the variable costs of the stations per year are 1.5 times the fixed costs. Assume that
there is no reserve capacity of the plant and that the variable costs are proportional to the
energy production. Find the cost of generation per kWh at load factors of 100%, 80%, 60%
40% and 20%. Plot the curve.
2a. i. What is circulation? What is the difference between natural circulation and forced
circulation?
Circulation is the flow of water and steam within the boiler circuit. In natural circulation, it
is caused by density difference and if a pump is used, it is forced circulation. CR is defined by mw
in downcomer / ms out of drum. 25 > CR > 6

## ii. What is the pressure head developed for natural circulation?

The pressure head developed for natural circulation is given by

P = g H ( D m)

## iii. How do supercritical boilers differ from sub-critical boilers?

Supercritical boilers work above the critical pressure of 221 bar and sub-critical boilers
below critical pressure having drum for saturated steam.

## iv. When does a riser tube become vulnerable to rupture?

Riser tubes become vulnerable to rupture when circulation is not adequate ( <6 ) and the
heat being stored in the metal tubes leading to overheating and rupture.

## v. Explain the functions of primary air and secondary air.

Primary air is used to carry the pulverized coal to burners and secondary air aid in
combustion process.

2b. Calculate the efficiency of a boiler operating under the following conditions: feedwater at 40
bar and 120oC is supplied to the boiler at the rate of 30 kg/s. Of this, 25 kg/s leaves the
superheater outlet at 40 bar and 450oC and the remainder leaves the steam drum as dry
saturated steam at 40 bar for auxiliary purposes. The fuel used is oil having a calorific value
of 40,414 MJ/m3 and it is supplied at the rate of 7.2 m3/hr.