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Criminal Law Book 2 Title One

TITLE ONE
I. CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY

Article 114
ELEMENTS OF TREASON:
1. That the offender owes allegiance to the Government of the Philippines
2. That there is a war in which the Philippines is involved
3. That the offender either
4. Levies war against the government,
1. breech of allegiance
2. actual assembling of men
3. for the purpose of executing a reasonable design
4. breech of allegiance
5. adherence
6. giving aid or comfort to the enemy
5. Adheres to the enemies, giving them aid and comfort
Ways of proving treason:
1. 2 witnesses testifying to same overt act
Example: X saw arms landed in La Union and loaded into a motor vehicle. At this stage, not sufficient to convict
yet. Y later saw the arms unloaded in a warehouse. Will X + Y be sufficient witnesses to convict? Answer: NO.
Because the law requires that 2 witnesses see the SAME OVERT ACT.
2. Confession of the accused in open court. Arraignment, pre-trial, trial OK.
1. If he has pleaded NOT guilty already during arraignment, he can still confess in open court by stating the
particular acts constituting treason.
2. During trial, simply saying Im guilty is not enough.
3. Withdrawing plea of not guilty during arraignment not necessary
4. If during arraignment he pleads guilty, court will ask if the accused understands is plea. Submission of
affidavit during trial, even if assisted by counsel is not enough.
Treason: breach of allegiance to the government, committed by a person who owes allegiance to it.
Allegiance: obligation of fidelity and obedience. It is permanent or temporary depending on whether the
person is a citizen or an alien.
Evident premeditation, superior strength and treachery are circumstances inherent in treason, and are,
therefore, not aggravating.
Treason cannot be committed in times of peace, only in times of war actual hostilities. But no need for
declaration of war
Levying of war: a) that there be an actual assembling of men; b) for the purpose of executing a treasonable
design by force (deliver the country in whole or in part to the enemy)
Not Treasonous:

1. Acceptance of public office and discharge of official duties under the enemy does not constitute per se the
felony of treason (exception: when it is policy determining)
2. Serving in a puppet government (ministerial functions) and in order to serve the populace is NOT
treasonous. But it is treason if: a) there is discretion involved; b) inflicts harm on Filipinos; c) it is
disadvantageous to them.
3. Purpose of offender: to deliver the Philippines to enemy country; if merely to change officials not treason
4. Filipino citizens can commit treason outside the Philippines. But that of an alien must be committed in the
Philippines.
5. Only Filipino citizens or permanent resident aliens can be held liable
6. Alien: with permanent resident status from the BID it is neither the length of stay in the Philippines nor
the marriage with a Filipino that matters.
On Citizenship

Treason cannot be proved by circumstantial evidence or by extra-judicial confession of the accused


Actual hostilities may determine the date of the commencement of war
No such thing as attempted treason; mere attempt consummates the crime
Giving aid or comfort material element, enhances forces of the enemy country. Acts which strengthen or
tend to strengthen the enemy in the conduct of war against the traitors country or that which weaken and
tend to weaken the power of the same.
Example: Financing arms procurement of enemy country. But giving of shelter is not necessarily giving aid and
comfort.
Adherence and giving aid or comfort must concur together. Adherence: when a citizen intellectually or
emotionally favors the enemy and harbors convictions disloyal to his countrys policy. But membership in
the police force during the occupation is NOT treason.
Example: Giving information to, or commandeering foodstuffs for the enemy.
Adherence may be proved by: (1) one witness; (2) from the nature of the act itself; (3) from the
circumstances surrounding the act.
Treason is a CONTINUING CRIME. Even after the war, offender can be prosecuted.
If you convict a person for treason by reason of irresistible force or uncontrollable fear, you may
use Art.12. No treason through negligence
When killings and other common crimes are charged as overt act of treason, they cannot be regarded as (1)
separate crimes or (2) as complex with treason.
Article 115
CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT TREASON

ELEMENTS:
1. In time of war
2. 2 or more persons come to an agreement to

1. levy war against the government, or

2. adhere to the enemies and to give them aid or comfort,

1. They decide to commit it


ELEMENTS OF PROPOSAL TO COMMIT TREASON
1. In time of war
2. A person who has decided to levy war against the government, or to adhere to the enemies and to give
them aid or comfort, proposes its execution to some other person/s.
Mere agreement and decisions to commit treason is punishable
Mere proposal even without acceptance is punishable too. If the other accepts, it is already conspiracy.
Article 116
MISPRISION OF TREASON
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender must be owing allegiance to the government, and not a foreigner
2. That he has knowledge of any conspiracy (to commit treason) against the government
3. That he conceals or does not disclose and make known the same as soon as possible to the governor or
fiscal of the province or the mayor or fiscal of the city in which he resides
Offender is punished as an accessory to the crime of treason
This crime does not apply if the crime of treason is already committed
Crime of omission
To report within a reasonable time depends on time, place and circumstance the RPC did not fix time.
RPC states 4 individuals, what if you report to some other high-ranking government official? Ex. PNP
Director? Judge Pimentel says any govt official of the DILG is OK.
Article 117

Espionage by entering, without authority therefor, warship, fort, or naval or military establishments or
reservation to obtain any information, plans, photographs or other data of a confidential nature relative to
the defense of the Philippines.
ELEMENTS:
1. 1. That the offender enters any of the places mentioned therein
1. 2. That he has no authority therefore;
2. That his purpose is to obtain information, plans, photographs or other data of a confidential nature relative
to the defense of the Philippines
Espionage by disclosing to the representative of a foreign nation the contents of the articles, data, or information
referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 117, which he had in his possession by reason of the public office holds
1. ELEMENTS: That the offender is a public officer
2. That he has in his possession the articles, data or information referred to in par 1 of art 117, by reason of
the public office he holds
3. That he discloses their contents to a representative of a foreign nation
Purpose: to gather data
Espionage: the offense of gathering, transmitting, or losing information respecting the national defense
with the intent or reason to believe that the information is to be used to the injury of the Philippines or
the advantage of any foreign nation. It is not conditioned on citizenship.
Not necessary that Philippines is at war with the country to which the information was revealed. What is
important is that the information related is connected with the defense system of the Philippines.
Wiretapping is NOT espionage if the purpose is not something connected with the defense
See CA 616

II. CRIMES AGAINST LAWS OF NATIONS


Article 118
INCITING TO WAR OR GIVING MOTIVES FOR REPRISALS
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender performs unlawful or unauthorized acts
2. That such acts provoke or give occasion for a war involving or liable to involve the Philippines or expose
Filipino citizens to reprisals on their persons or property
Crime is committed in time of peace, intent is immaterial
Inciting to war offender is any person
Reprisals is not limited to military action, it could be economic reprisals, or denial of entry into their
country. Example. X burns Chinese flag. If China bans the entry of Filipinos into China, that is already
reprisal.
Article 119

VIOLATION OF NEUTRALITY
ELEMENTS:
1. That there is war in which the Philippines is not involved
2. That there is a regulation issued by competent authority for the purpose of enforcing neutrality
3. That the offender violates such regulation
Govt must have declared the neutrality of the Phil in a war between 2 other countries
It is neutrality of the Phil that is violated
Congress has the right to declare neutrality

Article 120
CORRESPONDENCE WITH HOSTILE COUNTRY
ELEMENTS:
1. That it is in time of war in which the Philippines is involved
2. That the offender makes correspondence with an enemy country or territory occupied by enemy troops
3. That the correspondence is either
1. prohibited by the government, or
2. carried on in ciphers or conventional signs, or
3. containing notice or information which might be useful to the enemy
Circumstances qualifying the offense:

a. notice or information might be useful to the enemy

b. offender intended to aid the enemy

Hostile country exist only during hostilities or after the declaration of war
Correspondence to enemy country correspondence to officials of enemy country even if related to you.
It is not correspondence with private individual in enemy country
If ciphers were used, no need for prohibition
If ciphers were not used, there is a need for prohibition
In any case, it must be correspondence with the enemy country
Doesnt matter if correspondence contains innocent matters if prohibited, punishable
Article 121

FLIGHT TO ENEMYS COUNTRY

ELEMENTS
1. That there is a war in which the Philippines is involved
2. That the offender (Filipino or resident alien) must be owing allegiance to the government
3. That the offender attempts to flee or go to enemy country
4. That going to enemy country is prohibited by competent authority
Mere attempt consummates the crime
There must be a prohibition. If none, even if went to enemy country no violation
Alien resident may be guilty here.
Article 122

PIRACY
2 Ways of Committing Piracy
1. By attacking or seizing a vessel on the high seas or in the Philippine waters (PD 532)
2. By seizing the whole or part of the cargo of said vehicles, its equipment or personal belongings of its
complement or passengers
Elements:
1. That a vessel is on the high seas/Philippine waters
2. That the offenders are not members of its complement or passengers of the vessel
3. That the offenders
1. attack or seize that vessel or (hence, if committed by crew or passengers, the crime is not piracy
but robbery in the high seas)
2. seize the whole or part of the cargo of said vessel, its equipment or personal belongings of its
complement or passengers
High seas: any waters on the sea coast which are without the boundaries of the low water mark although
such waters may be in the jurisdictional limits of a foreign govt
PD 532 has been already repealed
Piracy in high seas jurisdiction is with any court where offenders are found or arrested
Piracy in internal waters jurisdiction is only with Philippine courts
For purpose of Anti-Fencing Law, piracy is part of robbery and theft

Piracy Mutiny

Robbery or forcible degradation on the high seas,


without lawful authority and done with animo Unlawful resistance to a superior officer, or the raising of
furandi and in the spirit and intention of universal commotion and disturbances on board a ship against the
hostility. authority of its commander

Intent to gain is an element.

Attack from outside. Offenders are strangers to the


vessel. (this is the standing rule with the repeal of
PD 532 which made it possible for any person to Attack from the inside.
commit piracy including a passenger or
complement of the vessel).

Article 123
QUALIFIED PIRACY
CIRCUMSTANCES:
1. Whenever they have seized a vessel by boarding or firing upon the same
2. Whenever the pirates have abandoned their victims without means of saving themselves
3. Whenever the crime is accompanied by murder, homicide, physical injuries, or rape. (the above may result
to qualified mutiny)
Parricide/infanticide should be included (Judge Pimentel)
Note the new rape law. Death is imposed in certain types of rape
There is a conflict between this provision and the provision on rape. Ex. If rape is committed on someone
below 7 death under the new rape law. But if rape committed on someone below 7 during the time of
piracy RP to death. Irreconcilable.
Murder/rape/homicide/physical injuries must have been committed on the passengers or complement

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Two

TITLE TWO

I. CRIMES AGAINST THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THE STATE


Classes of Arbitrary Detention:
1. By detaining a person without legal ground
2. Delay in the delivery of detained persons to the proper judicial authorities
3. Delaying release

Article 124
ARBITRARY DETENTION
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee (whose official duties include the authority to make an
arrest and detain persons; jurisdiction to maintain peace and order).
2. That he detains a person (actual restraint).
3. That the detention was without legal grounds (cannot be committed if with warrant).
Detention: when a person is placed in confinement or there is a restraint on his person.
Though the elements specify that the offender be a public officer or employee, private individuals who
conspire with public officers can also be liable.
Legal grounds for the detention of any person:
Without legal grounds:
Know grounds for warrantless arrest:
For escaped prisoner no need for warrant
Rolito Go v. CA is an example of arbitrary detention (Judge Pimentel)
Example: Y was killed by unknown assailant. Officers got a tip and arrested X. X voluntarily admitted to the
officers that he did it although he was not asked. X was detained immediately. According to the SC, there
was NO arbitrary detention. Why? Because once X made a confession, the officers had a right to arrest
him.
Continuing crime is different from a continuous crime
Ramos v. Enrile: Rebels later on retire. According to the SC, once you have committed rebellion and have
not been punished or amnestied, then the rebels continue to engage in rebellion, unless the rebels
renounce his affiliation. Arrest can be made without a warrant because this is a continuing crime.
1. commission of a crime
2. violent insanity or other ailment requiring compulsory confinement of the patient in a hospital
1. he has not committed any crime or no reasonable ground of suspicion that he has committed a crime
2. not suffering from violent insanity or any other ailment requiring compulsory confinement in a hospital
1. Crime is about to be, is being, has been committed
2. Officer must have reasonable knowledge that the person probably committed the crime

Article 125
DELAY IN THE DELIVERY OF DETAINED PERSONS
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That he has detained a person for some legal grounds
3. That he fails to deliver such person to the proper judicial authority within:
1. 12 hours, if detained for crimes/offenses punishable by light penalties, or their equivalent
2. 18 hours, for crimes/offenses punishable by correctional penalties, or their equivalent or
3. 36 hours, for crimes/offenses punishable by capital punishment or afflictive penalties, or their equivalent
Really means delay in filing necessary information or charging of person detained in court. May be waived if
a preliminary investigation is asked for.
Does not contemplate actual physical delivery but at least there must be a complaint filed. Duty complied
with upon the filing of the complaint with the judicial authority (courts, prosecutors though technically
not a judicial authority, for purposes of this article, hes considered as one.)
The filing of the information in court does not cure illegality of detention. Neither does it affect the
legality of the confinement under process issued by the court.
To escape from this, officers usually ask accused to execute a waiver which should be under oath and with
assistance of counsel. Such waiver is not violative of the accused constitutional right.
What is length of waiver? Light offense 5 days. Serious and less serious offenses 7 to 10 days. (Judge
Pimentel)
Article does not apply when arrest is via a warrant of arrest
If offender is a private person, crime is illegal detention

Arbitrary Detention (124) Delay in Delivery of Detained (125)

Detention is illegal from the beginning. Detention is legal in the beginning, but illegality starts from
the expiration of the specified periods without the persons
detained having been delivered to the proper judicial
authority.

Article 126

DELAYING RELEASE
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That there is a judicial or executive order for the release of a prisoner or detention prisoner, or that there
is a proceeding upon a petition for the liberation of such person
3. That the offender without good reason delays:
1. the service of the notice of such order to the prisoner, or
2. the performance of such judicial or executive order for the release of the prisoner, or
3. the proceedings upon a petition for the release of such person
Three acts are punishable:
Wardens and jailers are the persons most likely to violate this provision
Provision does not include legislation
1. delaying the performance of a judicial or executive order for the release of a prisoner
2. delaying the service of notice of such order to said prisoner
3. delaying the proceedings upon any petition for the liberation of such person

Article 127

EXPULSION
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That he expels any person from the Philippines, or compels a person to change his residence
3. That the offender is not authorized to do so by law
2 acts punishable:
1. by expelling a person from the Philippines
2. by compelling a person to change his residence

(The crime of expulsion absorbs that of grave coercion. If done by a private person, will amount to grave coercion)

i.e.,Villavicencio v. Lukban: prostitutes case


Does not include undesirable aliens; destierro; or when sent to prison
If X (Filipino) after he voluntarily left, is refused re-entry is considered forcing him to change his address
here
Threat to national security is not a ground to expel or change his address.
Article 128

VIOLATION OF DOMICILE
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That he is not authorized by judicial order to enter the dwelling and/or to make a search therein for
papers or other effects
3. That he commits any of the following acts:
1. entering any dwelling against the will of the owner thereof
2. searching papers or other effects found therein without the previous consent of such owner
3. refusing to leave the premises, after having surreptitiously entered said dwelling and after having
been required to leave the same
Aggravating Circumstance (medium and maximum of penalty imposed):
If the offender who enters the dwelling against the will of the owner thereof is a private individual, the
crime committed is trespass to dwelling (Art 280)
When a public officer searched a person outside his dwelling without a search warrant and such person is
not legally arrested for an offense, the crime committed by the public officer is grave coercion, if violence
or intimidation is used (Art 286), or unjust vexation, if there is no violence or intimidation (Art 287)
A public officer without a search warrant cannot lawfully enter the dwelling against the will of the owner,
even if he knew that someone in that dwelling is having unlawful possession of opium
3 acts punishable:
Being authorized by law means with search warrant, save himself or do some things good for humanity
There must be expression that entry is denied or that he is asked to leave
Papers and effects need not be part of a crime.
1. offense committed at nighttime
2. papers or effects not constituting evidence of a crime be not returned immediately
1. person enters dwelling w/o consent or against the will
2. person enters and searches for papers and effects
3. person entered secretly and refuses to leave after being asked to

Article 129
SEARCH WARRANTS MALICIOUSLY OBTAINED
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That he procures a search warrant
3. That there is no just cause
ABUSE IN THE SERVICE OF WARRANT OR EXCEEDING AUTHORITY OR USING UNNECESSARY SEVERITY IN
EXECUTING A SEARCH WARRANT LEGALLY PROCURED
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That he has legally procured a search warrant
3. That he exceeds his authority or uses unnecessary severity in executing the same
Search warrant is valid for 10 days from its date
Search warrant is an order in writing issued in the name of the People, signed by the judge and directed to
a public officer, commanding him to search for personal property described therein and bring it before the
court
No just cause warrant is unjustified
Search limited to what is described in the warrant, all details must be with particularity
Malicious warrant. Example. X was a respondent of a search warrant for illegal possession of firearms. A
return was made. The gun did not belong to X and the witness had no personal knowledge that there is a
gun in that place.
Abuse examples:
1. X owner was handcuffed while search was going-on.
2. Tank was used to ram gate prior to announcement that a search will be made
3. Persons who were not respondents were searched

Article 130
ELEMENTS OF SEARCHING DOMICILE WITHOUT WITNESSES:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That he is armed with a search warrant legally procured
3. That he searches the domicile, papers or other belongings of any person
4. That the owner, or any member of his family, or two witnesses residing in the same locality are not present
Order of those who must witness the search:
Validity of the search warrant can be questioned only in 2 courts: where issued or where the case is
pending. Latter is preferred for objective determination.
1. Homeowner
2. Members of the family of sufficient age and discretion
3. Responsible members of the community (cant be influenced by the searching party)

Article 131

PROHIBITION, INTERRUPTION, AND DISSOLUTION OF PEACEFUL MEETINGS


ELEMENTS:
1. Offender is a public officer or employee
2. He performs any of the ff. acts:
1. prohibiting or interrupting, without legal ground the holding of a peaceful meeting, or dissolving the same
(e.g. denial of permit in arbitrary manner).
2. hindering any person from joining any lawful association or from attending any of its meetings
prohibiting or hindering any person from addressing, either alone or together with others, any petition to
the authorities for the correction of abuses or redress of grievances
If the offender is a private individual, the crime is disturbance of public order (Art 153)
Meeting must be peaceful and there is no legal ground for prohibiting, dissolving or interrupting that
meeting
Meeting is subject to regulation
Offender must be a stranger, not a participant, in the peaceful meeting; otherwise, its unjust vexation
Interrupting and dissolving a meeting of the municipal council by a public officer is a crime against the
legislative body, not punishable under this article
The person talking on a prohibited subject at a public meeting contrary to agreement that no speaker
should touch on politics may be stopped
But stopping the speaker who was attacking certain churches in public meeting is a violation of this article
Prohibition must be without lawful cause or without lawful authority
Those holding peaceful meetings must comply with local ordinances. Example: Ordinance requires permits
for meetings in public places. But if police stops a meeting in a private place because theres no permit,
officer is liable for stopping the meeting.

Article 132
INTERRUPTION OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP
ELEMENTS:
1. That the officer is a public officer or employee
2. That religious ceremonies or manifestations of any religion are about to take place or are going on
3. That the offender prevents or disturbs the same
Circumstance qualifying the offense: if committed with violence or threats
Reading of Bible and then attacking certain churches in a public plaza is not a ceremony or manifestation
of religion, but only a meeting of a religious sect. But if done in a private home, its a religious service
Religious Worship: people in the act of performing religious rites for a religious ceremony; a manifestation
of religion. Ex. Mass, baptism, marriage
X, a private person, boxed a priest while the priest was giving homily and while the latter was maligning a
relative of X. Is X liable? X may be liable under Art 133 because X is a private person.
When priest is solemnizing marriage, he is a person in authority, although in other cases, hes not.

Article 133

OFFENDING RELIGIOUS FEELINGS


ELEMENTS:
1. That the acts complained of were performed
1. in a place devoted to religious feelings, or (for this element, no need of religious ceremony, only the place
is material)
2. during the celebration of any religious ceremony
2. That the acts must be notoriously offensive to the feelings of the faithful (deliberate intent to hurt the
feelings)
3. The offender is any person
4. There is a deliberate intent to hurt the feelings of the faithful, directed against religious tenet
If in a place devoted to religious purpose, there is no need for an ongoing religious ceremony
Example of religious ceremony (acts performed outside the church). Processions and special prayers for
burying dead persons but NOT prayer rallies
Acts must be directed against religious practice or dogma or ritual for the purpose of ridicule, as mocking
or scoffing or attempting to damage an object of religious veneration
There must be deliberate intent to hurt the feelings of the faithful, mere arrogance or rudeness is not
enough.

CRIME Nature of Crime Who are Liable If Element Missing

Prohibition,
Interruption and
Dissolution of Crime against the
Peaceful Meeting fundamental law of the Public officers,
(131) state Outsiders If not by public officer = tumults

If by insider = unjust vexation

If not religious = tumult or


alarms

If not notoriously offensive =


Interruption of Crime against the
Religious Worship fundamental law of the Public officers, unjust vexation
(132) state Outsiders

If not tumults = alarms and


scandal

If meeting illegal at onset =


Offending the Public officers,
Religious Feeling Crime against public private persons, inciting to sedition or rebellion
(133) order outsiders

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Three


TITLE THREE
I. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER
Article 134

REBELLION OR INSURRECTION
ELEMENTS:
1. That there be
1. public uprising and
2. taking arms against the government (force/violence)
2. That the purpose of the uprising or movement is either

1. to remove from the allegiance to said government or its laws


1. i. the territory of the Philippines or any part thereof, or

ii. any body of land, naval or other armed forces, or

2 To deprive the chief executive or congress, wholly or partially, of any of their powers or prerogatives

Persons liable for rebellion


1. Any person who:

1. promotes

2. maintains, or

3. heads a rebellion or insurrection; or

2. Any person who, while holding any public office or employment, takes part therein by:
1. engaging in war against the forces of the government
2. destroying property or committing serious violence
3. exacting contributions or diverting public funds from the lawful purpose for which they have been
appropriated (Note: diverting public funds is malversation absorbed in rebellion);
4. Any person merely participating or executing the command of others in rebellion
Success is immaterial, purpose is always political
Rebellion used where the object of the movement is completely to overthrow and supersede the existing
government
Insurrection refers to a movement which seeks merely to effect some change of minor importance to
prevent the exercise of govt authority w/ respect to particular matters or subjects
Actual clash of arms w/ the forces of the govt, not necessary to convict the accused who is in conspiracy
w/ others actually taking arms against the govt
Purpose of the uprising must be shown but it is not necessary that it be accomplished
A change of government w/o external participation
RISING PUBLICLY and TAKING ARMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT actual participation. If there is no public
uprising, the crime is of direct assault.
Mere giving of aid or comfort is not criminal in the case of rebellion. Merely sympathizing is not
participation, there must be ACTUAL participation
Not necessary that there is killing, mere threat of removing Phil is sufficient
Rebellion cannot be complexed with any other crime. However, illegal possession of firearms in
furtherance of rebellion is distinct from the crime of rebellion. Furthermore, it is a continuing crime such
along with the crime of conspiracy or proposal to commit such
A private crime may be committed during rebellion. Examples: killing, possessions of firearms, illegal
association are absorbed. Rape, even if not in furtherance of rebellion cannot be complexed
If killing, robbing were done for private purposes or for profit, without any political motivation, the crime
would be separately be punished and would not be embraced by rebellion (People v. Fernando)
Read People v. Hernandez and Enrile v. Salazar
Person deemed leader of rebellion in case he is unknown:
Any person who in fact:
1. directed the others
2. spoke for them
3. signed receipts and other documents issued in their name
4. performed similar acts on behalf of the rebels

Article 134-A
COUP D ETAT
ELEMENTS:
1. Swift attack
2. Accompanied by violence, intimidation, threat, strategy or stealth
3. Directed against:
4. duly constituted authorities
5. any military camp or installation
6. communication networks or public utilities
1. other facilities needed for the exercise and continued possession of power
7. Singly or simultaneously carried out anywhere in the Philippines
1. Committed by any person or persons belonging to the military or police or holding any public office
or employment; with or without civilian support or participation
8. With or without civilian support or participation
9. Purpose of seizing or diminishing state power
Crime may be committed by a single person, any government employee and even by civilian
Taking up of arms not even necessary, what is important is violence, threat, intimidation, strategy or
stealth

Coup detat
Treason (114) Rebellion (134) (134-A) Sedition (139)

Nature of
Crime against Crime against Crime against Crime against Public
Crime
National Security Public Order Public Order Order

levying war against


the govt;
Public uprising
OR
AND
adherence and giving Rising publicly or
aid or comfort to Taking up arms tumultuously (caused by
more than 3 armed men
enemies against the govt or provided with means
Overt Acts
See article. of violence)

Seizing or
Purpose of Deliver the govt to diminishing See enumeration in
objective enemy during war See article. state power. article.
Article 135
Penalties
Who are liable?
1. Any person who:
1. Promotes
2. Maintains
3. heads a rebellion or insurrection
4. engaging in war against the forces of the govt
5. destroying property or committing serious violence
6. exacting contributions or diverting public funds from the lawful purpose for which they have been
appropriated
2. Any person who, while holding any public office or employment, takes part therein
3. Any person merely participating or executing the command of other in a rebellion.

In Government Service Not in Government Service

Anyone who leads, directs, commands others to undertake a Anyone who participates or in an manner, supports,
coup. finances, abets, aids in a coup.

