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The communications technology journal since 1924 2014 8

Capillary networks a smart way

to get things connected
September 9, 2014
Connectivity for billions of things

Capillary networks a smart

way to get things connected
A capillary network is a local network that uses short-range radio-access technologies to provide
groups of devices with connectivity. By leveraging the key capabilities of cellular networks ubiquity,
integrated security, network management and advanced backhaul connectivity capillary networks
will become a key enabler of the Networked Society.

People and businesses and the elderly can get assistance requirements is a prerequisite for the
everywhere are becoming through remote monitoring again MTC business case.
increasingly dependent on the using resources in an intelligent way Cellular communication technolo-
digital platform. Computing and which improves the reach of health gies are being enhanced to meet these
communication are spreading care services, reduces the need for, say, new service requirements3,4. The power-
into every facet of life with ICT physical day clinics and cuts the need for save mode for example, introduced in
functionality providing a way patients to travel. the most recent release (Rel12) of LTE,
to manage and operate assets, As a whole, communication is pro- allows a sensor that sends hourly reports
infrastructure, and commercial gressively shifting from being human- to run on two AA batteries for more
processes more efficiently. The centric to catering for things as well as than 10 years, and simplified signaling
broad reach of ICT is at the heart people. The world is moving toward procedures can provide additional bat-
machine-type communication (MTC), tery savings5. Rel-12 also introduces a
of the Networked Society, in
where anything from a smart device new LTE device category, which allows
which everything will become
to a cereal packet will be connected; a LTE modems for connected devices to be
connected wherever connectivity
shift that is to some extent illustrated significantly less complex and cheaper
provides added value1,2 .
by the explosive growth of the Internet than they are today the LTE features
of Things (IoT). proposed in 3GPP reach complexity lev-
Ubiquitous connectivity and the However, the requirements created els below those of a 2G EGPRS modem6.
Networked Society by object-to-object communication are In addition, 3GPP has identified ways to
Connectivity in the Networked Society quite different from those of current increase the coverage of LTE by 15-20dB.
is about increasing efficiency, doing systems which have primarily been This extension helps to reach devices in
more with existing resources, provid- built for people and systems to com- remote or challenging locations, like a
ing services to more people, reducing municate with each other. In scenar- smart meter in a basement 6.
the need for additional physical infra- ios where objects communicate with Capillary networks and the short-
structure, and developing new services each other, some use cases require bat- range communications technologies
that go beyond human interaction. For tery-operated devices; therefore, low that enable them are another key devel-
example, smart agricultural systems energy consumption is vital. Bare- opment in the Networked Society: they
monitor livestock and crops so that irri- bones device architecture is essential play an important role providing con-
gation, fertilization, feeding and water for mass deployment; typically the data nectivity for billions of devices in many
levels can be automatically controlled, rate requirements for small devices are use cases. Examples of the technologies
which ensures that crops and livestock low, and the cost of connectivity needs include Bluetooth Low Energy, IEEE
remain healthy and resources are used to be minimal when billions of devices 802.15.4, and IEEE 802.11ah.
wisely. In smart health care, patients are involved. Meeting all of these new This article gives an overview of the
significant functionality that is needed
to connect capillary networks, includ-
ing how to automatically configure and
BOX A  Terms and abbreviations manage them, and how to provide end-
to-end connectivity in a secure manner.
CoAP Constrained Application Protocol MTC machine-type communication
EGPRS enhanced general packet radio service M2M machine-to-machine Capillary networks
eSIM embedded SIM card OSPF Open Shortest Path First The beauty of short-range radio technol-
GBA Generic Bootstrapping Architecture SLA Service Level Agreement ogies lies in their ability to provide con-
IoT Internet of Things TLS transport layer security nectivity efficiently to devices within a


