Anda di halaman 1dari 11

Greenhouse Technology

Abstract
The purpose of growing crops under greenhouse conditions is to extend
their cropping season and to protect them from adverse environmental
conditions, such as extreme temperatures and precipitation, and from dis-
eases and pests. Greenhouse production normally requires a high level of
technology to obtain adequate economic returns on investments. Quality is
a high priority for greenhouse crops, requiring much care in pest and dis-
ease management, not only to secure yields but also to obtain a high cos-
metic standard. Agroclimate, types of glazing materials, types of
greenhouses, and greenhouse environmental control are some of the topics
discussed in this chapter.

Keywords
Greenhouse production Agroclimate Glazing materials Greenhouse
Environmental control

2.1 Introduction A greenhouse is a framed or an inated struc-


ture covered with a transparent or translucent
Greenhouse technology implies production of material which permits at least partial control of
plants for economic use in a covered structure plant environment and which are large enough to
that allows rapid harvesting of solar radiation and permit a person to carry out cultural operations
modication of agroclimatic conditions condu- (Chandra and Panwar 1987). While full advan-
cive for plant growth and development. The tech- tage is taken of the available sunshine for crop
nology embraces infrastructure modeling, production by way of selecting proper covering
selection of plants for adaptation, production materials, the enclosure provides an opportunity
economics, agronomic management and com- to control the other environmental parameters.
mercial potential, etc. As a result, greenhouse crop productivity is

Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015 13


P.P. Reddy, Sustainable Crop Protection under Protected Cultivation,
DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-952-3_2
14 2 Greenhouse Technology

largely independent on outdoor environmental Growing of vegetable and oriculture crops


conditions. under protected cultivation is receiving utmost
The purpose of growing crops under green- attention and gaining popularity among farming
house conditions is to extend their cropping sea- community across India. The government of
son and to protect them from adverse India launched the Horticulture Technology
environmental conditions, such as extreme tem- Mission Project, and under this program, a large
peratures and precipitation, and from diseases number of polyhouses in the states of Kerala,
and pests (Hanan et al. 1978). Greenhouse struc- Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, the
tures are essentially light scaffolding covered by northeastern hill region, Haryana, Gujarat, Tamil
sheet glass, berglass, or plastic. Such materials Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and the NCR region have
have a range of energy-capturing characteristics, come up in a big way. The protected cultivation
all designed to maximize light transmission and has shown promise in respect of higher crop pro-
heat retention. Crops may be grown in ground ductivity both in terms of quality and quantity of
bed soil, usually amended with peat or farmyard the produce.
manure, in benches, in pots containing soil or soil Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, has
mixtures or soil substitutes, and in hydroponic achieved the productivity of 302 t/ha in tomato,
systems, such as sand or rock wool cultures and 211 t/ha in bell pepper, and 151 t/ha in cucumber
owing nutrient systems, without a matrix for the per crop cycle.
roots.
Modern technology has given the grower
some powerful management tools for production. 2.2 Agroclimate
Generally, added-value crops are grown under
protection. Most of them are labor intensive and There are several climatic factors that need care
energy demanding during cold weather. in the management of a greenhouse. The following
Greenhouse production therefore normally factors are important for greenhouse cultivation.
requires a high level of technology to obtain ade-
quate economic returns on investments. Quality
is a high priority for greenhouse crops, requiring 2.2.1 Sunlight
much care in pest and disease management, not
only to secure yields but also to obtain a high cos- The direction of the greenhouse should be such
metic standard. Although technological changes that it receives sunlight for maximum hours. In
are ultimately intended to reduce production hilly regions, greenhouse should face the south-
costs and maximize prots, precise environmen- east direction and its location should not be under
tal and nutritional control push plants to new lim- shade. However, under the tropical condition,
its of growth and productivity. This can generate temperature retention can be reduced by choos-
chronic stress conditions, which are difcult to ing a less sunny site. Sunlight is essential for aug-
measure but apparently conducive to some pests mentation of the process of photosynthesis and
and diseases. Historically, not enough attention minimum sun requirement of crop should be kept
has been paid to exploiting and amending pro- in mind. In addition, sunlight also provides requi-
duction technology for the control of pests and site thermal environment for various other physi-
diseases. This makes the control of pests and dis- ological processes including photosynthesis.
eases in protected crops even more challenging, Hilly regions receive clear sunny days in winter
with many important problems being unresolved so sunlight as such may not be a limiting factor,
and new ones arising as the industry undergoes but its tapping and conservation could be a major
more changes in production systems. concern for further investigation.
2.3 Types of Glazing Materials 15

