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ACS712

Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor


with 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Features and Benefits Description


▪ Low-noise analog signal path The Allegro® ACS712 provides economical and precise
▪ Device bandwidth is set via the new FILTER pin solutions for AC or DC current sensing in industrial,
▪ 5 μs output rise time in response to step input current commercial, and communications systems. The device
▪ 80 kHz bandwidth
package allows for easy implementation by the customer.
▪ Total output error 1.5% at TA = 25°C
▪ Small footprint, low-profile SOIC8 package
Typical applications include motor control, load detection and
▪ 1.2 mΩ internal conductor resistance management, switched-mode power supplies, and overcurrent
▪ 2.1 kVRMS minimum isolation voltage from pins 1-4 to pins 5-8 fault protection.
▪ 5.0 V, single supply operation
The device consists of a precise, low-offset, linear Hall
▪ 66 to 185 mV/A output sensitivity
▪ Output voltage proportional to AC or DC currents
sensor circuit with a copper conduction path located near the
▪ Factory-trimmed for accuracy surface of the die. Applied current flowing through this copper
▪ Extremely stable output offset voltage conduction path generates a magnetic field which is sensed
▪ Nearly zero magnetic hysteresis by the integrated Hall IC and converted into a proportional
▪ Ratiometric output from supply voltage voltage. Device accuracy is optimized through the close
TÜV America proximity of the magnetic signal to the Hall transducer. A
Certificate Number:
U8V 06 05 54214 010
precise, proportional voltage is provided by the low-offset,
chopper-stabilized BiCMOS Hall IC, which is programmed
for accuracy after packaging.
The output of the device has a positive slope (>VIOUT(Q))
Package: 8 Lead SOIC (suffix LC) when an increasing current flows through the primary copper
conduction path (from pins 1 and 2, to pins 3 and 4), which
is the path used for current sensing. The internal resistance of
this conductive path is 1.2 mΩ typical, providing low power

Continued on the next page…

Approximate Scale 1:1

Typical Application

+5 V
8
1 VCC
IP+
7 VOUT
2 CBYP
IP+ VIOUT
0.1 μF
IP ACS712
3 6
IP– FILTER CF
4
IP– 5 1 nF
GND

Application 1. The ACS712 outputs an analog signal, VOUT .


that varies linearly with the uni- or bi-directional AC or DC
primary sensed current, IP , within the range specified. CF
is recommended for noise management, with values that
depend on the application.

ACS712-DS, Rev. 7
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Description (continued)
loss. The thickness of the copper conductor allows survival of The ACS712 is provided in a small, surface mount SOIC8 package.
the device at up to 5× overcurrent conditions. The terminals of The leadframe is plated with 100% matte tin, which is compatible
the conductive path are electrically isolated from the sensor leads with standard lead (Pb) free printed circuit board assembly processes.
(pins 5 through 8). This allows the ACS712 current sensor to be Internally, the device is Pb-free, except for flip-chip high-temperature
used in applications requiring electrical isolation without the use Pb-based solder balls, currently exempt from RoHS. The device is
of opto-isolators or other costly isolation techniques. fully calibrated prior to shipment from the factory.

Selection Guide
TA Optimized Range, IP Sensitivity, Sens
Part Number Packing*
(°C) (A) (Typ) (mV/A)
ACS712ELCTR-05B-T Tape and reel, 3000 pieces/reel –40 to 85 ±5 185
ACS712ELCTR-20A-T Tape and reel, 3000 pieces/reel –40 to 85 ±20 100
ACS712ELCTR-30A-T Tape and reel, 3000 pieces/reel –40 to 85 ±30 66
*Contact Allegro for additional packing options.