specific local area. Typically, these local

or capillary networks need to be con- FIGURE 1  System architecture for capillary network connectivity
nected to the edge of a communication
infrastructure to, for example, reach
service functions that are hosted some-
where on the internet or in a cloud.
Connecting a capillary network to the Cellular access
global communication infrastructure
can be achieved through a cellular net-
work, which can be a wide-area network
or an indoor cellular solution. The gate- Capillary network
way between the cellular network and
the capillary network acts just like any Mobile
other user equipment. network
The architecture, illustrated in M2M/IoT
Figure1, comprises three domains: the Connected
capillary connectivity domain, the cel- devices Capillary gateway
lular connectivity domain, and the data
domain. The first two domains span the
nodes that provide connectivity in the Data domain
capillary network and in the cellular
Capillary connectivity domain Cellular connectivity domain
network respectively. The data domain
spans the nodes that provide data pro-
cessing functionality for a desired ser-
vice. These nodes are primarily the
connected devices themselves, as they
generate and use service data though
an intermediate node, which like a cap- needed to cover the interfaces between circumventing the need for in-depth
illary gateway, would also be included in the domains, specifying what function- network planning. To achieve this, a
the data domain if it provides data pro- ality will be provided. way to automatically configure connec-
cessing functionality (for example, if it Like most telecom networks, a capil- tivity is needed.
acts as a CoAP mirror server). lary network needs a backhaul connec- When deploying a capillary network,
All three domains are independent tion, which is best provided by a cellular a sufficient number of capillary gate-
from a security perspective, and so network. Their quasi-ubiquitous cover- ways need to be installed to provide a
end-to-end security can be provided by age allows backhaul connectivity to be satisfactory level of local connectivity.
linking security relationships in the dif- provided practically anywhere; simply Doing so should result in a certain level
ferent domains to one another. and, more significantly, without instal- of connectivity redundancy a device
The ownership roles and business lation of additional network equipment. can get connected through several dif-
scenarios for each domain may differ Factoring in that a capillary network ferent gateways. Some systems (such as
from one case to the next. For exam- might be on the move, as is the case for electricity meter monitoring) need to be
ple, to monitor the building sensors of a monitoring goods in transit, leads to the in operation for years at a time, during
real estate company, a cellular operator natural conclusion that cellular is an which the surrounding environment
might operate a wide-area network and excellent choice for backhaul. may change; nodes may fail, additional
possibly an indoor cellular network, as In large-scale deployments, some network elements may be added, and
well as owning and managing the cap- devices will connect through a capil- even the surrounding physical infra-
illary network that provides the sensors lary gateway, while others will con- structure can change. But, by allowing
with connectivity. The same operator nect to the cellular network directly. the capillary network configuration to
may also own and manage the services Regardless of how connectivity is pro- change, some slack in maintaining con-
provided by the data domain and, if so, vided, the bootstrapping and man- stant connectivity is built into the sys-
would be in control of all three domains. agement mechanisms used should be tem, which allows it to adapt over time.
Alternatively, the real estate company homogeneous to reduce implementa- The key to maintaining connectiv-
might own the capillary network, and tion complexity and improve usability. ity and building flexibility into con-
partner with an operator for connectiv- nected systems lies in optimal gateway
ity and provision of the data domain. Or Smart capillary gateway selection selection. The decision-making process
the real estate company might own and Ideally, any service provider should what gateway a device chooses for con-
manage both the capillary network and be able to deploy a capillary network, nectivity needs to be fully automated
the data domain with the operator pro- including device and gateway configura- and take into consideration a number
viding connectivity. In all of these sce- tion. For this to be possible, deployment of network and gateway properties.
narios, different service agreements are needs to be simple and use basic rules Network parameters such as the