2.2.2 Temperature 1992), and in the closed structures like green-


houses, it may drop down further because of its
Sunlight is the major rather than the sole source consumption by the plants. At relatively high
of temperature. Examples of providing external sunlight intensities and temperature, photosyn-
heat source other than sunlight are rare in hilly thetic rate is directly proportional to CO2 concen-
regions. Temperature during night hours may tration up to 2400 ppm. Hence supplementary
drop down to below 0 C and heat obtained from application of CO2 will boost plant productivity
trapped solar radiation is not properly conserved. inside the greenhouse. Under the hilly region
The following steps are advantageous to maintain situation, appropriate air circulation is a better
a thermal environment of the greenhouse: and economic means to prevent undesirable
lowering of CO2, while for conservation of CO2
Blackening of internal surface of brick wall produced at night, a tightly closed greenhouse is
and soil bed surface a prerequisite.
Providing insulation by doubling the brick
wall
Covering polyethylene or glass external sur- 2.2.5 Soil
face with multilayer covering during night
hours Soil serves as growth medium for plants. Sandy
Mud plastering in the case of stone walls loam soil is the best choice. It should be supple-
Placing of black-colored stones in the mented with well-rotten FYM, compost, or bio-
greenhouses fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizers need to be used as
Keeping containers lled with water per recommendations. Continuous cultivation
inside the greenhouse may give rise to buildup of
pathogens. To destroy pathogens, pasteurization
of soil is recommended (steam aeration) before
2.2.3 Relative Humidity every crop and soil replacement is recommenced
after every 3 years. Steam aeration temperature
The minimum limit of relative humidity for nor- of 60 C for 30 min is good enough to accom-
mal physiological functioning of the plants is 50 plish the task. Chemical fumigation can also be
%. Extreme xeric conditions hardly allow relative used but steam is the best as it is not selective
humidity to rise to this level in the outer environ- thus attacking all sort of pathogens.
ment, but inside the greenhouse, sufcient water
application and restricted air circulation gear up
and maintain relative humidity at higher level. It 2.3 Types of Glazing Materials
may be increased by keeping pan evaporation. A
mechanical device automatically controls rela- 2.3.1 Glass
tive humidity by periodical sprinkling of water.
Cooling pads are usually installed in low- Glass has been the preferred covering material
humidity and tropical areas. for greenhouses worldwide because of its light
transmissivity characteristics. Transmissivity of
4050-year-old glass differs a little from that of
2.2.4 Carbon Dioxide Enrichment new glass. Temperature retention in a glasshouse
is pretty good. However, high installation cost is
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the basic ingredient a major limitation. Moreover, due to transporta-
required for manufacturing of organic matter by tion of materials and frequent damage of glasses
process of photosynthesis. In cold arid regions, due to high wind velocity, a glasshouse is
CO2 concentration is below normal (NAEDB discouraged.
16 2 Greenhouse Technology

2.3.2 Polyethylene 2.4.1 Glasshouse

Plastic polyethylene is the most widely used As its name indicates, glass is used as glazing
greenhouse lm around the globe. It is produced material (Fig. 2.1) in this greenhouse. Perhaps
by mixing homopolymers of ethylene with or this is the rst and oldest among all types of
without an ultraviolet (UV) inhibitor package, greenhouse structures. Glass panels are tted
but only a UV-stabilized polyethylene sheet is with the help of a wooden or metal frame. It can
recommended because non-UV inhibitor be of any shape and size and it is pretty effective
package-added polyethylene will break down for winter cultivation, but due to increase in day
after 35 months due to photochemical reactions. temperature in summer, it becomes unt for cul-
Polyethylene lm is tough, exible, and rela- tivation during summer. High initial cost, dif-
tively inexpensive. It can withstand as low as 50 culty in construction, and frequent damage of
C but 8090 C temperature will cause it to glass panels by strong winds are other discourag-
melt. Above 60 C, it loses much of its strength ing factors. In hilly regions, only a few of such
and may stretch markedly. The life of structures are found for research.
UV-stabilized polyethylene lm is 13 years.
However, Rigidex polyethylene sheet may be
used for 56 years on a trench. 2.4.2 Polyhouse