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Characteristic Symbol Notes Rating Units
Supply Voltage VCC 8 V
Reverse Supply Voltage VRCC –0.1 V
Output Voltage VIOUT 8 V
Reverse Output Voltage VRIOUT –0.1 V
Pins 1-4 and 5-8; 60 Hz, 1 minute, TA=25°C 2100 V
Reinforced Isolation Voltage VISO Voltage applied to leadframe (Ip+ pins), based
184 Vpeak
on IEC 60950
Pins 1-4 and 5-8; 60 Hz, 1 minute, TA=25°C 1500 V
Basic Isolation Voltage VISO(bsc) Voltage applied to leadframe (Ip+ pins), based
354 Vpeak
on IEC 60950
Output Current Source IIOUT(Source) 3 mA
Output Current Sink IIOUT(Sink) 10 mA
Overcurrent Transient Tolerance IP 1 pulse, 100 ms 100 A
Nominal Operating Ambient Temperature TA Range E –40 to 85 ºC
Maximum Junction Temperature TJ(max) 165 ºC
Storage Temperature Tstg –65 to 170 ºC

Parameter Specification
CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 60950-1-03
Fire and Electric Shock UL 60950-1:2003
EN 60950-1:2001

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 2


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Functional Block Diagram

+5 V
VCC
(Pin 8)

Hall Current
Drive

IP+ Sense Temperature


(Pin 1)
Coefficient Trim
IP+
Dynamic Offset

(Pin 2)
Cancellation

Signal VIOUT
Recovery (Pin 7)
RF(INT)

IP−
(Pin 3)
Sense
Trim
IP−
(Pin 4) 0 Ampere
Offset Adjust

GND FILTER
(Pin 5) (Pin 6)

Pin-out Diagram

IP+ 1 8 VCC
IP+ 2 7 VIOUT
IP– 3 6 FILTER
IP– 4 5 GND

Terminal List Table


Number Name Description
1 and 2 IP+ Terminals for current being sensed; fused internally
3 and 4 IP– Terminals for current being sensed; fused internally
5 GND Signal ground terminal
6 FILTER Terminal for external capacitor that sets bandwidth
7 VIOUT Analog output signal
8 VCC Device power supply terminal

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 3


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

COMMON OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS1 over full range of TA , CF = 1 nF, and VCC = 5 V, unless otherwise specified
Characteristic Symbol Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Units
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Supply Voltage VCC 4.5 5.0 5.5 V
Supply Current ICC VCC = 5.0 V, output open – 10 13 mA
Output Capacitance Load CLOAD VIOUT to GND – – 10 nF
Output Resistive Load RLOAD VIOUT to GND 4.7 – – kΩ
Primary Conductor Resistance RPRIMARY TA = 25°C – 1.2 – mΩ
Rise Time tr IP = IP(max), TA = 25°C, COUT = open – 5 – μs
Frequency Bandwidth f –3 dB, TA = 25°C; IP is 10 A peak-to-peak – 80 – kHz
Nonlinearity ELIN Over full range of IP – 1.5 – %
Symmetry ESYM Over full range of IP 98 100 102 %
VCC ×
Zero Current Output Voltage VIOUT(Q) Bidirectional; IP = 0 A, TA = 25°C – – V
0.5
Output reaches 90% of steady-state level, TJ = 25°C, 20 A present
Power-On Time tPO – 35 – μs
on leadframe
Magnetic Coupling2 – 12 – G/A
Internal Filter Resistance3 RF(INT) 1.7 kΩ
1Device may be operated at higher primary current levels, IP, and ambient, TA , and internal leadframe temperatures, TA , provided that the Maximum
Junction Temperature, TJ(max), is not exceeded.
21G = 0.1 mT.
3R
F(INT) forms an RC circuit via the FILTER pin.

COMMON THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS1


Min. Typ. Max. Units
Operating Internal Leadframe Temperature TA E range –40 – 85 °C
Value Units
Junction-to-Lead Thermal Resistance2 RθJL Mounted on the Allegro ASEK 712 evaluation board 5 °C/W
Mounted on the Allegro 85-0322 evaluation board, includes the power con-
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance RθJA 23 °C/W
sumed by the board
1Additional thermal information is available on the Allegro website.
2The Allegro evaluation board has 1500 mm2 of 2 oz. copper on each side, connected to pins 1 and 2, and to pins 3 and 4, with thermal vias connect-
ing the layers. Performance values include the power consumed by the PCB. Further details on the board are available from the Frequently Asked
Questions document on our website. Further information about board design and thermal performance also can be found in the Applications Informa-
tion section of this datasheet.

