Anda di halaman 1dari 6

SAE TECHNICAL

PAPER SERIES 2000-01-3092

Engine Control Inputs and Signal Conditioning


for Crankshaft and Camshaft Positioning
Badih Jawad, Nabil Hachem, William Bowerman,
Janette Leese and Sasa Cizmic
Lawrence Technological University

2000 Future Transportation


Technology Conference
Costa Mesa, California
August 21-23, 2000

400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A. Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-5760
The appearance of this ISSN code at the bottom of this page indicates SAEs consent that copies of the
paper may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients. This consent is given on the condition,
however, that the copier pay a $7.00 per article copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.
Operations Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 for copying beyond that permitted by Sec-
tions 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying such as
copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works,
or for resale.

SAE routinely stocks printed papers for a period of three years following date of publication. Direct your
orders to SAE Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department.

Quantity reprint rates can be obtained from the Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department.

To request permission to reprint a technical paper or permission to use copyrighted SAE publications in
other works, contact the SAE Publications Group.

All SAE papers, standards, and selected


books are abstracted and indexed in the
Global Mobility Database

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.

ISSN 0148-7191
Copyright 2000 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

Positions and opinions advanced in this paper are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of SAE. The author is solely
responsible for the content of the paper. A process is available by which discussions will be printed with the paper if it is published in
SAE Transactions. For permission to publish this paper in full or in part, contact the SAE Publications Group.

Persons wishing to submit papers to be considered for presentation or publication through SAE should send the manuscript or a 300
word abstract of a proposed manuscript to: Secretary, Engineering Meetings Board, SAE.

Printed in USA
!"""#"$#%"&!

'()*(+,-.(/0.1,2(34/5,6(7,8*)(61,-.(7*/*.(*(),9.0,-06(:5;69/
6(7,-6<5;69/,=.5*/*.(*()
>67*;,?6@67A,B6C*1,D6E;+<A,F*11*6<,>.@+0<6(A,?6(+//+,G++5+,6(7,8656,-*H<*E
Lawrence Technological University
!"#$%&'()*+*,---*."/&0)$*"1*23)"4")&50*67'&700%89*:7/;

