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FAKULTI PENDIDIKAN DAN BAHASA

OUMH2103

ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL PURPOSES

NAMA : NOR HAZLAN BIN MOHD HARITH @ MD KHARIS

NO. MATRIKULASI : 740903065045002

NO.KAD PENGENALAN : 740903065045

SEMESTER : JANUARI 2016

PENSYARAH : PN MIMMI IKHWANI KHALID

EMEL : crazyfrog3974@yahoo.com.my

ALAMAT KAMPUS : OPEN UNIVERSITY MENTAKAB

JANUARY 2016
PART A

What is modern lifestyle ? Modernization is a process of changes in social technology.


Modernization is a changing process in the industrial advanced society. Modernization project is
related with the development of technology in the society by M.J. Levy (1967). This is based on
human civilization that is measured by the use of high technology tools. Its also related with the
changes in technology, economics, ecology, social structure and culture. Modern society has a
variety of comprehensive definition which is supported by the evolution and structural functional
theories. It can be concluded that the community is like an organization that can keep a balance
of its function whereas a family is where each family members has their own different roles with
technological development and their own economic avtivities.

Family plays an important role in the community. Family can be defined as a group of people
with the bonds of marriage, childbirth and adoption. Family aims to create, retain, and enhance
the development of cultural, physical, mental, emotional and social per member (Duvall and
Logan, 1986). Bailon and Maglaya said , a family is two or more individuals living in a
household because of blood relation, marriage or adoption. They will mutually interest with each
other and have their respective roles in maintaining their traditional and culture. Changing the
way of life in modernization era will bring great impact in the family. If one is unable to deal
with the modern lifestyle, he or she will be easily influenced by other cultures.

The family member have different role. Problems will arise if the family member does not take
responsibility that beeb assigned. In modern society, we still hold the traditional beliefs as our
way of life. The father as the head of the family is the breadwinner, protector and nurtures the
family members. While as a wife and mother, besides giving birth, also takes care of the family
daily needs, educating the children and supporting the spouse. As for the children, it is important
for them to implement the social psychology by increasing their development mentally,
physically, socially and even spiritually. It is an obligation for them to maintain the culture that
they have been practicing in their daily lives.

During childhood, the dependence on parents or adults is quite high. Modern lifestyle with the
changes and influence of the 21st century through the revolution of knowledge, biotechnology,
globalization, liberalization , democracy and the development of various technologies bring great
impact and amendments in traditional family structures. There are changes from the nucleus
family to the extended family. According to Fatimah Abdullah, in her book, industrial revolution
can lead to the changes in family pattern which develop egalitarian ideology and conjugal family.
It will result to the freedom of making choice, emphasizing on individualism, gender and social
equality.
The values towards the children change as time is precious to working parents. The children are
being the price in ones life. This will affect the socialization process for the childs growth. It
also can decreasing in numbers of children being born. Young children will be sent to nurseries
or left with nannies. The parents are not able to watch the physical and emotional development of
their children. Parents also tend to frequently eating out as there are many food couts and eateries
which provide lists of delicacies. Time is limited to eat together with their family. The fast food
will also affected their growth due to the lack of balanced meal.

The usage of the latest communication tools lika i-pads, laptops, smartphones and other gadget
allow to access information without limitations everywhere and anytime. Research by Siti
Norhanani stated that with the challenges of cyber world, the absence of proper guidelines for the
accessed information may not be accurate. Cybercrimes can be happen if there is no monitoring
by parents such as pornography, computer hacking, misuse of others personal information or
internet fraud. There were few cases where teenagers befriending old men which led to sexual
offence. Thus, the children will be affected by wrongdoings such as heresy, or any militant
activities and addicted to the internet using. All the arisen problems will affect the family
institution.

There are many negative aspects via social networking like the Instagram, facebook, twitter and
so on if there is no guidance and limitation in accessing them. For children, as their young minds
are still unable to differentiate the positive and negative aspects, they need guidance and
supervision from the adults. Teenagers need to exposed to all possibilities because there are
many cyber criminals who use internet farud that can lead to human trafficking, prostitution and
sex abuse. Surfing the immoral and non-beneficial websites should be avoided as they coul affect
the physical and mental development. It can cause the degrading of self-dignity, personal values,
waste of time and money as well as the urge of committing crimes. Children can be reminded
that the social media can be used positively as they can interact with each other discussing or
sharing useful materials. In the globalization era, all information at their fingertips, parents
should always monitor their childrens activities in surfing the websites.

Parents should be exposed to their positive and negative aspects of the cyber world. All family
members should know how ti search, use, share, and manage the information appropriately and
effectively. They should also give each other the emotionally support that they need and willing
to communicate openly. Religious practices, family customs and traditions can help to fend off
the negative elements that came from modernization.

The need to get along with the 21st century lifestyle is important.We need to catch up with the
fast and latest information to help us in our daily routines. The increase in economic needs
require employees to spend more time in earning a living. Due to this , busy working parents
may possibly neglect the household and childrens needs. This will lead to the childrens stunted
emotional and social development. Material needs would be the priority, whereas spiritual and
social needs may no longer be the vital elements. This caused social issues and negative elements
such as vabdalism , free sex, gangsterism, and teenagers running away from homes are
increasing rapidly. It happens because youngsters tend to seek something or someone to fulfill
their spiritual needs. Parents do not have time to monitor the progress of the children and do not
have time to share problems.