Ideal features of polyethylene have increased the


2.3.3 Fiberglass-Reinforced use of polyhouses (Fig. 2.2) in place of the glass-
Panel (FRP) house throughout the globe. It has not only
reduced the initial cost but also increased the
These panels consist of berglass-reinforced popularity of the greenhouse by simplifying the
polyester. The panels have been very popular in installation technology. Generally, there are two
areas of high light intensity such as Southern types of polyhouses in the hilly region.
USA, but about 1015 % heat loss due to
increased exposed area makes it unt for most of 2.4.2.1 Prefabricated Polyhouses
the Indian region. Further, with its age under use, A prefabricated metal structure of convenient
the transparency gets reduced due to yellowing. size is installed and a polyethylene lm is cov-
ered over it. This structure is not recommended at
all for the hilly region because of poor tempera-
2.3.4 Polycarbonate Panels ture retention, low crop yield, and high installa-
tion cost (Singh et al. 1998a).
The panels are available in double-skinned
sheets. SDP polycarbonate sheets are similar in 2.4.2.2 Ladakh Polyhouse
physical dimension to the SDP acrylite but are This is one of the innovative and low-cost green-
stronger and have a lower light transmissivity. Its houses of the Ladakh region. It is similar to nor-
price is approximately 25 % higher than SDP mal, but the only difference is its surrounding
acrylite. mud brick wall in place of polyethylene sheets
which not only cuts down the installation cost but
also reduces the adverse effects of strong winds
2.4 Types of Greenhouses and also increases temperature retention and ulti-
mately increases net prot. This is generally the
Various types of greenhouses are also seen in lean type and has three sides made of mud bricks.
India. The brief description of each type is being The back wall is 7 ft in height, while the front has
discussed below. no wall. The length is 32 ft with a width of 16 ft
2.4 Types of Greenhouses 17

Fig. 2.1 Glasshouse

Fig. 2.2 Polyhouse

(Singh et al. 2000). The polyethylene is sup- ene lm. The polyethylene is also covered by an
ported on wooden poles and sidewalls. The two additional or woolen or cotton sheet polyethylene
sidewalls are descending toward the front. Jammu lm during night to reduce the heat loss during
and Kashmir State Department of Agriculture/ extreme winter. The damage of blowing off the
Horticulture provides cash subsidy besides the polyethylene lm by strong winds is minimized
32 16-ft polyethylene sheet. This has brought a by putting stones along the sides. Cultural prac-
boost to the greenhouse revolution in Ladakh. tices and other operations are done by removing
the polyethylene sheet from the top of the trench.
The structure does not require much skill in its
2.4.3 Trench (Underground construction and management. Its cost is lowest
Greenhouse) among all other greenhouses, and being an under-
ground structure, heat loss is minimal and
This is a unique, innovative, very simple, cheap, temperature retention is high (Singh and
and useful underground greenhouse structure for Dhaulakhandi 1998) and thus yields good crop.
the hilly region and thus has unlimited potential Strong winds do not affect polyethylene cover
in the region. This may be of any convenient much and hence it is long lasting. This structure
dimension. However, a trench of 30 10 3-ft is therefore being recommended as the most suit-
size is ideal. In this pit type of structure, wooden able greenhouse for the hilly region (Singh et al.
poles are used to hold UV-stabilized polyethyl- 1998, 2000).
18 2 Greenhouse Technology

