Anda di halaman 1dari 38

GIDEN Ilhami

Bakkalaurea Thesis

Derricks

Supervised by: Prof. Kessler


Approval date: 4th February 2005

Date: 20/03/2017
Table of Contents

Abstract................................................................................................................................ 5

Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 6

Essay.................................................................................................................................... 7

1 History................................................................................................................................ 7

2 Historical Derricks in Europe..............................................................................................13

2.1 Salzgitter-Gullivermast................................................................................................................ 13

2.2 EIKOMAG - Four Pole Derrick.....................................................................................................14

2.3 Trauzl-W-Mast.............................................................................................................................16

3 Steel Derrick..................................................................................................................... 17

4 Cantilever Mast (Jack-knife Mast)......................................................................................19

4.1 Lee C. Moore Mast...................................................................................................................... 20

4.2 Newer Mast Designs...................................................................................................................21

4.3 Standard-Full-View-Mast (System Ideco).....................................................................................24

4.4 Elevated-Full-View-Mast..............................................................................................................26

4.5 Kwik-Lift-Mast.............................................................................................................................26

4.6 Helicopter Rig............................................................................................................................. 26

4.7 Duallift Mast................................................................................................................................ 28

4.8 Mobile Rigs................................................................................................................................. 28

4.8.1 Trailer Rambler...........................................................................................................................................28

4.8.2 Desert Rambler..........................................................................................................................................28

4.8.3 Drive-In Rambler........................................................................................................................................30

4.8.4 Back-In Rambler........................................................................................................................................30

5 Standard DIN 4111 for Rigs............................................................................................... 31

5.1 Application Range.......................................................................................................................31

5.2 Terms.......................................................................................................................................... 31

5.2.1 Derrick......................................................................................................................................................31
5.2.2 Mast..........................................................................................................................................................32

5.2.3 Crown.......................................................................................................................................................32

5.2.4 Substructure..............................................................................................................................................32

5.3 Various Loads.............................................................................................................................32

5.3.1 Dead Load.................................................................................................................................................32

5.3.2 Working load..............................................................................................................................................32

5.4 Load Combinations.....................................................................................................................33

5.5 Scope and Details of the Static Proof...........................................................................................34

5.6 Sign with load capacity................................................................................................................34

6 Conclusions...................................................................................................................... 35

6.1 Summary.................................................................................................................................... 35

6.2 Future outlook............................................................................................................................. 36

References........................................................................................................................... 38
List of Figures

Figure 1: Colonel Drake (1861)............................................................................................... 7

Figure 2: Cable Tool Drilling Rig.............................................................................................. 9

Figure 3: An early rotary Drilling Rig......................................................................................10

Figure 4: Spindletop 1901..................................................................................................... 10

Figure 5: Spindletop 1903.................................................................................................. 11

Figure 6: Rigging up a wooden Derrick..................................................................................12

Figure 7: Gullivermast....................................................................................................... 14

Figure 8: EIKOMAG Derrick 1961......................................................................................... 15

Figure 9: Raising up the Trauzl-W-Mast............................................................................16

Figure 10: Raising up a Steel Derrick....................................................................................18

Figure 11: Model of triple jack-knife-mast.........................................................................19

Figure 12 Jack-Knife-Mast with raised floor system...............................................................22f

Figure 13: IDECO Full-View-Mast......................................................................................24

Figure 14: Helicopter Mast.................................................................................................... 27

Figure 15: Desert Rambler Rig.......................................................................................... 29

Figure 16: Drive-In Rambler Rig IDECO 4004.......................................................................30

Figure 17: Back-In Rambler Rig......................................................................................... 31

Figure 18: Rig cross section.................................................................................................. 36

Figure 19: A Slant-Hole Drilling Rig...................................................................................37

Figure 20: Futuristic mast design by DrillTec..........................................................................37


Derricks

Abstract

At first I tried to mention that derricks are not an invention of the 19 th century. Therefore I wrote
a little bit about the former history of derricks. For that I wrote about the first people who had
built a derrick, which were the Chinese not for oil or gas but for salt and the Egyptians used
drilling to break large stones, which they used to build their pyramides. The next step, which I
made, was the place where the development did not stop till today. This development began in
the USA in middle of the 19th century.

The first derricks were made of wood then the materials were changed into steel. The
development in Europe was always some decades after the USA. I gave some examples for
Austrian and German development, but the developments in Europe ended and later most of
the derricks, which were built in Europe, were constructed under license of the US types.

After the history I tried to explain the difference between derricks and masts. Then I gave some
examples of different masts and tried to explain why these developments were necessary, for
example the helicopter rigs, which can be disassembled into light parts which can be
transported by a helicopter or the desert rambler with large tires which can roll in the sand
without sinking.

In the end of my essay I tried to explain some standards and some explanations in standards,
which are usually in central Europe.
The last thing I made was to write a conclusion with a future outlook.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 5


Derricks

Introduction

My first goal is to tell something about the history of derricks, which people began with drilling
and why did they do that. The next thing I want to do is to find out the history about modern
drilling and in my case how the people did managed it with the derrick. Another goal of mine is
to find out which materials the people used.