Spending quality time with the family is also important. A good family keeps good balance in
spending time together. The parents should know how to balance in giving a priority to career,
ambitions and family. Household management if solely depend on the maids or others can arise
many problems. Eating meals together, talking about events of the day, doing house chohres
together, watching movies, and going holiday are some activities that parents can do for the
family. This will help them to build stronger family bond and to communicate openly among the
family members. Parents need to enhance wisdom, parenting skills, knowledge and commitments
to the family members so they can be hand-in-hand addressing the globalization challenges.

Modern lifestyle can also affect the dynamics and the stability of the family institution. Modern
family is confronted with various crises that threaten the credibility, harmonious and integrity in
the family. These values refer to the moral values such as caring and compassionate feelings in
the society. The negative aspects will erode the family values and cause the increase in social
problems, divorce, sexual crimes, depression, domestic violence thus disappointment in life.
These will cause lack of attention, feeling unwanted, unhappiness and implanting hatred feelings
towards the family members which will lead to other social deprivation.

Modern lifestyle contributes to the usage of mixed language. There are various short forms of
languages used by the teenagers while talking and communicating with others. This will bring
the changes in the paradigm of socio-culture and communication in the society. Sometimes they
use the language to interact with the family members and at school. The inappropriate usage of
language in terms of spellings, sentence structure and frequently used acronyms will cause
damage to the language itself. Eventually, the speaking and identity of ones own language will
be lost and forgotten.

All the negative aspects that arisen can be overcome if parents can understand and adapt to the
current situation. As for the granted freedom, parents should be more open dan have liberal
perspective in order to accept the situatiopns and changes gradually. The opinions of younger
generations should be discussed and refined, not rejected without consideration. That way,
parents need to listen and consider the views of the younger as they acquire information from a
variety of sources. They cant be blame for their mistakes without knew why ?

The parents also need to think logically and rationally so they dont act on emotion. They must
be ready and prepared to accept the changes and willing to upgrade their skills and acquire new
knowledge especially of information technology. It is advisable that parents should spend more
time with their children , sharing their lifetime experience so as to enhance the sense of pride in
them. Establishing an open communication between parents and their children is a great way to
lay a foundation of trust, which will keep them uo-to-speed on the latest and greatest highligths
and hurdles of life. This will strengthen communication with the child and give them greater
sense of belonging.

As a conclusion, the family institution is now exposed to various vulnerabilities, threats and
challenges in dealing with globalization. Nothing wrong with modern lifestyle but how parents
manage with it ? Every changes and developments should be handled through skills in planning,
conflict management, interpersonal values, interaction, coping with stress and financial
management. The family institution should have high resistance to face and forestall the
influence . They needs to be a more dynamic social organization through education, training and
continuous coaching programme. This is because in the new millennium , the exposure to a
variety of developments reflects the changes and the crisis of thought in the world society today.
Wise parents that plan and organize through the actualization of religious, moral and culture
values for the family members are able to overcome the negative elements arising from the
globala civilization. No matter how engaged they are due to workload and time constraint, family
members should always find time to communicate and spend quality time together. Family must
be the top priority than others. They are no meaning of life without family.

1860 words
PART B

Here are data on consumer spending provided by five States to three different items in 2014. Five
States involved is Sabah, Sarawak, Kelantan, Johor and Kedah. Expenditures allocated to food
and drinks, clothing and footwear and leisure and education. For provision expenses for food
and drink range percentage is low about 3.1% only. Kelantan indicating the number of the
highest percentages of 30%. Probably because the state is known with a diverse food. This was
followed by Johor 29%. Sabah allocate 28.9% for food and drinks while neighbouring Sarawak
allocated 27%. State the least expenses for food is Kedah namely 26.9%. This may be because
the Kedah is the main rice producer state in Malaysia.

For consumer spending on clothing and footwear, the allocation of expenditure by all five state
is less than 10%. Expenses only from 5% to 9% only. Kedah which provides the highest
expenses while Kelantan is the lowest at 5.5%. While another three States allocated expenditure
matching namely Sabah 6.5%, Johor 6.9% and Kedah 7%. Probably because there was clothing
and footwear production in their State then the items like food and beverages. The range between
State spending was 1.5% which is the lowest range between these three items.
This is because the range for leisure and education is the most highest 5.1%. There is a
significant difference in expenditure for this item especially between Johor and Kelantan.
Kelantan only spends 1.9% for leisure and education the least compared with other States. This is
probably due to the abundance of madrasah and sekolah pondok in Kelantan that does not
require a large expenditure. Most of the traditional school is financed by the private sector and
individuals. Johor State allocated the highest expenditure, 7%. This is because the population
density in the State of Johor which is also known as state industry.

The second highest expenditure was Kedah namely 6%. Although there is a boarding school in
madrasah as Kelantan but expenditures for education remains high. Sabah and Sarawak allocate
only 2% and 3% for leisure and education. Should this provide for both state spending more for
education because there are many settlements in remote areas that require proper educations.
Expenses allocated by each state is based on the needs of the people.

376 words
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