Fig. 2.3 Nylon netting


single-bed tunnels

2.4.4 Plastic Low Tunnel 2.4.5 Double-Wall Polyench

It is a small semi-spherical structure frame made This structure is designed by the Forest Research
of metal, wood, or plastic and covered with poly- Laboratory (FRL), Leh, to harness the soil and
ethylene or ber-reinforced plastics to create a solar heat for growing the vegetables especially
protected environment (Fig. 2.3). Plastic low tun- during winter months. The polyench refers to a
nels are exible transparent coverings that are polyhouse erected over a trench where back walls
installed over rows of individual beds of trans- and sidewalls are made up of mud bricks. The
planted vegetables to enhance the plant growth sidewalls are provided with double walls lled
by warming the air around the plants (microcli- with insulating material available locally, i.e.,
mate) in open eld during winters. These help in sawdust for better retention of heat inside the
warming the soil and protect the crop against the polyench. The inner walls are painted black to
hails and snow and advance the crop by 3060 absorb more solar radiation during morning hours.
days than their normal season. This low-cost The structure is also like gable uneven span with
technology is very simple and highly protable modied roof having a polythene sheet toward
for off-season cultivation and catching the early the sun-facing side and grass thatch support over
market. Generally galvanized iron arches are a wooden frame opposite to the sun-facing side
xed manually 1.52.0 m apart to support the with provision of ventilators in the roof. Since
plastic tunnel. Width and height is kept about locally available material has been used in this
4560 cm to cover the plant as per the crop greenhouse, the cost is reduced drastically com-
requirement. Transparent non-perforated plastic pared to a normal greenhouse with better efciency
of 3050 thickness is sufcient. It partly reects of temperature retention than the trench and
infrared radiation to keep the temperature of the polyhouse. Considering the wear and tear that
low tunnel higher than outside. Small vents can occurred due to high wind velocity in the hilly
be made at the side of the tunnel to facilitate regions, the polythene sheet has been replaced
proper aeration in tunnel. These structures serve with FRL sheets to increase the life span of the
as a mini greenhouse. This is a temporary struc- structure. The structure has been accepted by the
ture which can easily be shifted to any place. Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council
However, a major problem in tunnels is faced in (LAHDC), and the state government is providing
watering, weeding, and harvesting which involves a subsidy of 50% to the farmers for promoting
removal of cover and again putting them back. the protected cultivation in the Ladakh region.
2.5 Greenhouse Environmental Control 19

Fig. 2.4 Net houses

2.4.6 Multipurpose Nets trol over all these parameters makes a greenhouse
a completely controlled structure.
Shade nets are used to reduce the adverse effect
of scorching sun and heavy rain (Fig. 2.4). Shade
houses are becoming popular for growing crops 2.5.1 Ventilation
and nursery during summer season. Net houses
are used for raising vegetables/fruits/owers/ A greenhouse is ventilated for either reducing the
medicinal plants in high-rainfall regions. The very high greenhouse air temperatures or for
roof of the structure is covered with suitable clad- replenishing carbon dioxide supply or for moder-
ding material, mostly HDPE, which does not ating the relative humidity in the greenhouse. It is
absorb moisture. Slides are made of wire mesh of quite possible to bring greenhouse air tempera-
different gauges 2590% shade depending upon ture down during spring and autumn seasons by
requirements. Such structures are popular in the providing adequate ventilation for the green-
northeastern region of the country. Similarly house. The ventilation in a greenhouse could
weed nets are made of HDPE and covered on the either be natural or forced. In the case of a small
ground to control the weeds by reducing light on greenhouse (less than 6 m wide), natural ventila-
the soil. Insect-proof nets are effective to reduce tion could be quite effective during spring and
the incidence of a number of pests and viral dis- autumn seasons. However, fan ventilation is
eases in crops. These nets are used like a mos- essential to have precise control over air tempera-
quito net around the crops, having 4050-mesh tures, humidity, and carbon dioxide levels.
size. Other similar nets include bird protection Orientation of the greenhouse is another impor-
nets to control the bird damage of plants/crops, tant factor. An eastwest-oriented freestanding
hail protection nets, reector nets, etc. greenhouse maintains better winter light level as
compared to a northsouth-oriented greenhouse.
Therefore, in northern India, a greenhouse should
2.5 Greenhouse Environmental be oriented in the eastwest direction. Gutter-
Control connected greenhouse should be oriented north
south to avoid continuous shading of certain
A greenhouse is essentially meant to permit at portions of the greenhouse due to structural
least a partial control of microclimate within it. members.
The control of greenhouse environment means A greenhouse structure has three distinct seg-
the control of temperature, light, air composition, ments, i.e., frame, glazing material, and control/
and nature of the root medium. Obviously, a con- monitoring equipment. All the three components
20 2 Greenhouse Technology