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 4


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

x05B PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS TA = –40°C to 85°C1, CF = 1 nF, and VCC = 5 V, unless otherwise specified
Characteristic Symbol Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Units
Optimized Accuracy Range IP –5 – 5 A
Sensitivity Sens Over full range of IP, TA = 25°C 180 185 190 mV/A
Peak-to-peak, TA = 25°C, 185 mV/A programmed Sensitivity,
Noise VNOISE(PP) – 21 – mV
CF = 47 nF, COUT = open, 2 kHz bandwidth
TA = –40°C to 25°C – –0.26 – mV/°C
Zero Current Output Slope ∆IOUT(Q)
TA = 25°C to 150°C – –0.08 – mV/°C
TA = –40°C to 25°C – 0.054 – mV/A/°C
Sensitivity Slope ∆Sens
TA = 25°C to 150°C – –0.008 – mV/A/°C
Total Output Error2 ETOT IP =±5 A, TA = 25°C – ±1.5 – %
1Device may be operated at higher primary current levels, IP, and ambient temperatures, TA, provided that the Maximum Junction Temperature, TJ(max),
is not exceeded.
2Percentage of I , with I = 5 A. Output filtered.
P P

x20A PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS TA = –40°C to 85°C1, CF = 1 nF, and VCC = 5 V, unless otherwise specified
Characteristic Symbol Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Units
Optimized Accuracy Range IP –20 – 20 A
Sensitivity Sens Over full range of IP, TA = 25°C 96 100 104 mV/A
Peak-to-peak, TA = 25°C, 100 mV/A programmed Sensitivity,
Noise VNOISE(PP) – 11 – mV
CF = 47 nF, COUT = open, 2 kHz bandwidth
TA = –40°C to 25°C – –0.34 – mV/°C
Zero Current Output Slope ∆IOUT(Q)
TA = 25°C to 150°C – –0.07 – mV/°C
TA = –40°C to 25°C – 0.017 – mV/A/°C
Sensitivity Slope ∆Sens
TA = 25°C to 150°C – –0.004 – mV/A/°C
Total Output Error2 ETOT IP =±20 A, TA = 25°C – ±1.5 – %
1Device may be operated at higher primary current levels, IP, and ambient temperatures, TA, provided that the Maximum Junction Temperature,
TJ(max), is not exceeded.
2Percentage of I , with I = 20 A. Output filtered.
P P

x30A PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS TA = –40°C to 85°C1, CF = 1 nF, and VCC = 5 V, unless otherwise specified
Characteristic Symbol Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Units
Optimized Accuracy Range IP –30 – 30 A
Sensitivity Sens Over full range of IP , TA = 25°C 64 66 68 mV/A
Peak-to-peak, TA = 25°C, 66 mV/A programmed Sensitivity,
Noise VNOISE(PP) – 7 – mV
CF = 47 nF, COUT = open, 2 kHz bandwidth
TA = –40°C to 25°C – –0.35 – mV/°C
Zero Current Output Slope ∆IOUT(Q)
TA = 25°C to 150°C – –0.08 – mV/°C
TA = –40°C to 25°C – 0.007 – mV/A/°C
Sensitivity Slope ∆Sens
TA = 25°C to 150°C – –0.002 – mV/A/°C
Total Output Error2 ETOT IP = ±30 A , TA = 25°C – ±1.5 – %
1Device may be operated at higher primary current levels, IP, and ambient temperatures, TA, provided that the Maximum Junction Temperature,
TJ(max), is not exceeded.
2Percentage of I , with I = 30 A. Output filtered.
P P

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 5


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Characteristic Performance
IP = 5 A, unless otherwise specified
Mean Supply Current versus Ambient Temperature Supply Current versus Supply Voltage
10.30 10.9
10.25 10.8
10.20
10.7
10.15

