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Types of Substructures

Abutment-Type Substructures
Abutment and Retaining Walls

Substructures

Anchored Walls
Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls
Prefabricated Modular Walls
Pier-Type Substructures
Concrete Pier
Steel Pier
Composite Steel & Concrete Pier

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Types of Substructures
Abutment & Pier

Loads on Substructures
Loads from Superstructure
Loads on Substructure
Abutment Pier
Load Combinations

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Loads from Superstructure Loads on Substructures
Vertical Loads from Superstructures Vertical load acting on substructure
Dead Load of Structural and Nonstructural Components (DC) Dead Load of Structural and Nonstructural Components (DC)

Dead Load of Wearing Surface (DW) Vertical Pressure from Dead Load of Earth Fill (EV)

Live Load (LL) and Impact (IM)


Horizontal loads acting on substructure
Pedestrian Live Load (PL)
Water Load and Stream Pressure (WA)
Ice Load (IC)
Horizontal Loads from Superstructures Wind Load on Structure (WS)
Wind Load on Structures (WS) Earthquake Load (EQ)
Wind Load on Live Load (WL) Vehicular Collision Force (CT), Vessel Collision Force (CV)
Earthquake Load (EQ) Horizontal Earth Pressure Load (EH)
Vehicular Braking Force (BR), Centrifugal Force (CE), and Earth Surcharge Load (ES)
Collision Force (CT) Live Load Surcharge (LS)
Creep (CR), Shrinkage (SH), Friction (FR), and Temperature
(TG/ TU)
25 26

Wind Loads (WS, WL) Vehicle Collision Forces (CT)


Unless protected, abutments and piers located within a distance of 30.0
FT to the edge of roadway, or within a distance of 50.0 FT to the
WL centerline of a railway track, shall be designed for an equivalent static
force of 400 KIP, which is assumed to act in any direction in a horizontal
WS plane, at a distance of 4.0 FT above ground.
(on Superstructure)
CT need not be considered for structures which are protected by:
An embankment
A structurally independent, crashworthy groundmounted 54.0-IN high
barrier, located within 10.0 FT from the component being protected;
WS
(on Substructure) Or a 42.0-IN high barrier located at more than 10.0 FT from the
component being protected

27 28
Load Combinations Load Combinations

Source: AASHTO (2002) 29 30


Source: AASHTO (2002)

Roles and Types


Design of Abutment and Roles of Abutment
Provide support for
Types
Abutment

Retaining Substructures
bridge superstructure at Open End Abutment
the bridge ends Close End Abutment
Connect the bridge with
Retaining Structures
the approach roadway
Roles and Types Gravity Wall
Retain the roadway
Cantilever Wall
Failure Limit States material (soil & rock)
from the bridge span Anchored Walls
Loads on Abutment Mechanically
Stabilized Earth Walls
Prefabricated
Modular Walls
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Types of Abutment Types of Abutment
Open End Open End Abutment
Abutment

Close End
Abutment

33 34
Source: Nowak (2005)
Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

Types of Abutment Types of Abutment


Close End Abutment Open End Abutment Close End Abutment
Has some slopes between Has no slopes between abutment
abutment wall and roadway/ wall and roadway/ water channel
water channel below below
Requires relatively larger space Requires relatively smaller space
Requires longer bridge span (good for urban areas)
Allow for some roadway Requires shorter bridge span
widening below bridge No allowance for future widening
More economical More expensive to construct

35 Source: Chen and Duan (2003) 36


Source: Nowak (2005)
Types of Retaining Structures Types of Retaining Structures
Anchored Walls

Source: Chen and Duan (2003) 37 38


Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

Types of Retaining Structures Types of Retaining Structures


Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

Source: Nowak (2005) Source: Nowak (2005)


39 40
Types of Retaining Structures Failure Limit States
Abutment structures must be checked for:
Global Stability Failure:
Bearing Capacity (a)
Overturning (b)
Sliding Failure (c)
Deep Seated Failure (d)
Local Strength Failures:
Compression Failure
Bending Moment Failure
Shear
Deflection
Etc
Source: Nowak (2005)
Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