have different designed life periods. Whereas a house roof, it is limited to about 0.05 cm which is
metallic greenhouse frame is designed for a ser- not thick enough. Cooling is most effective when
vice period of 1525 years, glazing materials cold water is used in the water lm.
have a life span of 220 years. Control and moni-
toring equipment normally wear out in 510 2.5.2.2 Evaporative Cooling (EC)
years. In the prevailing economic conditions, The degree of cooling obtained from an evapora-
where capital is a scarce input, the choice often tive system is directly related to the wet-bulb
favors a low-initial-investment greenhouse. depression that occurs with a given set of climate
Galvanized mild steel pipe as a structural mem- conditions. EC systems are most effective in
ber in association with wide-width UV-stabilized areas where a consistently low relative humidity
polyethylene lm is a common option selected exists.
by greenhouse designers.
A 600800-gauge-thick polyethylene lm can 2.5.2.3 Fan and Pad System (F & P)
safely withstand normal wind loads prevailing in It is adaptable to both large and small green-
most parts of the country. A single-piece polyeth- houses. In this system, low-velocity and large-
ylene lm to cover a greenhouse is preferred due volume fans draw air through wet brous pads
to material economy, easy handling, and mounted on the opposite side or end wall of the
improved environmental control. An 800-gauge- greenhouse. The outside air is cooled by evapora-
thick polyethylene lm costs approximately Rs. tion to 20 C of the wet-bulb temperature. Either
6080/m2 and has a service span of 25 years. vertical or horizontal pads can be used in the F &
The selection of greenhouse equipment P systems. However, vertical pads accumulate
depends on local climate conditions and the crops salts and sag rand; thus, they create openings that
to be grown. A heating unit is a must in cold allow hot air to enter the greenhouse. Various
regions and a cooling unit is required in almost materials, viz., gravel, pine bark, straw, burlap,
all climates in India. aspen wood ber (shredded Populus tremuloides
mats), honeycomb paper, etc., can be used for the
pad. However, pumice and volcanic rock (14 cm
2.5.2 Cooling Systems in diameter) are reported to function very
satisfactorily.
While ventilation may be used for cooling during
autumn and spring seasons, other methods have 2.5.2.4 High-Pressure Mist System
to be employed for cooling during summers. Water is sprayed into the air above the plants at
Roof shading helps in cooling the greenhouses. pressures of 3570 kg/cm2 from low-capacity
The amount of solar radiant energy entering the nozzles (1.82.8 L/h). Although most of the mist
greenhouse can be reduced by applying opaque evaporates before reaching the plant level, some
coatings directly to the glazing or by placing of the water settles on the foliage where it reduces
wood or aluminum over the glazing. Commercial leaf temperatures.
shading compounds or mixtures prepared with
paint pigments are preferred for this purpose. 2.5.2.5 Low-Pressure Mist System
White compounds are preferred for they reect a Misting with water pressure at less than 7 kg/cm2
maximum amount of sunlight, 83 % versus 43 % has achieved an air temperature that is 5 C cooler
for green and 25 % for blue or purple. in a greenhouse compared to natural ventilation.
The water droplets from a low-pressure misting
2.5.2.1 Water Film system are quite large and do not evaporate
on the Greenhouse Cover quickly. Leaching of nutrients from the foliage
To absorb infrared radiation, a water layer must and the soil is a serious drawback of using this
be at least 1.0 cm thick. But on a sloping green- technique.
2.6 Future Thrusts 21