Serious violence is that inflicted upon civilians, which may result in homicide. It is not limited to hostilities
against the armed force.
Diverting public funds is malversation absorbed in rebellion
1. Public officer must take active part because mere silence or omission not punishable in rebellion
2. It is not a defense in rebellion that the accused never took the oath of allegiance to, or that they never
recognized the government
3. Rebellion cannot be complexed with murder and other common crimes committed in pursuance of the
movement to overthrow the government
4. Killing, robbing etc for private persons or for profit, without any political motivation, would be separately
punished and would not be absorbed in the rebellion.

Article 136
CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT REBELLION OR INSURRECTION
ELEMENTS:
1. 2 more persons come to an agreement to rise publicly and take arms against the government
2. For any of the purposes of rebellion
3. They decide to commit it
PROPOSAL TO COMMIT REBELLION OR INSURRECTION (136)
ELEMENTS:
Organizing a group of soldiers, soliciting membership in, and soliciting funds for the organization show
conspiracy to overthrow the govt
The mere fact of giving and rendering speeches favoring Communism would not make the accused guilty of
conspiracy if theres no evidence that the hearers then and there agreed to rise up in arms against the
govt
Conspiracy must be immediately prior to rebellion
If it is during the rebellion, then it is already taking part in it.
1. A person who has decided to rise publicly and take arms the government
2. For any of the purposes of rebellion
3. Proposes its execution to some other person/s

Article 137
DISLOYALTY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES
ELEMENTS:
Presupposes existence of rebellion
Must not be in conspiracy with rebels or coup plotters
If there are means to prevent the rebellion but did not resist it, then theres disloyalty. If there are no
means, no fault
If position is accepted in order to protect the people, not covered by this
The collaborator must not have tried to impose the wishes of the rebels of the people.
1. Failing to resist rebellion by all the means in their power
2. Continuing to discharge the duties of their offices under the control of rebels
3. Accepting appointment to office under rebels

Article 138

INCITING TO REBELLION OR INSURRECTION


ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender does not take arms or is not in open hostility against the government
2. That he incites others to the execution of any of the acts of rebellion
3. That the inciting is done by means of speeches, proclamations, writings, emblems, banners or other
representations tending to the same end
Intentionally calculated to seduce others to rebellion
There must be uprising to take up arms and rise publicly for the purposes indicated in Art 134

Proposal to Commit Rebellion (136) Inciting to Rebellion (138)

The person who proposes has decided to commit Not required that the offender has decided to commit
rebellion. rebellion.

The person who proposes the execution of the crime


uses secret means. The inciting is done publicly.

Article 139
SEDITION
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offenders rise
1. Publicly (if no public uprising = tumult and other disturbance of public order)
2. Tumultuously (vis--vis rebellion where there must be a taking of arms)
3. to prevent the promulgation or execution of any law or the holding of any popular election
4. to prevent the national government, or any provincial or municipal government, or any public thereof from
freely exercising its or his functions, or prevent the execution of any administrative order
5. to inflict any act or hate or revenge upon the person or property of any public officer or employee
6. to commit for any political or social end, any act of hate or revenge against private persons or any social
class (hence, even private persons may be offended parties)
7. to despoil, for any political or social end, any person, municipality or province, or the national government
of all its property or any part thereof
2. That they employ force, intimidation, or other means outside of legal methods
3. That the offenders employ any of those means to attain any of the following objects:
Sedition: raising of commotion or disturbances in the State. Its ultimate object is a violation of the public
peace or at least such measures that evidently engenders it.
Difference from rebellion object or purpose of the surprising. For sedition sufficient that uprising is
tumultuous. In rebellion there must be taking up of arms against the government.
Sedition purpose may be either political or social. In rebellion always political
Tumultuous caused by more than 3 persons who are armed or provided with means of violence
Preventing public officers from freely exercising their functions
In sedition offender may be a private or public person (Ex. Soldier)
Public uprising and the object of sedition must concur
Q: Are common crimes absorbed in sedition? In P v. Umali, SC held that NO. Crimes committed in that case
were independent of each other.
Preventing election through legal means NOT sedition
But when sugar farmers demonstrated and destroyed the properties of sugar barons sedition
Persons liable for sedition:
1. leader of the sedition, and
2. other persons participating in the sedition

Article 142
INCITING TO SEDITION
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender does not take a direct part in the crime of sedition
2. That he incites others to the accomplishment of any of the acts which constitute sedition (134)
3. That the inciting is done by means of speeches, proclamations, writing, emblems, cartoons, banners, or
other representations tending to the same end (purpose: cause commotion not exactly against the
government; actual disturbance not necessary)
Different acts of inciting to sedition:
When punishable:
1. Inciting others to the accomplishment of any of the acts which constitute sedition by means of speeches,
proclamations, writings, emblems etc.
2. Uttering seditious words or speeches which tend to disturb the public peace or writing, publishing, or
circulating scurrilous [vulgar, mean, libelous] libels against the government or any of the duly constituted
authorities thereof, which tend to disturb the public peace
3. Knowingly concealing such evil practices
1. when they tend to disturb or obstruct any lawful officer in executing the functions of his office; or
2. when they tend to instigate others to cabal and meet together for unlawful purposes
3. when they suggest or incite rebellious conspiracies or riots; or
4. when they lead or tend to stir up the people against the lawful authorities or to disturb the peace of the
community, the safety and order of the government

II. CRIMES AGAINST POPULAR REPRESENTATION

Article 143
ACTS TENDING TO PREVENT THE MEETING OF CONGRESS AND SIMILAR BODIES
ELEMENTS:
1. That there be a projected or actual meeting of Congress or any of its committees or subcommittees,
constitutional commissions or committees or division thereof, or of any provincial board or city or
municipal council or board
2. That the offender who may be any persons prevents such meeting by force or fraud
Chief of Police and mayor who prevented the meeting of the municipal council are liable under Art 143,
when the defect of the meeting is not manifest and requires an investigation before its existence can be
determined.

Article 144
DISTURBANCE OF PROCEEDINGS
ELEMENTS:
1. That there be a meeting of Congress or any of its committees, constitutional commissions or committees or
divisions thereof, or of any provincial board or city or municipal council or board
2. That the offender does any of the following acts
1. he disturbs any of such meetings
2. he behaves while in the presence of any such bodies in such a manner as to interrupt its
proceedings or to impair the respect due it
Complaint must be filed by member of the Legislative body. Accused may also be punished for contempt.

Article 145
VIOLATION OF PARLIAMENTARY IMMUNITY
Acts punishable:
1. By using force, intimidation, threats, or frauds to prevent any member of Congress from
1. attending the meeting of the assembly or any of its committees, constitutional commissions or committees
or divisions thereof, or from
2. expressing his opinions or
3. casting his vote
2. By arresting or searching any member thereof while Congress is in a regular or special session, except in
case such member has committed a crime punishable under the code by a penalty higher than prision
mayor
Elements:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee
2. That he arrests or searches any member of Congress
3. That Congress, at the time of arrest or search, is in a regular or special session
4. That the member searched has not committed a crime punishable under the code by a penalty higher than
prision mayor (1987 constitution: privilege from arrest while congress in session in all offenses punishable
by not more than 6 years imprisonment).
Article partly inoperative because of the 1987 Constitution

III. ILLEGAL ASSEMBLIES AND ASSOCIATIONS

Article 146
ILLEGAL ASSEMBLIES
Two (2) Types of illegal assemblies:
a. Meeting of the first form
1. Meeting, gathering or group of persons whether in a fixed place or moving
2. purpose : to commit any of crimes punishable under the code
3. meeting attended by armed persons
b. Meeting of the second form
1. Meeting, gathering or group of persons whether in a fixed place or moving
2. Audience whether armed or not, is incited to the commission of the crime of treason, rebellion or
insurrection, sedition or direct assault.
Not all the persons present at the meeting of the first form of illegal assembly must be armed
Persons liable for illegal assembly
Responsibility of persons merely present at the meeting
Presumptions if person present at the meeting carries an unlicensed firearm:
1. the organizers or leaders of the meeting
2. persons merely present at the meeting (except when presence is out of curiosity not liable)
1. if they are not armed, penalty is arresto mayor
2. if they carry arms, like bolos or knives, or licensed firearms, penalty is prision correccional
1. purpose of the meeting is to commit acts punishable under the RPC
2. considered as leader or organizer of the meeting
Article 147
ILLEGAL ASSOCIATIONS
ELEMENTS:
Persons liable:
1. Organized totally or partially for the purpose of committing any of the crimes in RPC
2. Or for some purpose contrary to public morals
1. founders, directors and president of the association
2. mere members of the association

Illegal Assembly (146) Illegal Association (147)

Must be an actual meeting of armed persons to commit


any of the crimes punishable under the RPC, or of
individuals who, although not armed, are incited to the
commission of treason, rebellion, sedition or assault
upon a person in authority of his agent. No need for such

It is the meeting and the attendance at such that are Act of forming or organizing and membership in
punished the association

Persons liable: leaders and those present Founders, directors, president and members

IV. ASSAULT, RESISTANCE AND DISOBEDIENCE

Article 148
DIRECT ASSAULT
ELEMENTS OF THE 1ST FORM OF DIRECT ASSAULT
1. That the offender employs force or intimidation.
2. That the aim of the offender is to attain any of the purposes of the crime of rebellion or any of the objects
of the crimes of sedition. (victim need not be person in authority)
3. That there is no public uprising.
ELEMENTS OF THE 2ND FORM OF DIRECT ASSAULT:
1. That the offender (a) makes an attack, (b) employs force, (c) makes a serious intimidation, or (d) makes a
serious resistance.
2. That the person assaulted is a person in authority or his agent.
3. That at the time of the assault the person in authority or his agent (a) is engaged in the actual performance
of official duties (motive is not essential), or that he is assaulted (b) by reason of the past performance of
official duties (motive is essential).
4. That the offender knows that the one he is assaulting is a person in authority or his agent in the exercise of
his duties (with intention to offend, injure or assault).
5. That there is no public uprising.
Always complexed with the material consequence of the act (e.g. direct assault with murder) except if
resulting in a light felony, in which case, the consequence is absorbed
Hitting the policeman on the chest with fist is not direct assault because if done against an agent of a
person in authority, the force employed must be of serious character
The force employed need not be serious when the offended party is a person in authority (ex. Laying of
hands)
The intimidation or resistance must be serious whether the offended party is an agent only or a person in
authority (ex. Pointing a gun)

Force Employed Intimidation/Resistance

Need not be serious Serious


Person in Authority

Must be of serious character Serious


Agent

Person in authority: any person directly vested with jurisdiction (power or authority to govern and execute
the laws) whether as an individual or as a member of some court or governmental corporation, board or
commission
A barangay captain is a person in authority, so is a Division Superintendent of schools, President of Sanitary
Division and a teacher
Agent: is one who, by direct provision of law or by election or by appointment by competent authority, is
charged with the maintenance of public order and the protection and security of life and property.
(Example. Barrio councilman and any person who comes to the aid of the person in authority, policeman,
municipal treasurer, postmaster, sheriff, agents of the BIR, Malacaang confidential agent)
Even when the person in authority or the agent agrees to fight, still direct assault.
When the person in authority or the agent provoked/attacked first, innocent party is entitled to defend
himself and cannot be held liable for assault or resistance nor for physical injuries, because he acts in
legitimate self-defense
There can be no assault upon or disobedience to one authority by another when they both contend that
they were in the exercise of their respective duties.
When assault is made by reason of the performance of his duty there is no need for actual performance of
his official duty when attacked
Circumstances qualifying the offense (Qualified Assault):
Complex crime of direct assault with homicide or murder, or with serious physical injuries.
Direct assault cannot be committed during rebellion.
1. when the assault is committed with a weapon
2. when the offender is a public officer or employee
3. when the offender lays hand upon a person in authority
Article 149
INDIRECT ASSAULT
ELEMENTS:
1. That a person in authority or his agent is the victim of any of the forms of direct assault defined in ART.
148.
2. That a person comes to the aid of such authority or his agent.
3. That the offender makes use of force or intimidation upon such person coming to the aid of the authority or
his agent.
Indirect assault can be committed only when a direct assault is also committed
To be indirect assault, the person who should be aided is the agent (not the person in authority because it
is already direct assault, the person coming to the aid of the person in authority being considered as an
agent and an attack on the latter is already direct assault). Example. Aiding a policeman under attack.

Article 150
DISOBEDIENCE TO SUMMONS
Acts punishable:
1. refusing without legal excuse to obey summons
2. refusing to be sworn or placed under affirmation
3. refusing to answer any legal inquiry to produce books, records etc.
4. restraining another from attending as witness in such body
5. inducing disobedience to a summons or refusal to be sworn

Article 151
RESISTANCE DISOBEDIENCE TO A PERSON IN AUTHORITY OR THE AGENT OF SUCH PERSON (par. 1)
ELEMENTS:
1. That a person in authority or his agent is engaged in the performance of official duty or gives a lawful order
to the offender.
2. That the offender resists or seriously disobeys such person in authority or his agent.
3. That the act of the offender is not included in the provisions of arts. 148, 149 and 150.
SIMPLE DISOBEDIENCE (par. 2)
ELEMENTS:
1. That an agent of a person in authority is engaged in the performance of official duty gives a lawful order to
the offender.
2. That the offender disobeys such agent of a person in authority.
3. That such disobedience is not of a serious nature.

Resistant and Disobedience to a Person in Authority


Direct Assault (148) or Agents of such Person (151)

PIA or his agent must be engaged in the PIA or his agent must be in the actual performance of his
performance of official duties or that he is assaulted duties.

Direct assault is committed in 4 ways by


attacking, employing force, and seriously resisting a Committed by resisting or seriously disobeying a PIA or
PIA or his agent. his agent.

Use of force against an agent of a PIA is not so serious;


Use of force against an agent of PIA must be no manifest intention to defy the law and the officers
serious and deliberate. enforcing it.
Article 152
PERSONS IN AUTHORITY/AGENTS OF PERSONS IN AUTHORITY:
Persons in Authority any person directly vested with jurisdiction, whether as an individual or as a member
of some court or governmental corporation, board or commission.
1. Barangay captain
2. Barangay chairman
3. Teachers
4. Professors
5. Persons charged with the supervision of public or duly recognized private schools, colleges and universities
6. Lawyers in the actual performance of their professional duties or on the occasion of such performance
Agent of Person in Authority any person who, by direct provision of law or by election or by appointment
by competent authority, is charged with the maintenance of public order and the protection and security of
life and property.
1. Barrio councilman
2. Barrio policeman
3. Barangay leader
4. Any person who comes to the aid of persons in authority
Section 388 of the Local Govt Code provides that for purposes of the RPC, the punong barangay,
sangguniang barangay members and members of the lupong tagapamayapa in each barangay shall be
deemed as persons in authority in their jurisdictions, while other barangay officials and members who may
be designated by law or ordinance and charged with the maintenance of public order, protection and the
security of life, property, or the maintenance of a desirable and balanced environment, and any barangay
member who comes to the aid of persons in authority shall be deemed AGENT of persons in authority.

V. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC DISORDERS

Article 153
TYPES OF TUMULTS AND OTHER DISTURBANCES OF PUBLIC ORDER:
1. Causing any serious disturbance in a public place, office or establishment
2. Interrupting or disturbing public performances, functions, gatherings or peaceful meetings, if the act is not
included in Art 131 and 132 (Public Officers interrupting peaceful meetings or religious worship).
3. Making any outcry tending to incite rebellion or sedition in any meeting, association or public place
4. Displaying placards or emblems which provoke a disturbance of public order in such place
5. Burying with pomp the body of a person who has been legally executed.
If the act of disturbing or interrupting a meeting or religious ceremony is NOT committed by public officers,
or if committed by public officers they are not participants therein, this article applies. Art 131 and 132
punishes the same acts if committed by public officers who are NOT participants in the meeting
The outcry is merely a public disorder if it is an unconscious outburst which, although rebellious or
seditious in nature, is not intentionally calculated to induce others to commit rebellion or sedition,
otherwise, its inciting to rebellion or sedition.
Tumultuous if caused by more than 3 persons who are armed or provided with means of violence
(circumstance qualifying the disturbance/interruption) tumultuous in character
Article 154
TYPES OF UNLAWFUL USE OF MEANS OF PUBLICATION AND UNLAWFUL UTTERANCES:
1. Publishing or causing to be published, by means of printing, lithography or any other means of publication
as news any false news which may endanger the public order, or cause damage to the interest or credit of
the State.
2. Encouraging disobedience to the law or to the constituted authorities or by praising, justifying or extolling
any act punished by law, by the same means or by words, utterances or speeches
3. Maliciously publishing or causing to be published any official resolution or document without proper
authority, or before they have been published officially
4. Printing, publishing or distributing or (causing the same) books, pamphlets, periodicals or leaflets which do
not bear the real printers name or which are classified as anonymous.

Article 155
TYPES OF ALARMS AND SCANDALS:
1. Discharging any firearm, rocket, firecracker, or other explosive within any town or public place, calculated
to cause alarm or danger
2. Instigating or taking active part in any charivari or other disorderly meeting offensive to another or
prejudicial to public tranquility
3. Disturbing the public peace while wandering about at night or while engaged in any other nocturnal
amusement
4. Causing any disturbance or scandal in public places while intoxicated or otherwise, provided the act is not
covered by Art 153 (tumult).
Charivari mock serenade or discordant noises made with kettles, tin horns etc, designed to deride, insult
or annoy
Firearm must not be pointed at a person, otherwise, it is illegal discharge
What governs is the result, not the intent

CRIME Nature of Crime Who are Liable

Tumults and other Disturbances


(153) Crime against Public Order Private persons, outsider

Alarms and Scandals (155) Crime against Public Order Private persons, outsider

Article 156
ELEMENTS OF DELIVERING PRISONERS FROM JAILS:
1. That there is a person confined in a jail or penal establishment.
2. That the offender removes therefor such person, or helps the escape of such person (if the escapee is
serving final judgement, he is guilty of evasion of sentence).
3. Offender is a private individual
Prisoner may be detention prisoner or one sentenced by virtue of a final judgment
A policeman assigned to the city jail as guard who while off-duty released a prisoner is liable here
It may be committed through negligence
Circumstances qualifying the offense is committed by means of violence, intimidation or bribery.
Mitigating circumstance if it takes place outside the penal establishment by taking the guards by surprise

VI. EVASION OF SENTENCE OR SERVICE

Article 157
ELEMENTS OF EVASION OF SERVICE OF SENTENCE:
1. That the offender is a convict by final judgment.
2. That he is serving his sentence which consists in deprivation of liberty (destierro included)
3. That he evades the service of his sentence by escaping during the term if his sentence. (fact of return
immaterial).
A continuing offense.
Offenders not minor delinquents nor detention prisoners
If escaped within the 15 day appeal period no evasion
No applicable to deportation as the sentence
Flimsy excuse for violating destierro not acceptable
Circumstances qualifying the offense (done thru):
1. unlawful entry (by scaling)
2. breaking doors, windows, gates, walls, roofs or floors
3. using picklocks, false keys, disguise, deceit, violence or intimidation
4. connivance with other convicts or employees of the penal institution

Article 158
ELEMENTS OF EVASION OF SERVICE OF SENTENCE ON THE OCCASION OF DISORDERS, CONFLAGRATIONS,
EARTHQUAKES OR OTHER CALAMITIES:
1. That the offender is a convict by final judgement who is confined in a penal institution.
2. That there is disorder, resulting from- 1. conflagration,

2. earthquake,

3. explosion, or

4. similar catastrophe, or

5. mutiny in which he has not participated.

1. That the offender evades the service of his sentence by leaving the penal institution where he is confined,
on the occasion of such disorder or during the mutiny.
2. That the offender fails to give himself up to the authorities within 48 hours following the insurance of a
proclamation by the chief executive announcing the passing away of such calamity.
Penalty: an increase by 1/5 of the time remaining to be served under the original sentence, in no case to
exceed 6 months.
Offender must escape to be entitled to allowance
Mutiny organized unlawful resistance to a superior officer, a sedition, a revolt
Disarming the guards is not mutiny

Article 159
VIOLATION OF CONDITIONAL PARDON
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender was a convict.
2. That he was granted a conditional pardon by the chief executive.
3. That he violated any of the conditions of such pardon.
Condition extends to special laws violation of illegal voting
Offender must have been found guilty of the subsequent offense before he can be prosecuted under this
Article. But if under Revised Admin Code, no conviction necessary. President has power to arrest,
reincarnate offender without trial.

VIOLATION OF PARDON ORDINARY EVASION

To evade the penalty given by the courts disturbs


Infringement of conditions/terms of President the public order

Two penalties provided:


1. prision correccional in its minimum period if the penalty remitted does not exceed 6 years
2. the unexpired portion of his original sentence if the penalty remitted is higher than 6 years

VII. COMMISSION OF ANOTHER CRIME


Article 160
COMMISSION OF ANOTHER CRIME DURING SERVICE OF PENALTY IMPOSED FOR ANOTHER PREVIOUS OFFENSE-
PENALTY: (quasi-recidivism)
ELEMENTS
1. That the offender was already convicted by final judgement of one offense.
2. That he committed a new felony before beginning to serve such sentence or while serving the same.
Quasi-recidivism : a person after having been convicted by final judgement shall commit a new felony
before beginning to serve such sentence, or while serving the same.
Second crimes must belong to the RPC, not special laws. First crime may be either from the RPC or special
laws
Reiteracion: offender shall have served out his sentence for the prior offense
A quasi-recidivist may be pardoned at age 70. Except: Unworthy or Habitual Delinquent
If new felony is evasion of sentence offender is not a quasi-recidivist
Penalty: maximum period of the penalty for the new felony should be imposed (mitigating circumstance
can only be appreciated if the maximum is divisible)
Quasi-Recidivism may be offset by a special privileged mitigating circumstance (ex. Minority)

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Four

TITLE FOUR

I. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST

Article 161
TYPES OF COUNTERFEITING GREAT SEAL OF GOVERNMENT:
1. Forging the great seal of the Government
2. Forging the signature of the President
3. Forging the stamp of the President
When the signature of the President is forged, it is not falsification but forging of signature under this
article
Signature must be forged, others signed it not the President.

Article 162
USING FORGED SIGNATURE OR COUNTERFEIT SEAL OR STAMP:
1. That the great seal of the republic was counterfeited or the signature or stamp of the chief executive was
forged by another person.
2. That the offender knew of the counterfeiting or forgery.
3. That he used the counterfeit seal or forged signature or stamp.
Offender is NOT the forger/not the cause of the counterfeiting

Article 163
ELEMENTS OF MAKING AND IMPORTING AND UTTERING FALSE COINS:
1. That there be false or counterfeited coins (need not be legal tender).
2. That the offender either made, imported or uttered such coins.
3. That in case of uttering such false or counterfeited coins, he connives with counterfeiters or importers.
Coin is counterfeit if it is forged, or if it is not an article of the government as legal tender, regardless if
it is of no value
Counterfeiting imitation of legal or genuine coin (may contain more silver, different design) such as to
deceive an ordinary person in believing it to be genuine
Utter to pass counterfeited coins, deliver or give away
Import to bring to port the same
Both Philippine and foreign state coins
Applies also to coins withdrawn from circulation
Essence of article: making of coins without authority

Article 164
ELEMENTS OF MULTILATION OF COINS IMPORTATION AND UTTERANCE:

This has been repealed by PD 247. Under this PD, the acts punishable are:

1. willful defacement
2. mutilation
3. tearing
4. burning
5. destruction of Central Bank notes and coins
Mutilation to take off part of the metal either by filling it or substituting it for another metal of inferior
quality, to diminish by inferior means (to diminish metal contents).
Foreign notes and coins not included. Must be legal tender.
Must be intention to mutilate.

Article 165
SELLING OF FALSE OR MUTILATED COIN, WITHOUT CONNIVANCE
2 Types
1. Possession of coin, counterfeited or mutilated by another person, with intent to utter the same, knowing
that it is false or mutilated.
ELEMENTS:
1. possession
2. with intent to utter, and
3. knowledge
4. Actually uttering such false or mutilated coin, knowing the same to be false or mutilated.
ELEMENTS:
1. actually uttering, and
2. knowledge.
Possession does not require legal tender in foreign coins
Includes constructive possession
Read RA 427
Article 166
FORGING TREASURY OR BANK NOTES IMPORTING AND UTTERING
Acts punishable:
1. Forging or falsity of treasury/bank notes or documents payable to bearer
2. Importing of such notes
3. Uttering of such false or forged obligations and notes in connivance with forgers and importers
Forging by giving a treasury or bank note or document payable to bearer/order an appearance of a true
and genuine document
Falsification by erasing, substituting, counterfeiting or altering by any means the figures and letters,
words, signs contained therein
E.g. falsifying lotto or sweepstakes ticket. Attempted estafa through falsification of an obligation or
security of the Phil
PNB checks not included here its falsification of commercial document under Article 172
Obligation or security includes: bonds, certificate of indebtedness, bills, national bank notes, coupons,
treasury notes, certificate of deposits, checks, drafts for money, sweepstakes money

Article 167
ELEMENTS OF COUNTERFEITING, IMPORTING, AND UTTERING INSTRUMENTS NOT PAYABLE TO BEARER:
1. That there be an instrument payable to order or other document of credit not payable to bearer.
2. That the offender either forged, imported or uttered such instruments.
3. That in case of uttering, he connived with the forger or importer.

Article 168
ELEMENTS OF ILLEGAL POSSESSION AND USE OF FALSE TREASURY OR BANK NOTES AND OTHER
INSTRUMENT OF CREDIT:
1. That any treasury or bank note or certificate or other obligation and security payable to bearer, or any
instrument payable to order or other document of credit not payable to bearer is forged or falsified by
another person.
2. That the offender knows that any of those instruments is forged or falsified.
3. That he performs any of these acts
1. using any of such forged or falsified instrument, or
2. possessing with intent to use any of such forged or falsified instrument.
Act sought to be punished: Knowingly possessing with intent to use any of such forged treasury or bank
notes

Article 169
FORGERY
How forgery is committed:
if all acts done but genuine appearance is not given, the crime is frustrated
1. by giving to a treasury or bank note or any instrument payable to bearer or to order, the appearance of a
true and genuine document
2. by erasing, substituting, counterfeiting, altering by any means the figures, letters or words, or signs
contained therein.