Connectivity for billions of things

quality of the cellular radio link and include requirements set by the man- requires all of the capillary gateways to
the load in the cellular cell that a gate- agement system, such as allowing cer- communicate with a single point.
way is connected to fluctuate, and so tain types of device to always connect
a given capillary gateway will provide to given gateways. Policies are static and Managing QoS across domains
different levels of backhaul connec- are defined by network management. The QoS requirements for machine-
tivity at different times. Other consid- The process of gateway selection type communication are typically dif-
erations, like the amount of power a includes the following phases: ferent from those used for traditional
battery-operated gateway has left, have the information regarding connectivity, multimedia communication in terms
an impact on which gateway is opti- constraints, and policy is gathered by of bandwidth, latency and jitter. For
mal for a given device at a specific point the element making the selection; MTC, the requirement is often for guar-
in time. Consequently, optimal gate- the gateway selection algorithm applies anteed network connectivity with a
way selection should not be designed the policies to the constraints while minimum throughput, and some use
to balance load alone, but also to min- taking connectivity into consideration cases may include stricter constraints
imize delays, maximize availability and determines the optimal gateway; for extremely low latency.
and conserve power. The gateway selec- once a gateway has been selected for For example, a sensor should be able
tion mechanism should support device each device, the selection is to reliably transmit an alarm within a
reallocation to another gateway when implemented, which may imply that a specified period of time after the detec-
the properties or the connectivity to a device needs to switch gateway; and tion of an anomaly even if the network
gateway change. By designing gateway when a device moves to another is congested. To achieve this, low laten-
selection to be smart, flexibility in con- gateway, new routes to the device must cies are needed for real-time monitor-
nectivity is inbuilt, allowing systems be set up in the cellular network so that ing and control, while the bandwidth
to continue to function as the environ- the incoming traffic is routed correctly. requirements for this type of scenario
ments around them evolve. tend to be low. That said, QoS require-
As illustrated in Figure2, gate- The selection process can be controlled ments for machine-type communica-
way selection relies on three different at various locations in the network. The tion can vary tremendously from one
types of information: connectivity, con- location of control in turn affects the service to another. In some cases, like
straints and policy. need to transport information concern- surveillance, the QoS requirements are
Connectivity information describes ing constraints, policies and connectiv- comparable to those of personal multi-
the dynamic radio connectivity ity to the control point and to signal the media communication.
between devices and gateways. Devices selection to devices. QoS needs to be provided end-to-end.
typically detect connectivity by listen- If the control point is located in the So for the capillary network case, the
ing to the beacon signals that gateways connected device, the device performs distinct QoS methods of both the short-
transmit. Some capillary short-range the selection autonomously through range network and the cellular net-
radio technologies allow connectivity local computation based on information work need to be considered. Each type of
to be detected by the gateway. sent by the gateway. As devices have just short-range radio technology provides
Constraint information describes the a local view of the network, it may not different methods for QoS, which can
dynamic and static properties of the net- always be possible to optimize resources be divided into two main groups: prior-
work and the gateways that are included globally and balance load across a group itized packet transmission (for example,
in the selection process. Properties such of gateways. in 802.11) and bandwidth reservation
as battery level, load level (which can be If the control point is located in the (for example, in 802.15.4 and Bluetooth
described by the number of connected capillary gateways, the gateways need to Low Energy). As short-range technolo-
devices per gateway), support for QoS, communicate with each other and run gies work in unlicensed spectrum, the
cost of use, and sleep schedule are all the selection algorithm in a distributed level of interference at any given time is
included. The cellular backhaul connec- manner. This implies that gateways are uncertain, which limits the level of QoS
tivity of a gateway, such as link qual- either connected via the capillary net- that can be guaranteed. QoS methods
ity, can also be included, and future work, via the mobile network or via a for the cellular networks that provide
enhancements might include proper- third network such as Wi-Fi, and use a connectivity, however, are well estab-
ties such as cell load obtained from the common protocol, like OSPF, for data lished and are based on traffic separa-
management system of the cellular net- distribution. The main challenge here is tion with customized traffic handling.
work. Devices may provide additional to reach convergence quickly and avoid To provide QoS end-to-end, a bridge
constraint information, such as device unnecessary iteration due to changes is needed between the QoS domains of
type, battery level, QoS requirements in topology. the capillary and cellular networks. This
and capillary network signal strength. Alternatively the control point could bridge specifies how traffic from one
Policy information determines the be a single node in the network that col- domain (through a domain specific QoS
goal of gateway selection. A policy might lects the entire set of available informa- treatment) is mapped to a specific QoS
be a set of weightings or priorities that tion. This centralized method enables level in the other. The specifics of the
determine how the various constraint resource usage to be optimized globally QoS bridge are determined in a Service
parameters affect the best choice of across the entire network. However, it Level Agreement (SLA) established
gateway. Policy information may also increases communication needs, as it between the providers of the capillary


FIGURE 2  Smart capillary gateway selection

Capillary Capillary
3. Policies gateway gateway
selection selection

1. Constraints
New communication path 4. (Re-) select gateway and
control communication path
2. Radio connectivity

Mobile Mobile
network network

cloud cloud
Capillary Capillary
Connected gateways Old communication path Connected gateways
devices devices