ICC (mA)
10.10 10.6
Mean ICC (mA)

10.05 VCC = 5 V 10.5 VCC = 5 V


10.00 10.4
9.95
10.3
9.90
10.2
9.85
9.80 10.1
9.75 10.0
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5
TA (°C) VCC (V)

Magnetic Offset versus Ambient Temperature Nonlinearity versus Ambient Temperature


0 0.6
–0.5
–1.0 0.5

–1.5 VCC = 5 V
0.4

ELIN (%)
IOM (mA)

–2.0
VCC = 5 V; IP = 0 A,
–2.5 0.3
After excursion to 20 A
–3.0
–3.5 0.2
–4.0
0.1
–4.5
–5.0 0
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)

Mean Total Output Error versus Ambient Temperature Sensitivity versus Ambient Temperature
8 186.5
6 186.0
185.5
Sens (mV/A)

4 185.0
ETOT (%)

2 184.5
184.0
0
183.5
–2 183.0
–4 182.5
182.0
–6 181.5
–8 181.0
–50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)

Output Voltage versus Sensed Current Sensitivity versus Sensed Current


4.0 200.00
3.5 190.00
180.00
VCC = 5 V
Sens (mV/A)

3.0
170.00
VIOUT (V)

2.5 160.00 TA (°C)


2.0 TA (°C) 150.00 –40
–40 140.00 25
1.5 25 85
85 130.00 150
1.0
150 120.00
0.5 110.00
0 100.00
–7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
Ip (A)
IP (A)

0 A Output Voltage versus Ambient Temperature 0 A Output Voltage Current versus Ambient Temperature
2520 0.20

2515 0.15

2510 IP = 0 A 0.10 IP = 0 A
VIOUT(Q) (mV)

IOUT(Q) (A)

2505 0.05

2500 0

2495 –0.05

2490 –0.10

2485 –0.15
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 6


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Characteristic Performance
IP = 20 A, unless otherwise specified
Mean Supply Current versus Ambient Temperature Supply Current versus Supply Voltage
9.7 10.4

9.6 10.2

10.0 VCC = 5 V
Mean ICC (mA)

9.5

ICC (mA)
9.8
9.4 VCC = 5 V
9.6
9.3
9.4
9.2 9.2

9.1 9.0
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5
TA (°C) VCC (V)

Magnetic Offset versus Ambient Temperature Nonlinearity versus Ambient Temperature


0 0.35
–0.5
0.30
–1.0
–1.5 0.25

ELIN (%)
IOM (mA)

–2.0 0.20
–2.5 VCC = 5 V; IP = 0 A,
After excursion to 20 A 0.15
–3.0
–3.5 0.10
–4.0
0.05
–4.5
–5.0 0
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)
Mean Total Output Error versus Ambient Temperature Sensitivity versus Ambient Temperature
8 100.8
6 100.6

4 100.4
100.2
Sens (mV/A)

2
ETOT (%)

100.0
0
99.8
–2
99.6
–4 99.4
–6 99.2
–8 99.0
–50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)
Output Voltage versus Sensed Current Sensitivity versus Sensed Current
5.0 110.00
4.5 108.00 TA (°C)
–40
4.0 106.00
25
3.5 VCC = 5 V 104.00 85
Sens (mV/A)

3.0 102.00 150


VIOUT (V)

2.5 TA (°C) 100.00


–40 98.00
2.0
–20
1.5 25 96.00
1.0 85 94.00
0.5 125 92.00
0 90.00
–25 –20 –15 –10 –5 0 5 10 15 20 25 –25 –20 –15 –10 –5 0 5 10 15 20 25
Ip (A)
IP (A)

0 A Output Voltage versus Ambient Temperature 0 A Output Voltage Current versus Ambient Temperature
2525 0.25
2520 0.20
2515 0.15
VIOUT(Q) (mV)