Article 170
ELEMENTS OF FALSIFICATION OF LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS:
1. That these be a bill, resolution or ordinance enacted or approved or pending approval by the national
assembly or any provincial board or municipal council.
2. That the offender (any person) alters the same.
3. That he has no proper authority therefor.
4. That the alteration has changed the meaning of the document.
Accused must not be a public official entrusted with the custody or possession of such document otherwise
Art 171 applies.

Article 171
FALSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY PUBLIC OFFICER, EMPLOYEE, OR NOTARY OR ECCLESTASTICAL MINISTER
ELEMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer, employee, or notary public.
2. That he takes advantage of his official position.
3. That he falsifies a document by committing any of the following acts:
1. Counterfeiting or imitating any handwriting, signature or rubric.
Requisites:
1. That there be an intent to imitate, or an attempt to imitate
2. That the two signatures or handwritings, the genuine and the forged, bear some resemblance, to each
other
(lack of similitude/imitation of a genuine signature will not be a ground for conviction under par. 1 but
such is not an impediment to conviction under par. 2)
1. Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or proceeding when they did not in fact so
participate.
2. Attributing to persons who have participated in an act or proceeding statements other than those in fact
made by them.
Requisites:
1. That the offender caused it to appear in a document that a person/s participated in an act or a proceeding;
and
2. That such person/s did not in fact so participate in the act or proceeding
3. Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts;
Requisites:
1. That the offender makes in a document statements in a narration of facts
2. That he has a legal obligation to disclose the truth of the facts narrated by him; (required by law to be
done) and
3. That the facts narrated by the offender are absolutely false; and
4. That the perversion or truth in the narration of facts was made with the wrongful intent of injuring a third
person
There must be a narration of facts, not a conclusion of law. Must be on a material matter
Legal obligation means that there is a law requiring the disclosure of the truth of the facts narrated. Ex.
Residence certificates
The person making the narration of facts must be aware of the falsity of the facts narrated by him. This
kind of falsification may be committed by omission
1. Altering true dates. date must be essential
2. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine document which changes its meaning.
Requisites:
1. That there be an alteration (change) or intercalation (insertion) on a document
2. That it was made on a genuine document
3. That the alteration/intercalation has changed the meaning of the document
4. That the change made the document speak something false.
5. Issuing in an authenticated form a document purporting to be a copy of an original document when no such
original exists, or including in such copy a statement contrary to, or different from, that of the genuine
original; (if no knowledge, falsification through negligence) or
6. Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the issuance thereof in a protocol, registry, or official
book. (genuine document)
7. In case the offender is an ecclesiastical minister, the act of falsification is committed with respect to any
record or document of such character that its falsification may affect the civil status of persons.
There is no crime of attempted or frustrated falsification of public document
Persons liable public officer, employee or notary public or ecclesiastical minister
If offender does not take advantage of his public position, he may still be liable for falsification of
documents by a private person
Document: any written statement by which a right is established or an obligation is extinguished
Not necessary that what is falsified is a genuine or real document, enough that it gives an appearance of a
genuine article
Counterfeiting imitating any handwriting, signature or rubric
Feigning simulating a signature, handwriting, or rubric out of one of which does not in fact exist

Article 172
FALSIFICATION OF PUBLIC, OFFICIAL, OR COMMERCIAL DOCUMENT BY A PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL (par 1)
ELEMENTS
1. That the offender is a private individual or a public officer or employee who did not take advantage of his
official position.
2. That he committed any of the acts of falsification enumerated in ART. 171.
1. Counterfeiting or imitating any handwriting, signature or rubric.
2. Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or proceeding when they did not in
fact so participated.
3. Attributing to persons who have participated in an act or proceeding statements other than those in
fact made by them.
4. Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts;
5. Altering true dates.
6. Making any alteration or intercalation in a genuine document which changes its meaning.
7. That the falsification was committed in any public or official or commercial document.
Under this paragraph, damage is not essential, it is presumed
Defense: lack of malice or criminal intent
The following writings are public:
Examples of commercial documents warehouse receipts, airway bills, bank checks, cash files, deposit slips
and bank statements, journals, books, ledgers, drafts, letters of credit and other negotiable instruments
Cash disbursement vouchers or receipts evidencing payments are not commercial documents
A mere blank form of an official document is not in itself a document
The possessor of falsified document is presumed to be the author of the falsification
1. the written acts or records of cats of the sovereign authority of official bodies and tribunals, and of the
public officers, legislative, judicial and executive, whether of the Philippines or of a foreign country.
2. Public records kept in the Philippines.

FALSIFICATION UNDER PARAGRAPH 2 OF ART. 172. OF PRIVATE DOCUMENT


ELEMENTS :
1. That the offender committed any of the acts of falsification, except those in paragraph 7 and 8,
enumerated in art. 171.
2. That the falsification was committed in any private document (must affect the truth or integrity of the
document)
3. That the falsification caused damage (essential element; hence, no crime of estafa thus falsification of
private document) to a third party or at least the falsification was committed with intent to cause such
damage.
Not necessary that the offender profited or hoped to profit from the falsification
A document falsified as a necessary means to commit another crime must be public, official or commercial
There is no complex crime of estafa through falsification of a private document because the immediate
effect of the latter is the same as that of estafa
If the estafa was already consummated at the time of the falsification of a private document was
committed for the purpose of concealing the estafa, the falsification is not punishable, because as regards
the falsification of the private document there was no damage or intent to cause damage.
A private document may acquire the character of a public document when it becomes part of an official
record and is certified by a public officer duly authorized by law
The crime is falsification of public documents even if falsification took place before the private document
becomes part of the public records.
USE OF FALSIFIED DOCUMENT (par. 3, art. 172)
ELEMENTS:
1. Introducing in a judicial proceeding:
1. That the offender knew that a document was falsified by another person.
2. That the false document is embraced in art. 171 or in any subdivisions nos. 1 and 2 of art. 172.
3. That he introduced said document in evidence in any judicial proceeding. (intent to cause damage not
necessary)
4. that the offender knew that a document was falsified by another person.
5. That the false document is embraced in art. 171 or in any of subdivisions nos. 1 and 2 of art. 172.
6. That he used such documents (not in judicial proceedings).
7. That the use of the documents caused damage to another or at least was used with intent to cause such
damage.
2. Use in any other transaction
The user of the falsified document is deemed the author of falsification, if:
1. the use is so closely connected in time with the falsification
2. the user had the capacity of falsifying the document

Falsification of Private Documents Falsification of Public/Official Documents

Prejudice to third persons is immaterial, what is punished is the


Prejudice to third party is an element of the violation of public faith and perversion of truth which the
offense. document proclaims.

Article 173
FALSIFICATION OF WIRELESS, CABLE, TELEGRAPH, AND TELEPHONE MESSAGES, AND USE OF SAID FALSIFIED
MESSAGES
Acts punishable:
1. Uttering fictitious, wireless, telegraph or telephone message

Requisites:

1. That the offender is an officer or employee of the government or an officer or employee of a private
corporation, engaged in the service of sending or receiving wireless, cable or telephone message.
2. That the accused commits any of the following acts:

uttering fictitious wireless, cable, telegraph, or telephone message, or

falsifying wireless, cable, telegraph, or telephone message

1. Falsifying wireless, telegraph or telephone message


Requisites:
1. That the offender is an officer or employee of the government or an officer or employee of a private
corporation, engaged in the service of sending or receiving wireless, cable or telephone message.
2. That the accused commits any of the following acts:

uttering fictitious wireless, cable, telegraph, or telephone message, or

falsifying wireless, cable, telegraph, or telephone message

1. Using such falsified message


Requisites:
1. That the accused knew that wireless, cable, telegraph, or telephone message was falsified by any of the
person specified in the first paragraph of art. 173.
2. That the accused used such falsified dispatch.
3. That the use of the falsified dispatch resulted in the prejudice of a third party, or that the use thereof was
with intent to cause such prejudice.
The public officer, to be liable must be engaged in the service of sending or receiving wireless, cable and
telegraph or telephone message

Article 174
FALSIFICATION OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATES, CERTIFCATES OF MERIT OR SERVICE AND THE LIKE:
Persons liable:
1. Physician or surgeon who, in connection with the practice of his profession, issued a false certificate (note:
such certificate must refer to the illness or injury of a person)
2. Public officer who issued a false certificate of merit of service, good conduct or similar circumstances
3. Private individual who falsified a certificate under (1) and (2)

Article 175
ELEMENTS OF USING FALSE CERTIFICATES:
1. That a physician or surgeon has issued a false medical certificate, or a public officer has issued a false
certificate of merit or service, good conduct, or similar circumstances, or a private person had falsified any
of said certificates.
2. That the offender knew that the certificate was false.
3. That he used the same.

Article 176
MANUFACTURING AND POSSESSION OF INTRUMENTS OR IMPLEMENTS FOR FALSIFICATION:
Acts punishable:
1. Making or introducing into the Philippines any stamps, dies or marks or other instruments or implements for
counterfeiting or falsification
2. Possessing with intent to use the instruments or implements for counterfeiting or falsification made in or
introduced into the Philippines by another person
The implement confiscated need not form a complete set
Constructive possession is also punished

II. OTHER FALSITIES


Article 177
USURPATION OF AUTHORITY OR OFFICIAL FUNCTIONS:
2 ways of committing the crime:
1. By knowingly and falsely representing oneself to be an officer, agent or representative of any department
or agency of the Philippine govt or any foreign govt.
2. By performing an act pertaining to any person in authority or public officer of the Phil govt or foreign govt
under the pretense of such official position, and without being lawfully entitled to do so.
In usurpation of authority: The mere act of knowingly and falsely representing oneself is sufficient. Not
necessary that he performs an act pertaining to a public officer.
In usurpation of official functions: It is essential that the offender should have performed an act pertaining
to a person in authority
A public officer may also be an offender
The act performed without being lawfully entitled to do so must pertain:
1. to the govt
2. to any person in authority
3. to any public office

Article 178
USING FICTITIOUS NAME AND CONCEALING TRUE NAME
ELEMENTS (using fictitious name) :
1. That the offender uses a name other than his real name.
2. That he uses that fictitious name publicly.
3. That the purpose of the offender is
1. To conceal a crime,
2. To evade the execution of a judgment, or
3. To cause damage to public interest. (ex. Signing fictitious name for a passport)
ELEMENTS (concealing true name):
1. that the offender conceals
2. his true name, and
3. all other personal circumstances.
1. that the purpose is only to conceal his identity.

Use of Fictitious Name (178) Concealing True Name (178)


Element of publicity must be present Publicity not necessary

Purpose is to conceal a crime, to evade the execution of a


judgement, or to cause damage Purpose is to conceal identity

Article 179
ELEMENTS OF ILLEGAL USE OF UNIFORM OR INSIGNIA:
1. That the offender makes use of insignia, uniform or dress.
2. That the insignia, uniform or dress pertains to an office not held by the offender or to a class of persons of
which he is not a member.
3. That said insignia, uniform or dress is used publicly and improperly.
an exact imitation of the dress or uniform is unnecessary

Article 180
ELEMENTS OF FALSE TESTIMONY AGAINST A DEFENDANT:
1. That there be a criminal proceeding.
2. That the offender testifies falsely under oath against the defendant therein.
3. That the offender who gives false testimony knows that it is false.
4. That the defendant against whom the false testimony is given is either acquitted or convinced in a final
judgment (prescriptive period starts at this point)
Requires criminal intent, cant be committed through negligence. Need not impute guilt upon the accused
The defendant must at least be sentenced to a correctional penalty or a fine or must have been acquitted
The witness who gave false testimony is liable even if the court did not consider his testimony
Penalty is dependent upon sentence imposed on the defendant

Article 181

FALSE TESTIMONY IN FAVOR OF DEFENDANT in a criminal case:


False testimony by negative statement is in favor of the defendant
False testimony need not in fact benefit the defendant
A statement of a mere opinion is not punishable
Conviction or acquittal is not necessary (final judgement is not necessary). The false testimony need not
influence the acquittal
A defendant who voluntarily goes up on the witness stand and falsely imputes the offense to another
person the commission of the offense is liable under this article. If he merely denies the commission of the
offense, he is not liable.
Basis of penalty: gravity of the felony charged against the defendant

Article 182
ELEMENTS OF FALSE TESTIMONY IN CIVIL CASES:
1. That the testimony must be given in a civil case.
2. That the testimony must relate to the issues presented in said case.
3. That the testimony must be false.
4. That the false testimony must be given by the defendant knowing the same to be false.
5. That the testimony must be malicious and given with an intent to affect the issues presented in the said
case
Not applicable when testimony given in a special proceeding (in this case, the crime is perjury)
Basis of penalty: amount involved in the civil case

Article183
ELEMENTS OF FALSE TESTIMONY IN OTHER CASES AND PERJURY IN SOLEMN AFFIRMATION:
1. That an accused made a statement under oath or made an affidavit upon a material matter.
2. That the statement or affidavit was made before a competent officer, authorized to receive and administer
oath.
3. That in that statement or affidavit, the accused made a willful and deliberate assertion of a falsehood, and
4. That the sworn statement or affidavit containing the falsity is required by law.

2 ways of committing perjury:


Subornation of perjury: procures another to swear falsely. Solemn affirmation: refers to non-judicial
proceedings and affidavits
A false affidavit to a criminal complaint may give rise to perjury
A matter is material when it is directed to prove a fact in issue
A competent person authorized to administer an oath means a person who has a right to inquire into the
questions presented to him upon matters under his jurisdiction
There is no perjury through negligence or imprudence since the assertion of falsehood must be willful and
deliberate
Even if there is no law requiring the statement to be made under oath, as long as it is made for a legal
purpose, it is sufficient
Perjury is an offense which covers false oaths other than those taken in the course of judicial proceedings
False testimony before the justice of the peace during the P.I. may give rise to the crime of perjury
because false testimony in judicial proceedings contemplates an actual trial where a judgment of
conviction or acquittal is rendered
A person who knowingly and willfully procures another to swear falsely commits subornation of perjury and
the witness suborned does testify under circumstances rendering him guilty of perjury.
The false testimony is not in a judicial proceeding
1. by falsely testifying under oath
2. by making a false statement

Article 184
ELEMENTS OF OFFERING FALSE TESTIMONY IN EVIDENCE:

a That the offender offered in evidence a false witness or false testimony.

b That he knew the witness or the testimony was false.

c That the offer was made in a judicial or official proceeding.

Article applies when the offender without inducing another, but knowing him to be a false witness,
presented him and the latter testified falsely in a judicial or official proceeding
The false witness need not be convicted of false testimony. The mere offer is sufficient.

III. FRAUDS
Article 185
ELEMENTS OF MACHINATIONS IN PUBLIC AUCTION:

a That there be a public auction.

b That the accused solicited any gift or a promise from any of the bidders.

c That such gifts or promise was the consideration for his refraining from taking part in that public auction.

d That the accused had the intent to cause the reduction of the price of the thing auctioned.

ELEMENTS OF ATTEMPTING TO CAUSE BIDDERS TO STAY AWAY:

a That there be a public auction.

b That the accused attempted to cause the bidders to stay away from that public auction

c That it was done by threats, gifts, promises, or any other artifice.

d That the accused had the intent to cause the reduction of the price of the thing auctioned.

Article 186
MONOPOLIES AND COMBINATIONS IN RESTRAINT OF TRADE:
Acts punished:
1. Combination to prevent free competition in the market
2. By entering into a contract or agreement or taking part in any conspiracy or combination in the form of a
trust or otherwise, in restraint of trade or commerce or prevent by artificial means free competition in the
market (It is enough that initial steps are taken. It is not necessary that there be actual restraint of trade)
3. Monopoly to restrain free competition in the market
By monopolizing any merchandise or object of trade or commerce, by combining with any person or persons to
monopolize said merchandise or object in order to alter the prices thereof by spreading false rumors or making use
of any other artifice to restrain free competition in the market

4. Manufacturer, producer or processor or importer combining, conspiring or agreeing with any person to
make transactions prejudicial to lawful commerce or to increase the market price of the merchandise.
Person/s liable:
Crime is committed by:
The purpose is:
Also liable as principals:
Aggravated if items are:
1. manufacturer
2. producer
3. processor
4. importer
1. combining
2. conspiring
3. agreeing with another person
1. to make transactions prejudicial to lawful commerce
2. to increase the market price of any merchandise or object of commerce manufactured, produced,
processed, assembled or imported into the Phil
1. corporation/association
2. agent/representative
3. director/manager who willingly permitted or failed to prevent commission of above offense
1. food substance
2. motor fuel or lubricants
3. goods of prime necessity

Article 187
ELEMENTS OF IMPORTATION AND DISPOSITION OF FALSELY MARKED ARTICLES OR MERCHANDISE MADE
OF GOLD, SILVER, OR OTHER PRECIOUS METALS OR THEIR ALLOYS:

a That the offender imports, sells or disposes of any of those articles or merchandise.

b That the stamps, brands, or marks or those articles or merchandise fails to indicate the actual fineness or
quality of said metals or alloys.

c That the offender knows that the said stamp, brand, or mark fails to indicate the actual fineness or quality of
the metals or alloys.
Article 188
SUBSTITUTING ALTERING TRADE-MARK, TRADENAME, OR SERVICE MARK
Acts punishable:

a By (a) substituting the trade name (t/n) or trademark (t/m) of some other manufacturer or dealer or a
colorable imitation thereof, for the t/n or t/m of the real manufacturer or dealer upon any article of commerce
and (b) selling the same.

b By selling or by offering for sale such article of commerce, knowing that the t/n or t/m has been fraudulently
used

c By using or substituting the service mark of some other person, or a colorable imitation of such marks, in the
sale or advertising of services

d By printing, lithographing or reproducing t/n, t/m or service mark of one person, or a colorable limitation
thereof, to enable another person to fraudulently use the same, knowing the fraudulent purpose for which it is to
be used.

Article 189
UNFAIR COMPETITION, FRAUDULENT REGISTRATION OF TRADENAME, TRADEMARK SERVICE MARK, FRAUDULENT
DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN, AND FALSE DESCRIPTION
Acts punished:

a Unfair competition by selling his goods, giving them the general appearance of the goods of another
manufacturer or dealer

b Fraudulent designation of origin; false description by (a) affixing to his goods or using in connection with his
services a false designation of origin; or any false description or representation, and (b) selling such goods or
services

c Fraudulent registration by procuring fraudulently from the patent office the registration of t/m, t/m or
service mark.

ELEMENTS:

a That the offender gives his goods the general appearance of the goods of another manufacturer or dealer

b That the general appearance is shown in the (a) goods themselves, or in the (b) wrapping of their packages, or
in the (c) device or words therein, or in (d) any other feature of their appearance

c That the offender offers to sell or sells those goods or gives other persons a chance or opportunity to do the
same with a like purpose.
d That there is actual intent to deceive the public or defraud a competitor.

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Five

TITLE FIVE
CRIMES RELATED TO OPIUM AND OTHER PROHIBITED DRUGS (190-194)
THE DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT OF 1972
(RA No. 6425, as amended)

I. Acts Punishable:
1. importation of prohibited drugs
2. sale, administration, delivery, distribution and transportation of prohibited drugs
3. maintenance of a den, dive or resort for prohibited drug users
4. being employees or visitors of drug den
5. manufacture of prohibited drugs
6. possession or use
7. cultivation of plants
8. failure to comply with provisions relative to keeping of records of prescription
9. unnecessary prescription
10. possession of opium pipe and other paraphernalia
11. Importation, sale, etc. of regulated drugs
Importation of prohibited/regulated drugs.
Sale, administration, delivery, distribution and transaction of prohibited/regulated drugs.
Qualifying Circumstances if the victim of the offense is a minor or should a prohibited/regulated drug involve in
any offense under this section be the proximate cause of the death of a victim thereof, the maximum penalty
herein shall be imposed.
Maintenance of a den, dive, or resort for prohibited/regulated drug users.
Qualifying Circumstance where a prohibited/regulated drug is administered, delivered, or sold to a minor who is
allowed to use the same in such place, or should a prohibited drug be the proximate cause of the death of the
person using the same in such den, dive or resort, the maximum of the penalty shall be imposed.
Manufacture of prohibited/regulated drugs.
Possession of prohibited/regulated drugs.

Cultivation of plants which are sources of prohibited drugs.

a Note: The land/portions thereof and/or greenhouses in which any of the said plants is cultivated or cultured
shall be confiscated and escheated to the State, unless the owner thereof can prove that he did not know of such
cultivation or culture despite the exercise of due diligence on his part.
b Qualifying Circumstance if the land involved is part of the public domain, the maximum of the penalty
herein provided shall be imposed.

Failure to keep records of prescription, sales, purchases, acquisitions and/or deliveries of

prohibited/regulated drugs
Persons liable:

Pharmacist, Physician, Dentist, Veterinarian, Manufacturer, Wholesaler, Importer, Distributor, Dealer, Retailer

Unlawful prescription of prohibited/regulated drugs

Unnecessary prescription of prohibited/regulated drugs

Persons Liable: Physician or dentist who shall prescribe any prohibited/regulated drug for any person whose
physical/physiological condition does not require the use of thereof.

Possession of opium pipe, equipment, apparatus or any paraphernalia fit or intended for smoking,

consuming, administering, injecting, ingesting, or otherwise using opium or any other prohibited drug, shall be

prima facie evidence that the possessor has smoked, consumed, administered to himself, injected or used a

prohibited drug.

Attempt and conspiracy to commit the following offenses:

a Importation of dangerous drugs

b Sale, administration, delivery, distribution and transportation of dangerous drugs

c Maintenance of a den, dive or resort for prohibited drugs

d Manufacture of dangerous drugs

e Cultivation or culture of plants which are sources of prohibited drugs

Other persons liable:

a If the violation of the Act is committed by a partnership, corporation, association or any judicial person, the
partner, president, director, or manager who consents to or knowingly tolerates such violation shall be held
criminally liable as co-principal.

b Partner, president, director, manager, officer or stockholder, who knowingly authorizes, tolerates, or
consents to the use of a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft as an instrument in the importation, sale, delivery, distribution
or transportation of dangerous drugs, or to the use of their equipment, machines or other instruments in the
manufacture of any dangerous drugs, if such vehicle, vessel, aircraft, equipment, or other instrument, is owned or
under the control and supervision of the partnership, corporation, association or judicial entity to which they are
affiliated.
c Government official, employee or officer who is found guilty of planting any dangerous drugs in the person
or in the immediate vicinity of another as evidence to implicate the latter.

