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/ Duty-free Purchase

" " (),


,
/, /
.

/ DP (Delivery Permit)

.

/ DP (Delivery Permit)

.

() / Export licence (import licence)


,

.

/ GDP
(Gross Domestic Product).

/ Customs airport

.
.

/ Airway bill

.

/ AWB (Airway bill)



.

/ Direct export

.

/ IOU (I we ou)

- / SWOT analysis
SWOT ( ) , , ,
. ()
.
/ Developing countries
,
(.. , , .).

/ Cash on delivery (COD)


.

/ COD

.

.

/ Agency
( / ),
( ).

() / Representative
.

( ) / Del credere agent



.

() / Representative
, , .
.

( ).

/ Sales representative
,
,
, , ,
, ,
.

/ Offset
.

/ Force majeure

( )

(.. ).

/ Customs value
.
.
/ Bill
, (
)
( ) .

/ Claim
() (),
.

, / Tare, dead weight


ITU ( ) .

/ Release for free circulation



,

,
.

/ Bonded Warehouses

.

/ Warehouse
.

/ Despatch - dispatch
.

/ Withdrawal
,
, ()
.

/
,

/ Base
.

/ Short-term
Realisation of Receivables from Overseas

.
100% .

/ General average

.

(..
). ,

.

/ General terms of sale



.

/ Sample

.

/ Sampling

, ,
' -
.

/ Consumer Price index (CPI)



.

/ Delivery note
,
.
.

/ Order form

.

/ Packing list

.
.

/ Desk research
, .

/ Declarant
: -
( ), -
, / (
), - ( ,
/ ( ).

/ Exchange of goods declaration



( / ),
.

.

/ Customs procedures
,

.

/ Markings


( : , , .).

/ Transit
, ,
, ,
.

/ Distributor
, ,
.

/ Shelf life
, ,
.

/ Tariff

.

/ Dispute
.

/ Lease management


,
.

/ Incoterms (INternational COmmercial TERMS)


.
,
1936. 1 2000.

/ ICC

. ,
.
/ COTIF

/ Franchised trade


.
: ,
.

/ Distribution network
,
.

/ IMF

.

/ IBRD
, 1945
Bretton Woods,

.

/ PP (Per procurationem)
.

/ LDC
: 36
, "
" .
, .
.

/ Payment Guarantee


.

/ EPO
.

/ ESC

.
( EC / CE).
160 .

/ EBA
.
.., E.C.S.
( ).
. E.C.S.,
62 - () .
,
, ...

/ EFTA
4 : ,
, .
1992. 1 1994
.

KA / ECSC
1951
Schumann, , , , ,
,

, . -
50 .
1957.

/ Arrival notice

.

/ Import
, , .

/ Issuing bank
.

.

/ Clearance sale

, , .

/ Discount
, ,
.
(),
( ).
.

/ ECB

.
.
(
) , ...

/ Customs agent

.
.

/ ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival)

() / Free Movement
:
-
, ,
, .

.

/ Freeport

.

/ Free trade
()
.

/ Free on truck (FOT)




.

/ Free on bord (FOB)



.

/ Ex quay

,
.

/ Free on rail (FOR)



,
.

/ Excise Tax
.
/ Container
,
.

/ Air container

/ Maritime container

.

/ Large capacity container


ISO (
) (9 6
. 2,9 - 8 . 2,44 ). ,
40 ' .

/ Land container

(IRU)
.

/ Very large capacity


container
ISO ,
. 45' (13.72m),
48' (14.64m) or 53' (16.10m).

/ Brand

.

/ Commercial Court
- ,
. " " ( )

,
.

/ Trader
( )
( )
, .

,

.
.
/ Harmonised System (HS)
, ,
, ,
01.01.1989. 6- ,
.

/ HS (Harmonised System)
,
.

/ Documentary letter of credit




. ( ),
' ,
, ( )
.

/ Warrant

"
". , ,

(
).

/ Single market
,
, ,
.

/ SAD (Single Administrative Document)



1 1988
,
.

/ Consolidation (Consolidated Shipment)


( )

.

/ Ex works

.

/ Export
.
/ Export credit

.
,
( ).
:

,
.

/ Repeat order
.

/ Re-exports

/ On Board

.
.

/ Embarkation
.

/ Standard of living
.

/ Tender
.

/ Return
(' /
).

/ Refund

.

/ Reservations
,

.