2510 IP = 0 A 0.10 IP = 0 A
IOUT(Q) (A)

2505 0.05
2500 0
2495 –0.05

2490 –0.10

2485 –0.15
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 7


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Characteristic Performance
IP = 30 A, unless otherwise specified
Mean Supply Current versus Ambient Temperature Supply Current versus Supply Voltage
9.6 10.2

9.5 10.0
9.4
9.8

ICC (mA)
VCC = 5 V
Mean ICC (mA)

9.3 VCC = 5 V
9.6
9.2
9.4
9.1

9.0 9.2

8.9 9.0
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5
TA (°C) VCC (V)

Magnetic Offset versus Ambient Temperature Nonlinearity versus Ambient Temperature


0 0.45
–0.5 0.40
–1.0 0.35
–1.5 0.30 VCC = 5 V

ELIN (%)
IOM (mA)

–2.0
0.25
–2.5 VCC = 5 V; IP = 0 A,
0.20
–3.0 After excursion to 20 A
0.15
–3.5
–4.0 0.10

–4.5 0.05
–5.0 0
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)

Mean Total Output Error versus Ambient Temperature Sensitivity versus Ambient Temperature
8 66.6
6 66.5
66.4
Sens (mV/A)

4
ETOT (%)

66.3
2
66.2
0
66.1
–2
66.0
–4 65.9
–6 65.8
–8 65.7
–50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)

Output Voltage versus Sensed Current Sensitivity versus Sensed Current


5.0 70.00
4.5 69.00
4.0 68.00
Sens (mV/A)

3.5 VCC = 5 V 67.00


VIOUT (V)

3.0 66.00
2.5 TA (°C) 65.00
–40 64.00 TA (°C)
2.0
–20 –40
1.5 25 63.00
25
1.0 85 62.00 85
0.5 125 61.00 150
0 60.00
–30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30
Ip (A)
IP (A)
0 A Output Voltage versus Ambient Temperature 0 A Output Voltage Current versus Ambient Temperature
2535 0.35
2530 0.30
2525 0.25
2520 0.20
VIOUT(Q) (mV)

IP = 0 A IP = 0 A
IOUT(Q) (A)

2515 0.15
2510 0.10
2505 0.05
2500 0
2495 –0.05
2490 –0.10
2485 –0.15
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
TA (°C) TA (°C)

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 8


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor
Definitions of Accuracy Characteristics
Sensitivity (Sens). The change in sensor output in response to a Accuracy is divided into four areas:
1 A change through the primary conductor. The sensitivity is the
• 0 A at 25°C. Accuracy of sensing zero current flow at 25°C,
product of the magnetic circuit sensitivity (G / A) and the linear
without the effects of temperature.
IC amplifier gain (mV/G). The linear IC amplifier gain is pro-
grammed at the factory to optimize the sensitivity (mV/A) for the • 0 A over Δ temperature. Accuracy of sensing zero current
full-scale current of the device. flow including temperature effects.

Noise (VNOISE). The product of the linear IC amplifier gain • Full-scale current at 25°C. Accuracy of sensing the full-scale
(mV/G) and the noise floor for the Allegro Hall effect linear IC current at 25°C, without the effects of temperature.
(≈1 G). The noise floor is derived from the thermal and shot • Full-scale current over Δ temperature. Accuracy of sensing full-
noise observed in Hall elements. Dividing the noise (mV) by the scale current flow including temperature effects.
sensitivity (mV/A) provides the smallest current that the device is
Ratiometry. The ratiometric feature means that its 0 A output,
able to resolve.
VIOUT(Q), (nominally equal to VCC/2) and sensitivity, Sens, are
Linearity (ELIN). The degree to which the voltage output from proportional to its supply voltage, VCC . The following formula is
the sensor varies in direct proportion to the primary current
used to derive the ratiometric change in 0 A output voltage,
through its full-scale amplitude. Nonlinearity in the output can be
attributed to the saturation of the flux concentrator approaching ΔVIOUT(Q)RAT (%).
the full-scale current. The following equation is used to derive the VIOUT(Q)VCC / VIOUT(Q)5V
linearity: 100
 VCC / 5 V 
{ [
100 1–
Δ gain × % sat ( VIOUT_full-scale amperes – VIOUT(Q) )
2 (VIOUT_half-scale amperes – VIOUT(Q) ) [{ The ratiometric change in sensitivity, ΔSensRAT (%), is defined as:
SensVCC / Sens5V
where VIOUT_full-scale amperes = the output voltage (V) when the 100
sensed current approximates full-scale ±IP . ‰ VCC / 5 V 
Symmetry (ESYM). The degree to which the absolute voltage
output from the sensor varies in proportion to either a positive Output Voltage versus Sensed Current
Accuracy at 0 A and at Full-Scale Current
or negative full-scale primary current. The following formula is
used to derive symmetry: Increasing VIOUT(V)
Accuracy
VIOUT_+ full-scale amperes – VIOUT(Q) Over $Temp erature
100
 VIOUT(Q) – VIOUT_–full-scale amperes  Accuracy
25°C Only