I>8JKI-J /"4#%088&"7* 8)%"J09* "7>$* )(0* /?4* #"8&)&"7* /?7* H0* 380F
)"*)%&''0%*)(0*6!L*"3)#3)*8&'7?>*1"%*)(0*8#?%J*#>3';**<(&8
<(0* ="%43>?* .26* @=.26* )0?4* 1"%* ,---A* ?)* B?C%07/0 &8* H0/?380* )(0* /?4* &8* &7* )(0* #%"#0%* #"8&)&"7* 1"%* )(0
<0/(7">"'&/?>*D7&50%8&)$*&8*3)&>&E&7'*#?%)8*?7F*0G3&#407) #"C0%*8)%"J0*?)*"7>$*"70*)&40*&7*)(0*/$/>0*"1*)(0*07'&709
1%"4* ?* 1"3%* /$>&7F0%9* 1"3%* /?%H3%0)"%9* I--//* 1"3%* 8)%"J0 C(&>0*)(0*/%?7J8(?1)*&8*&7*)(0*8?40*#"8&)&"7*)C&/0*F3%&7'
K"7F?* 4")"%/$/>0* 07'&70;* <(080* #?%)8* C&>>* #%"5&F0* )(0 0?/(*/$/>0;
/%?7J8(?1)* ?7F* /?48(?1)* #"8&)&"7* &71"%4?)&"7* )"* ?7
67'&70*!"7)%">*L"F3>0*)(?)*C&>>*/"7)%">*)(0*07'&70*C(07 .X.<6L*P6Y6BTNL6Z<
130>* &7M0/)&"7* &8* 380F* )"* %0#>?/0* )(0* /?%H3%0)"%8;* * <(0
=.26* )0?4* C&>>* F050>"#* ?7* &4#%"50F* 40)("F* )" <(0*L"<0/*6!L*(?8*8#0/&1&/*%0G3&%0407)8*1"%*/?4*?7F
F0)0%4&70* )(0* /%?7J8(?1)* ?7F* /?48(?1)* #"8&)&"78;* * <(0 /%?7J8(?1)* #"8&)&"7;* * :)* 3808* )(&8* &71"%4?)&"7* &7
70C*40)("F*C&>>*H0*&4#>0407)0F*H$*?FF&7'*8078"%8*?7F /"7M37/)&"7* C&)(* ")(0%* 8078"%8* "3)#3)* )"* /"7)%">* 8#?%J
0>0/)%"7&/*/&%/3&)*)"*#0%1"%4*)(0*70/088?%$*/?>/3>?)&"7* )" ?7F* 130>* &7M0/)"%* /$/>089* ?4"7'* ")(0%* 137/)&"78;* * <(0
"H)?&7*)(0*/%?7J8(?1)*?7F*/?48(?1)*#"8&)&"7; "%&'&7?>* 0G3&#407)* 380F* ?* )"")(0F* C(00>* )"* #%"5&F0
/%?7J8(?1)*#"8&)&"7*?7F*8#00F*F?)?*)"*)(0*&'7&)&"7*/"7)%">
2BJKLMN-J2LB 4"F3>0;* * <(0* 70C* F08&'7* C&>>* %0G3&%0* )(0* &78)?>>?)&"7* "1
8078"%8*1"%*/?4*?7F*/%?7J*#"8&)&"7&7';**=&'3%0*[*F&8#>?$8
<(0* 07'&70* /"7)%">* 4"F3>0* @6!LA* %0G3&%08* &71"%4?)&"7 )(0*>"/?)&"7*"1*?>>*8078"%8*4"37)0F*"7*)(0*K"7F?*07'&70;
?H"3)* /?48(?1)* ?7F* /%?7J8(?1)* #"8&)&"7* )"* #%"#0%>$ <(079* C0* 700F* )"* 4"F&1$* 0?/(* 8(?1)* )"* ?//0#)* ?* 70C
/"7)%">*130>*&7M0/)"%*?7F*8#?%J*#>3'*"#0%?)&"7;**<(0*6!L '0?%* )"")(* C(00>* 1"%* 8078&7';* * L"F&1&/?)&"78* )"* )(0
)$#&/?>>$*"H)?&78*)(&8*&71"%4?)&"7*1%"4*?*/?48(?1)*#"8&)&"7 /%?7J/?80* /"50%* C"3>F* H0* 70/088?%$* )"* 4"37)* )(0
8078"%* @!LNA* ?7F* ?* /%?7J8(?1)* #"8&)&"7* 8078"%* @!ONA; 8078"%8* ?7F* ?>>"C* )(0* /"7F3/)"%8* /?%%$&7'* )(0* F?)?* )"
.&7/0* )(0* /?48(?1)* &8* 40/(?7&/?>>$* /"770/)0F* )"* )(0 /"770/)*)"*)(0*6!L;
/%?7J8(?1)9*)(0&%*%0>?)&50*#"8&)&"78*/?7*H0*/?>/3>?)0F*?)*?>>
)&408*"1*)(0*07'&70*/$/>0; <(0* 70C>$* F08&'70F* /&%/3&)* %0>&08* "7* )(0* 0S&8)&7'
0>0/)%"7&/*8&'7?>*)%?&7*C(&/(*/?7*H0*4"F&1&0F*C&)(*8&4#>0
:)* &8* ?* C&F0>$* 380F* #%?/)&/0* 38&7'* "70* /"&>* )"* F%&50* )(0 /"4#"707)8*&7*#%0\#?/J?'0F*&7)0'%?)0F*/&%/3&)89*?7F*&)*&8