Then I want to look at the development of different types and which types survived and which
types died out. The next thing I want to do is to compare the two big parts of the world where
the oil was/is very important: The USA and Europe. How was the development in these two
continents and especially in central Europe?
How is this development today? Do now exist types of both continents or has one of these
continents won this competition.

The second goal after the history is to find out which types were built and why they had been
built. Which differences exist/existed between the different types? Is there anything which is
always the same or are the different types completely different?

Then I want to find out if there are any standards. And if yes what do they include?

These are many questions and I hope I can find the answers and write them down here and I
hope also that anybody who read my essay know something about derricks.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 6


Derricks

Essay

1 History

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 7


Derricks

Figure 1: Peter Wilson (left) Local Druggist, Colonel Edwin L Drake (right) (1861)

If you do not count picks and shovels, two drilling techniques have been available since people
first began making holes in the ground: cable-tool drilling and rotary drilling. Both methods
originated a very long time ago. Over 2000 years ago, for instance the Chinese drilled wells
with primitive yet efficient cable tool rigs, because they were looking for salt. (They were still
using similar rigs as late as the 1940s.) Two quarry rocks for the pyramids, the ancient
Egyptians drilled holes using hand-powered rotating bits. They drilled several holes in a line
and stuck dry wooden pegs in the holes. They then saturated the pegs with water. The swelling
wood split the stone along the line made by the holes.

The next time when we hear about derricks is about the mid 19 th century where in the USA the
first derricks of wood-frame construction were built. The materials were beam and building
timber. Most of the derricks were only one time to use for another well it was necessary to build
another derrick. There was a lot of difference in the construction and how the dimensions were
chosen. Only the floor which was like a square and the top were the same in all cases. The
power unit was either in a machine room or not but in all cases built next to the derrick.

At that period the most famous wood-frame derrick was the one of Colonel Drake 1859 in
Titusville (Pennsylvania) because he was the first one who found oil with a well in the USA.
This was the beginning of the oil era in the USA and the rest of the world.

Introducing the mud percussion drilling where the rope was replaced by drill pipes the
disadvantage of the derricks with a lower height became obvious. At bit-changes there was no
possibility to let the drill pipes in stands (2 or 3 pipes are connected) in the derrick. This
disadvantage became more clearly to recognize by using the rotary drilling system at the
beginning of the 20th century.

The cable-tool drilling system were used by Colonel Drake at the Oil Creek site. Such rigs
feature a cable to which workers attach a sharply pointed bit. Workers also attach heavy
weights called jars above the bit. Rig machinery lifts the cable, the bit, and the weights, and
then drops them. The falling bit strikes the ground with a heavy blow. It punches its way into the
rock. Repeated lifting and dropping makes the bit drill. Cable tool drilling is very efficient in
hard-rock formations such as those Drake and others drilled in Pennsylvania.
From time to time, however, workers have to stop drilling, pull the bit from the hole, and
remove the pieces of rock, or cuttings, the bit makes. If the crew fails to bail the cuttings, the
cuttings will obstruct the bits progress. What is more, cable-tool drilling is not suitable for soft-
rock formations, as soft-rock fragments tend to close around the bit and wedge it in the hole.

The rotary drilling system was found in England in 1844, where the first rotary table and
rotary swivel were used. This system was used only for water or salt wells at first. A rotary
drilling rig turns, or rotates, the bit on bottom to drill, or make hole. Crew members attach the
bit to the end of a length of pipe. By adding more pipe, they lower the bit to the bottom of the
hole. With the bit on bottom, the driller starts rotating it. Some of the weight of the pipe is
allowed to press down on the bit. The weight causes the bits cutters to bite into the formation
rock. Instead of being a chisel, a rotary bit has several rows of metal teeth or diamond cutters.
As the bits teeth or cutters rotate over the formation, they gouge or scrape the rock away.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 8


Derricks

Figure 2: Cable-tool drilling rig

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 9


Derricks

Figure 3: An early (about 1916) rotary drilling rig; the rotary machine is in the foreground to the
right.

After about 50 years in 1900 Anthony Lukas, who had been born in Austria, used the rotary
drilling system to drill an oil reservoir in Spindletop (Beaumont/Texas) and helped this system
on the road to success, caused by a spectacular blow out known as the Spindletop Gusher.

Figure 4: Spindletop, 10 th October 1901

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 10


Derricks

"Black Gold" erupted from this well near Beaumont, Texas to a height greater than 50 meters
on January 10th, 1901. It was not brought under control for 9 days, losing one million barrels of
oil in the process. A device now called a "Christmas Tree" was invented on the spot to control
the flow of oil. Christmas trees are now commonplace in the industry to prevent just such an
occurence. An estimated 850,000 barrels of oil was lost. By today's standards, that's a loss of
about $17,000,000. Of course, given the huge amount of oil which glutted the market after this
discovery, the price of oil dropped from $2 to $.03 per barrel.
Similarly to the period in 1860 in Titusville the happenings in Spindletop ended in an oil-rush.
Spindletop was full of people who were looking for oil and woods of wood-frame derricks were
founded. In 1903 at the Boiler Avenue were most of the drilling activities of the whole state of
Texas. Daily blow outs were to register and it was not possible to avoid fire, because of the
wood-frame derricks where the wood was covered with oil and so the fire could not been
stopped.

