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Briefing

Climate change

Keywords:
Tracking Adaptation and Measuring
Development (TAMD), climate change
adaptation, climate resilience, Uganda

Issue date
April 2015
AFRICA

Policy Strengthening frameworks to


pointers monitor and evaluate climate
For effective climate
change risk management
adaptation in Uganda
in Uganda, the government
needs to integrate Ugandas reliance on natural resources renders its economy extremely
indicators on climate
change into national and vulnerable to climate change. This makes it essential to track progress on
sectoral development adaptation initiatives and ensure the whole country is on a path towards climate
policies and strategies.
resilience. This briefing examines monitoring and evaluation (M&E)
National indicators that frameworks currently used by the government of Uganda and considers how
were initially designed to
monitor development can they could be strengthened to provide evidence on climate change adaptation,
be adjusted to measure and to measure the impacts of national and sectoral policies. It presents the
climate impacts.
findings of detailed research by IIED and the Africa Climate Change Resilience
Climate-sensitive Alliance (ACCRA) to develop indicators that could be applied at district level
indicators developed from
the bottom up at district consistently throughout the country, supported by a simple data collection
level can enhance local system. These indicators could provide climate-relevant data for M&E
government plans and
monitoring and evaluation frameworks at national and sectoral levels and could also be integrated into
frameworks.
local government performance assessment and reporting tools.
Local government
frameworks need to feed The need for a national framework
into and support
monitoring and evaluation Any national framework for assessing a countrys has started developing a national Performance
at the national level by the climate change strategy needs to take into Measurement Framework (PMF) to assess its
sectoral ministries and the account changes in resilience and development. In progress towards achieving its policy objectives.
coordinating Office of the
Prime Minister. Uganda, policy on climate change has developed It has at its disposal some existing tools that can
significantly over the past five years, but there is no integrate climate change adaptation and risk
overall system yet in place to track and measure reduction indicators:
progress towards achieving resilience. Existing The Output Budget Tool from the Ministry of
government development indicators tend to focus
Finance can support selected indicators for
on outputs from the implementation of specific
funding
plans, such as the number of people trained in
aspects of climate change adaptation, without The scorecard from the Office of the Prime
evaluating the longer-term outcomes that result Minister reports on the performance of output
from a combination of government interventions in indicators by sector against budget provisions
a variety of sectors. The performance assessment tool from the
Uganda ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and Ministry of Local Government assesses the
developed a National Climate Change Policy performance of local governments across
(NCCP) in 2012. More recently, the government different sectors.

Download the pdf at http://pubs.iied.org/17287IIED


IIED Briefing

What is still lacking is a harmonised monitoring Enable the National Planning Authority to link
and evaluation (M&E) framework for climate medium- and long-term development indicators
change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in in the national and district development plans
the country as a whole. to climate change indicators;

Introducing TAMD in Uganda Inform the national performance assessment


tool for local governments;
To investigate ways of addressing this shortfall
and supporting climate change M&E in Uganda, Enrich the national PMF for climate change
IIED and ACCRA that is currently under development with
A simple data collection conducted research into support from the French Development
ways of using the Tracking Agency (ADETEF).
system can link district- Adaptation and Measuring
Developing district-level
level indicators to national Development (TAMD)
methodology.1 indicators
climate change indicators TAMD is a twin-track The main task of the research was to develop
conceptual framework district-level indicators to measure adaptation
that countries can use to assess the performance. IIED engaged LTS Africa to
effectiveness of climate change adaptation. conduct a training of trainers in the TAMD
As Figure 1 shows, it evaluates both institutional methodology. Staff from a range of relevant
climate risk management (Track 1) and ministries3 and district officials from planning,
adaptation and development performance natural resource management and production
(Track 2). The processes in both tracks are sectors were trained in aspects of applying
linked to each other, so the framework makes it TAMD at the local level, such as using theories of
possible to assess not only whether change4 and an institutional scorecard.5
development outcomes bring better local
Five districts were selected on the basis of their
climate resilience but also whether they
distinct ecological characteristics (see Box 1).
aggregate at larger scales to contribute to
Following an initial training session in Bulambuli,
climate-resilient development. This methodology
the trainers then went to the four other districts
has been developed and tested in Kenya,
(Bundibugyo, Nakasongla, Kotido and Otuke)
Tanzania, Nepal, Pakistan, Mozambique,
and developed theories of change for each.
Ethiopia and Cambodia.2
They prioritised community-led adaptation
IIED and ACCRA identified several ways in which initiatives and explored their outputs, outcomes
the TAMD methodology could potentially support and impacts. The process was participatory,
climate change M&E in Uganda by developing involving representatives from four sub-counties
adaptation indicators at district level, which could in each of the districts. It enabled a set of
then be used to strengthen national monitoring indicators to be developed at district level,
tools. In particular, they envisaged that district- including indicators of climate resilience
level indicators provided by TAMD could: together with corresponding assumptions.