II. For the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this Act, all school heads, supervisors and teachers shall
be deemed to be persons in authority and, as such, are vested with the power to apprehend, arrest, or cause
the apprehension or arrest of any person who shall violate any of the said provision.
1. NOTE: They shall be considered as persons in authority id they are in the school or within its immediate
vicinity, or beyond such immediate vicinity of they are in attendance in any school or class function in their
official capacity as school heads, supervisors or teachers.
2. Any teacher or school employee who discovers or finds that any person in the school or within its
immediate vicinity is violating this Act shall have the duty to report the violation to the school head or
supervisor who shall, in turn, report the matter to the proper authorities. Failure to report in either case
shall, after hearing, constitute sufficient cause for disciplinary action. (Sec. 28)
1. III. Rules:
1. Voluntary submission of a drug dependent to confinement, treatment and rehabilitation by the drug
dependent himself or through his parent, guardian or relative within the 4th civil degree of consanguinity or
affinity, in a center and compliance with such conditions therefor as the Dangerous Drugs Board may
prescribe shall exempt from criminal liability for possession or use of the prohibited/regulated drug.
2. Should the drug dependent escape from the center, he may submit himself for confinement within 1 week
from the date of his escape, of his parent guardian or relative may, within the same period surrender him
for confinement.
3. Upon application of the Board, the Court shall issue an order for recommitment if the drug dependent does
not resubmit himself for confinement or if he is not surrendered for recommitment.
4. If, subsequent to such recommitment, he should escape again, he shall no longer be exempt from criminal
liability for the use or possession of any dangerous drug.
5. If a person charged with an offense is found by the fiscal or by the Court at any stage of the proceedings,
to be a drug dependent, the fiscal or court as the case may be, shall suspend all further proceedings and
transmit records of the case to the Board.
6. After his rehabilitation, he shall be prosecuted for such violation. In case of conviction, the judgement
shall, if the accused is certified by the treatment and rehabilitation center to have maintained good
behavior, indicate that he shall be given full credit for the period he was confined in the center.
NOTE: When the offense is possession or use of dangerous drugs and the accused is not a recidivist, the penalty
thereof shall be deemed to have been served in the center upon his release therefrom.
7. The period of prescription of the offense charged shall not run during the time that the
respondent/accused is under detention or confinement in a center.
8. Requisites of suspension of sentence for first offense in a minor:
1. If accused is a minor (under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the offense but not more than
21 years of age when the judgement should have been promulgated.
2. He has not been previously convicted of violating any provision of this Act or of the RPC or placed on
probation.
Sentence shall be deferred and the accused shall be placed on probation under the supervision of the
Board.
In case of violation of conditions of pardon, court shall pronounce judgement of conviction and he shall
serve sentence.
If accused did not violate conditions of probation, case shall be dismissed upon expiration of the designated
period.
Notes:

a Cultivation of plants Sec 9 land, portions of land, greenhouse on which any of the plants is cultivated
confiscated and escheated to the State. UNLESS: owner can prove that he had no knowledge of the cultivation
despite due diligence

b If land is part of the public domain maximum penalty imposed

c Possession of opium pipe and other paraphernalia prima facie evidence that the possessor has smoked,
consumed, administered himself, used prohibited drugs

d Drug penalties of Reclusion Perpetua to Death or a fine of Php 500,000 to 10M apply when:

Opium 40 grams up

Morphine 40 grams up

Shabu 200 grams up

Heroin 40 grams up

Indian hemp 750 grams up

MJ resin 50 grams up

Cocaine 40 grams up

Other drugs Quantity far beyond therapeutic requirement

(if quantity is less than prescribed penalty is PC to RP depending upon the quantity)

e RA 7659 PD 1619 Possession and Use of Volatile Substances

1. mere attempt to sell, import already a crime under Article 6


2. conspiracy to sell, deliver, import already a crime under Article 8
f Buy Bust Operation no law or rule to require policemen to adopt a uniform way of identifying BUY MONEY (P
v. Abedes)

g Absence of ultraviolet power is not fatal in the prosecution

h Transportation/importation of MJ immaterial whether there may or may not be a distinction for the MJ
i Distinguish Entrapment and Instigation:
1. If prosecution can prove the crime without presenting the informer or asset not necessary because their
testimonies are merely corroborative. Poseur buyer it depends on whether the prosecution can prove the
crime without their testimonies (P v. Rosalinda Ramos)
2. Under the RA, special aggravating circumstance if a crime has been committed while the accused was high
on drugs (P v. Anthony Belgar)
3. Delivery or Sale of Prohibited Drugs the accused must be aware that what he is selling or delivering was
prohibited drug. But the moment the fact of sale or delivery is proved by prosecution, the burden to prove
that the accused is not aware that drugs are prohibited falls on the defense (P v. Aranda)
4. P v. Angelito Manalo burden of proving the authority to possess shabu is a matter of defense
5. P v. Hilario Moscaling court may take judicial notice of the word shabu
6. Criminal liabilities of a policeman who sold the drugs confiscated from a pusher: violation of RA 6425 and
malversation under RPC.

j Planting evidence to implicate another

k Buy Bust Operation form of entrapment (P v. Alberto) not necessary to have prior police surveillance (P v.
Carlos Franca)
l Possession constructive or actual not necessary to adduce the marked money as evidence (P v. Romeo
Macara)

m Separate crimes sale/possession of MT found in his possession after he was frisked but he cant be convicted
for possession of MJ that he sold

n If victim is minor or drug is proximate cause of death max penalty is imposed under Sec 4, 5, 15, 15-a

1. If imposable penalty: RP to death no plea bargaining


2. If offender: government official, employees, officers or found guilty of planting evidences same penalty
3. First offense of a minor suspension of sentence
under 18 at time of commission but not more than 21 at time when judgment was promulgated
found guilty of possession or use of prohibited or regulated drugs
not been previously convicted of violating any provision of this Act or the RPC
not been placed on probation
defer sentence, place on probation for 6 months to 1 year
violation of probation pronounce sentence convict and serve sentence
no violation discharge him and dismiss the proceeding
if minor is drug dependent commit to a center for treatment and rehabilitation

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Six

TITLE SIX
I. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC MORALS
GAMBLING (195-99 repealed by PDs 449, 483 and 1602 as amended)
1. Illegal cockfighting (PD 449)
2. Betting, game-fixing or point shaving and machinations in sports contests (PD 438)
3. Illegal gambling

PENALIZING BETTING, GAME-FIXING OR POINT-SHAVING AND


MACHINATIONS IN SPORTS CONTESTS
PD 483
Acts Punishable:
1. Betting: Betting money or any object or article of value of representative value upon the result of any
game, races and other sports contests.
2. Game-fixing: any arrangement, combination, scheme or agreement by which the result of any game, races,
or sports contests shall be predicated and/or known other than on the basis of the honest playing skill or
ability of the players or participants.
3. Point-shaving: any such arrangement combination, scheme or agreement by which the skill or ability of any
player or participant in a fame, races, or sports contests to make points of scores shall be limited
deliberately in order to influence the result thereof in favor of one or other team, player or participant.
4. Game Machination: any other fraudulent, deceitful, unfair or dishonest means, method, manner or practice
employed for the purpose of influencing the result of any game, races or sports contest.

COCKFIGHTING LAW OF 1974


PD 449
1. Scope This law shall govern the establishment, operation, maintenance and ownership of cockpits.
2. Rules:
1. Only Filipino citizens not otherwise inhibited by existing laws shall be allowed to own, manage and
operated cockpits.
2. Only one cockpit shall be allowed in each city or municipality with a population of 100,000 or less.
3. Cockpits shall be constructed and operated within the appropriate areas as prescribed in the Zoning
Law or ordinance.
4. When allowed:
1. Cockfighting shall be allowed only in licensed cockpits during Sundays and legal holidays and
during local fiestas for not more than 3 days; or
2. During provincial, city or municipal, agricultural, commercial or industrial fair, carnival or
exposition for a similar period of 3 days upon resolution of the province, city or municipality
where such fair, carnival or exposition is to be held, subject to the approval of the Chief of
Constabulary or his authorized representative.
Limitations:

a) No cockfighting on the occasion of such fair, carnival or exposition shall be allowed within the month of the
local fiesta or for more than 2 occasions a year in the same city of municipality.
b) No cockfighting shall be held on December 30, June 12,November 30, Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Election
Day and during registration days for such election/referendum.

1. If the purpose is for the entertainment of foreign dignitaries or for tourists, or for returning balikbayans, or
for the support of national fund-raising campaigns for charitable purposes as may be authorized by the
Office of the President upon resolution of a provincial board, city or municipal council, in licensed cockpits
or in playgrounds or parks.

Limitations: This privilege shall be extended for only one time, for a period not exceeding 3 days, within a year to
a province, city or municipality.

1. No gambling of any kind shall be permitted on the premises of the cockpit or place of cockfighting during
cockfights.
2. City or municipal mayors are authorized to issue licenses for the operation and maintenance of cockpits.

II. OFFENSES AGAINST DECENCY AND GOOD CUSTOMS


Article 200
ELEMENTS OF GRAVE SCANDAL:
1. Offender performs an act
2. Act is highly scandalous as offending against decency or good customs
3. Highly scandalous conduct does not expressly fall within any other article of the RPC
4. Committed in a public place or within the public knowledge or view. (The public view is not required, it is
sufficient if in public place. For public knowledge, it may occur even in a private place; the number of
people who sees it is not material).
Grave scandal: consists of acts which are offensive to decency and good customs. They are committed
publicly and thus, give rise to public scandal to persons who have accidentally witnessed the acts
Decency: means properly observing the requirements of modesty, good taste etc
Customs: refers to established usage, social conventions carried on by tradition and enforced by social
disapproval in case of violation
If the acts complained of are punishable under another provision of the RPC, Art 200 is not applicable
The essence of grave scandal is publicity and that the acts committed are not only contrary to morals and
good customs but must likewise be of such character as to cause public scandal to those witnessing it.

Article 201
IMMORAL DOCTRINES, OBSCENE PUBLICATIONS AND EXHIBITIONS:
Persons liable:
1. Those who publicly expound or proclaim doctrines that are contrary to public morals
2. Authors of obscene literature, published with their knowledge in any form
3. Editors publishing such obscene literature
4. Owners or operators of establishments selling obscene literature
5. Those who exhibit indecent or immoral plays, scenes, acts or shows ion theaters, fairs, cinemas or any
other place
6. Those who sell, distribute, or exhibit prints, engraving, sculptures or literature which are offensive to
morals
Morals: implies conformity to generally accepted standards of goodness or rightness in conduct or character
Test of obscenity: whether the matter has a tendency to deprave or corrupt the minds of those who are
open to immoral influences. A matter can also be considered obscene if it shocks the ordinary and common
sense of men as indecency.
However, Art 201 enumerates what are considered as obscene literature or immoral or indecent plays,
scenes or acts:
Mere nudity in paintings and pictures is not obscene
Pictures w/ a slight degree of obscenity having no artistic value and intended for commercial purposes fall
within this article
Publicity is an essential element
1. those w/c glorify criminals or condone crimes
2. those w/c serve no other purpose but to satisfy the market for violence, lust or pornography
3. those w/c offend against any race or religion
4. those w/c tend to abet the traffic in and the use of prohibited drugs
5. those that are contrary to law, public order, morals, good customs, established policies, lawful orders,
decrees and edicts

Article 202
VAGRANTS AND PROSTITUTES:
Who are considered vagrants:
1. Those who have no apparent means of subsistence and who have the physical ability to work yet neglect to
apply themselves to some useful calling
2. Persons found loitering around public and semi-public places without visible means of support
3. Persons tramping or wandering around the country or the streets with no visible means of support
4. Idle or dissolute persons lodging in houses of ill-fame
5. Ruffians or pimps and those who habitually associate with prostitutes (may include even the rich)
6. Persons found loitering in inhabited or uninhabited places belonging to others, without any lawful or
justifiable reason provided the act does not fall within any other article of the RPC
If fenced and with prohibition of entry Trespass to dwelling

If fenced and entered to hunt/fish Attempted theft

If not fenced and with no prohibition of entry Vagrancy

Who are considered prostitutes refer to women who habitually indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious
conduct for money or profit (if a man indulges in the same conduct: vagrancy)

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Seven

TITLE SEVEN

CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS


Article 203

WHO ARE PUBLIC OFFICERS:


1. Takes part in the performance of public functions in the Government, or
2. Performs public duties as an employee, agent or subordinate official in the govt or any of its branches
Notes:
1. Public officer must derive his authority from:
2. direct provision of law
3. popular election
4. appointment by competent authority
5. Public officers: embraces every public servant from the lowest to the highest rank
6. A government laborer is not a public officer. However, temporary performance by a laborer of public
functions makes him a public officer
7. Misfeasance: means improper performance of an act which might be properly be performed
8. Malfeasance: means performance of an act which ought not to be done
9. Nonfeasance: means omission of an act which ought to be done

MALFEASANCE AND MISFEASANCE IN OFFICE


Malfeasance Doing of an act which a public officer should not have done

Misfeasance Improper doing of an act which a person might lawfully do

Nonfeasance Failure of an agent to perform his undertaking for the principal

ELEMENTS OF KNOWINGLY RENDERING AN UNJUST JUDGMENT:


1. Offender is a judge
2. Renders a judgment in the case submitted to him for judgment
3. Judgment is unjust
4. Knowledge that the decision is unjust
Notes:
1. Judgment: is a final consideration and determination by a court of competent jurisdiction of the issues
submitted to it in an action or proceeding
2. Unjust judgment: one which is contrary to law, or not supported by the evidence, or both
3. An unjust judgment may result from:
4. error (with bad faith)
5. ill-will or revenge
6. bribery
1. There must be evidence that the decision rendered is unjust. It is not presumed
2. Abuse of discretion or mere error of judgment cannot likewise serve as basis for rendering an unjust
judgment in the absence of proof or even an allegation of bad faith (motive or improper
consideration).

Article 205
ELEMENTS OF JUDGMENT RENDERED THROUGH NEGLIGENCE:
1. Offender is a judge
2. Renders a judgment in a case submitted to him for decision
3. Judgment is manifestly unjust
4. Due to inexcusable negligence or ignorance
Manifestly unjust judgment: one that is so contrary to law that even a person having meager knowledge of
the law cannot doubt the injustice

Article 206
ELEMENTS OF UNJUST INTERLOCUTORY ORDER:
1. That the offender is a judge.
2. That he performs any of the following acts:
1. knowingly renders unjust interlocutory order or decree, or
2. renders a manifestly unjust interlocutory order or decree through inexcusable negligence or
ignorance.
Interlocutory order: one issued by the court deciding a collateral or incidental matter. It is not a final
determination of the issues of the action or proceeding

Article 207
ELEMENTS OF MALICIOUS DELAY IN THE ADMINISTRATION OR JUSTICE:
1. That the offender is a judge.
2. That there is a proceeding in his court.
3. That he delays the administration of justice.
4. That the delay is malicious, that is, the delay is caused by the judge with deliberate intent to inflict
damage on either party in the case.
Mere delay without malice is not punishable

Article 208
ELEMENTS OF DERELICTION OF DUTY IN THE PROSECUTION OF OFFENSES:
1. That the offender is a public officer or officer of the law who has a duty to cause the prosecution of, or to
prosecute offenses.
2. That there is dereliction of the duties of his office, that is, knowing the commission of the crime, he does
not cause (a) the prosecution of the criminal (People vs. Rosales, G.R. no. 42648) or (b) knowing that a
crime is about to be committed he tolerates its commission (if gift/promise is a consideration for his
conduct: direct bribery)
3. That the offender acts with malice and deliberate intent to favor the violator of the law.
PREVARICACION: negligence and tolerance in the prosecution of an offense
There must be a duty on the part of the public officer to prosecute or move for the prosecution of the
offender. Note however, that a fiscal is under no compulsion to file an information based upon a complaint
if he is not convinced that the evidence before him does not warrant filing an action in court
The crime must be proved first before an officer can be convicted of dereliction of duty
A public officer who harbors, conceals, or assists in the escape of an offender, when it is his duty to
prosecute him is liable as principal in the crime of dereliction of duty in the prosecution of offenses. He is
not an accessory
Article not applicable to revenue officers

Article 209
ELEMENTS OF BETRAYAL OF TRUST BY AN ATTORNEY OR SOLICITOR (NOT NECESSARILY A PUBLIC OFFICER
ALTHOUGH ALL LAWYERS ARE OFFICERS OF THE COURT):
1. Causing damage to client (prejudice is essential) either
1. by any malicious breach of professional duty, or
2. by inexcusable negligence or ignorance.
3. Revealing any of the secrets of his client learned by him in his professional capacity (damage not
necessary)
4. Undertaking the defense of the opposing party of the 1st client and/or having received confidential
information from the latter and without the latters consent (damage not necessary)

Article 210
ELEMENTS OF DIRECT BRIBERY:
1. That the offender be a public officer within the scope of Art 203
2. That the offender accepts an offer or promise or receives a gift or present by himself or through another
3. That such offer or promise be accepted or gift/present received by the public officer (mere agreement
consummates the crime)
1. with a view to committing some crime (delivery of consideration is not necessary) or
2. in consideration of an execution if an act which does not constitute a crime, but the act must be
unjust (delivery of consideration is necessary), or
3. to refrain from doing something which is his official duty to do
4. That the act which the offender agrees to perform or which he executes be connected with the
performance of his official duties
For purposes of this article, temporary performance of public functions is sufficient to constitute a person a
public officer. A private person may commit this crime only in the case in which custody of prisoners is
entrusted to him
Applicable also to assessors, arbitrators, appraisal and claim commissioners, experts or any other person
performing public duties
Cannot be frustrated, only attempted or consummated.
Bribery exists when the gift is:
Actual receipt of the gift is not necessary. An accepted offer or promise of a gift is sufficient. However, if
the offer is not accepted, only the person offering the gift is liable for attempted corruption of a public
officer
The gift must have a value or capable of pecuniary estimation. It could be in the form of money, property
or services
If the act required of the public officer amounts to a crime and he commits it, he shall be liable for the
penalty corresponding to the crime
The third type of bribery and prevaricacion (art 208) are similar offenses, both consisting of omissions to do
an act required to be performed. In direct bribery however, a gift or promise is given in consideration of
the omission. This is not necessary in prevaricacion
1. voluntarily offered by a private person
2. solicited by the public officer and voluntarily delivered by the private person
3. solicited by the public officer but the private person delivers it out of fear of the consequences should the
public officer perform his functions (here the crime by giver is not corruption of public officials due to
involuntariness).

Bribery (210) Robbery (294)

When the victim did not commit a crime and he is intimidated


When the victim has committed a crime and with arrest and/or prosecution to deprive him of his personal
gives money/gift to avoid arrest or prosecution. property.

Victim parts with his money or property Victim is deprived of his money or property by force or
voluntarily. intimidation.

ANTI-GRAFT AND CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT

RA 3019
Persons Liable:
1. Any public officer who shall perform any of the following acts:
2. Any person having family or close personal relation with any public official who shall capitalize or exploit or
take advantage of such family or close personal relation by directly or indirectly requesting or receiving any
present, gift, or material, or pecuniary advantage from any person having some business, transaction,
application, request, or contact with the government in which such public official has to intervene (Sec. 4)
3. Any person who shall knowingly induce or cause any public official to commit any of the offenses under (A).
(Sec. 4)
4. Spouse or any relative, by consanguinity or affinity, within the 3rd civil degree, of the president of the
Philippines, the vice-president, the president of the Senate, or speaker of the house of Representatives,
who shall intervene, directly or indirectly, in any business transaction, contract or application with the
govt (Sec. 5).
1. Persuading, inducing or influencing another public officer to perform an act constituting a violation of rules
and regulations duly promulgated by competent authority or an offense in connection with the official
duties of the latter, or allowing himself to be persuaded, induced, or influenced to commit such violation
or offense.
2. Directly or indirectly requesting or receiving any gift, present, share, percentage, or benefit for himself or
for any other person in connection with any contract or transaction between the government and any other
party wherein the public officer in his official capacity has to intervene under the law.
3. Directly, or indirectly requesting or receiving any gift, present, or other pecuniary or material benefit, for
himself or for another, from any person for whom the public officer, in any manner of capacity, has
secured or obtained, or will secure or obtain, any Government permit or license, in consideration for the
held given or to be given.
4. Accepting or having any member of his family accept employment in a private enterprise which has pending
official business with him during the pendency thereof or within one year after its termination.
5. Causing any undue injury to any party, including the Government, or giving any private party any
unwarranted benefits, advantage, or preference in the discharge of his official, administrative or judicial
function through manifest partiality, evident bad faith or gross inexcusable negligence. This provision shall
apply to officers and employees of offices or government corporations charged with the grant of licenses or
permits or other concessions.
6. Neglecting or refusing, after due demand or request, without sufficient justification, to act within a
reasonable time on any matter pending before him for the purpose of obtaining directly or indirectly, from
any person interested in the matter some pecuniary or material benefit or advantage, or for the purpose of
favoring his own interest of giving undue advantage in favor of or discriminating against any other
interested party.
7. Entering, on behalf of the Government, into any contract or transaction manifestly and grossly
disadvantageous to the same, whether or not the public officer profited or will profit thereby.
8. Directly or indirectly having financial or pecuniary interest in any business, contract or transaction in
connection with which he intervenes or take part in his official capacity, or in which he is prohibited by the
constitution or by any law from having any interest.
9. Directly or indirectly becoming interested, for personal gain, or having a material interest in any
transaction or act requiring the approval of a board, panel, or group of which he is a member, and which
exercises discretion in such approval, even if he votes against the same or does not participate in the
action of the board, committee, panel or group.
10. Knowingly approving or granting any license, permit, privilege, or benefit in favor of any person not
qualified for or not legally entitled to such license, permit, privilege, or advantage, or of a mere
representative or dummy of one who is not so qualified or entitled.
11. Divulging valuable information of a confidential character, acquired by his office or by him on account of
his official position to unauthorized persons, or releasing such information in advance of its authorized
release date.
This prohibition shall not apply to:
1. Any person who, prior to the assumption of office of any of the above officials to whom he is related, has
been already dealing with the govt along the same line of business;
2. Any transaction, contract or application already existing or pending at the time of such assumption of
public office;
3. Any application filed by him, the approval of which is not discretionary on the part of the official(s)
concerned but depends upon compliance with requisites provided by law, or rules or regulations issued
pursuant to law;
4. Any act lawfully performed an official capacity or in the exercise of a profession.
5. Any member of congress, during the term for which he has been elected, who shall acquire or receive any
personal pecuniary interest in any specific business enterprise which shall be directly and particularly
favored or benefited by any law or resolution authored by him previously approved or adopted by Congress
during his term.
6. Any public officer who shall fail to file a true, detailed and sworn statement of assets and liabilities within
30 days after assuming office and thereafter on or before the 15th day of April following the close of every
calendar year, as well as upon the expiration of his term of office, or upon his resignation or separation
from office (Sec. 7).
II. Prima Facie Evidence of and Dismissal due to unexplained Wealth (Sec. 8)

If a public official has been found to have acquired during his incumbency, whether in his name or in the
name of other persons, an amount of property and/or money manifestly out of proportion to his salary and
to his other lawful income.
Properties in the name of the spouse and dependents of such public official may be taken into
consideration, when their acquisition through legitimate means cannot be satisfactorily shown.
Bank deposits in the name of or manifestly excessive expenditures incurred by the public official, his
spouse or any of their dependents including but not limited to activities in any club or association or any
ostentatious display of wealth including frequent travel abroad of a non-official character by any public
official when such activities entail expenses evidently out of proportion to legitimate income.

III. Competent court: All prosecutions under this Act shall be within the original jurisdiction of the

Sandiganbayan (Sec. 10).

IV. Prescription of offenses: all offenses punishable under this Act shall prescribe in 15 years (Sec. 11).

V. Exceptions: Unsolicited gifts or presents of small or insignificant value offered or given as a mere ordinary token
of gratitude of friendship according to local customs or usage, shall be excepted from the provisions of this act
(Sec. 14).
Article 211

ELEMENTS OF INDIRECT BRIBERY:


1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he accepts gifts.
3. That the said gifts are offered to him by reason of his office.
The gift is given in anticipation of future favor from the public officer
There must be clear intention on the part of the public officer to take the gift offered and consider the
property as his own for that moment. Mere physical receipt unaccompanied by any other sign,
circumstance or act to show such acceptance is not sufficient to convict the officer
There is no attempted or frustrated indirect bribery
The principal distinction between direct and indirect bribery is that in the former, the officer agrees to
perform or refrain from doing an act in consideration of the gift or promise. In the latter case, it is not
necessary that the officer do any act. It is sufficient that he accepts the gift offered by reason of his office
Public officers receiving gifts and private persons giving gifts on any occasion, including Christmas are
liable under PD 46.
The criminal penalty or imprisonment is distinct from the administrative penalty of suspension from the
service

Article 211-A

ELEMENTS OF QUALIFIED BRIBERY


1. Public officer entrusted with law enforcement
2. Refrains from arresting/prosecuting offender for crime punishable by reclusion perpetua and/or death
3. (if lower penalty than stated above, the crime is direct bribery)
4. In consideration of any offer, promise or gift

Article 212
ELEMENTS OF CORRUPTION OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS:
1. That the offender makes offers or promises or gives gifts or present to a public officer.
2. That the offers or promises are made or the gifts or presents given to a public officer, under circumstances
that will make the public officer liable for direct bribery or indirect bribery
The offender is the giver of the gift or the offeror of the promise. The act may or may not be accomplished
Under PD 749, givers of bribes and other gifts as well as accomplices in bribery and other graft cases are
immune from prosecution under the following circumstances:
1. information refers to consummated violations
2. necessity of the information or testimony
3. the information and testimony are not yet in the possession of the State
4. information and testimony can be corroborated on its material points
5. informant has been previously convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude
See the Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Act

II. FRAUDS AND ILLEGAL EXACTIONS AND TRANSACTIONS

Article 213

ELEMENTS OF FRAUDS AGAINST PUBLIC TREASURY: (par. 1)


1. That the offender be a public officer.
2. That he should have taken advantage of his office, that is, he intervened in the transaction in his official
capacity.
3. That he entered into an agreement with any interested party or speculator or made use of any other
scheme with regard to (a) furnishing supplies (b) the making of contracts, or (c) the adjustment or
settlement of account relating to a public property or funds.
4. That the accused had intent to defraud the government.
Notes:
1. The public officer must act in his official capacity
2. The felony is consummated by merely entering into an agreement with any interested party or speculator
or by merely making use of any scheme to defraud the Government
ELEMENTS OF ILLEGAL EXACTIONS:
1. The offender is a public officer entrusted with the collection of taxes, licenses, fees and other imposts.
2. He is guilty of any of the following acts or omissions:
1. demanding, directly or indirectly the payment of sums different from or larger than those
authorized by law, or
2. failing voluntarily to issue a receipt, as provided by law, for any sum of money collected by him
officially, or
3. Collecting or receiving, directly or indirectly, by way of payment or otherwise, things or objects of
a nature different from that provided by law.
Notes:
1. Mere demand of a larger or different amount is sufficient to consummate the crime. The essence is the
improper collection (damage to govt is not required)
2. If sums are received without demanding the same, a felony under this article is not committed. However,
if the sum is given as a sort of gift or gratification, the crime is indirect bribery
3. When there is deceit in demanding larger fees, the crime committed is estafa
4. May be complexed with malversation
5. Officers and employees of the BIR or Customs are not covered by the article
6. The NIRC of Administrative Code is the applicable law

Article 214
ELEMENTS OF OTHER FRAUDS:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he takes advantage of his official position.
3. That he commits any of the frauds or deceits enumerated in art. 315 and 316. (estafa; swindling)
Note: RTC has jurisdiction over the offense because the principal penalty is disqualification

Article 215
ELEMENTS OF PROHIBITED TRANSACTIONS:
1. That the offender is an appointive public officer.
2. That he becomes interested, directly or indirectly, in any transaction of exchange or speculation.
3. That the transaction takes place within the territory subject to his jurisdiction.
4. That he becomes interested in the transaction during his incumbency.
Notes:
1. Examples of transactions of exchange or speculation are: buying and selling stocks, commodities, land etc
wherein one hopes to take advantage of an expected rise or fall in price
2. Purchasing of stocks or shares in a company is simple investment and not a violation of the article.
However, regularly buying securities for resale is speculation

Article 216
POSSESSION OF PROHIBITED INTERESTS BY A PUBLIC OFFICER :
Who are liable:
1. Public officer in any contract or business in which it is his official duty to intervene.
2. Experts, arbitrators and private accountants in any contract or transaction connected with the estate or
property in the approval, distribution or adjudication of which they had acted.
3. Guardians and executors with respect to property belonging to their wards or the estate.
Notes:
1. Actual fraud is not necessary.
2. Act is punished because of the possibility that fraud may be committed or that the officer may place his
own interest above that of the Government or party which he represents

AN ACT DEFINING AND PENALIZING THE CRIME OF PLUNDER


RA 7080
1. Definition of Ill-gotten wealth:

Any asset, property, business enterprise or material possession of any person acquired by him directly or indirectly
through dummies, nominees, agents, subordinates, and/or business associates by any combination or series of the
following means or similar schemes:

1. Through misappropriation, conversion, misuse or malversation of public funds or raids on the public
treasury.
2. By receiving, directly or indirectly, any commission, gift, share, percentage, kickbacks or any other form of
pecuniary benefit from any person and/or entity in connection with any government contract or project or
by reason of the office or position of the public officer concerned;
3. By the illegal or fraudulent conveyance or disposition of assets belonging to the National Government or
any of its subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities or government-owned or controlled corporations and
their subsidiaries;
4. By obtaining, receiving or accepting, directly or indirectly, any shares of stock, equity or any other form of
interest or participation, including the promise of future employment in any business enterprise or
undertaking.
5. By establishing agricultural, industrial or commercial monopolies or other combinations, and/or
implementation of decrees and orders intended to benefit particular persons or special interests;
6. By taking undue advantage of official position, authority, relationship, connection or influence to unjustly
enrich himself or themselves at the expense and to the damage or prejudice of the Filipino people and the
Republic of the Philippines.