8#?%J* #>3'8* "1* )C"* /$>&7F0%8* )(?)* 8(?%0* )"#* F0?F* /07)0% ?* %0>?)&50>$* 8&4#>0* #%&7)0F* /&%/3&)* /?%F8* /"4#%&80F* "1
@<P!A*?)*)(0*8?40*)&40;**<(&8*#%?/)&/0*J7"C7*?8*QC?8)0F /"37)0%89* />"/J8* ?7F* 1%0G307/$* 43>)&#>&0%8;* * <(0* #%"#0%
8#?%JR*?>>"C8*)(0*6!L*)"*&'7"%0*)(0*F&110%07/0*H0)C007 8&'7?>8* /?7* H0* F0)0%4&70F* ?7F* F08&'78* 8&43>?)0F* 38&7'
<P!* "7* /"4#%088&"7* ?7F* 0S(?38)* 8)%"J08;* * <(0* 6!L /"440%/&?>>$* ?5?&>?H>0* 8"1)C?%0* 83/(* ?8* B"'&/C"%J8;
C&>>* 8&'7?>* )(0* &'7&)&"7* /"&>* F%&50%8* )"* &7F3/0* ?* 5">)?'0* &7 L?)(04?)&/?>* 1"%43>?8* /?7* ?//3%?)0>$* F0#&/)* /?4
)(0*8#?%J*#>3'8*"1*)C"*/$>&7F0%8;**T70*"1*)(0*/$>&7F0%8*&8 #"8&)&"7*H?80F*"7*/%?7J*#"8&)&"7;**<(0*4?)(*4"F0>8*/?7
"7* )(0* /"4#%088&"7* 8)%"J0* ?7F* )(0* ")(0%* &8* "7* )(0 H0* &4#>0407)0F* C&)(* /"440%/&?>>$* ?7F* /38)"4* 4?F0
0S(?38)*8)%"J0;**<(0*8#?%J*&8*QC?8)0FR*"7*)(0*/$>&7F0%*"7 /&%/3&)%$;
)(0*0S(?38)*8)%"J0*8&7/0*7"*#"C0%*&8*/%0?)0F*F3%&7'*)(&8
#?%)*"1*)(0*/$/>0; <(0* 70C* 8$8)04* C&>>* %0G3&%0* )(0* 8&'7?>8* )"* H0
/"7F&)&"70F;* * N($8&/?>* &4#>0407)?)&"7* "1* )(0* 8&'7?>
<(0* K"7F?* !UV* I--* =W* 4")"%* 380F* &7* )(&8* 0S?4#>0 /"7F&)&"7&7'*37&)*#%"5&F08*'%0?)0%*1>0S&H&>&)$*&7*/"4#?%&8"7
3)&>&E08* ?* C?8)0F* 8#?%J* 8$8)04;* * .&7/0* )(0* 6!L* 7" )"* )(0* "#)&"78* ?5?&>?H>0* C(07* #>?/&7'* 8078"%8* &7* )(0
>"7'0%* %0G3&%08* F&110%07)&?)&"7* H0)C007* )(0* /"4#%088&"7 /%?7J/?80;* * <(0* 0>0/)%"7&/* 4"F&1&/?)&"7* "1* )(0* 0S&8)&7'
?7F* 0S(?38)* 8)%"J08* 1"%* 8#?%J* "7* ?* #0%* /$>&7F0%* H?8&89 8&'7?>* #%"508* )"* H0* >088* /"4#>&/?)0F* )(?7* #($8&/?>
)(0*/?48(?1)*#"8&)&"7*&8*F0)0%4&70F*C&)(*'%0?)0%*0?80;**:7 4"F&1&/?)&"7*"1*)(0*F05&/08*)(?)*%0G3&%0*F0)0/)&"7;
)(0* /?80* C(0%0* 0?/(* /$>&7F0%* 1&%08* "7>$* F3%&7'* )(0
700F0F* )"* ?>>"C* F0)0/)&"7* "1* )(0* 07F* "1* "70* (?>1* "1* )(0
07'&70*/$/>0*?7F*)(0*H0'&77&7'*"1*?7")(0%;**<(0*?7'3>?%
#"8&)&"7* "1* )(0* !ON* #&/J3#* C(00>* F3%&7'* 734H0%* "70
Sensor Location
/$>&7F0%* <P!* &8* 0?8&>$* F0)0%4&70F;* * <(0* L"<0/* &8
#%"'%?440F*C&)(*&71"%4?)&"7*?H"3)*)(0*734H0%*"1* )00)(
"7* )(0* !ON* #&/J3#* C(00>9* )(0* !LN* 8&'7?>9* ?7F* )(0
Intake Air Temperature Sensor 734H0%* "70* /$>&7F0%* <P!* ?7'3>?%* #"8&)&"7* "1* )(0* !ON
Manifold Absolute #&/J3#* C(00>;* * <(0* 6!L* C&>>* 380* )(0* !ON* ?7F* !LN
8&'7?>8* )"* F0)0%4&70* %#4* )"* ?&F* &7* 130>* 4?#* >""J3#9* )"
Injector
Pressure Sensor
Fuel F0)0%4&70*8#?%J*?F5?7/0*?7F*&7M0/)"%*)&4&7';
Mass Air Flow Sensor
.:]Z2B*!TZP:<:TZ:Z]
Throttle Position Sensor
ke
Inta