Quiescent output voltage (VIOUT(Q)). The output of the sensor


Average
when the primary current is zero. For a unipolar supply voltage, VIOUT

it nominally remains at VCC ⁄ 2. Thus, VCC = 5 V translates into Accuracy


Over $Temp erature
VIOUT(Q) = 2.5 V. Variation in VIOUT(Q) can be attributed to the
resolution of the Allegro linear IC quiescent voltage trim and Accuracy
thermal drift. IP(min)
25°C Only

Electrical offset voltage (VOE). The deviation of the device out- –IP (A) +IP (A)

put from its ideal quiescent value of VCC / 2 due to nonmagnetic Full Scale
IP(max)
causes. To convert this voltage to amperes, divide by the device
sensitivity, Sens. 0A

Accuracy (ETOT). The accuracy represents the maximum devia-


tion of the actual output from its ideal value. This is also known
as the total ouput error. The accuracy is illustrated graphically in Accuracy
25°C Only

the output voltage versus current chart at right. Accuracy


Over $Temp erature

Decreasing VIOUT(V)

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 9


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Definitions of Dynamic Response Characteristics

Power-On Time (tPO). When the supply is ramped to its operat-


ing voltage, the device requires a finite time to power its internal
components before responding to an input magnetic field.
Power-On Time, tPO , is defined as the time it takes for the output
voltage to settle within ±10% of its steady state value under an
applied magnetic field, after the power supply has reached its
minimum specified operating voltage, VCC(min), as shown in the
chart at right.

Rise time (tr). The time interval between a) when the sensor I (%) Primary Current
reaches 10% of its full scale value, and b) when it reaches 90% 90
of its full scale value. The rise time to a step response is used to
derive the bandwidth of the current sensor, in which ƒ(–3 dB) =
Transducer Output
0.35 / tr. Both tr and tRESPONSE are detrimentally affected by eddy 10
current losses observed in the conductive IC ground plane. 0
t
Rise Time, tr

Power on Time versus External Filter Capacitance Step Response


200
180 TA=25°C
160 IP =5 A
140
120
tPO (μs)

IP =0 A
100
80
60
40
20
0 Output (mV)
0 10 20 30 40 50
CF (nF)
Noise vs. Filter Cap

10000
Noise versus External Filter Capacitance 15 A
Excitation Signal
1000
Noise(p-p) (mA)

100

10

1
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
CF (nF)

Rise Time versus External Filter Capacitance Rise Time versus External Filter Capacitance
1200 CF (nF) tr (μs)
400
1000 0 6.6 350
1 7.7 300
800 4.7 17.4
250
tr(μs)
tr(μs)

10 32.1
600 22 68.2 200
47 88.2 150
400
200
0
} Expanded in chart at right
100
220
470
291.3
623.0
1120.0
100
50
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
CF (nF) CF (nF)

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 10


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Chopper Stabilization Technique