1. Persons Liable:
1. Any public officer who, by himself or in connivance with members of his family, relatives by affinity
or consanguinity, business associates and subordinates or other persons, amasses, accumulates, or
acquires ill-gotten wealth through a combination or series of overt or criminal acts as described
under (I) in the aggregate amount or total value of at least 50 million pesos, shall be guilty of the
crime of plunder (as amended by RA 7659).
2. Any person who participated with the said public officer in the commission of plunder.
1. Jurisdiction: All prosecutions under this At shall be within the original jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan.
1. Rule of Evidence:

For purposes of establishing the crime of plunder, it shall not be necessary to prove each and every criminal act
done by the accused in furtherance of the scheme and conspiracy to amass, accumulate or acquire ill-gotten
wealth, it being sufficient to establish beyond reasonable doubt a pattern of overt or criminal acts indicative of
the overall unlawful scheme or conspiracy.
1. Prescription of Crime:

The crime of plunder shall prescribe in 20 years. However, the right of the State to recover properties unlawfully
acquired by public officers from them or from their nominees or transferees shall not be barred by prescription,
laches or estoppel.

III. MALVERSATION OF PUBLIC FUNDS OR PROPERTY

Article 217

ELEMENTS COMMON TO ALL ACTS MALVERSATION OF PUBLIC FUNDS OR PROPERTY :


1. That the offender be a public officer (or private person if entrusted with public funds or connived with
public officers)
2. That he had the custody or control of funds or property (if not accountable for the funds, theft or qualified
theft)
3. That those funds or property were public funds or property (even if private funds if attached, seized,
deposited or commingled with public funds)
4. That he:
1. Appropriated the funds or property
2. Took or misappropriated them
3. Consented or, through abandonment or negligence, permitted any other person to take such public
funds or property. (it is not necessary that the offender profited thereby. His being remiss in the
duty of safekeeping public funds violates the trust reposed)
Malversation is otherwise called embezzlement
It can be committed either with malice or through negligence or imprudence
In determining whether the offender is a public officer, what is controlling is the nature of his office and
not the designation
The funds or property must be received in an official capacity. Otherwise, the crime committed is estafa
When a public officer has official custody or the duty to collect or receive funds due the government, or
the obligation to account for them, his misappropriation of the same constitutes malversation
A public officer who has qualified charge of govt property without authority to part with its physical
possession upon order of an immediate superior, he cannot be held liable under this article
Private individuals can also be held liable for malversation under 2 circumstances:
1. when they are in conspiracy with public officers; and
2. when they have charge of national, provincial or municipal funds, revenues or property in any capacity
In malversation through negligence, the negligence of the accountable public officer must be positively and
clearly shown to be inexcusable, approximating fraud or malice
The measure of negligence to be observed is the standard of care commensurate with the occasion
When malversation is not committed through negligence, lack of criminal intent or good faith is a defense
The failure of a public officer to have any duly forthcoming public funds or property upon demand, by any
authorized officer, shall be prima facie evidence that he has put such missing funds or property to personal
use. However, if at the very moment when the shortage is discovered, the accountable officer is notified,
and he immediately pays the amount from his pocket, the presumption does not arise
Returning the embezzled funds is not exempting, it is only mitigating
There is also no malversation when the accountable officer is obliged to go out of his office and borrow the
amount corresponding to the shortage and later, the missing amount is found in an unaccustomed place
A person whose negligence made possible the commission of malversation by another can be held liable as
a principal by indispensable cooperation
Demand as well as damage to the government are not necessary elements

Malversation (217) Estafa with Abuse of Confidence (315)

Funds or property usually public Funds/property are always private

Offender is usually a public officer who is accountable Offender is a private individual or even a public officer
for the public funds/property who is not accountable for public funds/property

Crime is committed by approaching, taking, or


misappropriating/consenting, or through abandonment Crime is committed by misappropriating, converting,
or negligence, permitting any other person to take the or denying having received money, goods or other
public funds/property personal property

Article 218
ELEMENTS OF FAILURE OF ACCOUNTABLE OFFICER TO RENDER ACCOUNTS :
1. That the offender is a public officer, whether in the service or separated therefrom.
2. That he must be an accountable officer for public funds property.
3. That he is required by law or regulation to render accounts to the commission on audit, or to a provincial
auditor.
4. That he fails to do so for a period of two months after such accounts should be rendered.
Note: Demand and misappropriation are not necessary

Article 219
ELEMENTS OF FAILURE OF A RESPONSIBLE PUBLIC OFFICER TO RENDER ACCOUNTS BEFORE LEAVING
THE COUNTRY :
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he must be an accountable officer for public funds or property.
3. That he must have unlawfully left (or be on the point of leaving) the Philippines without securing from the
Commission on Audit a certificate showing that his accounts have been finally settled.
Note: The act of leaving the Philippines must be unauthorized or not permitted by law

Article 220
ELEMENTS OF ILLEGAL USE OF PUBLIC FUNDS OR PROPERTY (technical malversation):
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That there is public fund or property under his administration.
3. That such public fund or property has been appropriated by law or ordinance (without this, it is simple
malversation even if applied to other public purpose).
4. That he applies the same to a public use other than for which such fund or property has been appropriated
by law or ordinance.
To distinguish this article with Art 217, just remember that in illegal use of public funds or property, the
offender does not derive any personal gain, the funds are merely devoted to some other public use
Absence of damage is only a mitigating circumstance

Article 221

ELEMENTS OF FAILURE TO MAKE DELIVERY OF PUBLIC FUNDS OR PROPERTY


1. Offender has govt funds or property in his possession
2. He is under obligation to either:
1. make payment from such funds
2. to deliver property in his custody or administration when ordered by competent authority
3. He maliciously fails or refuses to do so
Note: Penalty is based on value of funds/property to be delivered

Article 222

PERSONS WHO MAY BE HELD LIABLE UNDER ARTS 217 TO 221


1. Private individual who, in any capacity, have charge of any national, provincial or municipal funds,
revenue, or property
2. Administrator or depositary of funds or property that has been attached, seized or deposited by public
authority, even if owned by a private individual
Sheriffs and receivers fall under the term administrator
A judicial administrator in charge of settling the estate of the deceased is not covered by the article

IV. INFIDELITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS

Article 223
ELEMENTS OF CONNIVING WITH OR CONSENTING TO EVASION
1. That the offender is a public officer (on duty).
2. That he is charged with the conveyance or custody of a prisoner, either detention prisoner or prisoner by
final judgment.
3. That such prisoner escaped from his custody
4. That he was in connivance with the prisoner in the latters escape
Detention prisoner: refers to a person in legal custody, arrested for and charged with some crime or public
offense
The release of a detention prisoner who could not be delivered to judicial authorities within the time fixed
by law is not infidelity in the custody of a prisoner. Neither is mere leniency or laxity in the performance of
duty constitutive of infidelity
There is real and actual evasion of service of sentence when the custodian permits the prisoner to obtain a
relaxation of his imprisonment

Article 224
ELEMENTS OF EVASION THROUGH NEGLIGENCE:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he is charged with the conveyance or custody of a prisoner, either detention prisoner or prisoner by
final judgment.
3. That such prisoner escapes through his negligence.
4. Penalty based on nature of imprisonment
The article punishes a definite laxity which amounts to deliberate non-performance of a duty
The fact that the public officer recaptured the prisoner who had escaped from his custody does not afford
complete exculpation
The liability of an escaping prisoner:
1. if he is a prisoner by final judgment, he is liable for evasion of service (art 157)
2. if he is a detention prisoner, he does not incur criminal liability (unless cooperating with the offender).

Article 225
ELEMENTS OF ESCAPES OF PRISONERS UNDER THE CUSTODY OF A PERSON NOT A PUBLIC OFFICER :
1. That the offender is a private person (note: must be on duty)
2. That the conveyance or custody of a prisoner or person under arrest is confined to him.
3. That the prisoner or person under arrest escapes.
4. That the offender consents to the escape of the prisoner or person under arrest, or that the escape takes
place through his negligence
Note: This article is not applicable if a private person made the arrest and he consented to the escape of
the person he arrested

Article 226
ELEMENTS OF REMOVAL, CONCEALMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF DOCUMENTS Infidelity in custody of
documents:
1. That the offender be a public officer.
2. That he abstracts, destroys or conceals a document or papers.
3. That the said document or paper should have been entrusted to such public officer by reason of his office.
4. That damage, whether serious or not, to a third party or to the public interest should have been caused.
The document must be complete and one by which a right could be established or an obligation could be
extinguished
Books, periodicals, pamphlets etc are not documents
Papers would include checks, promissory notes and paper money
A post office official who retained the mail without forwarding the letters to their destination is guilty of
infidelity in the custody of papers
Removal of a document or paper must be for an illicit purpose. There is illicit purpose when the intention
of the offender is to:
1. tamper with it
2. to profit by it
3. to commit any act constituting a breech of trust in the official thereof
Removal is consummated upon removal or secreting away of the document from its usual place. It is
immaterial whether or not the illicit purpose of the offender has been accomplished
Infidelity in the custody of documents through destruction or concealment does not require proof of an
illicit purpose
Delivering the document to the wrong party is infidelity in the custody thereof
The damage may either be great or small
The offender must be in custody of such documents

Article 227
ELEMENTS OF OFFICER BREAKING SEAL :
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he is charged with the custody of papers or property.
3. That these papers or property are sealed by proper authority.
4. That he breaks the seals or permits them to be broken.
It is the breaking of the seals and not the opening of a closed envelope which is punished
Damage or intent to cause damage is not necessary; damage is presumed

Article 228
ELEMENTS OF OPENING OF CLOSED DOCUMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That any closed papers, documents, or objects are entrusted to his custody.
3. That he opens or permits to be opened said closed papers, documents or objects.
4. That he does not have proper authority.
Note: Damage also not necessary

Article 229
REVELATION OF SECRET BY AN OFFICER:
ELEMENTS OF PAR.1: BY REASON OF HIS OFFICIAL CAPACITY
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he knows of a secret by reason of his official capacity.
3. That he reveals such secret without authority or justifiable reasons.
4. That damage, great or small, be caused to the public interest.
5. (damage is essential)
Notes:
1. Secret must affect public interest
2. Secrets of a private individual is not included
3. Espionage for the benefit of another State is not contemplated by the article. If regarding military secrets
or secrets affecting state security, the crime may be espionage.
ELEMENTS OF PAR 2 DELIVERING WRONGFULLY PAPERS OR COPIES OF PAPERS OF WHICH HE MAY
HAVE CHARGE AND WHICH SHOULD NOT BE PUBLISHED:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he has charge of papers.
3. That those papers should not be published.
4. That he delivers those papers or copies thereof to a third person.
5. That the delivery is wrongful.
6. That damage be caused to public interest.
Notes:
1. Charge: means custody or control. If he is merely entrusted with the papers and not with the custody
thereof, he is not liable under this article
2. If the papers contain secrets which should not be published, and the public officer having charge thereof
removes and delivers them wrongfully to a third person, the crime is revelation of secrets. On the other
hand, if the papers do not contain secrets, their removal for an illicit purpose is infidelity in the custody of
documents
3. Damage is essential to the act committed

Article 230
ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC OFFICER REVEALING SECRETS OF PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL:
1. That the offender is a public officer
2. That he knows of the secret of a private individual by reason of his office.
3. That he reveals such secrets without authority or justification reason.
Revelation to one person is sufficient
If the offender is an attorney, he is properly liable under Art 209 (betrayal of trust by an attorney)
Damage to private individual is not necessary

V. OTHER OFFENSES OR IRREGULARITIES BY PUBLIC OFFICERS


Article 231
ELEMENTS OF OPEN DISOBEDIENCE:
1. That the offender is a judicial or executive officer.
2. That there is a judgment, decision or order of superior authority.
3. That such judgment, decision or order was made within the scope of the jurisdiction of the superior
authority and issued with all the legal formalities.
4. that the offender without any legal justification openly refuses to execute the said judgment, decision or
under which he is duty bound to obey.
Note: Judgment should have been rendered in a hearing and issued within proper jurisdiction with all legal
solemnities required

Article 232
ELEMENTS OF DISOBEDIENCE TO ORDER OF SUPERIOR OFFICER WHEN SAID ORDER WAS SUSPENDED BY
INFERIOR OFFICER:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That an order is issued by his superior for execution.
3. That he has for any reason suspended the execution of such order.
4. That his superior disapproves the suspension of the execution of the order.
5. That the offender disobeys his superior despite the disapproval of the suspension.
Note: A public officer is not liable if the order of the superior is illegal

Article 233
ELEMENTS OF REFUSAL OF ASSISTANCE:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That a competent authority demands from the offender that he lend his cooperation towards the
administration of justice or other public service.
3. That the offender fails to do so maliciously.
Involves a request from one public officer to another
Damage to the public interest or third party is essential
Demand is necessary

Article 234
ELEMENTS OF REFUSAL TO DISCHARGE ELECTIVE OFFICE:
1. That the offender is elected by popular election to a public office.
2. That he refuses to be sworn in or discharge the duties of said office.
3. That there is no legal motive for such refusal to be sworn in or to discharge the duties of said office.
Note: Even if the person did not run for the office on his own will as the Constitution provides that every
citizen may be required to render service

Article 235
ELEMENTS OF MALTREATMENT OF PRISONERS:
1. That the offender is a public officer or employee.
2. That he has under charge a prisoner or detention prisoner (otherwise the crime is physical injuries)
3. That he maltreats such prisoner in either of the following manners:
1. by overdoing himself in the correction or handling of a prisoner or detention prisoner under his
charge either
by the imposition of punishments not authorized by the regulations, or
by inflicting such punishments (those authorized) in a cruel and humiliating manner, or
1. by maltreating such prisoner to extort a confession or to obtain some information from the prisoner.
The public officer must have actual charge of the prisoner in order to be held liable
To be considered a detention prisoner, the person arrested must be placed in jail even for just a short
while
Offender may also be held liable for physical injuries or damage caused

Article 236
ELEMENTS OF ANTICIPATION OF DUTIES OF A PUBLIC OFFICE:
1. That the offender is entitled to hold a public office or employment, either by election or appointment.
2. That the law requires that he should first be sworn in and/or should first give a bond.
3. That he assumes the performance of the duties and powers of such office.
4. That he has not taken his oath of office and./or given the bond required by law.

Article 237
ELEMENTS OF PROLONGING PERFORMANCE OF DUTIES AND POWERS:
1. That the offender is holding a public office.
2. That the period provided by law, regulations or special provisions for holding such office has already
expired.
3. That he continues to exercise the duties and powers of such office.
Note: The article contemplates officers who have been suspended, separated or declared over-aged or
dismissed

Article 238
ELEMENTS OF ABANDONMENT OF OFFICE OR POSITION :
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he formally resigns from his position.
3. That his resignation has not yet been accepted.
4. That he abandons his office to the detriment of the public service.
There must be formal or written resignation
The offense is qualified if the purpose behind the abandonment is to evade the discharge of duties
consisting of preventing, prosecuting or punishing any of the crimes against national security. The penalty
is higher. This involves the following crimes:
1. treason
2. conspiracy and proposal to commit conspiracy
3. misprision of treason
4. espionage
5. inciting to war or giving motives to reprisals
6. violation of neutrality
7. correspondence with hostile country
8. flight to enemy country
9. piracy and mutiny on the high seas
10. rebellion
11. conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion
12. disloyalty to public officers
13. inciting to rebellion
14. sedition
15. conspiracy to commit sedition
16. inciting to sedition

Abandonment of Office or Position (238) Dereliction of Duty (208)

There is actual abandonment through resignation to Public officer does not abandon his office but merely
evade the discharge of duties. fails to prosecute a violation of the law.

Article 239
ELEMENTS OF USURPATION OF LEGISLATIVE POWERS:
1. That the offender is an executive or judicial officer.
2. That he (a.) makes general rules or regulations beyond the scope of his authority or (b.) attempts to repeal
a law or (c.) suspends the execution thereof.

Article 240
ELEMENTS OF USURPATION OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS:
1. That the offender is a judge.
2. That he (a.) assumes a power pertaining to the executive authorities, or (b.) obstructs executive
authorities in the lawful exercise of their powers.
Note: Legislative officers are not liable for usurpation of executive functions

Article 241
ELEMENTS OF USURPATION OF JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS:
1. That the offender is an officer of the executive branch of the government.
2. That he (a.) assumes judicial powers, or (b.) obstruct the execution of any order decision rendered by any
judge within his jurisdiction.
Note: A mayor is guilty under this article when he investigates a case while a justice of the peace is in the
municipality

Article 242
ELEMENTS OF DISOBEYING REQUEST FOR DISQUALIFICATION:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That a proceeding is pending before such public officer.
3. That there is a question brought before the proper authority regarding his jurisdiction, which is not yet
decided.
4. That he has been lawfully required to refrain from continuing the proceeding.
5. That he continues the proceeding.

Article 243
ELEMENTS OF ADDRESSING ORDERS OR REQUESTS BY EXECUTIVE OFFICER TO ANY JUDICIAL AUTHORITY:
1. That the offender is an executive officer.
2. That the addresses any order or suggestion to any judicial authority.
3. That the order or suggestion relates to any case or business coming within the exclusive jurisdiction of the
courts of justice.
Note: Legislative or judicial officers are not liable under this article

Article 244
ELEMENTS OF UNLAWFUL APPOINTMENTS:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he nominates or appoints a person to a public office.
3. That such person lacks the legal qualification therefor.
4. That the offender knows that his nominee or appointee lacks the qualification at the time he made the
nomination or appointment.
Recommending, knowing that the person recommended is not qualified is not a crime
There must be a law providing for the qualifications of a person to be nominated or appointed to a public
office

Article 245
ELEMENTS OF ABUSES AGAINST CHASTITY:
1. That the offender is a public officer.
2. That he solicits or makes immoral or indecent advances to a woman.
3. That such woman must be
1. interested in matters pending before the offender for decision, or with respect to which he is
required to submit a report to or consult with a superior officer, or
2. under the custody of the offender who is a warden or other public officer directly charged with care
and custody of prisoners or person under arrest, or
3. the wife, daughter, sister or relative within the same degree by affinity of the person in the custody
of the offender
The mother of the person in the custody of the public officer is not included
Solicit: means to propose earnestly and persistently something unchaste and immoral to a woman
The advances must be immoral or indecent
The crime is consummated by mere proposal
Proof of solicitation is not necessary when there is sexual intercourse