Lambda Sensor Engine Temperature Sensor <(0* !ON* C(00>* C&>>* 0110/)&50>$* '070%?)0* ?* F&'&)?>* #3>80
)%?&7*C(07*)(0*07'&70*&8*%377&7';**<(0*#3>80*)%?&7*>07')(
5?%&08* C&)(* 07'&70* 8#00F;* * <(0* #3>80* )%?&7* C&>>* ?>C?$8
Speed Sensor (?50* )(0* 8?40* F3)$* /$/>0* %0'?%F>088* "1* %#4* F30* )"* )(0
'0"40)%$*"1*)(0*#&/J3#*C(00>;**<"*"#)&4&E0*)(0*>"'&/9*)(0
#3>80* )%?&7* C&>>* H0* )%37/?)0F* )"* )C"* #3>808* 1"%* )(0* !ON
ust Neutral Position &7#3)*)"*)(0*6!L9*1%"4*7&70*#3>808*#0%*%05">3)&"7*"1*)(0
Exha !ON*#&/J3#*C(00>;**<(0*6!L*C&>>*)(07*800*)C"*#3>808*"1
Switch
)(0*!ON*8&'7?>*#0%*07'&70*%05">3)&"7*?7F*"70*!LN*#3>80
Exhaust Gas #0%*)C"*07'&70*%05">3)&"78;
Temperature Sensor
Oil Pressure =&'3%08*,*?7F*W*?%0*)(0*&4#>0407)?)&"78*"1*)(0*F08&'70F
Ref Signal Generator Switch /&%/3&)* )"* /"78)%3/)* )(0* )C"* #3>808* 700F* 1"%* )(0* 6!L;
Sync Signal Generator K0%09* ?* _* H&)* F&'&)?>* /"37)0%* C&>>* ?//0#)* ?8* &7#3)* )(0* `
9/12 Wheel To 1 Rev.
#3>80* !ON* #&/J3#* C(00>* K?>>\0110/)* 8078"%* "3)#3);* * <(0
/"37)0%* C&>>* /"37)* )(0* #3>808* ?8* )(0$* 07)0%* )(0* />"/J
&7#3);* * 6?/(* 70C* #3>80* C&>>* )%&''0%* )(0* "3)#3)8* )"
=:]DV6*[\*.078"%8*B"/?)&"78 %0#%0807)* )(0* H&7?%$* 734H0%* "1* )(0* /"37);* * ^(07* )(0
0&'()(* #3>80* 07)0%8* )(0* /"37)0%9* )(0* 4"8)* 8&'7&1&/?7)* H&)
82OBIG,O'B'KIJ2LB,IBM,-LBM2J2LB2BO @L.UA*"1*)(0*"3)#3)*&8*?/)&50;**<(0*8&'7?>*&8*10F*H?/J*)"
)(0* #?%?>>0>* >"?F* &7#3)* "1* )(0* /"37)0%;* * ^(07* )(0* 7&7)(
.:]Z2B*]6Z6V2<:TZ #3>80* &8* &7#3)* ?)* )(0* />"/J* 8&'7?>* "1* )(0* /"37)0%9* )(0
#?%?>>0>*>"?F*&8*07?H>0F*?7F*)(0*/"37)0%b8*"3)#3)8*?%0*?>>
<(0* K"7F?* !UV* I--* =W* 07'&70* &8* 0G3&##0F* 1%"4* )(0 %080);* * ^(07* )(0* L.U* &8* 380F* ?8* )(0* !ON* &7#3)* )"* )(0
1?/)"%$* C&)(* ?* [,\W* )"")(* &'7&)&"7* #3>80* '070%?)"%* )(?)* &8 L"<0/* 6!L9* &)* C&>>* %0'&8)0%* "70* #3>80* #0%* %05">3)&"7;