Figure 5: Spindletop 1903

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 11


Derricks

The scene at figure 3 illustrates the densest drilling in Texas. By 1903, more than 400 wells had
been drilled on the dome.

The wood-frame derricks were some decades in action because they were cheap to build at the
well site and no transport to another location was necessary.

Figure 6: Rigging up a wooden Derrick

While in the USA the wood-frame derricks had been changed with steel derricks from 1910 in
Europe the wood-frame derricks were still in use of the oil companies. In Germany for example
wood-frame derricks were in action till 1935.

Remarkable are some constructions from Germany and Austria which brought diversity into the
landscape of derricks for several years.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 12


Derricks

2 Historical Derricks in Europe

2.1 Salzgitter-Gullivermast

At the beginning of the 1950s Salzgitter-Maschinen AG introduced one of the most interesting
two-legged-pole-mast called Gullivermast in the market.

Special features of the Gullivermast are:


- Two steel poles with an outside diameter of ca. 1 m and a wall thickness of 5 mm
- Each pole exists of three parts, which are connected like a flange
- On the top the poles are connected to each other with a crown block A-shaped

Inside the poles are:


- Ladders to reach the monkey board and the crown block
- Mud standpipe
- Tong counterweights
- Electric wiring for the electric lighting

The mast pole bearings are situated on the substructure:


- In the mast pole base bearings, an eccentric bushing is installed which makes it possible to
adjust the travelling block into the borehole centre
- Both mast legs are supported by two slanted braces, which are attached in the lower
section of the mast. The whole mast is tilted slightly to the front.

The Gullivermast has a platform, which can be moved between 3,5 m and 12m above the drill
floor with an electric hoist on a square guide rail. The guide rail is mounted on the right mast
pole (described from the pipe rack). On this platform it is possible to drive to the top end of the
drill pipe and guide it during the make up.

The construction of the Gullivermast was obviously influenced of the lightweight and pole
constructions of airplane design. It was an interesting type of a full view mast but later it had
been replaced by new types.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 13


Derricks

Figure 7: Gullivermast

2.2 EIKOMAG Four-Pole-Derrick

Another fascinating German construction of the 1950s was the Four-Pole-Derrick built in Co-
production by SANDER and EIKOMAG. It was a Full-View-Mast in steel lightweight
construction. The mast was built for crown loads from 300 t or 625 t.
For this derrick the four legs are characteristic. They have a squared cross section of 1,2 m x
1,2 m and are built in a framework design. Every pole consists of five framework segments (10
m in length).

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 14


Derricks

The Four-Pole-Derrick is a further development of the classical steel derrick. The assembling
of this derrick was in vertical position. Special raising masts, like the ones at the assembly of a
Steel derrick, were in use. Later on mobile cranes were in use to assembly these derricks.

The EIKOMAG-Derrick was built for large hook loads but it was not a standardized
construction.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 15


Derricks

Figure 8: EIKOMAG Derrick 1961, height: 54 m

2.3 Trauzl-W-Mast

Again in the 1950s TRAUZL developed a Full-View-Mast in Austria, which had a unique
structure worldwide.

Figure 9: Raising up the Trauzl-W-Mast

The raising procedures of the Trauzl-W-Mast:


- The mast is mounted right and left onto the substructure in a horizontal position
- The upper parts of the legs are inserted telescopically into the lower parts of the legs.
- Turning points of the legs what means the mast pole bearings are situated on the
substructure
- The legs are folded upwards by a corresponding spooling device onto a raising frame,
which is centrally mounted on the drilling floor.
- Then the upper segments are drawn out telescopically

During the raising procedures the legs of the mast built a W with the raising frame. This is the
reason for the W in the name of this derrick.
The construction of the Trauzl-W-Mast did not prove in practice because this mast needed a lot
of space during the raising procedure, which could not be used during the drilling process.
However, the raising procedure itself was tricky.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 16


Derricks

3 Steel Derrick

The Steel Derrick was introduced in 1910 the first time. In 1926 it was standardized by the API
(= American Petroleum Institute) and started to spread all over the world in the 1930s.

The most common types of Steel Derricks were those ones in which a drill string which
consisted of three drill pipes could be set back. Other systems e.g. with lower heights were
seldom because there was only the possibility to set two drill pipes back which ended up in very
long round trip periods. Other systems were the ones with a large construction height (178 ft
and 189 ft) where four drill pipes could be set back, but these ones also did not survive
because four drill pipes were very difficult to handle.

Originally the Steel Derricks stood directly on concrete foundations. The blow out control
equipment and the flange connections were placed in the cellar and so dit not need any space
at the surface.
Soon the construction of this cellar especially in the swamp regions of the USA e.g. in the
Gulf Coast became difficult and expensive. But it did not take a long time a simple solution was
found. The solution was to put the derrick on a substructure to get some space. Then it was
possible to put the blow out control equipment and the flange connections to there and there
was no need to build a real cellar.
This development was also very useful for the mud pumping system. The bell nipple won on
height because the rig floor was elevated. This was the reason why it became possible to use
mud tanks which were installed on the foundation instead of earth tanks. This was the
beginning for the modern mud technology.