41 42

Strength Limit States (Global) Loads on Abutment from Superstructure


Vertical loads from superstructures
(a) (b)
Dead Load of Structural and Nonstructural Components (DC)
Dead Load of Wearing Surface (DW)
Live Load (LL) and Impact (IM)
Pedestrian Live Load (PL)

Horizontal loads from superstructures


Wind Load on Structures (WS)
Wind Load on Live Load (WL)
(c) (d)
Earthquake Load (EQ)
Vehicular Braking Force (BR), Centrifugal Force (CE), and
Collision Force (CT)
T Creep (CR), Shrinkage (SH), Friction (FR), and Temperature
N (TG/ TU)
43 44
Source: Nowak (2005)
Loads on Abutment Itself Loads on Abutment
Vertical loads acting on substructure
Dead Load of Structural and Nonstructural Components (DC)
Vertical Pressure from Dead Load of Earth Fill (EV)

Horizontal loads acting on substructure


Water Load and Stream Pressure (WA)
Ice Load (IC)
Earthquake Load (EQ)
Vehicular Collision Force (CT), Vessel Collision Force (CV)
Horizontal Earth Pressure Load (EH)
Earth Surcharge Load (ES)
Live Load Surcharge (LS)

Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

45 46

Earth Pressure (EH, ES, LS and DD) Earth Pressure (EH)


Earth pressure is a function of the: Basic earth pressure, p
Type and unit weight of earth

p k h s gz
Water content
Soil creep characteristics
Degree of compaction kh = coefficient of lateral earth pressure
Location of groundwater table At-rest pressure coefficient, Ko
Active pressure coefficient, Ka
Earth-structure interaction
Passive pressure coefficient, Kp
Amount of surcharge s = unit weight of soil
Earthquake effects
z = depth below the surface of earth

Force resultant is assumed to act at 0.4H from the base of wall

47 48
Earth Pressure (EH) Surcharge Loads (ES and LS)
Constant horizontal earth pressure due to surcharge load
is added to the basic earth pressure

p ks q s

ks = coefficient of earth pressure due to surcharge


At-rest pressure coefficient, Ko
Active pressure coefficient, Ka
qs = uniform surcharge applied to the upper surface of the
active earth wedge
Source: AASHTO (2002)

49 50

Loads on Abutment Loads on Abutment


Live Load from Superstructure Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loads

Concrete
Approach
slab

Passive
pressure is O
ignored
Source: Nowak (2005) 51 Source: Nowak (2005) 52
Loads on Abutment Loads on Abutment
Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loads Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loads
VL Live load approach
Earth Pressure: Pressures generated by the
Ph = (EFPh)H2 Live Load and Dead Load WL

Pv = (EFPv)H2 Surcharges: WD
Location at 0.4H instead of 1/3 HL = KwLH VD
EFP = Equivalent Fluid Pressure Concrete HD = KwDH Concrete
Approach VL = wL (heel width) Approach
slab VD = wD (heel width) slab
wL = heq
H H
wD = slab thickness c HD HL

Pv Pv
Ph Ph
0.5H
0.4H 0.4H

Passive Passive
pressure is O pressure is O
ignored ignored
Source: Nowak (2005) 53 Source: Nowak (2005) 54

Loads on Abutment Loads on Abutment


Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loads Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loads
VL VL
Vertical Loads at the Live load approach Dead Load of the Live load approach
Bearing: DL WL abutment DL WL
LL LL
DL and LL
WD WD
Horizontal Loads: BR BR
VD VD
BR (braking) CR+SH+TU CR+SH+TU 3
Concrete Concrete
CR (creep) Approach Approach
SH (shrinkage) slab 4 slab
TU (temperature)
HD HL H HD HL H