Chopper Stabilization is an innovative circuit technique that is As a result of this chopper stabilization approach, the output
used to minimize the offset voltage of a Hall element and an asso- voltage from the Hall IC is desensitized to the effects of tempera-
ciated on-chip amplifier. Allegro patented a Chopper Stabiliza- ture and mechanical stress. This technique produces devices that
tion technique that nearly eliminates Hall IC output drift induced have an extremely stable Electrical Offset Voltage, are immune to
by temperature or package stress effects. This offset reduction thermal stress, and have precise recoverability after temperature
technique is based on a signal modulation-demodulation process. cycling.
Modulation is used to separate the undesired dc offset signal from This technique is made possible through the use of a BiCMOS
the magnetically induced signal in the frequency domain. Then, process that allows the use of low-offset and low-noise amplifiers
using a low-pass filter, the modulated dc offset is suppressed in combination with high-density logic integration and sample
while the magnetically induced signal passes through the filter. and hold circuits.

Regulator

Clock/Logic
Low-Pass
Hall Element
Filter
Sample and
Hold

Amp

Concept of Chopper Stabilization Technique

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 11


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Typical Applications

+5 V
+5 V
VPEAK
CBYP
CBYP R1
C2 0.1 μF 100 kΩ
0.1 μF 0.1 μF VRESET
R4 Q1
10 kΩ 2N7002 R2
8 COUT 100 kΩ LM321
1 VCC 0.1 μF 8
1 + 5
IP+ 1 4 VOUT
7 VOUT + IP+ VCC
2
IP+ VIOUT 2 7 3 –
RF IP+ VIOUT 2
IP ACS712 10 kΩ
– RF
R1 U1 D1 C1
6 LT1178 1N914 IP ACS712 1 kΩ
3 1 MΩ 1000 pF
IP– FILTER CF 3 6 R3
4 1 nF IP– FILTER CF
3.3 kΩ
IP– 5 4
GND IP– 5 0.01 μF
R3 C1 GND
R2 0.1 μF
33 kΩ 330 kΩ

Application 3. This configuration increases gain to 610 mV/A


(tested using the ACS712ELC-05A).
Application 2. Peak Detecting Circuit
+5 V
+5 V
CBYP
R1
0.1 μF 33 kΩ
CBYP
0.1 μF RPU
R2 100 kΩ
100 kΩ
8 8
1 1 VCC
VCC D1 IP+
IP+ 1N4448W 7 VOUT 4
2 7 VOUT 2 5
IP+ VIOUT
A-to-D IP+ VIOUT – 1 Fault
Converter
RF 3
IP ACS712 IP ACS712 +
2 kΩ R1 2 U1
6 C1 3 6
LMV7235
3
IP– FILTER
10 kΩ IP– FILTER CF
CF 4 1 nF
4 1 nF IP– 5
IP– 5 GND
GND
D1
1N914

Application 4. Rectified Output. 3.3 V scaling and rectification application Application 5. 10 A Overcurrent Fault Latch. Fault threshold set by R1 and
for A-to-D converters. Replaces current transformer solutions with simpler R2. This circuit latches an overcurrent fault and holds it until the 5 V rail is
ACS circuit. C1 is a function of the load resistance and filtering desired. powered down.
R1 can be omitted if the full range is desired.

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 12


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Improving Sensing System Accuracy Using the FILTER Pin

In low-frequency sensing applications, it is often advantageous temperature. Therefore, signal attenuation will vary as a function
to add a simple RC filter to the output of the sensor. Such a low- of temperature. Note that, in many cases, the input impedance,
pass filter improves the signal-to-noise ratio, and therefore the RINTFC , of a typical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) can be as
resolution, of the sensor output signal. However, the addition of low as 10 kΩ.
an RC filter to the output of a sensor IC can result in undesirable
sensor output attenuation — even for dc signals. The ACS712 contains an internal resistor, a FILTER pin connec-
tion to the printed circuit board, and an internal buffer amplifier.
Signal attenuation, ∆VATT , is a result of the resistive divider
With this circuit architecture, users can implement a simple
effect between the resistance of the external filter, RF (see
Application 6), and the input impedance and resistance of the RC filter via the addition of a capacitor, CF (see Application 7)
customer interface circuit, RINTFC. The transfer function of this from the FILTER pin to ground. The buffer amplifier inside of
resistive divider is given by: the ACS712 (located after the internal resistor and FILTER pin
⎛ RINTFC ⎞ connection) eliminates the attenuation caused by the resistive
∆VATT = VIOUT ⎜ .
⎜ RF + RINTFC ⎟ divider effect described in the equation for ∆VATT. Therefore, the
⎝ ⎠ ACS712 device is ideal for use in high-accuracy applications
Even if RF and RINTFC are designed to match, the two individual that cannot afford the signal attenuation associated with the use
resistance values will most likely drift by different amounts over of an external RC low-pass filter.
+5 V