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Eight

TITLE EIGHT
I. CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS

DESTRUCTION OF LIFE
A. ELEMENTS OF PARRICIDE: (246)
1. That a person is killed.
2. That the deceased is killed by the accused.
3. That the deceased is the father, mother, or child, whether legitimate or illegitimate, or a legitimate other
ascendant or other descendant, or the legitimate spouse of the accused.
Notes:
1. The relationship of the offender with the victim is the essential element of the felony
2. Parents and children are not included in the term ascendants or descendants
3. The other ascendant or descendant must be legitimate. On the other hand, the father, mother or child may
be legitimate or illegitimate
4. The child should not be less than 3 days old. Otherwise, the offense is infanticide
5. Relationship must be alleged
6. A stranger who cooperates in committing parricide is liable for murder or homicide
7. Even if the offender did not know that the person he had killed is his son, he is still liable for parricide
because the law does not require knowledge of the relationship
B. DEATH OR PHYSICAL INJURIES UNDER EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Requisites:
1. A legally married person or parent surprises his spouse or daughter (the latter must be under 18 and living
with them) in the act of committing sexual intercourse with another person
2. He/she kills any or both of them or inflicts upon any or both of them any serious physical injury in the act
or immediately thereafter
3. He has not promoted or facilitated the prostitution of his wife or daughter, or that he has not consented to
the infidelity of the other spouse.
Notes:
1. Article does not define or penalize a felony
2. Not necessary that the parent be legitimate
3. Article applies only when the daughter is single
4. Surprise: means to come upon suddenly or unexpectedly
5. Art 247 is applicable when the accused did not see his spouse in the act sexual intercourse with another
person. However, it is enough that circumstances reasonably show that the carnal act is being committed
or has been committed
6. Sexual intercourse does not include preparatory acts
7. Immediately thereafter: means that the discovery, escape, pursuit and the killing must all form parts of
one continuous act
8. The killing must be the direct by-product of the rage of the accused
9. No criminal liability is incurred when less serious or slight physical injuries are inflicted. Moreover, in case
third persons caught in the crossfire suffer physical injuries, the accused is not liable. The principle that
one is liable for the consequences of his felonious act is not applicable because he is not committing a
felony
C. ELEMENTS OF MURDER: (248)
1. That a person was killed.
2. That the accused killed him.
3. That the killing was attended by any of the following qualifying circumstances
1. with treachery, taking advantage of superior strength, with the aid or armed men, or employing
means to weaken the defense or of means or persons to insure or afford impunity
2. in consideration of price, reward or promise
3. by means of inundation, fire, poison, explosion, shipwreck, stranding of vessel, derailment or
assault upon a street car or locomotive, fall of airship, by means of motor vehicles or with the use
of any other means involving great waste or ruin
4. on occasion of any of the calamities enumerated in the preceding paragraph, or of an earthquake,
eruption of a volcano, destructive cyclone, epidemic or any other public calamity
5. with evident premeditation
6. with cruelty, by deliberately and inhumanely augmenting the suffering of the victim or outraging or
scoffing at his person or corpse
4. The killing is not parricide or infanticide.
Notes:
1. The victim must be killed in order to consummate the offense. Otherwise, it would be attempted or
frustrated murder
2. Murder will exist with only one of the circumstances. The other circumstances are absorbed or included in
one qualifying circumstance. They cannot be considered as generic aggravating circumstances
3. Any of the qualifying circumstances must be alleged in the information. Otherwise, they will only be
considered as generic aggravating circumstances
4. Treachery and premeditation are inherent in murder with the use of poison.
D. ELEMENTS OF HOMICIDE: (249)
1. That a person was killed.
2. That the accused killed him without any justifying circumstances.
3. That the accused had the intention to kill, which is presumed.
4. That the killing was not attended by any of the qualifying circumstances of murder, or by that of parricide
or infanticide.
Notes:
1. Intent to kill is conclusively presumed when death resulted. Hence, evidence of intent to kill is required
only in attempted or frustrated homicide
2. There is no crime of frustrated homicide through negligence
3. When the wounds that caused death were inflicted by 2 different persons, even if they were not in
conspiracy, each one of them is guilty of homicide
4. In all crimes against persons in which the death of the victim is an element, there must be satisfactory
evidence of (1) the fact of death and (2) the identity of the victim
E. PENALTY FOR FRUSTRATED PARRICIDE, MURDER OR HOMICIDE (250)
F. ELEMENTS OF DEATH IN A TUMULTOUS AFFRAY: (251)
1. That there be several persons.
2. That they did not compose groups organized for the common purpose of assaulting and attacking each
other reciprocally.
3. That these several persons quarreled and assaulted one another in a confused and tumultuous manner.
4. That someone was killed in the course of the affray.
5. That it cannot be ascertained who actually killed the deceased.
6. That the person or persons who inflicted serious physical injuries or who used violence can be identified.
Notes:
1. Tumultuous affray exists hen at least 4 persons take part in it
2. When there are 2 identified groups of men who assaulted each other, there is no tumultuous affray
3. Persons liable are:
1. person/s who inflicted serious physical injuries
2. if it is not known who inflicted serious physical injuries on the deceased, all persons who used
violence upon the person of the victim.
G. ELEMENTS OF PHYSICAL INJURIES INFLICTED IN A TUMULTOUS AFFRAY: (252)
1. that there is a tumultuous affray as referred to in the preceding article.
2. That a participant or some participants thereof suffer serious physical injuries or physical injuries of a less
serious nature only.
1. that the person responsible therefor cannot be identified.
2. That all those who appear to have used violence upon the person of the offended party are known.
H.GIVING ASSISTANCE TO SUICIDE: (253)
Acts punishable:
1. Assisting another to commit suicide, whether the suicide is consummated or not
2. Lending his assistance to another to commit suicide to the extent of doing the killing himself.
Notes:
1. A person who attempts to commit suicide is not criminally liable
2. A pregnant woman who tried to commit suicide by means of poison but instead of dying, the fetus in her
womb was expelled, is not liable for abortion
3. Assistance to suicide is different from mercy-killing. Euthanasia/mk is the practice of painlessly putting to
death a person suffering from some incurable disease. In this case, the person does not want to die. A
doctor who resorts to euthanasia may be held liable for murder
4. Penalty is mitigated if suicide is not successful.
I. ELEMENTS OF DISCHARGE OF FIREARMS: (254)
1. that the offender discharges a firearm against or at another person.
2. That the offender has no intention to kill that person.
Notes:
1. The offender must shoot at another with any firearm without intention of killing him. If the firearm is not
discharged at a person, the act is not punished under this article
2. A discharge towards the house of the victim is not discharge of firearm. On the other hand, firing a gun
against the house of the offended party at random, not knowing in what part of the house the people were,
it is only alarm under art 155.
3. Usually, the purpose of the offender is only to intimidate or frighten the offended party
4. Intent to kill is negated by the fact that the distance between the victim and the offender is 200 yards
5. A person can be held liable for discharge even if the gun was not pointed at the offended party when it
fired for as long as it was initially aimed at or against the offended party.
J. ELEMENTS OF INFANTICIDE: (255)
1. That a child was killed.
2. That the deceased child was less than three days (72 hours) of age.
3. That the accused killed the said child.
Notes:
1. When the offender is the father, mother or legitimate ascendant, he shall suffer the penalty prescribed for
parricide. If the offender is any other person, the penalty is that for murder. In either case, the proper
qualification for the offense is infanticide
2. When infanticide is committed by the mother or maternal grandmother in order to conceal the dishonor,
such fact is only mitigating
3. The delinquent mother who claims that she committed the offense to conceal the dishonor must be of good
reputation. Hence, if she is a prostitute, she is not entitled to a lesser penalty because she has no honor to
conceal
4. There is no infanticide when the child was born dead, or although born alive it could not sustain an
independent life when it was killed.
K. ELEMENTS OF INTENTIONAL ABORTION: (256)
1. That there is a pregnant woman.
2. That violence is exerted, or drugs or beverages administered, or that the accused otherwise acts upon such
pregnant woman.
3. That as a result of the use of violence or drugs or beverages upon her, or any other act of the accused, the
fetus dies, either in the womb or after having been expelled therefrom.
4. That the abortion is intended.
L. ELEMENTS OF UNINTENTIONAL ABORTION: (257)
1. That there is a pregnant woman.
2. That violence is used upon such pregnant woman without intending an abortion.
3. That the violence is intentionally exerted.
4. That as a result of the violence that fetus dies, either in the womb or after having been expelled
therefrom.
Notes:
1. Unintentional abortion can also be committed through negligence
1. The accused can only be held liable if he knew that the woman was pregnant
2. If there is no intention to cause abortion and neither was violence exerted, arts 256 and 257 does
not apply.
M. ELEMENTS OF ABORTION PRACTICED BY THE WOMAN HERSELF OR BY HER PARENTS: (258)
1. That there is a pregnant woman who has suffered an abortion.
2. That the abortion is intended.
3. That the abortion is caused by
1. the pregnant woman herself
2. any other person, with her consent, or
3. any of her parents, with her consent for the purpose of concealing her dishonor.
Notes:
1. Liability of the pregnant woman is mitigated if the purpose is to conceal her dishonor. However, there is no
litigation for the parents of the pregnant women even if their purpose is to conceal their daughters
dishonor
2. In infanticide, parents can avail of the mitigating circumstance of concealing the dishonor of their
daughter. This is not so for art 258
N. ELEMENTS OF ABORTION PRACTICED BY A PHYSICIAN OR MIDWIFE AND DISPENSING OF ABORTIVES: (259)
1. That there is a pregnant woman who has suffered an abortion.
2. That the abortion is intended.
3. That the offender, who must be a physician or midwife, causes or assists in causing the abortion.
4. That said physician or midwife takes advantage of his or her scientific knowledge or skill.
Notes:
1. It is not necessary that the pharmacist knew that the abortive would be used to cause abortion. What is
punished is the act of dispensing an abortive without the proper prescription. It is not necessary that the
abortive be actually used
2. If the pharmacist knew that the abortive would be used to cause abortion and abortion results, he is liable
as an accomplice
O. RESPONSIBILITY OF PARTICIPANTS IN A DUEL: (260)
Acts punished:
1. Killing ones adversary in a duel
2. Inflicting upon the adversary serious physical injuries
3. Making a combat although no physical injuries have been inflicted
Persons liable:
1. Principals person who killed or inflicted physical injuries upon his adversary, or both combatants in any
other cases
2. Accomplices as seconds
Notes:
1. Duel: a formal or regular combat previously concerted between 2 parties in the presence of 2 or more
seconds of lawful age on each side, who make the selection of arms and fix all the other conditions of the
fight
2. If death results, the penalty is the same as that for homicide
P. CHALLENGING TO A DUEL: (261)
Acts punishable:
1. Challenging another to a duel
2. Inciting another to give or accept a challenge to a duel
3. Scoffing at or decrying another publicly for having refused to accept a challenge to fight a duel
Persons liable:
1. Challenger
2. Instigators
II. PHYSICAL INJURIES
1. A. MUTILATION: (262)
Kinds of Mutilation
1. Intentionally mutilating another by depriving him, totally or partially, of some essential organ for
reproduction
2. Intentionally making another mutilation, i.e. lopping, clipping off any part of the body of the offended
party, other than the essential organ for reproduction, to deprive him of that part of the body
Elements:
1. There be a castration i.e. mutilation of organs necessary for generation
2. Mutilation is caused purposely and deliberately
Notes:
1. In the first kind of mutilation, the castration must be made purposely. Otherwise, it will be considered as
mutilation of the second kind
2. Mayhem: refers to any other intentional mutilation
1. B. SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURIES: (263)
How Committed
1. Wounding
2. Beating
3. Assaulting
4. Administering injurious substances
What are serious physical injuries:
1. Injured person becomes insane, imbecile, impotent or blind
2. Injured person
1. loses the use of speech or the power to hear or to smell, loses an eye, a hand, foot, arm or leg
2. loses the use of any such member
3. becomes incapacitated for the work in which he had been habitually engaged
3. Injured person
1. becomes deformed
2. loses any other member of his body
3. loses the use thereof
4. becomes ill or incapacitated for the performance of the work in which he had been habitually
engaged in for more than 90 days
1. Injured person becomes ill or incapacitated for labor for more than 30 days (but not more
than 90 days)
Notes:
1. Serious physical injuries may be committed through reckless imprudence or simple imprudence
2. There must be no intent to kill
3. Impotent should include inability to copulate and sterility
4. Blindness requires lost of vision in both eyes. Mere weakness in vision is not contemplated
5. Loss of power to hear must involve both ears. Otherwise, it will be considered as serious physical injuries
under par 3
6. Loss of use of hand or incapacity of usual work in par 2 must be permanent
7. Par 2 refers to principal members of the body. Par 3 on the other hand, covers any other member which is
not a principal part of the body. In this respect, a front tooth is considered as a member of the body, other
than a principal member
8. Deformity: means physical ugliness, permanent and definite abnormality. Not curable by natural means or
by nature. It must be conspicuous and visible. Thus, if the scar is usually covered by a dress, it would not
be conspicuous and visible
9. The loss of 3 incisors is a visible deformity. Loss of one incisor is not. However, loss of one tooth which
impaired appearance is a deformity

10. Deformity by loss of teeth refers to injury which cannot be impaired by the action of the nature

11. Loss of both outer ears constitutes deformity and also loss of the power to hear. Meanwhile, loss of the lobule
of the ear is only a deformity

12. Loss of the index and middle fingers is either a deformity or loss of a member, not a principal one of his body
or use of the same

13. Loss of the power to hear in the right ear is considered as merely loss of use of some other part of the body

14. If the injury would require medical attendance for more than 30 days, the illness of the offended party may be
considered as lasting more than 30 days. The fact that there was medical attendance for that period of time shows
that the injuries were not cured for that length of time

15. Under par 4, all that is required is illness or incapacity, not medical attendance

16. In determining incapacity, the injured party must have an avocation at the time of the injury. Work: includes
studies or preparation for a profession

17. When the category of the offense of serious physical injuries depends on the period of the illness or incapacity
for labor, there must be evidence of the length of that period. Otherwise, the offense will only be considered as
slight physical injuries
18. There is no incapacity if the injured party could still engage in his work although less effectively than before

19. Serious physical injuries is qualified when the crime is committed against the same persons enumerated in the
article on parricide or when it is attended by any of the circumstances defining the crime of murder. However,
serious physical injuries resulting from excessive chastisement by parents is not qualified serious physical injuries

1. C. ELEMENTS OF ADMINISTERING INJURIOUS SUBSTANCES OR BEVERAGES: (264)


1. That the offender inflicted upon another person any serious physical injury
2. That it was done knowingly administering to him any injurious substances or beverages or by taking
advantage of his weakness of mind of credulity
3. He had no intent to kill
Notes:
1. It is frustrated murder when there is intent to kill
2. Administering means introducing into the body the substance, thus throwing of the acid in the face is not
contemplated.
1. D. ELEMENTS OF LESS SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURIES: (265)
1. That the offended party is incapacitated for labor for 10 days or more (but not more than 30 days),
or needs medical attendance for the same period of time
2. That the physical injuries must not be those described in the preceding articles
Notes:
1. Circumstances qualifying the offense:
1. when there is manifest intent to insult or offend the injured person
2. when there are circumstances adding ignominy to the offense
3. when the victim is either the offenders parents, ascendants, guardians, curators or teachers
4. when the victim is a person of rank or person in authority, provided the crime is not direct assault
5. It falls under this article even if there was no incapacity but the medical treatment was for 13 days
1. E. SLIGHT PHYSICAL INJURIES: (266)
3 Kinds:
1. That which incapacitated the offended party for labor from 1-9 days or required medical attendance during
the same period
2. That which did not prevent the offended party from engaging in his habitual work or which did not require
medical attendance (ex. Black-eye)
3. Ill-treatment of another by deed without causing any injury (ex. slapping but without causing dishonor)
1. F. RAPE (ART 355)
The Anti-Rape Law of 1997 (RA 8353) now classified the crime of rape as Crime Against Persons incorporated into
Title 8 of the RPC to be known as Chapter 3
Elements: Rape is committed
1. By a man who have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances:
1. through force, threat or intimidation
2. when the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious
3. by means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority
4. when the offended party is under 12 years of age or is demented, even though none of the
circumstances mentioned above be present
5. By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in par 1 hereof, shall commit an ac
of sexual assault by inserting
1. his penis into another persons mouth or anal orifice, or
2. any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person
Rape committed under par 1 is punishable by:
1. reclusion perpetua
2. reclusion perpetuato DEATH when
1. victim became insane by reason or on the occasion of rape
2. b. the rape is attempted and a homicide is committed by reason or on the occasion thereof
3. DEATH when
1. homicide is committed
2. victim under 18 years and offender is:
1. parent
2. ascendant
3. step-parent
4. guardian
5. relative by consanguinity or affinity with the 3rd civil degree or
6. common law spouse of parent of victim
3. c. under the custody of the police or military authorities or any law enforcement or penal
institution
4. committed in full view of the spouse, parent or any of the children or other relatives within the
3rd degree of consanguinity
5. victim is a religious engaged in legitimate religious vocation or calling and is personally known to
be such by the offender before or at the time of the commission of the crime
6. a child below 7 years old
7. g. offender knows he is afflicted with HIV or AIDS or any other sexually transmissible disease and
the virus is transmitted to the victim
8. h. offender; member of the AFP, or para-military units thereof, or the PNP, or any law
enforcement agency or penal institution, when the offender took advantage of his position to
facilitate the commission of the crime
9. victim suffered permanent physical mutilation or disability
10. j. the offender knew of the pregnancy of the offended party at the time of the commission of
the crime; and
11. k. when the offender knew of the mental disability, emotional disorder and/or physical handicap
or the offended party at the time of the commission of the crime
Rape committed under par 2 is punishable by:
1. 1. prision mayor
2. 2. prision mayor to reclusion temporal
1. use of deadly weapon or
2. by two or more persons
3. reclusion temporal when the victim has become insane
4. reclusion temporal to reclusion pepetua rape is attempted and homicide is committed
5. reclusion perpetua homicide is committed by reason or on occasion of rape
6. reclusion temporal committed with any of the 10 aggravating circumstances mentioned above
Notes:
1. The underscored words are the amendments provided by RA 8353
2. Dividing age in rape:
1. less than 7 yrs old, mandatory death
2. less than 12 yrs old, statutory rape
3. less than 18 yrs old and there is relationship (e.g. parent etc); mandatory death

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Nine

TITLE NINE
I. CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY
A. ELEMENTS OF KIDNAPPING AND SERIOUS ILLEGAL DETENTION: (267)
1.
1. Offender is a private individual
2. He kidnaps or detains another, or in any other manner deprives the latter of his liberty
3. The act of detention or kidnapping must be illegal
4. That in the commission of the offense, any of the following circumstances are present (becomes
serious)
1. that the he kidnapping/detention lasts for more than 3 days
2. that it is committed simulating public authority
3. that any serious physical injuries are inflicted upon the person kidnapped or detained or
threats to kill him are made, or
4. that the person kidnapped or detained is a minor (except if parent is the offender), female
or a public officer
Note: When death penalty is imposed:
1. if kidnapping is committed for the purpose of extorting ransom either from the victim or from any other
person even if none of the aforementioned are present in the commission of the offense (even if none of
the circumstances are present)
2. when the victim is killed or dies as a consequence of the detention or is raped or is subjected to torture or
dehumanizing acts
B. ELEMENTS OF SLIGHT ILLEGAL DETENTION: (268)
1.
1. Offender is a private person
2. He kidnaps or detains another or in any other maner deprives him pof his liberty / furnished place
for the perpetuation of the crime
3. That the act of detention or kidnapping must be illegal
4. That the crime is committed without the attendant of any of the circumstances enumerated in Art
267
Note: Privileged mitigating circumstances:
If the offender:
1. voluntarily releases the person so kidnapped or detained within 3 days from the commencement of the
detention
2. without having attained the purpose intended and
3. before the institution of criminal proceedings against him
C. ELEMENTS OF UNLAWFUL ARREST: (269)
1. That the offender arrests or detains another person
2. That the purpose of the offender is to deliver him to the proper authorities
1. That the arrest or detention is not authorized by law or there is no reasonable ground therefor
Notes:
1. Offender is any person, so either a public officer or private individual
2. Refers to warrantless arrests
3. In art 125, the detention is for some legal ground while here, the detention is not authorized by law
4. In art 125, the crime pertains to failure to deliver the person to the proper judicial authority within the
prescribed period while here, the arrest is not authorized by law
D. ELEMENTS OF KIDNAPPING AND FAILURE TO RETURN A MINOR: (270)
1.
1. That the offender is entrusted with the custody of a minor person (whether over or under 7 but less
than 18 yrs old)
2. That he deliberately fails to restore the said minor to his parents
E. ELEMENTS OF INDUCING A MINOR TO ABANDON HIS HOME: (271)
1.
1. That the minor (whether over or under 7) is living in the home of his parents or guardians or the
person entrusted with his custody
2. That the offender induces a minor to abandon such home
Notes:
1. Inducement must be actual, committed with criminal intent and determined by a will to cause damage
2. Minor should not leave his home of his own free will
3. Mitigating if by father or mother
F. ELEMENTS OF SLAVERY: (272)
1. That the offender purchases. Sells, kidnaps or detains a human being.
2. That the purpose of the offender is to enslave such human being.

Note: Qualifying circumstance if the purpose of the offender is to assign the offended party to some immoral
traffic (prostitution), the penalty is higher

G. ELEMENTS OF EXPLOITION OF CHILD LABOR: (273)


1. That the offender retains a minor in his service.
2. That it is against the will of the minor.
3. That it is under the pretext of reimbursing himself of a debt incurred by an ascendant, guardian or person
entrusted with the custody of such minor.
H. ELEMENTS OF SERVICES RENDERED UNDER COMPULSION IN PAYMENT OF DEBT: (274)
1. That the offender compels a debtor to work for him, either as household servant or farm laborer.
2. That it is against the debtors will.
3. That the purpose is to require or enforce the payment of a debt.
II. CRIMES AGAINST SECURITY

A. ABANDONMENT OF PERSON IN DANGER AND ABANDONMENT OF ONES OWN VICTIM: (275)


Acts punishable:
1. By failing to render assistance to any person whom the offender finds in an inhabited place wounded or in
danger of dying, when he can render such assistance without detriment to himself, unless such omission
shall constitute a more serious offense
Elements:
1. That place is not inhabited.
2. The accused found there a person wounded or in danger of dying.
3. The accused can render assistance without detriment to himself.
1. The accused fails to render assistance.

1. By failing to help or render assistance to another whom the offender has accidentally wounded or injured
2. By failing to deliver a child, under 7 whom the offender has found abandoned, to the authorities or to his
family, or by failing to take him to a safe place.
B. ELEMENTS OF ABANDONING A MINOR: (276)
1. That the offender has the custody of a child.
2. That the child is under seven years of age.
3. That he abandons such child.
4. That he has no intent to kill the child when the latter is abandoned.
Notes:
1. Conscious, deliberate, permanent, unless punishable by a more serious offense
2. Qualifying circumstances:
1. when the death of the minor resulted from such abandonment
2. if the life of the minor was in danger because of the abandonment
C. ELEMENTS OF ABANDONMENT OF MINOR BY PERSON ENTRUSTED WITH HIS CUSTODY; INDIFFERENCE OF
PARENTS: (277)
Acts punished:
1. By delivering a minor to a public institution or other persons w/o consent of the one who entrusted such
minor to the care of the offender or, in the absence of that one, without the consent of the proper
authorities
Elements:
1. That the offender has charged of the rearing or education of a minor.
2. That he delivers said minor to a public institution or other persons.
3. That the one who entrusted such child to the offender has not consented to such act, or if the one who
entrusted such child to the offender is absent; the proper authorities have not consented to it.
4. By neglecting his (offenders) children by not giving them education which their station in life requires and
financial condition permits
Elements:
1. That the offender is a parent.
2. That he neglects his children by not giving them education.
3. That his station in life requires such education and his financial condition permits it.
D. ELEMENTS OF EXPLOITATION OF MINORS: (278)
Acts punished:
1. By causing any boy or girl under 16 to perform any dangerous feat of balancing, physical strength or
contortion, the offender being any person
2. By employing children under 16 who are not the children or descendants of the offender in exhibitions of
acrobat, gymnast, rope-walker, diver, or wild-animal tamer or circus manager or engaged in a similar
calling
3. By employing any descendant under 12 in dangerous exhibitions enumerated in the next preceding
paragraph, the offender being engaged in any of said callings
4. By delivering a child under 16 gratuitously to any person following any of the callings enumerated in par 2
or to any habitual vagrant or beggar, the offender being an ascendant, guardian, teacher or person
entrusted in any capacity with the care of such child
5. By inducing any child under 16 to abandon the home of its ascendants; guardians, curators or teachers to
follow any person engaged in any of the callings mentioned in par 2 or to accompany any habitual vagrant
or beggar, the offender being any person
Note: Qualifying Circumstance if the delivery of the child to any person following any of the callings of acrobat,
rope-walker, diver or wild-animal trainer or circus manager or to any habitual vagrant of beggar is made in
consideration of any price, compensation or promise, the penalty is higher.
E. ADDITIONAL PENALTIES FOR OTHER OFFENSES: (279)

F. ELEMENTS OF TRESPASS TO DWELLING: (280)


1. That the offender is a private person.
2. That he enters the dwelling of another.
3. That such entrance is against the latters will.
Notes:
1. Qualifying circumstance: if the offense is committed by means of violence or intimidation, the penalty is
higher
2. There must be an opposition to the entry of the accused
3. Implied prohibition is present considering the situation late at night and everyones asleep or entrance
was made through the window
4. Prohibition is not necessary when violence or intimidation is employed by the offender
5. When there is no overt act of the crime intended to be committed, this is the crime
6. May be committed even by the owner (as against the actual occupant)
7. Not applicable to:
1. entrance is for the purpose of preventing harm to himself, the occupants or a third person
2. purpose is to render some service to humanity or justice
3. place is a caf, tavern etc while open
8. Medina case: when the accused entered the dwelling through the window, he had no intent to kill any person
inside, but the intention to kill came to his mind when he was being arrested by the occupants thereof, the crime
of trespass to dwelling is a separate and distinct offense from frustrated homicide
G. ELEMENTS OF OTHER FORMS OF TRESPASS: (281)
1. That the offender enters the closed premises or the fenced estate of another.
2. That the entrance is made while either of them is uninhabited.
3. That the prohibition to enter be manifest.
4. That the trespasser has not secured the permission of the owner or the caretaker thereof.
H. GRAVE THREATS WHERE OFFENDER ATTAINED HIS PURPOSE: (282)
Acts punishable:
1. By threatening another with the infliction upon his person, honor or property that of his family of any
wrong amounting to a crime and demanding money or imposing any other condition, even though not
unlawful and the offender (Note: threat is with condition)
Elements:
1. That the offender threatens another person with the infliction upon the latters person, honor or property,
or upon that of the latters family, of any wrong.
2. That such wrong amounts to a crime.
3. That there is a demand for money or that any other condition is imposed, even though not unlawful.
4. That the offender attains his purpose.
5. By making such threat without the offender attaining his purpose
6. By threatening another with the infliction upon his person, honor or property or that of his family of any
wrong amounting to a crime, the threat not being subject to a condition (Note: threat is without condition)
Elements:
1. That the offender threatens another person with the infliction upon the latters person, honor or property,
or upon that of the latters family, of any wrong.
2. That such wrong amounts to a crime.
3. That the threat is not subject to a condition
Notes:
1. Aggravating circumstances: if made in writing or thru a middleman
2. Frustrated if not received by the person being threatened
3. Art 284 bond from good behavior may be imposed (only in these offenses)
I. ELEMENTS OF LIGHT THREATS: (283)
1. That the offender makes a threat to commit a wrong.
2. That the wrong does not constitute a crime.
3. That there is a demand for money or that other condition is imposed, even though not unlawful
4. That the offender has attained his purpose or, that he has not attained his purpose
Art 284 bond from good behavior may be imposed Notes:
1. (only in these offenses)
2. The wrong does not amount to a crime
J. BOND FOR GOOD BEHAVIOR: (284)
K. ELEMENTS OF OTHER LIGHT THREATS: (285)
1. Person shall threaten another with a weapon, or draw weapon in a quarrel unless in self-defense.
2. In the heat of anger, person orally threatens another with some harm constituting a crime, without
persisting in the idea involved in the threat. Subsequent acts did not persist.
3. Person orally threatens another with harm not constituting a felony.
L. ELEMENTS OF GRAVE COERCIONS: (286)
1. That a person prevented another from doing something OR not to do something against his will, be it right
or wrong;
2. That the prevention or compulsion be effected by violence, of force as would produce intimidation and
control the will.
3. That the person that restrained the will and liberty by another had not the authority of law or the right to
do so, or, in other words, that the restraint shall not be made under authority of law or in the exercise of
any lawful right.
M. ELEMENTS OF LIGHT COERCIONS: (287)
1. That the offender must be a creditor.
2. That he seizes anything belonging to his debtor.
3. That the seizure of the thing be accomplished by means of violence or a display of material force producing
intimidation;
4. That the purpose of the offender is to apply the same to the payment of the debt.
N. ELEMENTS OF OTHER SIMILAR COERCIONS: (288)
ELEMENTS OF NO. 1
1. That the offender is any person, agent or officer of any association or corporation.
2. That he or such firm or corporation has employed laborers or employees.
3. That he forces or compels, directly or indirectly, or knowingly permits to be forced or compelled, any of
his or its laborers or employees to purchase merchandise or commodities of any kind from his or from said
firm or corporation.
ELEMENTS OF NO. 2
1. That the offender pays the wages due a laborer or employee employed by him by means of tokens or
objects.
2. That those tokens or objects are other than the legal tender currency to the Philippines.
3. That such employee or laborer does not expressly request that he be paid by means of tokens or objects.
O. ELEMENTS OF FORMATION, MAINTENANCE, AND PROHIBITION OF COMBINATION OF CAPITAL OR LABOR
THROUGH VIOLENCE OR THREATS: (289)
1. That the offender employs violence or threats, in such a degree as to compel or force the laborers or
employers in the free and legal exercise of their industry or work
2. That the purpose is to organize, maintain or prevent coalitions of capital or labor, strike of laborers or
lockout of employees.