/ Business assets
, ( , .)
( , , ,
, , .).
() .

/ ESBC

- (15).
.

/ EBRD
, 1991,

.

/ Company
- ',
-

.
,
.

/ Corporate name
. ,
. .

/ Track gauge
.
1.435 m.

/ Euro
1 1999, ,
- .

1 2002,
(
). 1
1999 : 1 E = 40.3399 340,75 .

(EE) / European Union (EU)


15
1992.
-
, .

/ European Commission

.

/ European Community

.

/ Damage
.
/ Quotation
.

/ Semi-trailer
-


.
.

/ Semi-finished
, .

/ Perils of the sea



.

/ Branch

.

/ Subsidiary

. ,
.

AK / CIS (Confederation of Independent States)


Ko , ,
, , , , , ,
, , .

-- / DIY superstore
-- .

/ CAP
1962
.
,
. :
,
() .

' / Ad valorem
.

/ Consumption

.
/ Consumer
,
.

/ Memorandum of association
, , .
,
, ,
.

/ Chain store
.

/ Tariff category
.

/ Head office
,
, , .

/ Twist lock
""
.

/ CET (Common External Tariff)



.

/ CCT (Common Customs Tariffs)



.

/ Advising bank
, ,
,
. , ,

/ Community goods

,
,

, .

/ Hub
,
.
/ Carriage forward

.

/ Cost and freight


,

.

, , / Cost insurance freight


,

/ Principal franchisee

, ,
( ).
,
.

/ Retail
, .

/ Port of exit
( )
.

/ Advance (advance bill)


.

.. / Board Member
, .
,
.
.

/ Particular average
, , .
, ,

.

/ Part-payment
.

/ Middle man
,
, .
/ Broker
,
.
.

/ Transhipment
.

/ Non-tariff barriers
-

. ,

.

/ Non-monetary transaction

.

. -
, ,
, .

() / Zero stock
.

.

() / Small and Medium-sized enterprise


(SME)
500 ,
40 . 25%
- -
.

/ Payroll

.

/ Loading Unit
.

/ Chartering
, ,
, '
.

/ Legal redress
, ,
, ,
,
.

/ Legal entity

. " " o
: ( ), (
), , .
, .

/ Billing Currency
( )
(
)
(
.

/ Buying group

.

/ Interest economic grouping (IEG)



, .

,
: , ,
.
( ).

( ) / Economic and Monetary Union


(EMU)

.

/ OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development)



, , , .

.
.

/ OPEC
: 13

.

/ Organised trade
(
, , , .).
/ World bank
, , -
.

/ Pallet
, .
: 100 mm x 1200 mm (ISO) and 800 mm x 1200 mm (CEN).

() / Retention of title (clause)


()
, .

/ Consignee

.

/ Counterfeiting

() .

/ Certificate of loss

, .

/ Transit certificate


.

/ Certificate of origin
.
.
,
.

.

() / Health certificate (Phytosanitary


Inspection Certificate)

( )
.

/ Letter of credit
, ,
, .

/ MFN

" ".

. .

/ CWO (Cash with order)

/ CAD (cash against documents)



.

/ WTO
(World Trade Organization)
1947 "GATT" (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
- ).
.
100 .

.

/ Quality

.

/ Qualitative market research


, .

/ Open door policy On Board



.

/ Political risk
- .
.

/ Quota

, , .

/ Quantitative market research



.

/ Forwarding agent (Forwarder)



.

() / Dealership
.

()
.
/ Outlet
.

/ Origin
'

. ,
' ,
' .
, .

/ Forward exchange rate


,

( )
' ( ),
.

/ Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG)


.

/ Advance in import currency


,
.
,
.

/ Advance in export currency



.
,

/ Minority protection
.

/ Bill of sight

/ Pro forma invoice



.

/ Credit sale

.

/ Mail-order (MO) sale


,
.
, ( )
.

/ Escape clause

.

/ Trailer
,
, .

( ) / Schengen (agreement and convention)


, , ,
14 1985 ,


, .
19 1990 ' .
.
.
(1990), (1991), (1991), (1992), A
(1995), , (1996)
. .

/ POS (Point of sale)

/ Multimodal Terminals

,
.

/ Statistical value
. 46
.
, .

/ At warehouse
.

/ Centralised account

,
.

/ Sale contract
:
- -. , ,
.
/ Bill of exchange, (b/e)
, ,
, ,
.