Pin 3 Pin 4 VCC


IP– IP– Pin 8

Allegro ACS706
Application 6. When a low pass filter is constructed
externally to a standard Hall effect device, a resistive Voltage
Regulator
divider may exist between the filter resistor, RF, and To all subcircuits
the resistance of the customer interface circuit, RINTFC.
VIOUT Resistive Divider
This resistive divider will cause excessive attenuation, Pin 7
Dynamic Offset

Input
Cancellation

as given by the transfer function for ∆VATT.


Filter

Amp Out RF Application


N.C.
0.1 MF Pin 6 Interface
Circuit

Low Pass Filter

Temperature
Gain Offset CF
Coefficient
1 nF RINTFC

Trim Control

IP+ IP+ GND


Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 5

+5 V

VCC
Pin 8
Allegro ACS712
Application 7. Using the FILTER pin
provided on the ACS712 eliminates the Hall Current
Drive
attenuation effects of the resistor divider
between RF and RINTFC, shown in Appli- IP+
Pin 1 Sense Temperature
Coefficient Trim
cation 6. IP+ Buffer Amplifier
Dynamic Offset

Pin 2 and Resistor


Cancellation

Signal VIOUT
Recovery Pin 7
Input

IP– Application
Pin 3 Interface
Sense
Trim Circuit
IP–
Pin 4 0 Ampere
Offset Adjust

RINTFC

GND FILTER
Pin 5 Pin 6 CF
1 nF

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 13


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor with
ACS712 2.1 kVRMS Voltage Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor

Package LC, 8-pin SOIC


4.90 4º
8

0.21

3.90 6.00

A 0.84

1 2
0.25

SEATING PLANE
8X C GAUGE PLANE
SEATING
0.10 C PLANE
All dimensions nominal, not for tooling use
(reference JEDEC MS-012 AA)
0.41 1.75 MAX
Dimensions in millimeters
1.27 0.18 A Terminal #1 mark area

1 8
Package Branding
Text 3
Text 2
Text 1

2 7
Two alternative patterns are used
3 6
4 5

ACS Allegro Current Sensor ACS Allegro Current Sensor


712 Device family number 712 Device family number
T Indicator of 100% matte tin leadframe plating T Indicator of 100% matte tin leadframe plating
ACS712T
ACS712T R Operating ambient temperature range code R Operating ambient temperature range code
RLCPPP
RLCPPP LC Package type designator LC Package type designator
L...L
YYWWA PPP Primary sensed current PPP Primary sensed current
YYWW
YY Date code: Calendar year (last two digits) L...L Lot code
WW Date code: Calendar week YY Date code: Calendar year (last two digits)
A Date code: Shift code WW Date code: Calendar week

Copyright ©2006, 2007, Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.


The products described herein are manufactured under one or more of the following U.S. patents: 5,045,920; 5,264,783; 5,442,283; 5,389,889;
5,581,179; 5,517,112; 5,619,137; 5,621,319; 5,650,719; 5,686,894; 5,694,038; 5,729,130; 5,917,320; and other patents pending.
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to per-
mit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that the
information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in life support devices or systems, if a failure of an Allegro product can reasonably be expected to cause the
failure of that life support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. assumes no responsibility for its use;
nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.

For the latest version of this document, visit our website:


www.allegromicro.com

Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. 14


115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com