III. DISCOVERY AND REVELATION OF SECRETS

A. ELEMENTS OF DISCOVERING SECRETS THROUGH SEIZURE OF CORRESPONDENCE: (290)


1. That the offender is a private individual or even a public officer not in the exercise of his official function,
2. That he seizes the papers or letters of another.
3. That the purpose is to discover the secrets of such another person.
4. That offender is informed of the contents or the papers or letters seized.
Notes:
1. Not applicable to parents with respect to minor children
2. Contents need not be secret but purpose prevails
3. Circumstances qualifying the offense: when the offender reveals contents of such papers or letters of
another to a 3rd person, the penalty is higher
B. ELEMENTS OF REVEALING SECRETS WITH ABUSE OF OFFICE: (291)
1. That the offender is a manager, employee or servant.
2. That he learns the secrets of his principal or master in such capacity.
3. That he reveals such secrets.
C. ELEMENTS OF REVELATION OF INDUSTRIAL SECRETS: (292)
1. That the offender is a person in charge, employee or workman of a manufacturing or industrial
establishment.
2. That the manufacturing or industrial establishment has a secret of the industry which the offender has
learned.
3. That the offender reveals such secrets.
4. That the prejudice is caused to the owner.
Criminal Law Book 2 Title Ten
TITLE TEN
I. CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY

A. ELEMENTS OF ROBBERY IN GENERAL: (293)


1. That there be personal property belonging to another.
2. That there is unlawful taking of that property.
3. That the taking must be with intent to gain, and
4. That there is violence against or intimidation of any person, or force upon anything.
Notes:
1. Belonging to another person from whom property was taken need not be the owner, legal possession is
sufficient
2. Name of the real owner is not essential so long as the personal property taken does not belong to the
accused except if crime is robbery with homicide
3. Taking of personal property must be unlawful; if given in trust estafa
4. As to robbery with violence or intimidation from the moment the offender gains possession of the thing
even if offender has had no opportunity to dispose of the same, the unlawful taking is complete
5. As to robbery with force upon things thing must be taken out of the building
6. Intent to gain presumed from unlawful taking
7. Taking must not be under the claim of title or ownership
8. When theres no intent to gain but there is violence in the taking grave coercion
9. Violence or intimidation must be against the person of the offended party, not upon the thing
10. General rule: violence or intimidation must be present before the taking is complete
11. Except: when violence results in homicide, rape, intentional mutilation or any of the serious physical injuries
in par 1 and 2 of art 263, the taking of the property is robbery complexed with any of these crimes under art 294,
even if taking is already complete when violence was used by the offender
12. Use of force upon things entrance to the building by means described in arts 299 and 302 (offender must
enter)

13. When both violence or intimidation and force upon things concur it is robbery with violence

Robbery with violence Grave threats Grave coercion

Intent to gain No intent to gain None

Intimidation (effect) is immediate and offended


Intimidation; promises party is compelled to do something against his
Immediate harm some future harm or injury will (w/n right or wrong)

Robbery Bribery

X didnt commit crime but is intimidated to deprive him of X has committed a crime and gives money as way
his property to avoid arrest or prosecution

Deprived of Php thru force or intimidation Giving of Php is in one sense voluntary

Neither Transaction is voluntary and mutual

Ex. defendant demands payment of P2.00 with threats of


arrest and prosecution, therefore, robbery because (a) intent
to gain and (b) immediate harm

A. ELEMENTS OF ROBBERY WITH VIOLENCE AGAINST OR INTIMIDATION OF PERSON: (294)

Acts punished as robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons

By reason or on occasion of the robbery, the following are committed:

1. homicide
2. robbery accompanied with rape or intentional mutilation, SPI insane, imbecile, impotent or blind
3. SPI lost the use of speech, hear, smell, eye, hand, foot, arm, leg, use of any such member, incapacitated
for work habitually engaged in
4. Violence/intimidation shall have been carried to a degree clearly unnecessary for the crime or when in the
cause of its execution SPI/deformity, or shall have lost any part of the body or the use thereof or shall
have been ill or incapacitated for the performance of the work for > 90 days; > 30 days
5. Any kind of robbery with less serious physical injuries or slight physical injuries
Notes:
1. special complex crimes (specific penalties prescribed)
1. robbery with homicide if original design is robbery and homicide is committed robbery with
homicide even though homicide precedes the robbery by an appreciable time. If original design is
not robbery but robbery was committed after homicide as an afterthought 2 separate offenses.
Still robbery with homicide if the person killed was an innocent bystander and not the person
robbed and if death supervened by mere accident.
2. robbery with rape intent to commit robbery must precede rape. Prosecution of the crime need not
be by offended party fiscal can sign the information. When rape and homicide co-exist, rape
should be considered as aggravating only and the crime is still robbery with homicide
3. robbery with intimidation acts done by the accused which by their own nature or by reason of the
circumstances inspire fear in the person against whom they are directed
4. qualifying circumstances in robbery with violence or intimidation of persons, if any of the offenses
defined in subdivisions 3, 4 and 5 of Art 294 is committed:
1. in an uninhabited place or
2. by a band or
3. by attacking a moving train, street car, motor vehicle or airship, or
4. by entering the passengers compartments in a train, or in any manner taking the passengers
thereof by surprise in the respective conveyances, or
5. on a street, road, highway or alley and the intimidation is made with the use of firearms,
the offender shall be punished by the max period of the proper penalties prescribed in art
294
B. QUALIFIED ROBBERY WITH VIOLENCE OR INTIMIDATION (295)
Notes:
1. Must be alleged in the information
2. Cant be offset by generic mitigating
3. Art 295 will not apply to: robbery w/ homicide, rape or SPI under par 1 of art 263
C. ROBBERY BY A band: (296)
notes:
1. More than 3 armed malefactors
2. Liability for the acts of the other members of the band
3. Conspiracy to commit robbery with homicide even if less than 4 armed men
4. Conspiracy to commit robbery only but homicide was committed also on the occasion thereof all members
of the band are liable for robbery with homicide
5. Conspiracy is presumed when 4 or more armed persons committed robbery
6. Unless the others attempted to prevent the assault guilty of robbery by band only
1. he was a member of the band
2. he was present at the commission of a robbery by that band
3. other members of the band committed an assault
4. he did not attempt to prevent the assault
D. ATTEMPTED OR FRUSTRATED ROBBERY WITH HOMICIDE: (297)
Notes:
1. Whether robbery is attempted or frustrated, penalty is the same
2. Where offense committed is attempted or frustrated robbery with serious physical injuries article 48 is
applicable

E. ELEMENTS OF EXECUTION OF DEEDS BY MEANS OF VIOLENCE OR INTIMIDATION: (298)


1. That the offender has intent to defraud another.
2. That the offender compels him to sign, execute, or deliver any public instrument or document.
3. That the compulsion is by means of violence or intimidation.

F. ELEMENTS OF ROBBERY IN AN INHABITED HOUSE OR PUBLIC BUILDING OR EDIFICE DEVOTED TO WORSHIP:


(299)
1. That the offender entered (a) an inhabited house, or (b) public buildings, or (c) edifice devoted to religious
worship.
2. That the entrance was effected by any of the following means:
1. Through an opening not intended for entrance or egress.
2. By breaking any wall, roof, or floor or breaking any door or window.
3. By using false keys, picklocks or similar tools or.
4. By using any fictitious name or pretending the exercise of public authority.
5. That once inside the building, the offender took personal property belonging to another with intent
to gain.
Notes:
1. Includes dependencies (stairways, hallways, etc.)
2. Inhabited house any shelter, ship or vessel constituting the dwelling of one or more person even though
temporarily absent dependencies, courts, corals, barns, etc.
3. NOT INCLUDED ORCHARD, LANDS FOR CULTIVATION.
4. Important for robbery by use of force upon things, it is necessary that offender enters the building or
where object may be found. NO ENTRY, NO ROBBERY
5. Entrance is necessary mere insertion of hand is not enough (whole body); not to get out but to enter
therefore, evidence to such effect is necessary
6. P v. Lamahang intent to rob being present is necessary
7. Place: house or building; not car
8. Public building every building owned, rented or used by the government (though owned by private
persons) though temporarily vacant
9. Not robbery passing through open door but getting out of a window

10. Outside door must be broken, smashed. Theft if lock is merely removed or door was merely pushed

11. False keys genuine keys stolen from the owner or any keys other than those intended by the owner for use in
the lock

12. Picklocks specially made, adopted for commission of robbery

13. Key stolen not by force, otherwise, its robbery by violence and intimidation against persons

14. False key used in opening house and not furniture inside, otherwise, theft (for latter to be robbery., must be
broken and not just opened)

15. Gen. Rule: outside door. Exception: inside door in a separate dwelling
16. E.g. pretending to be police to be able to enter (not pretending after entrance)

G. ELEMENTS OF ROBBERY WITH FORCE UPON SUBDIVISION (B) OR ART. 299


1. That the offender is inside a dwelling house, public building, or edifice devoted to religious worship,
regardless of the circumstances under which he entered it
2. That the offender takes personal property belonging to another with intent to gain, under any of the
following circumstances.
1. by the breaking of doors, wardrobes, chests, or any other kind of locked or sealed furniture or
receptacle, or
2. by taking such furniture or objects away to be broken or forced open outside the place of the
robbery.
Notes:
1. Entrance ( no matter how done)
2. Offender may be servants or guests
3. Destruction of keyhole of cabinet is robbery here
4. When sealed box is taken out for the purpose of breaking it, no need to open already consummated
robbery
5. Estafa if box is in the custody of acc
6. Theft if box found outside and forced open
H. ROBBERY IN AN UNINHABITED PLACE AND BY A BAND: (300)
I. WHAT IS AN UNINHABITED HOUSE, PUBLIC BUILDING OR BUILDING DEDICATED TO RELIGIOUS WORSHIP
AND THEIR DEPENDENCIES: (301)
Notes:
1. dependencies are all interior courts, corrals, warehouses, granaries or enclosed places:
1. contiguous to the building
2. having an interior entrance connected therewith
3. which form part of the whole

2. Garage must have 3 requirements. Exception: orchards/lands

J. ELEMENTS OF ROBBERY IN AN UNINHABITED PLACE OR IN A PRIVATE BUILDING: (302)


1. That the offender entered an uninhabited place or a building which was not a dwelling house, not a public
building, or not an edifice devoted to religious worship.
2. that any of the following circumstances was present:
3. That with intent to gain the offender took therefrom personal property belonging to another.
1. That entrance was effected through an opening not intended for entrance or egress.
2. A wall, roof, floor, or outside door or window was broken.
3. The entrance was effected through the use of false keys, picklocks or other similar tools.
4. A door, wardrobe, chest, or any sealed or closed furniture or receptacle was broken or
5. A closed or sealed receptacle was removed, even if the same be broken open elsewhere.
Notes:
1. Second kind of robbery with force upon things
2. Uninhabited place is an uninhabited building (habitable, not any of the 3 places mentioned)
3. Ex. warehouse, freight car, store. Exception: pigsty
4. Same manner as 299 except that was entered into was an uninhabited place or a building other than the 3
mentioned in 299. Exception: does not include use of fictitious name or pretending the exercise of public
authority
5. Breaking of padlock (but not door) is only theft
6. False keys genuine keys stolen from the owner or any other keys other than those intended by the owner
for use in the lock forcibly opened
K. ROBBERY OF CEREALS, FRUITS OR FIRE WOOD IN AN UNINHABITED PLACE OR PRIVATE BUILDING: (303)
L. ELEMENTS OF ILLEGAL POSSESSION OF PICKLOCKS OR SIMILAR TOOLS: (304)
1. That the offender has in his possession picklocks or similar tools.
2. That such picklocks or similar tools are specially adopted to the commission of robbery.
3. That the offender does not have lawful cause for such possession.
Note: Actual use of the same is not necessary
M. ELEMENTS OF FALSE KEYS: (305)
1. Picklocks, etc.
2. Genuine key stolen from owner.
3. Any key other than those intended by owner for use in the lock forcibly opened by the offender
Notes:
1. Possession of false keys here not punishable
2. If key was entrusted and used to steal, not robbery (not stolen)

II. BRIGANDAGE

A. BRIGANDAGE: (306)

Brigands more than three armed persons forming a band

Purpose:
a. Robbery in highway
1. b. Kidnapping for extortion or ransom.
1. Any other purpose to be obtained by means of force and violence.
Presumption of Brigandage:
1. if members of lawless band and possession of unlicensed firearms (any of them)
2. possession of any kind of arms (not just firearm)

BRIGANDAGE ROBBERY IN BAND

Purposes are given Only to commit robbery, not necessarily in hi-way

Mere formation of a band for the above


purpose If the purpose is to commit a part robbery

Necessary to prove that band actually committed robbery


B. ELEMENTS OF AIDING AND ABETTING A BAND OF BRIGANDS: (307)
1. That there is a band of brigands.
2. That the offender knows the band to be of brigands.
3. That the offender does any of the following acts:
1. he in any manner aids, abets or protects such band if brigands, or
2. he gives them information of the movements of the police or other peace officers of the government or
3. He acquires or receives the property taken by such brigands.
Notes:
1. PD 532 brigandage. Seizure of any person for: (a) ransom; (b) extortion or other unlawful purpose; (c)
taking away of property by violence or intimidation or force upon things or other unlawful means
2. Committed by any person
3. On any Phil hi-way

III. THEFT

A. ELEMENTS OF THEFT: (308)


1. That there be taking of personal property.
2. That said property belongs to another.
3. That the taking be done with intent to gain.
4. That the taking be done without the consent of the owner.
5. That the taking be accomplished without the use of violence against or intimidation of persons or force
upon things.
Persons liable:
1. Those who

a) with intent to gain

b) but without violence against or intimidation of persons not force upon things

c) take

d) personal property

e) of another

f) without the latters consent

1. Those who

a) having found lost property

b) fail to deliver the same to local authorities or its owner

Notes:
1. Retention of money/property found is theft. Retention is failure to return (intent to gain)
2. Knowledge of owner is not required, knowledge of loss is enough
3. Finder in law is liable
4. Those who

a) after having maliciously damaged the property of another

b) remove or make use of the fruits or object of the damage caused by them

Note: Killing of cattle of another which destroyed his property and getting meat for himself
1. Those who

a) enter an enclosed estate or a field where

b) trespass is forbidden or which belongs to another and, without the consent of its owner

c) hunts or fish upon the same or gather fruits, cereals or other forest or farm products

Notes:
1. Theft is consummated when offender is able to place the thing taken under his control and in such a
situation as he could disclose of it at once (though no opportunity to dispose) i.e, the control test
2. P v. Dino applies only in theft of bulky goods (meaning there has to be capacity to dispose of the things).
Otherwise, P v. Espiritu full possession is enough
3. Servant using car without permission deemed qualified theft though use was temporary
4. Reyes says: there must be some character of permanency in depriving owner of the use of the object and
making himself the owner, therefore must exclude joyride
5. Theft: if after custody (only material possession) of object was given to the accused, it is actually taken by
him (no intent to return) e.g. felonious conversion. But it is estafa if juridical possession is transferred e.g.,
by contract of bailment
6. Includes electricity and gas
1. inspector misreads meter to earn
2. one using a jumper
7. Selling share of co-partner is not theft
8. Salary must be delivered first to employee; prior to this, taking of Php is theft
9. If offender claims property as his own (in good faith) not theft (though later found to be untrue. If in bad
faith theft)

10. Gain is not just Php satisfaction, use, pleasure desired, any benefit (e.g. joyride)

11. Actual gain is not necessary (intent to gain necessary)

12. Allege lack of consent in info is important


B. ELEMENTS OF HUNTING, FISHING OR GATHERING FRUITS, ETC. IN ENCLOSED ESTATE
(PAR. NO.3, ART. 308)
1. That there is an enclosed estate or a field where trespass is forbidden or which belongs to another;
2. That the offender enters the same.
3. That the offender hunts or fishes upon the same or gathers fruits, cereals or other forest or farm products,
and
4. That the hunting or fishing or gathering of products is without the consent of the owner.
Note: Fish not in fishpond, otherwise, qualified
C.PENALTIES FOR QUALIFIED THEFT; (309)
D. ELEMENTS OF QUALIFIED THEFT: (310)
1. Committed by domestic servant, or
2. With grave abuse of confidence, or
3. Property stolen is:
1. motor vehicle
2. mail matter
3. large cattle
4. coconut from plantation
5. fish from fishpond or fishery, or
6. On occasion of calamities and civil disturbance.
Notes:
1. grave abuse high degree of confidence e.g. guests
2. no confidence, not qualified theft
3. theft material possession estafa juridical possession
4. qualified: if done by one who has access to place where stolen property is kept e.g., guards, tellers
5. novation theory applies only if theres a relation
6. industrial partner is not liable for QT (estafa)
7. when accused considered the deed of sale as sham (modus) and he had intent to gain, his absconding is QT
8. see carnapping law: RA 6539
9. motor vehicle in kabit system sold to another-theft. Motor vehicle not used as PU in kabit system but
under K of lease-estafa
10. 10. mail matter private mail to be QT, Not postmaster Art. 226

11. theft of large cattle

E. ELEMENTS OF THEFT OF PROPERTY OF THE NATIONAL LIBRARY AND NATIONAL MUSEUM: (311)

IV. USURPATION

A. ELEMENTS OF OCCUPATION OF REAL PROPERTY OR USURPATION OF REAL RIGHTS IN PROPERTY: (312)


1. That the offender takes possession of any real property or usurps any real rights in property.
2. That the real property or real rights belong to another.
3. That violence against or intimidation of persons is used by the offender in occupying real property or
usurpation real rights in property.
4. That there is intent to gain.
B. ELEMENTS OF ALTERING BOUNDARIES OR LANDMARKS: (313)
1. That there be boundary marks or monuments of towns, provinces, or estates, or any other marks intended
to designate the boundaries of the same.
2. That the offender alters said boundary marks.

V. CULPABLE INSOLVENCY
A. ELEMENTS OF FRAUDULENT INSOLVENCY: (314) (culpable insolvency)
1. That the offender is a debtor; that is, he was obligations due and payable.
2. That he absconds with his property.
3. That there be prejudice to his creditors.

VI. SWINDLING AND OTHER DECEITS


A. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA IN GENERAL: (315)
1. That the accused defrauded another (a.) by abuse of confidence, or (b) or means of deceit and
2. That damage or prejudice capable of pecuniary estimation is caused to the offended party or third person
B. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA WITH UNFAITHFULNESS: (315)
1. That the offender has an onerous obligation to deliver something of value.
2. That he alters its substance, quantity, or quality.
3. That damage or prejudice is caused to another.
C. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA WITH ABUSE OF CONFIDENCE UNDER SUBDIVISION NO.1 PAR. (B), OF ART.315
1. That money, goods, or other personal property be received by the offender in trust, or on commission, or
for administration, or under any other obligation involving the duty to make delivery of or to return, the
same.
2. That there be misappropriation or conversion of such money or property by the offender, or dental on his
part of such receipt.
3. that such misappropriation or conversion or dental is to the prejudice of another and
4. That there is a demand made by the offended party to the offender.
ND
D. 2 ELEMENT OF ESTAFA WITH ABUSE OF CONFIDENCE UNDER PARAGRAPH (B), SUBDIVISION N0.1, ART. 315
= 3 WAYS OF COMMITTING:
1. By misappropriating the thing received.
2. By converting the thing received.
3. By denying that the thing was received.
Notes:
1. Unfaithful or Abuse of Confidence

a. by altering the substance

b. existing obligation to deliver even if it is not a subject of lawful commerce

c. thing delivered has not been fully or partially paid for not estafa
3. no agreement as to quality No estafa if delivery is unsatisfactory

1. By misappropriating and converting


1. thing is received by offender under transactions transferring juridical possession, not ownership
2. under PD 115 (Trust Receipts Law) failure to turn over to the bank the proceeds of the sale of the goods
covered by TR Estafa
3. same thing received must be returned otherwise estafa; sale on credit by agency when it was to be sold for
cash estafa
4. Estafa not affected by Novation of Contract because it is a public offense
5. Novation must take place before criminal liability was incurred or perhaps prior to the filing of the criminal
information in court by state prosecutors
6. Misappropriating to take something for ones own benefit
g. Converting act of using or disposing of anothers property as if it was ones own; thing has been devoted for a
purpose or use different from that agreed upon
1. There must be prejudice to another not necessary that offender should obtain gain
2. When in the prosecution for malversation the public officer is acquitted, the private individual allegedly in
conspiracy with him may be held liable for estafa
9. Partners No estafa of money or property received for the partnership when the business is commercial
and profits accrued. BUT if property is received for specific purpose and is misappropriated estafa!
10. Failure to account after the DEMAND is circumstantial evidence of misappropriation
11. DEMAND is not a condition precedent to existence of estafa when misappropriation may be established by
other proof
12. In theft, upon delivery of the thing to the offender, the owner expects an immediate return of the ting to
him otherwise, Estafa
13. Servant, domestic or employee who misappropriates a thing he received from his master is NOT guilty of
estafa but of qualified theft

Estafa with Abuse of Confidence Malversation

Offenders are entrusted with funds or property and are offenders are entrusted with funds or property and
continuing offenses are continuing offenses

Funds: always private Funds: public funds or property

Offender: private individual, or public officer not Offender: public officer accountable for public
accountable funds

Committed by appropriating, taking,

Committed by misappropriating, converting, denying misappropriating


having received money

E. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA BY TAKING UNDUE ADVANTAGE OF THE SIGNATURE IN BLANK: (315)


1. That the paper with the signature of the offended party be in blank.
2. That the offended party should have delivered it to offender.
3. That above the signature of the offended party a document is written by the offender without authority to
do so.
4. That the document so written creates a liability of, or causes damage to, the offended party or any third
person.
Note: If the paper with signature in blank was stolen Falsification if by making it appear that he participated in a
transaction when in fact he did not so participate.
F. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA BY MEANS OF DECEIT: (315)
1. that there must be a false pretense, fraudulent means must be made or executed prior to or
2. That such false pretense, fraudulent act or fraudulent means must be made or executed prior to or
simultaneously with the commission of the fraud.
3. That the offended party must have relied on the false pretense, fraudulent act, or fraudulent means, that
is, he was induced to part with his money or property because of the false pretense, fraudulent act, or
fraudulent means.
4. That as a result thereof, the offended party suffered damage.
Notes:
1. False pretenses or fraudulent acts executed prior to or simultaneously with delivery of the thing by the
complainant
2. There must be evidence that the pretense of the accused that he possesses power/influence is false.
G. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA BY POSTDATING A CHECK OR ISSUING A CHECK IN PAYMENT OF AN OBLIGATION: (315)
1. That the offender postdated a check, or issued a check in payment of an obligation.
2. That such postdatig or issuing a check was done when the offender had no funds in the bank or his funds
deposited therein were not sufficient to cover the amount of the check.
Notes:
1. good faith is a defense. (PP. VS. VILLAPANDO, 56 PHIL.31)
2. dishonor from lack of funds to prima facie evidence of deceit or failure to make good within three days
after notice of.
3. No funds in the bank or his funds are not sufficient
4. If check was issued in payment of pre-existing debt no estafa
5. Offender must be able to obtain something from the offended party by means of the check he issues and
delivers
6. If postdating a check issued as mere guarantee/promissory note no estafa.
H. ELEMENTS OF OFFENSE DEFINED IN THE FIRST PARAGRAPH OF SECTION 1: BP 22
1. That a person makes or draws and issues any check.
2. That the check is made or drawn and issued to apply on account or for value.
3. That the person who makes or draws and issues the check knows at the time of issue that he does not have
sufficient funds in or credit with the drawee bank for the payment of such check in full upon its
presentment.
1. That the check is subsequently dishonored by the drawee bank for insufficiency of funds or credit, or would
have been

dishonored for the same reason had not the drawee, without any valid reason, ordered the bank to stop payment.

Note: Failure to make good within 5 banking days prima facie evidence of knowledge of lack and insufficiency
I. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE DEFINED IN THE SECOND PARAGRAPH OF SECTION 1: BP 22
1. That a person has sufficient funds in or credit with the drawee bank when he makes or draws and issues a
check.
2. That he fails to keep sufficient funds or to maintain a credit to cover the full amount of the check if
presented within

a period of 90 days from the date appearing thereon.

1. That the check is dishonored by the drawee bank.


Note: Failure to make good within 5 banking days prima facie evididence of knowledge of lack and insufficiency
J. BY OBTAINING FOOD OR CREDIT AT HOTELS, INNS, RESTAURANTS ETC.
K. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA BY INDUCING ANOTHER TO SIGN ANY DOCUMENTS: (315)
1. That the offender induced the offended party to sign a document.
2. That deceit be employed to make him sign the document.
3. That the offended party personally signed the document.
4. That prejudice be caused.
Note: If offended party willingly signed the document and there was deceit as to the character or contents of the
document falsification; but where the accused made representation to mislead the complainants as to the
character of the documents estafa
L. ELEMENTS OF ESTAFA BY REMOVING, CONCEALING OR DESTROYING DOCUMENTS: (315)
1. That there be court records, office files, documents or any other papers.
2. That the offender removed, concealed or destroyed any of them.
3. That the offender had intent to defraud another.
Note: No intent to defraud destroying or removal = malicious mischief
M. DAMAGE OR PREJUDICE CAPABLE OF PECUNIARY ESTIMATION: (315) (second element of any form of estafa)
THE ELEMENTS OF DAMAGE OR PREJUDICE MAY CONSIST OF THE FF.:
1. The offender party being deprived of his money or property, as a result of the defraudation.
2. Disturbance in property right or
3. Temporary prejudice.
N. ELEMENTS OF SWINDLING (PAR.1) BY CONVEYING, SELLING, ENCUMBERING, OR MORTGAGING ANY REAL
PROPERTY, PRETENDING TO BE THE OWNER OF THE SAME: (316)
1. That the thing be immovable, such as a parcel of land or a building.
2. That the offender who is not the owner of said property represented that he is the owner thereof.
3. That the offender should have executed an act of ownership (selling, leasing, encumbering or mortgaging
the real property).
4. That the act be made to the prejudice of the owner or a third person.

ESTAFA INFIDELITY IN THE CUSTODY OF DOCUMENTS

Private individual was entrusted Public officer entrusted


Intent to defraud No intent to defraud

O. ELEMENTS OF SWINDLING (PAR. 2) BY DISPOSING OF REAL PROPERTY AS FREE FROM ENCUMBRANCE,


ALTHOUGH SUCH ENCUMBRANCE BE NOT RECORDED: (316)
1. that the thing disposed of be real property.
2. That the offender knew that the real property was encumbered, whether the encumbrance is recorded or
not.
3. That there must be express representation by the offender that the real property is free from
encumbrance.
4. That the act of disposing of the real property be made to the damage of another.
P. ELEMENTS OF SWINDLING (PAR.3) BY WRONGFULLY TAKING BY THE OWNER HIS PERSONAL FROM ITS
LAWFUL POSSESSOR: (316)
1. That the offender is the owner of personal property.
2. That said personal property is in the lawful possession of another.
3. That the offender wrongfully takes it from its lawful possessor.
4. That prejudice is thereby caused to the possessor or third person.
Q. ELEMENTS OF SWINDLING (PAR. 6) BY SELLING, MORTGAGING OR ENCUMBERING REAL PROPERTY OR
PROPERTIES WITH WHICH THE OFFENDER GUARANTEED THE FULFILLMENT OF HIS OBLIGATION AS SURETY:
(316)
1. That the offender is a surety in a bond given in a criminal or civil action.
2. That he guaranteed the fulfillment of such obligation with his real property or properties.
3. That he sells, mortgages, or, in any other manner encumbers said real property.
4. That such sale, mortage or encumbrance is (a) without express authority from the court, or (b) made
before the cancellation of his bond, or (c) before being relieved from the obligation contracted by him.
R. ELEMENTS OF SWINDLING A MINOR: (317)
1. That the offender takes advantage of the inexperience or emotions or feelings of a minor.
2. That he induces such minor (a) ro assume an obligation, or (b) to give release, or (c) to execute a transfer
of any property right.
3. That the consideration is (a) some loan of money (b) credit or (c) other personal property.
4. That the transaction is to the detriment of such minor.
S. ELEMENTS OF OTHER DECEITS: (318)
1. not mentioned above;
2. interpretation of dreams, forecast, future-telling for profit or gain.