Due to the development of the Steel Derrick and its corresponding substructure, a very
important part of history in the development of rotary drilling was written.

- Now it was possible to drill several wells with just one derrick
- The derrick, the substructure and all other parts were transported from on location to the other
- Now a better fire protection existed caused by the construction material steel
- The wind working surface was reduced to one thirds
- The load capacity of Steel Derricks was easier to calculate than that of the old wooden derricks,
which made it possible to make a more accurate rig selection

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 17


Derricks

Figure 10: Raising up a Steel Derrick

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 18


Derricks

4 Cantilever Mast (Jack-knife Mast)

Figure 11: Model of triple jack-knife-mast

In the oil industry the development of derricks and masts was rather simultaneously.
Previously the wooden derricks were left if the well had been successful. Later this fact was
useful for so called workover jobs, because no had to be build again. But nearly each time
Steel Derricks were dismantled after the drilling job. So the question was how the workover
jobs could be done.
At first, steel tower constructions, which were similar to the Steel derricks in their conception,
were used. The steel tower constructions were much lighter than the Steel derricks and they
had no substructure.
The next step was to create a construction, which was easy to transport and also easy to build
up. These constructions consisted of two mast poles (legs) and these ones can be regarded as
the precursor of the Full-View-Mast. Some of these light constructions were mobile and had
telescopic masts.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 19


Derricks

The principle of all Jack-knife masts do not depend on the producer but is always the same.
The derricks are assembled horizontally on the floor and then raised up by the drawworks. Most
of the modern types can be used freestanding way what means that there is no necessary to
use bracing lines. The lines which can be found on the rig are only guy lines, which mean that
they compensate the wind load capacities.

A difference exists in the way the derricks are raised up and how the mast weights are diverted
onto the substructure. We make the difference of two general types of rising up:
- To pull up the mast over an A-frame Lee C. Moore System
- To push up the mast with raising legs Ideco System
There are again two types of difference with the Lee C. Moore System according to the
diversion of the mast forces:
- Masts which need the A-frame to divert the mast forces.
In this construction the mast has only two mast pole bases on the averted side of the draw-
works. The second support surface is the A-frame the mast, when it is raised, leans on it.

- Masts which need the A-frame just as a reversing point in the raising process.
These masts have four legs and can stand on their own legs.

The system of the freestanding four base mast has been used from OILWELL and EMSCO. All
other companies use the concept of the two base mast, what means that this system is usually
to find more often.
Since 1947 the Jack-knife masts have been standardized from the API.
Other criteria to make a different of Jack-knife masts are:
- Masts, which stand directly on the foundation steel frame
- Masts, which are elevated up to the substructure during the raising process

4.1 Lee C. Moore Mast

The first Jack-knife mast did not appear on the market until the 1930s. The first company who
introduced this mast was the company of Lee C. Moore, which built already 1907 a Steel
Derrick, what means that this company was a pioneer of the oil business.
The Lee C. Moore Jack-knife mast was assembled on the floor horizontally and then it was
raised up over the A-frame with the drawworks. This mast already looked like a modern Jack-
knife mast.

The raising process of the Lee C. Moore is illustrated in the next page.
- First the well site has to be leveled out and the friable soil removed. Then the base beams,
their extensions (raising legs), and the drawworks substructure have to be mounted according
to the assembly drawing on the floor logs. The drawworks, the engines, and the guide rails
have to be installed and mounted onto the substructure.
- The travelling block and the hook are placed into a certain distance of the well. The mast
has to be assembled according to the assembly drawings. The drilling line has to be reeved

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 20


Derricks

from the deadline anchor, over the first wire-line sheave, over and through the crown block and
the travelling block, then over the sheaves on the rear side of the mast to the main drum.
- The brace line, mounted just underneath the monkey board, holds back the mast at the
end of the raising procedure. The pull line runs over a balance sheave, which hangs on the
hook, and winding up the pull line raises the mast. The use of the brace line prevents the mast
from falling against the A-frame in the end.
- The mast is attached with bolts to the A-frame. Then the pull lines are loosened, lowered
with the travelling block, and fastened with slings to the drawworks substructure.
- Afterward the bolt connection between the base frame and the drawworks substructure is
disabled. Then, by slowly winding up the drilling line, the drawworks are lifted onto the drilling
floor level and fastened with bolts.

4.2 Newer Mast Designs

After the special constructions, which were meant before from German and Austrian producers,
was no other development in Europe for any mast construction. The Europeans just bought
licences from designs of the USA and rebuilt it.

In the 1970s newer mast constructions were developed. These ones could be moved more
easily, because it was possible the parts into smaller ones. This made it possible that no heavy
flatbed trailers were necessary anymore.
Also Jack-knife masts were developed, which could be moved on dollies (mainly folded but
also erected). Nowadays only freestanding masts are in use and their stability allows such a
procedure in suitable landscapes.