Figure 1. The TAMD


framework TRACK 1
Global

CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENT


Institutions, policies,
capacities
National
Development
Attribution, performance
learning

Sub-national

ADAPTATION PERFORMANCE
Populations, systems
(natural, economic, managed etc)
Local
Source: Brooks and Fisher (2014)7 TRACK 2
IIED Briefing

These local indicators (called Track 2 indicators tools such as the performance assessment tool
in the TAMD framework)1 evaluate changes in for local governments and the PMF.
vulnerabilities and stages of development within
The tool for local governments already includes
communities over time. They show whether or
some of the indicators developed during the
not development has taken place and to what
research. However, because it reports them as
extent climate vulnerabilities and risks have
development indicators, it does not identify them
reduced. As Table 1 (overleaf) demonstrates,
many of the indicators developed in the course
of the research were applicable in all five Box 1. The five districts chosen to develop
districts.6 Others were more relevant to some local indicators
districts or sub-counties than others, depending
Bulambuli and Bundibugyo are highland ecosystems. The steep
on the priority adaptation interventions proposed
mountainous nature of the terrain makes these areas prone to severe soil
in particular areas. These indicators included,
erosion, which causes destructive landslides, loss of soil fertility, pollution
for example, the number of energy saving
and siltation of rivers. During heavy rains, lowlands are flooded and river
technologies being taken up, number of
banks burst. These environmental risks reverse the benefits of development
adaptation interventions, and area of
interventions by making local communities vulnerable to food insecurity and
land cultivated.
loss of property and life.
Linking local and national Nakasongola, Kotido and part of Otuke are within the cattle corridor and
indicators are semi-arid, experiencing prolonged dry spells characterised by intense
heat, heavy winds and dust storms. In these districts, relief rain falls in hilly
IIED and ACCRAs expectations for ways in which
areas where moist air cools as it rises but this causes frequent torrential
TAMD could potentially support climate change
thunderstorms. These conditions damage livelihoods by destroying crops and
M&E in Uganda were largely met: these local
pasture, and increasing pests and diseases.
results can now be used to strengthen national

Figure 2. How district-level indicators feed into national-level outcome indicators

Measurement of progress towards meeting adaptation policy priority


strategic intervention objectives
Specified in the National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) and measured by the
national Performance Measurement Framework (PMF).

National indicators National indicator


Integration of climate change into formal planning and Number of adaptation
budgeting processes outputs fully achieved
in the NCCP priority
Sufficient financial resources and absorption for the sectors
implementation of the NCCP and implementing strategy
made available

National indicator
Systems put in place for accountability and monitoring of resource use for the
implementation of the NCCP and implementation strategy

National indicator
Availability of quality data, analyses and tools to aid decision making on climate
change and vulnerability for planners, local authorities and communities

District-level indicators
(impact, outcomes, outputs)

Note: The national-level outcome indicators will be decided during discussions under the national PMF.
IIED Briefing