2.5.3 Humidity Control house. The heating systems should not only raise
the greenhouse temperatures but should also
For most crops, the acceptable range of relative achieve uniformity of temperature distribution.
humidity is between 50 % and 80 %. However, Therefore, placement of heating units and the
for plant propagation work, relative humidity up type of distribution system to be selected are
to 90 % may be desirable. Humidication in important.
summers can be achieved in conjunction with
greenhouse cooling by employing appropriate 2.5.4.2 Heating Systems Based
evaporative cooling methods, such as fanpad on Nonconventional Energy
and fogging systems. Sometimes during winters, Sources
when sensible heat is being added to raise the A number of active solar heating have been
greenhouse air temperature during nights, the developed for the greenhouse during the last two
relative humidity level might fall below the decades in order to reduce the dependence of the
acceptable limit. greenhouse industry on conventional fuels. The
normal components of a solar heating system are
solar collector, heat transfer medium, heat
2.5.4 Greenhouse Heating exchanger, and heat storage. Biogas, generated
from agricultural wastes/residues, can also be
There are essentially three main categories of used for greenhouse heating.
efforts needed to maintain desirable greenhouse
temperatures during winter: 2.5.4.3 Design of Passive Solar
Greenhouse
Design of energy-efcient greenhouse with A passive solar greenhouse is one which not only
passive solar heating components. attempts to capture maximum solar energy but
Design of active heating systems based on also minimizes the unwanted thermal exchange
renewable energy sources such as solar and between the greenhouse and the surroundings in
biogas. order to maintain desirable temperatures. The
Design of an active heating system based on following points summarize the useful results so
conventional fuels. far:
While the conventional fuel-based heating
systems are many and dependable, the other A greenhouse should be oriented eastwest.
two categories of efforts are still evolving. The north side of a greenhouse structure
should be thermally insulated.
The north side of a greenhouse facing the crop
2.5.4.1 Heating Systems Based should be covered with a reective surface so
on Conventional Fuels that the sunlight incident on it from the south
Traditionally, glass greenhouses have been side is reected on to the crops.
heated by hot water systems. Most of the larger
commercial greenhouses are heated with some
type of boiler system. Gas-red unit heaters for
greenhouse heating deliver heat at approximately 2.6 Future Thrusts
half of the cost of the steam/hot water systems.
The hot air is distributed through a perforated Greenhouse technology development has made
polytube running along the greenhouse length. good progress in India during the last two
Electric heaters, both radiative and convective, decades, and steps necessary for promoting
are simple and convenient to control. But, the greenhouse cultivation of ower and vegetable
nonavailability of electricity and its high cost crops have been started. Energy-efcient green-
limit its use to small and/or experimental green- house cultivation continues to be an area of active
22 2 Greenhouse Technology

research and development, and this is sought to Vocational training to the unemployed youth
be achieved through precision equipment and and greenhouse practitioners in remote areas
protocols. While the gap between the demand to update their skills in this technology.
and supply of most horticultural crops remains Financial assistance such as low-interest loans
wide and the country plans to double the produc- should be made available for poor farmers to
tion of horticultural crops by 2012, the protected adopt this technology.
cultivation technology holds the key to meet the Insurance of greenhouse structure and crop to
targets. It clearly emerges that greenhouse tech- protect the farmers against the loss caused by
nology has multipurpose application for sustain- natural calamities.
able development of a hilly zone. During harsh Rigorous extension program to disseminate
winter which otherwise threatens the survival of the technology information to the poorest of
human beings in these remote hilly areas, popu- the society.
larization and further improvements in green-
house management could provide a sign of relief
in solitude of white snow cover. Thrust areas for
future research are enumerated below: References
Conservation of more thermal radiation in Chandra P, Panwar J (1987) Greenhouse technology and
winter. its scope in India. In: Proceedings of the national sym-
Durable infrastructure modeling. posium on use of plastics in agriculture, New Delhi,
pp 6266
Development of successful commercial Hanan JJ, Honey WD, Goldsberry KL (1978) Greenhose
models. management. Springer, New York
Modernization of polygreenhouse to permit NAEDB (1992) Action plans on cold deserts: an inte-
agroclimatic manipulations of higher grated approach for sustainable development.
NAEDB, UHF, Solan 173230 (HP)
magnitude. Singh B, Dhaulakhandi AB (1998) Application of solar
Identication of new crops/varieties suitable greenhouse for vegetable production in cold desert. In:
for cultivation inside the greenhouse. Proceedings of world renewable energy congress,
Socioeconomic impacts of polygreenhouse Florence, V:23112314
Singh B, Dwivedi SK, Paljor Eli (1998a) Studies on suit-
technology in hilly region/cold arid zone. ability of various structures for winter vegetable pro-
Plastic lms of suitable grades need to be duction at subzero temperatures (Abstr). In: 25th
made available in adequate quantity. Indian horticulture congress, Belgium, p 290
Development of area-specic suitable green- Singh B, Dwivedi SK, Singh N, Paljor Eli (1998b)
Sustainable horticultural practices for cold arid areas.
house designs. In: International symposium on sustainable agricul-
Standardization of package of practices for ture in Hill areas (Abstr). Himachal Pradesh Krishi
growing various crops in greenhouse for spe- Vidyapeeth, Palampur, pp 3536
cic regions. Singh B, Dwivedi SK, Sharma JP (2000) Greenhouse
technology and winter vegetable production in cold
Varieties suitable for greenhouse cultivation arid zone. In: Sharma JP, Mir AA (eds) Dynamics of
need to be made available to enhance the cold and agriculture. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi,
productivity. pp 279293
http://www.springer.com/978-981-287-950-9