network domain and the cellular con- in turn determines what security solu- One way to implement device iden-
nectivity domain, or between the ser- tions are suitable. The choice of a suit- tification and credentials is to use the
vice owner (in the data domain) and the able security solution may then impact same method used in 3GPP networks
connectivity domain providers. the choice of device hardware, as it basically the 3GPP subscription cre-
needs to be capable of implementing dentials. The subscription identity and
Security for connected devices the selected security solution. a shared secret that can be used for
The devices deployed in capillary net- For end-to-end protection of traf- authentication in 3GPP networks are
works are likely to vary significantly in fic between authenticated end-points, stored on the SIM card of the device. In
terms of size, computational resources, widely used security mechanisms such addition to using the credentials to get
power consumption and energy source. as TLS would improve interoperabil- network access, they can also be used
This variation makes implementing ity between constrained devices and for authenticating the device to vari-
and deploying security measures chal- services that are already deployed. In ous services in the network. This can
lenging. Security in capillary networks, some cases, there might be a need for be done using the 3GPP-standardized
or within MTC in general, does not fol- more optimized security solutions to Generic Bootstrapping Architecture
low a one-size-fits-all model because be deployed, such as by using a protocol (GBA). For MTC scenarios, GBA is a good
the constrained devices in the capillary that entails fewer round-trips or incurs solution, as it provides strong identifi-
network are just that: constrained. It is less overhead than legacy solutions. cation and communication security
probably not possible to apply a generic without requiring any user interaction
security solution: even if such a solution Identification or configuration at the device end; the
ensures security in the most demanding When a device is installed in a capil- security is based on the 3GPP creden-
of scenarios, highly- constrained devices lary network, in most cases it needs to tials stored in a tamper-resistant envi-
will probably not have the resources to possess some credentials that is to say ronment, to which not even the user has
implement it. What is needed is a secu- an identity and something it can use direct access.
rity solution that fulfills the security to prove it owns the identity, such as a To apply GBA, first of all the device
requirements of the use case at hand. key. Typical solutions include public key needs to have 3GPP credentials; and
For example, a temperature sen- certificates, raw public keys or a shared then the 3GPP network, the desired ser-
sor installed in a home is unlikely to secret. With its stored credentials, the vice as well as the device itself all need
have the same strict security require- device needs to be able to authenticate to support GBA. Unfortunately, many
ments as, say, a pacemaker or a sensor itself to the services it wants to use capillary network devices do not pos-
in a power plant. A successful attack such as a management portal through sess 3GPP credentials, which limits the
on any one of these three use cases is which the device is managed, a data use of GBA to capillary gateways. In such
likely to yield drastically different con- aggregation service where the device cases, the gateway can provide GBA-
sequences. So risk needs to be assessed stores its data, as well as the capillary based authentication and security for
in the development of security require- gateway, which provides the device with services on behalf of the entire capillary
ments for the specific scenario, which global connectivity. network, but device authentication

Connectivity for billions of things

capillary devices has the potential to

FIGURE 3  Security domains bootstrapping and management be extremely time consuming, which
could cause costs to rise.
Bootstrapping devices to their ser-
Capillary gateway security domain vices using a bootstrap server is one
way of automating configuration and
Capillary device security domain avoiding the manual overhead. Such a
service, which could be operated by the
Connectivity security domain device manufacturer, would ensure that
the device is redirected to the selected
management service of the device
Data security domain owner. During the manufacturing
process, devices can be pre-configured
with information about the bootstrap
Capillary network
server, such as how to reach it and how
to authenticate it. When switched on or
network upon waking up, the device will connect
to the bootstrap server, which helps it to
M2M/IoT find its current home.
cloud If a device gets corrupted, or for
devices Capillary gateway
some reason resets itself, it can once
Trust/business relationship GBA-based security rebooted use the bootstrap server to
reach its current management portal.
From the management portal, either
Alternative the device owner or an assigned man-
ager can configure the device with the
End-to-end security solution
services it should use and possibly even
provide the service specific credentials
to the device. This approach removes
the need to individually configure each
device, and can instead provide a cen-
tralized point for managing all devices,
still needs to be performed between gateway. At this intersection there is an possibly via batch management.
the device and the service. opportunity to apply the strong identifi- The ability to remotely manage
cation and security features of the 3GPP devices becomes significant when, for
Security domains network for the benefit of the capillary example, 3GPP subscription informa-
Capillary networks have two distinct device. If strong trust exists between tion needs to be updated in thousands
security domains, as illustrated in the device and the capillary gateway, of deployed devices. Today, 3GPP creden-
Figure3: the capillary devices and the the security domains can be partially tials tend to be stored on a SIM card,
capillary gateway that provides wide- merged to provide the device with 3GPP- and updating this information typi-
area connectivity. The security domain based security for the GBA-enabled ser- cally requires replacing the SIM card
for devices can further be split into con- vices it uses. itself. Embedded SIM cards (eSIM) and
nectivity and data domains. The data SIM-less alternatives are now being
domain incorporates the device and Bootstrapping researched. While eSIM is a more MTC-
the services it uses, such as manage- When a device is switched on or wakes friendly option, as it allows for remote
ment and data storage, and the connec- up, it may be able to connect to a num- management of subscription informa-
tivity domain handles the interaction ber of capillary gateways, possibly pro- tion, SIM-less is of most benefit to con-
between the device and the capillary vided by different gateway operators. strained devices, to which adding a SIM
gateway. The device needs to know which gate- is an issue simply because they tend to
The security domain for the capillary way it has a valid association with and be quite small.
gateway is based on the 3GPP subscrip- which it can trust. Once global connec-
tion and the security that the subscrip- tivity has been established, the device Network management
tion credentials can provide for access also needs to know which services to A range of tasks, such as ensuring auto-
services and 3GPP-aware services; for connect to. Capillary devices will be matic configuration and connectivity
example, through the use of GBA. deployed in the thousands, and as a con- for devices connected through a capil-
The two security domains intersect sequence of their bare-boned architec- lary network are fulfilled by network
at the capillary gateway; there is a need ture, they do not tend to be designed management. In addition, network
for mutual trust and communication with easy-to-use user interfaces. Manual management needs to establish access
security between the device and the configuration of massive numbers of control restrictions and data treatment