() / Piggyback

/ Combined transport
,
, , , /

.

/ Intermodal transport
,
.
.

/ Multimodal transport
.

/ MRP (Manufacturer's recommended price).

/ Packaging
, .

/ GSP (Generalized System of Preferences)


.
.

/ Seal

( / ).

/ Trade union
, ,
.

/ A.M.
.

/ PO Box (Post Office Box)

/ / THC

/ .
/ Customs bond

.

/ Customs classification
HS-. 12-

.

/ Customs house

( .).

/ Destination customs house


.

/ Producer Price Index (PPI)



.

/ List price
.

/ Cash price
.

/ Target price
, ,
.

/ Pricing

.

/ Invoice

.

/ Positioning
,

/ .

/ Acceptance bank
.

/ Bank acceptance (B)A


.
/ Loading track
,
.
.

(SIC) / Standard Industrial Classification


(SIC)

.

/ PS (Postscript) .

() / Bonded goods

/ After-sale service
.

/ Convenience food

.

( / ) / Bill of lading (clean / dirty)


.

/ Ocean bill of lading


.

/ VAT
,

.

/ Act of god
, , .,
.

/ Wholesaler
( )
' .
, .

/ Debit note

.

/ Forfeit financing
, ,
(
) ,

.

/ Central and East European


Countries

10 : , ,
, , , , , , .

/ Eastern standard time (EST)



.

/ Working hours
.

ACP / ACP
ACP (A, , )
15 1989 Lom. ACP
69 . ,
.

American selling price (ASP)



.

ANSI /ANSI
.

.

ASAP / ASAP

ATA / ATA carnet


1961
.

.

ATR / ATR
ATR
/.
.
R .

BAF-CAF / BAF-CAF
BAF CAF
. BAF ( )
. CAF (
)
.

Baltic exchange (the) / Baltic exchange (the)


, .

CAIRNS / CAIRNS
14 .
1987 Cairns ,

. , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, .

CE / EC
.
CE EC
, . CE EC
..

CIM / CIM
.

Container / Container

.

DIN / DIN
(DIN) .

Dumping / Dumping
.

DV1 / DV1
DV1 .
- .

ECS / ECS
.

EIB /

.
.
.

Embargo / Embargo
.
EONIA /
( )
. EONIA
,
EURIBOR.

EUR2 - EUR1 / EUR2 - EUR1


,

. EUR 2
, EUR1.

EURIBOR / EURIBOR


.
.

Factoring () / Factoring
,
.

. ,
.

FCR / FCR
E ,
'
.

Feeder / Feeder
()
().

Franchising / Franchising
.

( )
, .
, . ,
.

,
. ,

. , ,
,
.
Franco / Franco

,
.

Geomarketing / Geomarketing

, ' ,
.

IATA /
.

IEC / IEC

. C
.

ITU / U
.

Manifest / Manifest

( ) (
).

Manifest / Manifest

.

Marketing / Marketing
/
.
Marketing , ,
'.

MERCOSUR / MERCOSUR
, ,
. .

MFA / FA
-
.

. - 42 ,
.

NAFTA / NAFTA
.
, .
NIC / NIC
(Newly Industrialised Countries) :
, ,
'70 '80
(.. ,
, .).

/ Office for Harmonisation of the Internal Market


.

Overpanamax / Overpanamax
: 295 m (), 32.25 m
( ) or 13.25 m ( ).
.

Panamax / Panamax
:
295 m, 32.25 m, 13.25 m.

PCT / PCT
.

Roll-On-Roll-Off (Ro-Ro) / Roll-On-Roll-Off (Ro-Ro)


Ro-Ro (from Roll-On-Roll-Off),
/ ,
, .

SDR / SDR

.

.
(USD, Yen, EUR, GBP). SDR
.

T1 / 1
T1 .
.

T2 / 2
T2 .
SAD ( ).

T2L / 2L
T2L
.

T2M / T2M
T2M .
2

-, . 2

.

T5 / T5
T5 ,
.

TARIC / TARIC
. TARIC 10-
,
,
-dumping. TARIC.

TEU / U
TEU ( )
20 (6.10m).
,
.

TIR / TIR
:
.

R / TIR carnet

.

UNCTAD / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)



.

URU / URU


.
. ', URU 500,
1 1994.

Visegrad / Visegrad
1991 :
, , .
.
.

WIPO / WIPO
.