In the middle of the 1960s began the exploration of gas reservoirs. Then it was necessary to
build the substructure higher because the larger safety armatures (BOP-stacks = blow-out
preventer stacks) needed more space (i.e. Helmerich & Payne Inc., Tulsa planned built 25 new
derricks between 1998 and 2003 with a substructure height of about 8,3 m).
- A construction called insert-structure became popular again
- The mast legs were positioned as low as possible to divert the loads directly into the
foundation
- This was the reason why the masts became larger
- The insert-structure made it possible to install the biggest BOP-stacks

These necessaries were the reason why a new mast the so called Raised-Floor-Mast was
built.

The mast leg points are situated on the main frame, which is positioned directly on the
foundation. The rig floor is build between the mast legs. The mainframe boxes support it and
this structure allows the heaviest casings and drill pipe loads to be absorbed. This solution is up
to now the optimum for the required function of drilling rigs. A total load of up to 1000 tons is
possible.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 21


Derricks

Raising up the mast finished Raising up the substructure with hydraulic hoists

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 22


Derricks

Building up the substructure finished

Figure 12: Jack-Knife-Mast with raised floor system; System DRECO, Type Slingshot

In newer mast constructions the drawworks are generally placed on the substructure. Therefore
solutions had to be found how the drawworks could be elevated onto the substructure.
Therefore some different constructions were designed:
- PYRAMID patented a system where the drawworks are placed onto the drawworks base
frame, which is mounted behind the main base frame. During holding the drawworks in this
position the mast is erected. After this process the drawworks with the base frame, where the
drawworks are mounted, are lifted up by the winches, which are situated in front of the rig.
- In the second method of PYRAMID the drawworks, which are mounted on the frame, are
lifted up with extern winches to the level of the rig floor. Then the mast is being erected by the
installed drawworks.
- In the so called BIG DADDY system (Lee C. Moore) no external winches are necessary. At
this system at first the mast is being lifted up with the drawworks. Then the drawworks pull up
themselves.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 23


Derricks

4.3 Standard-Full-View-Mast (System Ideco)

Figure 13: IDECO Full-View-Mast

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 24


Derricks

Full-View-masts have generally an A-shape. The mast is lifted up by the drawworks and
supported at the front by two legs.

Special advantages:
- The driller has a very good visibility to the monkey man and the hook
- The drill floor is empty, what means that various sizes of drawworks can be used
- Free space around the catheads, and the support beams are mounted in the front
- Big stability by due to the wide support distances
- Massive framework construction
- Easy assembly and disassembly
- The rope stays reeved in the pulleys during the transport
- Different possibilities of transport
Mounted to skids and movable with fold legs
Transport of disassembled simple parts

Erecting the Standard-Full-View-Mast


1. Preparation:
The mast is laid onto wooden beams next to the mast foot chock. For high mast substructures
it has to be considered that the lower side of the mast does not overlap with the tracks of the
guide ramp. Otherwise it could become necessary to lift the masthead a bit higher. In case the
two guide rolls are not exactly in the centre of the guide rail, the masthead has to be moved
horizontally (not with the drawworks lift).

2. Pulling up the mast to the mast foot jack:


The travelling block and the hook are situated as near as possible to the front traverse braces
of the substructure so that the bail for the erecting ropes can be fastened easier in the hook.
The hook is bound with a wire sling onto the substructure and the foot rolls of the T-1 sections
have to be on the rails of the guide ramp. The upper end of the guide ramp has to be lifted up
with lifting spindles so much that it is allowed to the mast hinge bolts to slide into the slots of the
mast foot chock. After the reefing of the blocks, it is possible to lift up the mast (the head end
lies on the transport vehicle) onto the guide ramps by winding up the drum rope. By lowering
the guide ramps the mast hinge bolts are inserted into the slot. Afterwards the bracings of the
mast foot chock are unfolded and secured with bolts.

3. Checks before the erecting:


The mast has to be in a horizontally position or above, if it lies on the crown frame. The guy
lines have to be attached to the crown block frame in the provided bails. The erecting lines
have to have to be mounted on the bail and the bail on the hook. The erecting line has to cross
the dead line above.
Erecting lines have to be lubricated and in a good condition. The dead line anchor, the raising
legs and the monkey board have to be installed in a right way. On the mast no loose objects
(like bolts, tools, etc.) are allowed. All bolts have to be secured by split-pins or other safety
devices. The drillometer has to function without any problems.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 25


Derricks

4. Process of erecting the mast:


The mast has to be pulled up slowly and in a regular way by the drawworks. It is necessary to
pay attention to the loose guy lines, if they are in the right order. At the beginning of the erecting
of the mast the dead line runs horizontally with a longer lever arm, which is the reason why the
drillometer shows 1.4 times more forces than in reality. If the vertical position is reached, the
four locks close automatically. The two locking spindles are used and braced now. The erecting
lines have to run inside the mast by pulling them all the way up together and bound to the
mast. The guy lines have to be braced with the anchors at an angle of 45.

4.4 Elevated-Full-View-Mast

This mast is very similar to the Standard-Full-View-Mast. The difference is that the Elevated-
Full-View-Mast has a larger substructure to be able to use larger preventer systems.

4.5 Kwik-Lift-Mast (mainly workover rigs)

Kwik-Lift-Masts exist in heights between 24,2 m (74) and 36,75 m (112). They can be mounted
on a Drive-In, Back-In, Single Trailer and Dual Trailer Rambler.