rules for QoS based on SLAs, subscrip- the information available at each end the Internet of Things (IoT). Within this
tions and security policies. In addition, of the communication path. Estimating context, cellular networks have a signif-
a service provider should be able to use the connectivity in this way can lead icant role to play as connectivity provid-
the management function to adapt ser- to a significant overhead to obtain and ers, to which some things will connect
vice policies and add or remove devices. maintain such information; it is also directly, and another significant por-
By nature, connected devices are rudi- limits the configuration possibilities of tion will connect using short-range
mentary when it comes to manual inter- the connectivity layer. radio technologies through a capillary
action capabilities. Additionally, the fact The best way to overcome this limi- network.
that service providers tend to have no tation is to interconnect the network Cellular networks can provide global
field personnel for device management management systems in the differ- connectivity both outdoors and indoors
implies that a remote management and ent domains. In this way, connectiv- by connecting capillary networks
configuration interface is needed to be ity information from the nodes along through special gateways. However,
able to interact with deployed devices. the communication path, between the achieving this will require some new
Network management of connected end points, can also be included. If the functionality.
devices in capillary networks poses new domains are operated by separate enti- Due to the massive numbers of con-
challenges compared with, for example, ties, this can be achieved through SLAs nected things, functionalities such as
the management of cellular networks. specifying the usage and exchange self-configuring connectivity manage-
This is partly due to the vast number of of information. The resulting cross- ment and automated gateway selection
devices, which are orders of magnitude domain management provides end-to- are critical for providing everything
larger than the number of elements end management opportunities. For in the capillary network with a reliable
handled by todays network manage- example, QoS in both the capillary and connection.
ment systems. Instead of handling the 3GPP domains can be matched, and To ensure that communication
devices as individual nodes, economy of alarms from both domains can be cor- remains secure and trustworthy, a secu-
scale can be achieved by handling them related to pinpoint faults. rity bridge is needed between the capil-
in groups that use policies and managed lary and the cellular domains. With this
parameters that are more abstract and Summary functionality in place, a future network
also fewer in number. As the Networked Society starts to take can provide optimized connectivity for
Consider the case of a service provider shape, a vast range of devices, objects all connected things anywhere no mat-
that wants to reduce costs by replac- and systems will be connected, creating ter how they are connected.
ing sensor batteries less frequently.
To achieve this, the service provider
increases the life length policy of the
node in the management system. The
management system interprets this pol-
icy and sets the reporting frequency to
every two hours, instead of every hour,
for a group of sensors in a particular geo- References
graphical region.
Connected devices will often be bat- 1. Morgan Stanley, April 2014, Blue Paper, The Internet of Things Is Now:
tery powered, and so all operations, Connecting The Real Economy, available at:
including management, need to be
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on battery usage. Additionally, con- 2014, From Machine-to-Machine to the Internet of Things: Introduction to a New
nected devices tend to sleep during Age of Intelligence, Elsevier, available at:
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agement operations cannot be expected 3. Alcatel Lucent, Ericsson, Huawei, Neul, NSN, Sony, TU Dresden, u-blox, Verizon
to provide results instantly, but only Wireless, White Paper, March 2014, A Choice of Future m2m Access Technologies
after the device wakes up. for Mobile Network Operators, available at: http://www.cambridgewireless.
A significant challenge for network
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larly evident when different domains IoT%2010.04.14.pdf
in the end-to-end chain are provided 5. Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, April 2014, T. Tirronen, A. Larmo, J.
by different business entities as dis- Sachs, B. Lindoff, N. Wiberg, Machine-to-machine communication with long-term
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the connectivity state can only be esti- Communications (MTC) User Equipments (UEs) based on LTE, available at:
mated at a high level, extracted from