VII. CHATTEL MORTGAGE

A. ELEMENTS OF SELLING OR PLEDGING PERSONAL PROPERTY ALREADY PLEDGED: (319)


1. That personal property is already pledged under the terms of the chattel mortgage law.
2. That the offender, who is the mortgagee of such property, sells or pledges the same or any part thereof.
3. That there is no consent of the mortgagee written on the back of the mortgage and noted on the record
thereof in the office of the register of deeds.
B. ELEMENTS OF KNOWINGLY REMOVING MORTGAGED PERSONAL PROPERTY: (319)
1. that personal property is mortgaged under the chattel mortage law.
2. That the offender knows that such property is so mortaged.
3. That he removes such mortgaged personal to any province or city other than the one in which it was
located at the time of the execution of the mortgage.
4. that the removal is permanent.
5. That there is no written consent of the mortgagee or his executors, administration or assigns to such
removal.
VIII. ARSON AND OTHER CRIMES INVOLVING DESTRUCTIONS

(Note: PD 1613 expressly repealed or amended Arts 320-326, but PD 1744 revived Art 320)
A. ELEMENTS OF ARSONS OF PROPERTY OF SMALL VALUES
1. That an uninhabited hut, storehouse, barn, shed or any other property is burned
2. That the value of the property burned does not exceed 25 pesos
3. That the burning was done at a time or under circumstances which clearly exclude all danger of the fire
spreading
B. ELEMENTS OF CRIME INVOLVING DESTRUCTION
1. That the offender causes destruction of the property
2. That the destruction was done by means of:
1. explosion
2. discharge of electric current
3. inundation
4. sinking or stranding of a vessel
5. damaging the engine of the vessel
6. taking up rails from the railway track
7. destroying telegraph wires and posts or those of any other system
8. other similar effective means of destruction
C. ELEMENTS OF BURNING ONES PROPERTY AS A MEANS TO COMMIT ARSON
1. That the offender set fire to or destroyed his own property
2. That the purpose of the offender in doing so was to commit arson or to cause a great destruction
3. That the property belonging to another was burned or destroyed
D. ELEMENTS OF ARSON
1. That the property burned is the exclusive property of the offender
2. That (a) the purpose of the offender is burning it is to defraud or cause damage to another or (b) prejudice
is actually caused, or (c) the thing burned is a building in an inhabited place

IX. MALICIOUS MISCHIEF

A. ELEMENTS OF MALICIOUS MISCHIEF: (326)


1. That the offender deliberately caused damage to the property of another.
2. That such act does not constitute arson or other crimes involving destruction.
3. That the act damaging anothers property be committed merely for the sake of damaging it.
Notes:
1. Malicious mischief willful damaging of anothers property for the sake of causing damage due to hate,
revenge or other evil motive
2. No negligence
3. Example. Killing the cow as revenge
4. If no malice only civil liability
5. Damage is also diminution in value
6. But after damaging the thing, he used it = theft
7. Damage is not incident of a crime (breaking windows in robbery)
B. SPECIAL CASES OF MALICIOUS MISCHIEF: (328)
1. Obstruct performance of public functions.
2. Using poisonous or corrosive substances.
3. Spreading infection or contagious among cattle.
4. Damage to property of national museum or library, archive, registry, waterworks, road, promenade, or any
other thing ised in common by the public.
Note: Qualified malicious mischief no uprising or sedition (#1)
C. ELEMENTS OF OTHER MISCHIEF: (329)
1. Not included in 328
1. scattering human excrement
2. killing of cow as an act of revenge
D. ELEMENTS OF DAMAGE AND OBSTIVATION TO MEANS OF COMMUNICATION: (330)
Notes:
1. done by damaging railways, telegraph, telephone lines, electric wires, traction cables, signal system of
railways
2. removing rails from tracks is destruction (art 324)
3. not applicable when telegraph/phone lines dont pertain to railways (example: for transmission of electric
power/light)
4. people killed as a result:
5. circumstance qualifying the offense if the damage shall result in any derailment of cars, collision or other
accident a higher penalty shall be imposed
1. murder if derailment is means of intent to kill
2. none art 48
E. ELEMENTS OF DESTROYING OR DAMAGING STATUES, PUBLIC MONUMENTS OR PAINTINGS: (331)
F. ELEMENTS OF EXEMPTION FROM CRIMINAL LIABILITY IN CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY: (332)
Persons exempt from criminal liability:
1. Spouse, ascendants and descendants or relatives by affinity in the same line
2. The widowed spouse with respect to the property w/c belonged to the deceased spouse before the same
passed into the possession of another
3. Brothers and sisters and brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law, if living together
Offenses involved in the exemption:
1. Theft
2. Swindling
3. Malicious mischief
Notes:
1. Exemption is based on family relations
2. Parties to the crime not related to the offended party still remains criminally liable
3. Persons exempt include:
1. stepfather/mother (ascendants by affinity)
2. adopted children (descendants)
3. concubine/paramour (spouse)
4. common law spouse (propert is part of their earnings)

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Eleven


TITLE ELEVEN

CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY


A. ELEMENTS OF ADULTERY: (333)
1. That the woman is married (even if marriage subsequently declared void)
2. That she has sexual intercourse with a man not her husband.
3. That as regards the man with whom she has sexual intercourses, he must know her to be married.
Notes:
1. mitigated if wife was abandoned without justification by the offended spouse (man is not entitled to this
mitigating circumstance)
2. attempted: caught disrobing a lover
B. ELEMENTS OF CONCUBINAGE: (334)
1. That the man must be married.
2. That he committed any of the following acts:
1. Keeping a mistress in the conjugal dwelling.
2. Having sexual intercourse under scandalous circumstances with a woman who is not his wife.
3. Cohabiting with her in any other place.
3. That as regards the woman she must know him to be married.
Note: Scandal consists in any reprehensible word/deed that offends public conscience, redounds to the
detriment of the feelings of honest persons and gives occasions to the neighbors spiritual damage and ruin
C. ELEMENTS OF ACTS OF LASCIVIOUSNESS: (336)
1. That the offender commits any act of lasciviousness or lewdness.
2. That it is done under any of the following circumstances:
1. by using force or intimidation, or
2. when the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious, or
3. when the offended party is under 12 years of age.
3. That the offended party is another person of either sex.
D. ELEMENTS OF QUALIFIED SEDUCTION OF A VIRGIN: (337)
Two classes of qualified seduction:
1. Seduction of a virgin over 12 and under 18 years of age by certain persons, such as a person in authority,
priest, teachers etc and
2. Seduction of a sister by her brother or descendant by her ascendant, regardless of her age or reputation
(incestuous seduction)
Elements:
1. That the offended party is a virgin, which is (presumed if she unmarried and of good reputation.)
2. That she must be over 12 and under 18 years of age.
3. That the offender has sexual intercourse with her.
4. That there is abuse of authority, confidence or relationship on the part of the offender ( person entrusted
with education or custody of victim; person in public authority, priest; servant)
Persons liable:
1. Those who abuse their authority:
1. persons in public authority
2. guardian
3. teacher
4. person who, in any capacity, is entrusted with the education or custody of the woman seduced
2. Those who abused the confidence reposed in them:
1. priest
2. house servant
3. domestic
3. Those who abused their relationship:
1. brother who seduced his sister
2. ascendant who seduced his descendant
E. ELEMENTS OF SIMPLE SEDUCTION: (338)
1. That the offended party is over 12 and under 18 years of age.
2. That she must be of good reputation, single or widow.
3. That the offender has sexual intercourse with her.
4. That it is committed by means of deceit.
Note: common form is unconditional promise to marry
F. ELEMENTS OF ACTS OF LASCIVIOUSNESS WITH THE CONSENT OF THE OFFENDED PARTY: (339)
1. that the offender commits acts of lasciviousness or lewdness.
2. That the acts are committed upon a woman who is virgin or single or widow of good reputation, under 18
years of age but over 12 years, or a sister or descendant regardless of her reputation or age.
3. that the offender accomplishes the acts by abuse of authority, confidence, relationship, or deceit.
G. ELEMENTS OF CORRUPTION OF MINORS: (340)

Act punishable: By promoting or facilitating the prostitution or corruption of persons underage to satisfy the lust of
another

H. ELEMENTS OF WHITE SLAVE TRADE: (341)


Acts penalized

1. Engaging in the business of prostitution

2. Profiting by prostitution

3. Enlisting the servicxe of women for the purpose of prostitution


I. ELEMENTS OF FORCIBLE ABDUCTION: (342)
1. That the person abducted is any woman, regardless of her age, civil status, or reputation.
2. That the abduction is against her will.
3. That the abduction is with lewd designs.
Note: Sexual intercourse is NOT necessary
Crimes against chastity where age and reputation of victim are immaterial: rape, acts of lasciviousness, qualified
seduction of sister/descendant, forcible abduction.
J. ELEMENTS OF CONSENTED ABDUCTION: (343)
1. That the offended party must be a virgin.
2. That she must be over 12 and under 18 years of age.
3. That the taking away of the offended party must be with her consent, after solicitation or cajolery from
the offender.
4. That the taking away of the offended party must be with lewd designs.
K. PROSECUTION OF ADULTERY, CONCUBINAGE, SEDUCTION, ABDUCTION RAPE AND ACTS OF LASCIVIOUSNESS
(344)
1. Adultery and concubinage must be prosecuted upon complaint signed by the offended spouse
2. Seduction, abduction, rape or acts of lasciviousness must be prosecuted upon complaint signed by:
1. offended party
2. by her parents
3. grandparents
4. guardians in the order in which they are named above
Note: Marriage of the offender with the offended party extinguishes the criminal action or remit the penalty
already imposed upon him. This applies as well to the accomplices, accessories-after-the-fact. But marriages must
be in good faith. This rule does not apply in case of multiple rape.
L. Civil liability of persons guilty of rape, seduction or abduction (345)
1. To idemnify the offended women
2. To acknowledge the offspring, unless the law should prevent him from doing so
3. In every case to support the offspring
M. LIABILITY OF ASCENDANTS, OTHER PERSONS ENTRUSTED WITH CUSTODY OF OFFENDED PARTY WHO BY
ABUSE OF AUTHORITY OR CONFIDENCE SHALL COOPERATE AS ACCOMPLIES: (346)

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Twelve


TITLE TWELVE

CRIMES AGAINST THE CIVIL STATUS OF PERSONS

A. SIMULATION OF BIRTHS, SUBSTITUTION OF ONE CHILD FOR ANOTHER, AND CONCEALMENT OR


ABANDONMENT OF A LEGITIMATE CHILD: (347)
Acts Punished:

1. Simulation of births
2. Substitution of one child for another

3. Concealing or abandoning any legitimate child with the intent to cause such child to lose its civil status

Requisites:
1. The child must be legitimate
2. The offender conceals or abandons such child
3. The offender has the intent to cause the child to lose its civil status
Elements of Simulation of Birth:
1. Child is baptized or registered in the Registry of birth as hers
2. Child loses its real status and acquiires a new one
3. Actors purpose was to cause the loss of any trace as to the childs true filiation
B. USURPATION OF CIVIL STATUS: (348)
Notes:
1. Committed by a person who represents himself as another and assumes the filiation or rights pertaining to
such person
2. There must be criminal intent to enjoy the civil rights of another by the offender knowing he is not entitled
thereto
3. Committed by asuming the filiation, or the parental or conjugal rights of another
4. Circumstances qualifying the offense: penalty is heavier when the purpose of the impersonation is to
defraud the offended party or hios heirs.
C. ELEMENTS OF BIGAMY: (349)
1. That the offender has been legally married.
2. That the marriage has not been legally dissolved or, in case his or her spouse is absent, the absent spouse
could not yet be presumed dead according to the civil code.
3. That he contracts a second or subsequent marriage.
4. That the second or subsequent marriage has all the essential requisites for validity.
Notes:
1. The crime does not fall within the category of private crimes that can be prosecuted only at the instance of
the offended party
2. A simulated marriage is not marriage at all and can be used as a defense for bigamy
3. There must be a summary proceeding to declare the absent spouse presumptively dead for purposes of
remarriage
4. Failure to exercise due diligence to ascertain the whereabouts of the 1st wife is bigamy through reckless
imprudence
5. A judicial declaration of the nullity of a marriage void ab initio is now required
6. One convicted for bigamy may be prosecuted for concubinage as both are distinct offenses
7. One who vouches that there is no legal impediment knowing that one of the parties is already married is an
accomplice.
D. ELEMENTS OF MARRIAGE CONTRACTED AGAINST PROVISIONS OF LAWS: (350)
1. That the offender contracted marriage.
2. That he knew at the time that
1. the requirement of the law were not complied with, or
2. The marriage was in disregard of a legal impediment.
Note: Circumstance qualifying the offense: if either of the contracting parties obtains the consent of the other by
means of violence, intimidation or fraud.
E. ELEMENTS OF PREMATURE MARRIAGE: (351)

Acts punished:

1. A widow who within 301 days from death of husband, got married or before her delivery, if she was
pregnant at the time of his death
2. A woman whose marriage having been dissolved or annulled, married before her delivery or within 301 days
after the legal separation.
F. ELEMENTS OF PERFORMANCE OF ILLEGAL MARRIAGE CEREMONY: (352)

Act punished: performance of any illegal marriage ceremony by a priest or minister of any religious denomination
or sector by civil authorities

Criminal Law Book 2 Title Thirteen


TITLE THIRTEEN

CRIMES AGAINST HONOR


A. ELEMENTS OF LIBEL DEFAMATION: (353)
1. That there must be an imputation of a crime, or of a vice or defect, real or imaginary, or any act,
omission, condition, status, or circumstances.
2. That the imputation must be made publicly.
3. That it must be malicious.
4. That the imputation must be directed at a natural or juridical person, or one who is dead.
5. That the imputation must tend to cause the dishonor, discredit or contempt of the person defamed.
Notes:
1. Libel is a public and malicious imputation of a crime, or a vice or defect, real or imaginary or any act,
commission, condition, status or circumstances tending to cause the dishonor, discredit or contempt of a
natural or juridical person, or to blacken the memory of one who is dead
2. Kinds of malice: (a) malice in law; (b) malice in fact
3. Malice is presumed to exist in injurious publications
4. Publication is the communication of the defamatory matter to some third person/s
5. Person libeled must be identified. But the publication need not refer by name to the libeled party. If not
named it must be shown that the description of the person referred to in the defamatory publication was
sufficiently clear so that at least a 3rd person would have identified the plaintiff.
6. There are as many crimes as there are persons defamed.
7. To presume publication there must be a reasonable probability that the alleged a libelous matter was
thereby exposed to be read or seen by 3rd persons.
Criterion to determine whether statements are defamatory
1) words are calculated to induce the hearers to suppose and understand that the person against who they are
uttered were guilty of certain offenses, or are sufficient to impeach their honesty, virtue or reputation, or to hole
the person up to public ridicule(US v OConnel)
2 )construed not only as to the expression used but also with respect to the whole scope and apparent object of
the writer.(P v Encarnacion)

Libel Perjury

-false accusation need not be made under oath

-false accusation is made under oath

Newsweek v IAC

Newsweek portrayed the island province of Negros Occidental as a place dominated by big landowners. Plaintiffs
are associations of sugarcane planters. HELD: Dismissed. To maintain a libel suit, the specific victim must be
identifiable. Defamatory remarks directed at a group of persons are not actionable unless the statements are all-
embracing or sufficiently specific for victim to be identifiable. An action for libel allegedly directed against a
group of sugar planters cannot be done by resort to filing a class suit as each victim has his specific reputation to
protect. In this case, each of the plaintiffs has a separate and distinct reputation in the community.

A. REQUIREMENT OF PUBLICITY: (354)


Kinds of privileged communication
1. Absolutely privileged not actionable even if the actor has acted in bad faith
2. Qualifiedly privileged those which although containing defamatory imputations could not be actionable
unless made with malice or bad faith
General Rule:

Every defamatory imputation is presumed malicious even if it be true, if no good intention and justifiable motive
for making it is shown

Exception:
1. private communication in performance of legal, moral or social duty
Requisites:
1. that the person who made the communication had a legal, moral or social duty to make the communication
or at least he had an interest to be upheld
2. that the communication is addressed to an officer or a board, or superior, having some interest or duty on
the matter
3. that the statements in the communication are made in good faith without malice in fact
4. fair and true report, made in good faith, without any comments and remarks
Requisites:
1. that the publication of a report of an official proceeding is a fair and true report of a judicial, legislative,
or other official proceedings which are not of confidential nature, or of a statement, report, or speech
delivered in said proceedings, or of any other act performed by a public officer
2. that it is made in good faith
3. that it is made without any comments or remarks

Santos v CA

HELD: No malice, he simply furnished the readers with the info that a complaint has been filed against the
brokerage firm and reproduced the pleading verbatim with no embellishments.

B. LIBEL BY MEANS OF WRITING OR SIMILAR MEANS: (355)


Note: Enumerates the means by which libel may be committed: writing, printing, lithography, engraving, radio
phonograph, painting, theatrical or cinematographic exhibitions or any similar means

C. THREATENING TO PUBLISH LIBEL AND OFFER TO PREVENT SUCH PUBLICATION FOR A COMPENSATION:
(356)
Note: Clearly, just a case of blackmail-any unlawful extortion of money by threats of accusation and exposure

-possible in light threats Art 283 and in threat to publish Art 356.

D. ELEMENTS OF PROHIBITED PUBLICATION OF ACTS REFERRED TO IN THE COURSE OF OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS:


(357)
1. That the offender is a reporter, editor or manager of a newspaper, daily or magazine.
2. That he publishes facts connected with the private life of another.
3. That such facts are offensive to the honor, virtue and reputation of said person.
Note:

Even though made in connection with or under the pretext that it is necessary in the narration of any judicial or
administrative proceedings wherein such facts have been mentioned.

Lacsa v IAC

Lacsa found that Marquez was not a proprietary member of PCA thus not qualified to be president. He wrote to the
BOD and to Marquez. He caused to publish the second letter. HELD: Letter is not privileged communication. To be
classified as such it must be free from malice. Granting that the letter was privileged communication, written out
of a duty of an officer towards the members, such character was lost when it was published.

E. ELEMENTS OF ORAL DEFAMATION/SLANDER: (358)


1. action of a serious and insulting nature (Grave slander)
2. light insult or defamation not serious in nature (simple slander)

Factors that determine gravity of the offense:

a) expressions used

b) personal relations of the accused and the offended party

c) circumstances surrounding the case

Notes:
Words uttered in the heat of anger constitute light oral defamation (P v Doronilla)
If the utterances were made publicly and were heard by many people and the accused at the same time levelled
his finger at the complainant, oral defamation is committed (P v Salleque)

F. ELEMENTS OF SLANDER BY DEED: (359)


1. That the offender performs any act not included in any other crime against honor.
2. That such act is performed in the presence of other person or persons.
3. That such act casts dishonor, discredit or contempt upon the offended party.
Notes:

a. Seriousness depends on the social standing of offended party, the circumstances surrounding the act, the
occasion, etc.

b. The acts of slapping and boxing the woman, a teacher, in the presence of many people has put her to dishonor,
contempt and ridicule. (P v Costa)

P v Motita

Accused held a mirror between the legs of complainant to reflect her private parts. The crowd laughed. Guilty of
slander by deed.

Distinctions:
a. Unjust Vexation-irritation or annoyance/anything that annoys or irritates without justification.

b. Slander by Deed-irritation or annoyance + attendant publicity and dishonor or contempt.

c. Acts of lasciviousness-irritation or annoyance + any of 3 circumstance provided in Art335 of RPC on rape

i. use of force or intimidation

ii.deprivation of reason or rendering the offended unconscious

offended party under 12 yrs of age+lewd designs

PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR LIBEL (360)

1) Who are liable

a. person who publishes, exhibits or causes the publication or exhibition of any defamation in writing or similar
means(par.1)

b. author or editor of a book or pamphlet

c. editor or business manager of a daily newspaper magazine or serial publication(par.2)

d. owner of the printing plant which publishes a libelous article with his consent and all other persons who in any
way participate in or have connection with its publication (US v Ortiz)

2) Venue of criminal and civil action for damages in cases of written defamation:

a. where the libelous article is printed and 1st published OR

b. where any of the offended parties actually resides at the time of the commission of the offense

3) Where one of the offended parties is a public officer:

a. if his office is in the City of Manila

RTC of Manila OR

city/province where the article is printed and 1st published

b. Otherwise

RTC of the city/province where he held office at the time of offense OR


where the article is 1st published

4) Where one of the offended parties is a private individual:

RTC of province/city where he actually resides at the time of the crime

where article was printed or 1st published

Note: Offended party must file complaint for defamation imputing a crime which cannot be prosecuted de oficio
(e.g. adultery, concubinage, rape, seduction, abduction, and acts of lasciviousness)

Soriano v IAC

The Philippines follows the multiple publication rule which means that every time the same written matter is
communicated, such communication is considered a distinct and separate publication of libel.

PROOF OF THE TRUTH (361)


Admissible when:

a. the act or omission imputed constitutes a crime regardless of whether the offended party is a private individual
or a public officer

b. the offended party is a government employee, even if the act or omission imputed does not constitute a crime
provided it is related to the discharge of his official duties

Requisites for Acquittal:

a. it appears that the matter charged as libelous is TRUE (for situations 1 and 2 above)

b. it was published with good motives and for a justifiable end (for situation 1 only)

Notes: The proof of the truth of the accusation cannot be made to rest upon mere hearsay, rumors, or suspicion. It
must rest upon positive direct evidence, upon which a definite finding may be made by the court (US v Sotto)

LIBELOUS REMARKS (362)


Libelous remarks or comments on privileged matters (under Art. 354) if made with malice in fact will not exempt
the author and editor.

*This article is a limitation to the defense of privileged communication.

ELEMENTS OF INCRIMINATING INNOCENT PERSON: (363)


1. That the offender performs an act.
2. That by such act he directly incriminates or imputes to an innocent person the commission of a crime.
3. That such act does not constitute perjury.
Two Kinds:

a. making a statement which is

i. defamatory or

ii. perjurious (if made under oath and is false)

b. planting evidence

Note: article is limited to planting evidence and the like

INTRIGUING AGAINST HONOR (364)


How committed:

-by any person who shall make any intrigue which has for its principal purpose to blemish the honor or reputation
of another person

Notes:

a. Intriguing against honor refers to any scheme or plot designed to blemish the reputation of another or of such
trickery or secret plot.

b. Committed by saying to others an unattributable thing, if said to the person himself it is slander.

RA4200 The Anti-WireTapping Act


Acts punished:

1) any person, not authorized by all the parties to any private communication or spoken word

a) taps any wire of cable OR


b) uses any other device or arrangement, to secretly overhear, intercept, or record such communication or spoken
word by using a device commonly known as a dictaphone or dictagraph or walkie talkie or tape recorder

2) any person, whether or not a participant in the above-mentioned acts:

a) knowingly possesses any tape record, wire record, disc record, or any other such record or copies thereof of any
communication or spoken word

b) replays the same for any other person

c)communicates the contents thereof, whether complete or partial, to any other person

Notes:

a. Peace officer is exempt if acts done under lawful order of the court. You can only use the recording for the case
for which it was validly requested.

b. Information obtained in violation of the Act is inadmissible in evidence in any hearing or investigation.

c. Gaanan v IAC

An extension phone is not one of those prohibited under RA 4200. There must be either a physical interruption
through the wiretap or the deliberate installation of a device or arrangement in order to overhear, intercept or
record the spoken words. The extension phone was not installed for such purpose.

ELEMENTS OF RECKLESS IMPRUDENCE: (365)


1. That the offender does or fails to do an act.
2. That the doing of or the failure to do that act is voluntary.
3. That it be without malice.
4. That material damage results.
5. That there is inexcusable lack of precaution on the part of the offender, taking into consideration
1. his employment or occupation
2. degree of intelligence, physical condition, and
3. other circumstances regarding persons, time and place.

ELEMENTS OF SIMPLE IMPRUDENCE: (365)


1. That there is lack of precaution on the part of the offender.
2. That the damage impending to be caused in not immediate or the danger is not clearly manifest.
Notes:
1) Art.64 on mitigating and aggravating circumstances not applicable.
2) Failure to lend on the spot assistance to victim of his negligence:penalty next higher in degree.

3) Abandoning usually punishable under Art 275, if charged under Art365 is only qualifying and if not alleged
cannot even be an aggravating circumstance.

4) Contributory negligencenot a defense, only mitigating

Last clear chance doctrine

The contributory negligence of the injured party will no t defeat the action if it be shown that the accused might,
by the exercise of reasonable care and prudence, have avoided the consequences of the negligence of the injured
party

Emergency rule-

An automobile driver, who, by the negligence of another, is suddenly placed in an emergency and compelled to act
instantly to avoid a collision or injury is not guilty of negligence if he makes a choice which a person of ordinary
prudence placed in such a position might make even though he did not make the wisest choice.

P v Cano

Negligence is a quasi-offense. What is punished is not the effect of the negligence but the recklessness of the
accused.

P v Carillo

13 yr old girl dies 3 days after surgery due to an overdose of Nubain which triggered a heart attack that caused
brain damage. HELD: Guilty of simple negligence resulting to homicide. Carillo was the anesthesiologist, he and his
co-accused failed to monitor and provide close patient care, to inform the parents of the childs true condition, to
prove that they exercised necessary and appropriate degree of care and diligence to prevent the condition.

Buearano v CA

Conviction of the accused in the charge of slight and less serious physical injuries through reckless imprudence
constitutes double jeopardy to the charge of the crime of damage to property through reckless imprudence.