Advantages of the Kwik-Lift-Mast:


- Good sight from the floor to the crown
- Transportable from well to well with all lines strung (in one piece)
- Raised and lowered by multistage hydraulic rams
- Possibility of telescoping the mast
- The racking platform is able to vary the length due to the pipe length
- Substructure is built for capacity from 150 t up to 275 t
- The crown block is adaptable for dual-speed-operations
- High torsion-stiffness; for slim-holes and hard workover-jobs

4.6 Helicopter Rig

When the demand for lighter rigs began, this was for remote places like a jungle or off-shore, a
new type of rigs was developed. This one should be able to be transported with helicopters,
what means that they should be light. These rigs can be assembled into parts which are lighter
than 2 t. Then these parts can be transported by helicopters into the working area.

Two main arguments exist for designing a helicopter rig:

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 26


Derricks

- Minimize the hours for assembling, disassembling and the time of preparing the flight with
the helicopter
- Reduction of helicopter flights by using a highly engineered module concept

To ensure that the transport is optimal, corresponding transport-containers are in use.


Example of a helicopter rig (MSH 2000 Ideco):
- Up to 7000 m depth
- Up to 360 t hook load
- Eight diesel engines deliver 3000 hp
- Drawworks has Four-speed steps and 1600 hp input power
- 20 x 46 3/16 drawworks drum and 1 1/8 rope with 10 reevings
- Two brake drums 50 x 10 at the main drum (possible to transport in one unit)
- Two hydraulic brakes (Parmac 342A) give the needed braking power
- Three mud pumps (each with 500 hp input power). Two of them get their power by the
compound and one has an independent drive with two diesel engines.

-
Figure 14: Helicopter Mast

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 27


Derricks

4.7 Duallift Mast

Duallift masts are vertically free standing constructions, which are telescopic, built for high hook
loads and high wind forces. These ones have not any guy lines.
The Duallift Masts can be erected either by hydraulics or by the drawworks (dependent of the
type). These masts are generally used as offshore-workover-rigs.

On the single piece substructure, the drawworks, machines, masts and the rotary table are
mounted on a skid. They can be moved on the substructure and can be placed exactly above
the well.

It is possible to save up to 40% of time with the dual-speed-system during the trip action.

4.8 Mobile rigs

4.8.1 Trailer Rambler

- On wheels (trailer) mounted for easy transport


- Rig is transportable in three units
- Trailer for drawworks and drive engines
- Trailer for Duallift mast with the block and tackle system
- Trailer for the substructure
- Possibility to telescope the mast twice, to make the mast smaller
- Drawworks and rotary table are chain driven

4.8.2 Desert Rambler

The IDECO Desert Rambler for drilling or workover is a large Dual Trailer rig with the
drawworks and engines carried on one trailer and the mast and substructure carried on the
other trailer. This Rambler Rig can be furnished with the IDECO H-725, H-900 or H-1200
mechanical or electric drawworks and the KM 127-430 VM or the KM 136-525 VM Duallift
Mast.
The dimensions of the Desert Rambler restrict its use to off highway locations. This Rambler
Rig is normally furnished with large sand tires for use in desert locations.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 28


Derricks

-
- Figure 15: Desert Rambler Rig

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 29


Derricks

4.8.3 Drive-In Rambler Rigs

Advantages:

- Spots easily and quickly at the well, requires little driver experience
- Eliminates overhang of mast in front of driver on highway
- Meets critical highway regulations for weight distribution and overhang
- Suitable for quick rod and tubing service involving fast rig-up

Figure 16: Drive-In Rambler Rig IDECO 4004

4.8.4 Back-In Rambler Rigs

Advantages:

- Suitable for shallow drilling, workover, as well as rod and tubing work
- Short turning radius provides easy spotting in restricted turning areas
- The drivers cabin does not get dirty because the well is on the rear part of the well
- The larger loading areas make the transport of longer tools and auxiliaries possible
- Wheels located well back from cellar or around wet well site

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 30


Derricks

Figure 17: Back-In Rambler Rig

5 Standard DIN 411 for rigs

5.1 Application Range

The regulations of this standard are valid for stationary and portable rigs, its segments and
foundation, which are used to install and maintain production wells and van also be used as storage.
Guy lines and the anchoring belong to the units.

This standard does not include the machines and the movable parts during operations except
the ropes.

5.2 Terms

5.2.1 Derrick

The derrick is the part of the rig, which carries mainly the hoist, the corresponding hook loads
and the pipes. The difference between derrick and mast that the hook load is more central and
the bigger base of the derrick.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 31


Derricks

5.2.2 Mast

The difference lies in the hook load axis, which is different from the mast axis and that of the
assembly. Normally masts are assembled in a horizontally position and then they are erected
and if necessary and if possible telescoped.

5.2.3 Crown

The crown is the upper part of the hoist

5.2.4 Substructure

The substructure diverts all loads into the foundation or the ground. It can also be used as a
foundation. As far as the portable units serve this function, they are also seen as substructure.

5.3 Various Loads

5.3.1 Dead load

The dead load of all parts (mast of derrick, drill floor) has to be considered in all static
calculations. We assume that the dead load is located in the crown.