Joachim Sachs
is a principal researcher at Ericsson Research. He joined Ericsson in
1997 and has worked on a variety of topics in the area of wireless
communication systems. He holds a diploma in electrical engineering
from Aachen University (RWTH), and a doctorate in electrical
To bring you the
best of Ericssons
engineering from the Technical University of Berlin, Germany. Since 1995 he has been
research world, our active in the IEEE and the German VDE Information Technology Society (ITG), where
employees have been he is currently co-chair of the technical committee on communication.
writing articles for
Ericsson Review
our communications
technology journal Nicklas Beijar
since 1924. Today,
Ericsson Review is a guest researcher at Ericsson Research in the Cloud Technologies
articles have a two-to- research area. He joined Ericsson in 2013 to work with the Internet of
five year perspective
Things and, in particular, he has been working on the capillary network
and our objective is
to provide you with up-to-date insights on how prototype demonstrated at Mobile Word Congress 2014. His current
things are shaping up for the Networked Society. focus is on cloud-based solutions supporting the IoT. He holds a D.Sc. in networking
Address : technology from Aalto University and an M.Sc. from the Helsinki University of
Ericsson Technology, both in Finland.
SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 8 7190000

Publishing: Per Elmdahl

Ericsson Review articles and additional material
are published on: is a senior researcher at Wireless Access Networks, Ericsson Research.
Use the RSS feed to stay informed of the latest He holds an M.Sc. in computer science and technology from Linkping
University, Sweden. He joined Ericsson in 1990 researching network
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management and network security. He served as an Ericsson 3GPP SA5
All Ericsson Review articles are available on the
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is a master researcher at Ericsson Research in the Services Media and
Publisher: Ulf Ewaldsson Network Features research area. He joined Ericsson in 1997 and has
Editorial board: worked with several 3GPP and IP related technologies. He studied at the
Hans Antvik, Ulrika Bergstrm, Joakim Cerwall,
electrical engineering department at Helsinki University of Technology,
Stefan Dahlfort, sa Degermark,
Deirdre P. Doyle, Dan Fahrman, Anita Frisell, Finland. He has been involved in several EU projects, IETF and 3GPP standardization.
Geoff Hollingworth, Jonas Hgberg, He has been leading the IoT related research project at Ericsson Research since 2011.
Patrick Jestin, Cenk Kirbas, Sara Kullman,
Brje Lundwall, Hans Mickelsson, Ulf Olsson,
Patrik Regrdh, Patrik Rosen, Gunnar Thyrsin
and Tonny Uhlin. Francesco Militano
Editor: is an experienced researcher at Ericsson Research in the Wireless
Deirdre P. Doyle Access Networks department. He joined Ericsson in 2011 to work with
radio architecture and protocols. At present, he is investigating the field
Paul Eade, Nathan Hegedus
of M2M communications with LTE and capillary networks. He holds an
and Ian Nicholson M.Sc. in telecommunications engineering from University of Siena, Italy, and a post-
Art director and layout: graduate degree in networks innovation and ICT sector services from the Polytechnic
Carola Pilarz University of Turin (Politecnico di Torino), Italy.
Claes-Gran Andersson
Patrik Salmela
ISSN: 0014-0171
is a senior researcher at Ericsson Research focusing on security. He
Volume: 91, 2014
joined Ericsson in 2003 to work for Ericsson Network Security and
moved one year later to Ericsson Research, where he focused for several
years on the Host Identity Protocol. He has since been working on
security topics related to 3GPP, Deep Packet Inspection, and most recently, the
Internet of Things. He holds an M.Sc. in communications engineering from Helsinki
University of Technology, Finland.

Ericsson ISSN 0014-0171

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