Pv Pv
2
Ph Ph
0.5H 0.5H
0.4H 0.4H

Passive Passive 1
pressure is O pressure is O
ignored Source: Nowak (2005) 55 ignored Source: Nowak (2005) 56
Piers
Design of Pier Pier substructures may be designed using design
procedures of columns

Substructures

Steel
Concrete
Composite
Types
Failure Limit States
Loads
Design of RC Columns

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58
Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

Piers Piers
Reinforced Concrete Piers Steel Truss Pier

Source: www.wikipedia.org (2005) 59 Source: www.wikipedia.org (2005) 60


Piers Pier Shapes
Piers may be
Solid usually for short piers
Hollow usually for taller piers to save weight (need large
moment of inertia to prevent buckling and provide larger
moment capacity for lateral loads)
Pier Types
Solid Wall Pier
Single Pier (Hammer Head Type)
Rigid Frame

61 62
Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

Piers Pier Types Steel Bridges

63 64
Source: Chen and Duan (2003) Source: Chen and Duan (2003)
Pier Types Steel Bridges Pier Types Concrete Bridges
Rigid Frame Pier

65 66
Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

Pier Types Concrete Bridges Pier Selection


Factors that influences the selection of pier types
includes:
Types of superstructures
Steel or Concrete
Widths
Location
Over land or water
Hydraulics
Height (tall piers may be hollow to reduce weight)
Space available
Aesthetics

67 68
Pier Selection Guidelines Strength Limit States
Source: Chen and Duan (2003)

Pier structures must be checked for:


Global Stability Failure:
Overturning
Local Strength Failures:
Compression Failure
Bending Moment Failure
Shear
Deflection

Source: Nowak (2005)

69 70

Loads on Piers from Superstructure Loads on Piers Itself


Vertical loads from superstructures Vertical load acting on substructure
Dead Load of Structural and Nonstructural Components (DC) Dead Load of Structural and Nonstructural Components (DC)

Dead Load of Wearing Surface (DW)


Live Load (LL) and Impact (IM)
Horizontal loads acting on substructure
Water Load and Stream Pressure (WA)
Pedestrian Live Load (PL)
Ice Load (IC)
Wind Load on Structure (WS)
Horizontal loads from superstructures Earthquake Load (EQ)
Wind Load on Structures (WS) Vehicular Collision Force (CT), Vessel Collision Force (CV)
Wind Load on Live Load (WL)
Earthquake Load (EQ)
Vehicular Braking Force (BR), Centrifugal Force (CE), and
Collision Force (CT)
Creep (CR), Shrinkage (SH), Friction (FR), and Temperature
(TG/ TU)
71 72
Pier Load Analysis for Wind Loads Reinforced Concrete Columns
Pure Axial (=0.75)

Pn 0.85P0 0.85 0.85f 'c ( Ag Ast ) Ast fy


WL
Sprial
WS
(on Superstructure)
Tie Pn 0.80P0 0.80 0.85f 'c ( Ag Ast ) Ast fy

Pure Flexure (beam) (=0.90 for RC)


WS
(on Substructure) Mn As fy (d a / 2)

Combined Axial and Flexure in on direction


Interaction Diagram

Investigate High Bending


Investigate High Compressive Force (Low Compression) 73 74

Reinforced Concrete Columns Axial Loads + Bending Moment


Spiral vs. Tie columns

75 Source: Chen and Duan (2003) 76


Source: Wang et. al. (2006)
Reinforced Concrete Columns
Biaxial Bending + Axial
For high axial load Pu 0.1f 'c Ag

1 1 1 1

Prxy Prx Pry P0

Factored Axial Resistance when has Factored Axial Resistance when has
eccentricity only in Y direction eccentricity only in X direction
For low axial load Pu 0.1f 'c Ag
Factored Applied Moment in X
and Y direction
Mux Muy
1.0
Mrx Mry
Factored Nominal Moment
Capacity in X and Y direction

For slender columns, must also determine the secondary


moment due to P- Effect 77