5.3.2 Working load

Hook load in the calculations we use the static hook load. The hook load is the force on the
hook of the travelling block, the weight of the travelling block and the weight of the moving line
(in the lowest position of the hook). Its direction is from the centre of the crown block to the
centre of the rotary table. A difference between regular hook load and irregular hook load
exists:
- Regular hook load The regular hook load is the static hook load, what includes the pipe
weights and wind load in regular operation

- Irregular hook load The irregular hook load includes the regular hook load plus the wind load during
irregular operation

- Stress due to the power swivel The torque, which should be made by the power swivel, has to be
considered

- Stress through the pull line, dead line and any guy line - The load components
from the pull line, dead line and any guy line have to be considered. But it is important to pay
attention to the right direction of the forces.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 32


Derricks

- Wheel frictions in the crown Horizontal forces and torques due to the frictions of the
wheels has to be considered. If the losses cannot be defined exactly, it is necessary to assume
a friction of 2,5% for each wheel
- Stress due to the pipe stack The whole weight of the pipes can be seen as an evenly
distributed surface load onto the plan surface. The horizontal component of slanted pipes in an
inconvenient position has to be taken in account. The footprint of drill collars on the drill floor
has to be proved in the static calculations
- Rotary table load The force applied in the borehole centre on the substructure, has to be at
least of the same value as the regular hook load, even if the rotary table load is smaller. Pipe
forces, which are applied at the same time, also have to be considered.
- Other stresses Floor sections, which are free, have the following loads:
- Drill floor 25 kN single-load for inconvenient positions or 5 kN/m, whereas the worse
condition must be taken
- The monkey board, crown floor, catwalks and other floors have 1,5 kN single-load in
inconvenient positions
- Stairs 3,5 kN/m or 1,5 kN single-load in inconvenient positions whereas the worse case must
be taken
- Rails They have a given load of 0,3 kN in horizontal direction
- Wind loads The calculation of wind load is done according to DIN 1055 part four. The values
for impact pressure can be taken from the following table. The wind surface for the selected
pipes belong to the largest pipe stack
- Regular operation The impact pressure q = 0,05 kN/m (means wind velocities about v = 9
m/s)
- Irregular operation At irregular loads the impact pressure can have q = 0,3 kN/m (means
wind velocities about 22 m/s)
- Rig shut down According to DIN 1055 part 4 or for rigs smaller than 60 m the impact pressure
q = 1,0 kN/m (means wind velocities about 40 m/s) and for offshore rigs q = 1,65 kN/m
(means wind velocities about 51 m/s)
- Erecting case During the erection of masts q = 0,05 kN/m (means wind velocities about 9
m/s) and for derricks q = 0,10 kN/m (means wind velocities about v = 13 m/s)

5.4 Load Combinations

- Regular operation
The regular hook load has to be combined with all stresses like dead load, pull line forces, dead
line forces, guy line forces, wheel friction on crown, stress due to pipe stacks, and wind as
according to regular operation. The loads according to other stresses have to be taken in
account for the various floors. For the substructure in regular operation also the loads have to
be combined with the single-load stresses due to pipe stacks and rotary table and catching
loads as well.
- Irregular operation
For the irregular operation the wind loads have to be taken according to the irregular
operations.
- Rig shut down The wind loads according to rig shut down have to be combined with all
inconvenient loads. Hook loads are not included.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 33


Derricks

- Erecting case
During the erecting of the mast the dead loads of moving parts are multiplied with the factor 1,1
- Use of auxiliaries
If auxiliaries like hook loads, the power swivel, the crane arm and the pipe floor are in use, the
effect has to be checked closely

5.5 Scope and Details of the Static Proof

- General - The calculations must be made by using the general rules of technology
according to the standards.
For the calculation of the framework calculations, like pressure rods, the DIN 4114 part 1 and
for the buckling safety of the corner beams the DIN 4114 part 2 is used
- Required safety For static calculations according to theory of the 1st order:
The required safeties of the steel and aluminium components must be shown by comparing the
calculated stresses with the allowed stresses. The allowed stresses for these materials are
listed in DIN 1050 and in DIN 4113. The allowed stresses during assembly are listed in DIN
1050. For ropes the minimum force to break is to find in DIN 5881 part 1 and part 2.
The rope safety factor against the breakage has to be:
3,3 times for driving ropes during operation
2,5 times for an irregular case
2,1 times for an erecting line
2,5 times for guy lines
Rigs need a tilt safety of at least 1,5.
Guy lines and wind lines can be used for calculating the tilt safety, if they have all of this three
requirements:
Thickness of at least 10 mm
The anchoring has to have at least the factor 1,5 times more than the
expected rope forces
They have to be pre-stressed with a third of the expected rope force or at
a maximum of 10 kN
For static calculations according to theory of the 2nd order according to DIN 4114 part:
In case of a 1,5 stress condition (according to chapter 5,3 Various Loads) the safety of the steel
construction against yield has to be 1,0 and 2,0 against breakage.