Table 1. Track 2 indicators common to the five districts

Outputs Number of awareness meetings/trainings held


Number of trees planted/acreage under tree cover
Knowledge
Number of boreholes and dams constructed Products
Number of households with food storage facilities
Outcomes Number of households with improved food yields/agricultural production
The International Institute
Number of men and women/households accessing and using weather and for Environment and
climate information Development (IIED)
Percentage of waterborne diseases reported at the health care centre promotes sustainable
development, linking local
Number of households with a minimum of two meals per day priorities to global
Impact Number of households with increased/improved incomes challenges. We support
some of the worlds most
Number of landslides reported vulnerable people to
strengthen their voice in
decision making.
as climate-sensitive, which prevents them from Conclusions LTS Africa is a leading
being used to help track progress towards provider of technical
Research at district level using the TAMD services in support of
adaptation. This omission can easily be rectified
framework has shown how local community- sustainable development in
through a screening process in which the Ministry
identified indicators can be linked to national M&E the climate change, forestry,
of Environments Climate Change Department and water, and natural resource
frameworks and integrated into existing tools. If
other ministries go through the sectoral plans management sectors. It
adopted, the data this provides will make it possible
together and mark the indicators that are climate- operates in Eastern and
to monitor changes in climate resilience and Southern Africa.
sensitive. Other indicators not currently captured
assess whether or not development gains are
in the tool will need to be added in districts where The Africa Climate Change
being realised and retained. Resilience Alliance in
they are significant indicators of climate resilience,
and resourced so that local governments are To enable district-level adaptation indicators to be Uganda, formed by CARE,
World Vision, Oxfam and
motivated to track and report on them. linked with national-level climate change Save the Children, works to
indicators, a simple data collection system needs increase government,
Figure 2 illustrates the linkages between the
to be put in place, applying systematic and development and
indicators developed at district level and the humanitarian actors use of
standardised reporting on adaptation across all
proposed PMF. For example, investment in evidence in developing and
districts. The data collected needs to be just
meetings to raise awareness within the district implementing policies and
sufficient to monitor whether districts are on interventions that improve
government will lead to better planning and
track on key indicators related to climate- poor peoples adaptive
budgeting of adaptation projects at the national
sensitive aspects of local livelihoods. This capacity.
level, provided that effective monitoring and
information can then be reported through the
accountability systems are put in place. This will
sectoral ministries to the Ministry of Contact
enhance community resilience in the long term.
Environments Climate Change Department and Susannah Fisher
Collection of data on adaptation-related actions to the Office of the Prime Minister (the susannah.fisher@iied.org
at the district level will also provide quality coordinating office for all ministries), giving a truly Irene Karani
information to inform decisions on climate national picture. irene-karani@ltsi.co.uk
change by local governments, planners and 8086 Grays Inn Road
communities. By improving the allocation of Irene Karani, Tracy C Kajumba, London, WC1X 8NH
technical and financial resources for climate Susannah Fisher and Rose Ochieng United Kingdom
change adaptation and development projects, Irene Karani is director of Land, Trees and Sustainability (LTS) Tel: +44 (0)20 3463 7399
Africa. Tracy Kajumba is acting national programme coordinator Fax: +44 (0)20 3514 9055
this will in turn enhance community resilience. At of the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance (ACCRA).
national level the PMF will be used to aggregate Susannah Fisher is a senior researcher in IIEDs Climate Change www.iied.org
Group. Rose Ochieng is an analyst in Land, Trees and
this data and ensure the accountability and Sustainability (LTS) Africa.
IIED welcomes feedback
monitoring of resource use. via: @IIED and
www.facebook.com/theiied

This research was funded


by UK aid from the UK
Notes
Government, however the
1
For a comprehensive account of the TAMD framework, see Brook, N et al. (2013) An operational framework for tracking adaptation and views expressed do not
measuring development (TAMD). IIED, London. http://pubs.iied.org/10038IIED / 2 See www.iied.org/tamd for more information / necessarily
3
Ministries of local government, water and environment climate change department, works, agriculture, animal industry and fisheries,
gender, labour and social development, and the Uganda National Meteorology Authority. / 4 A theory of change is a tool used to map the reflect the
sequence of development interventions from inputs to outcomes, while examining assumptions about how these changes might happen. / views of the
5
A scorecard is a tool in the TAMD framework that is used to assess climate risk management processes of government institutions. / UK
6
For more information see ACCRA (2015) Tracking adaptation and measuring development in Uganda. Integrated report on data collection Government.
for climate monitoring and evaluation in the five districts of Bundibugyo, Otuke, Nakasongola and Bulambuli. / 7 Brooks, N and Fisher, S
(2014) Tracking adaptation and measuring development: A step-by-step guide. IIED, London. http://pubs.iied.org/10100IIED

Download the pdf at http://pubs.iied.org/17287IIED