5.6 Sign with load capacity

On a very clear and visible place of the rig a sign with the loads capacity has to be mounted.
The given carrying capacity of the derrick or mast is the static hook load.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 34


Derricks

The following details must be shown on the sign:


- Producer
- Type
- Date of construction
- Regular hook load in kN with the reeving type
- Irregular hook load in kN with the reeving type
- Corresponding rope diameter and rope strength

6 Conclusions

6.1 Summary

Now the essay ended and I think that I found many answers to my questions and I hope that
you get also the answers you looked for. In the following I will try to make a summary of the
essay and then a future outlook.
At first I tried to mention that derricks are not an invention of the 19 th century. Therefore I wrote
a little bit about the former history of derricks. For that I wrote about the first people who had
built a derrick, which were the Chinese not for oil or gas but for salt. The next step, which I
made, was the place where the development did not stop till today. This development began in
the USA in middle of the 19th century.

The first derricks were made of wood then the materials were changed into steel. The
development in Europe was always some decades after the USA. I gave some examples for
Austrian and German development, but the developments in Europe ended and later most of
the derricks, which were built in Europe, were constructed under license of the US types.

After the history I tried to explain the difference between derricks and masts. Then I gave some
examples of different masts and tried to explain why these developments were necessary, for
example the helicopter rigs, which can be disassembled into light parts which can be
transported by a helicopter or the desert rambler with large tires which can roll in the sand
without sinking.

In the end of my essay I tried to explain some standards and some explanations in standards,
which are usually in central Europe.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 35


Derricks

6.2 Future outlook

It is possible that some very special derricks will be built with very special advantages.

For example a subsidiary of ExxonMobil wants to build a very special rig in a very dangerous
environment at the Sakhalin Island (Russia), which is placed in the north of Japan. Outside the
temperatures will drop to 40 C and they try to create a shirt-sleeve environment. Due to the
remote location and difficult logistics for acquiring equipment and materials, quality assurance
takes on a much more significant meaning. Sakhalin Island is in a very seismically active
location, lying in a region where four of the earths tectonic plates converge just south of
Sakhalin, near Japan. Russias worst earthquake, measuring 7,5 in the Richter scale, occurred
on Sakhalin Islands north end in May 1995. ExxonMobil says the significant design features of
the land drilling rig for Sakhalin should allow it to survive serious seismic activity without
catastrophic collapse of the mast or rig structure.

Figure 18: Rig cross section

Other examples are slant drilling rigs produced by Precision Drilling Corp. The rigs history,
currents statistics, and operator demand indicate that they are competitive with conventional
cantilever doubles, telescoping doubles, and singles. The rigs have drilled wells that vary
considerably in type, depth, and other characteristics. A Precision Drilling engineer Ron Isinger
said: One key advantage to starting a well at a sharp incline is the reduction of wellbore build
rate from vertical to horizontal during the drilling of very shallow horizontal wells.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 36


Derricks

Figure 19: A Slant-Hole Drilling Rig

A very futuristic mast was presented in November 2004 by DrillTec. This new structure has a
mast which has a height of 22 m in a closed rectangular structure twice supported from the
rear. This mast is placed on a substructure, which has a height of three containers. DrillTec
promises that this new type of derricks is the ultimate one. They say that it can do anything
much faster, very silent, highly automated,...

Figure 20: Futuristic mast design by DrillTec

In the next years we will see if the promises become true or if another technique will become
the leader derrick in the oil industry.

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 37


Derricks

References

Erdlmaschinen und Pipelinebau, Institut fr Frdertechnik und Konstruktionslehre,


Montanuniversitt Leoben, p.1 ff: Bohrgerste

Drilling and Production Fundamentals, Institut fr Frdertechnik und Konstruktionslehre,


Montanuniversitt Leoben, p.7 ff: Derrick

Fundamentals of Drilling Technology and Economics, John L. Kennedy; PennWell Publishing


Company Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA; p.29 ff: Types of Rigs

A PRIMER OF OILWELL DRILLING (Fifth edition) by Ron Baker, published by PETROLEUM


EXTENSION SERVICE; The University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA; 1996: p. 1 ff: 1
Introduction: Drakes Well and Spindletop; p. 5 ff: 2 Cable-Tool Versus Rotary Drilling; p.29
ff:7 The Drill Site; p.37 ff: 8 Moving Equipment to the Site; p. 47 ff: 9 Rigging Up

Oil & Gas Journal, week of Jan. 7, 2002, p.78 f: Challenging wells require greater rig
capabilities, enabling technologies

Oil & Gas Journal, week of June 17, 2002, p.41 ff: Extreme conditions, extended-reach wells
govern land-rig design for Sakhalin

Oil & Gas Journal, week of Feb. 26, 2001, p.86 ff: PLCs, hydraulics improve slant rig shallow-
drilling operations

Erdl Erdgas Kohle, Nov. 2004, p.408 f: Das etwas andere Tiefbohrgert: DrillTec prsentiert
neues Bohranlagenkonzept

Parker Drilling Co.

http://www.pnig.jaslo.pl/pl_07rig.html
http://www.c-pic.org/collections.htm
http://servisni.mnd.cz/en/milestones.html
http://www.pe.tu-clausthal.de/AGBalck/vorlesung/server/energ2001/
http://www.texacohistory.com/Photos/Spindletop.JPG
http://www.drilshop.com/hallfame/wellsite.html

Author: GIDEN Ilhami Page: 38