380F*)"*'070%?)0*?*8&'7?>*1"%*)(0*&'7&)&"7*/"7)%">*4"F3>0; =&'3%0*_*8("C8*)(0*)&4&7'*F&?'%?4*'070%?)0F*?1)0%*0?/(
<(&8* &8* 1&70* 1"%* )(0* 8)"/J* 07'&70* 80)3#* )(?)* 3808* 1"3% %05">3)&"7;
/?%H3%0)"%8* ?7F* ?7* ?##%"#%&?)0>$* F08&'70F* &'7&)&"7
/"7)%">*4"F3>0; 2* 8&4&>?%* 80)3#* 38&7'* )(0* 80/"7F* >0?8)* 8&'7&1&/?7)* H&)* ?8
)(0*!LN*&7#3)*)"*)(0*6!L*C&>>*/%0?)0*"70*#3>80*#0%*)C"
^(07* )(0* ,---* ="%43>?* .26* )0?4* ?)* B<D* F0/&F0F* )" 07'&70* %05">3)&"78;* * <(0* F3)$* /$/>08* "1* )(0* )C"* 8&'7?>8
380* 130>* &7M0/)&"79* ?* 70C* 8"3%/0* 1"%* 07'&70* /"7)%">* C?8 ?%0* 50%$* F&110%07)9* H3)* &%%0>05?7);* * <(0* L"<0/* 6!L* &8
%0G3&%0F;* * <(0* L"<0/* L_* 4"F0>* C?8* 80>0/)0F* 1"%* )(&8 #%"'%?440F*)"*%0/"'7&E0*)(0*%&8&7'*"%*1?>>&7'*0F'0*"1*)(0
#3%#"80;* * <(0* L"<0/* 6!L* %0G3&%08* !ON* ?7F* !LN 8&'7?>8*?7F*7")*)(0*>050>8;**.&7/0*)(0*734H0%*"1*%&8&7'*"%
&7#3)8* 1"%* #%"#0%* "#0%?)&"7;* * D)&>&E&7'* ?8* 4?7$* "1* )(0 1?>>&7'*0F'08*&8*)(0*8?40*1"%*?*#3>80*)%?&7*C&)(*)(0*8?40
"%&'&7?>* #?%)8* "1* )(0* 07'&70* ?8* #"88&H>0* C"3>F* ?>>"C* 1"% 734H0%*"1*#3>8089*)(0*F3)$*/$/>0*/?7*H0*&'7"%0F;
8("%)0%*F050>"#407)*)&40*?7F* >"C0%* /"8)8;* * <(0* &'7&)&"7
#3>80* '070%?)"%* C(00>* &8* /"78)%3/)0F* C&)(* 8$440)%&/?> !2B:UV2<:TZ
)00)(*8#?/0F*0507>$*1"%*[,*8#?/089*H3)*C&)(*"7>$*`*)00)(
"7* )(0* #0%&40)0%9* /%0?)&7'* ?* 7"7\8$440)%&/?>* 8#?/0* 1"% 27")(0%* &8830* )"* H0* %08">50F* &7* )(&8* ?##>&/?)&"7* &8* 50%$
)(0* >?8)* [a_* %05">3)&"7;* * :1* )(0* C(00>* C0%0* #0%10/)>$ &4#"%)?7);**.&7/0*)(0*!LN*&8*F0%&50F*1%"4*)(0*!ON*?7F
8$440)%&/?>9* )(0* 6!L* C"3>F* (?50* F&11&/3>)$* F0)0%4&7&7' 7")* F&%0/)>$* 40?83%0F9* &)* 438)* H0* H?80F* "7* ?//3%?)0
#"8&)&"7*"7>$*1%"4*"70*8078"%; &71"%4?)&"7;**<(0*/"37)0%*438)*"7>$*8)?%)*/"37)&7'*"7*)(0
1&%8)*"1*)(0*7&70*)00)(*?7F*)(0*&7&)&?>*5?>308*"1*)(0*/"37)0%8
27'3>?%*#"8&)&"7&7'*%0G3&%08*?*%010%07/0*#"&7);**N0%10/)>$ 438)*H0*E0%";**<(0*&7&)&?>*5?>308*?%0*80)*)"*E0%"*?7$*)&40
8$440)%&/?>* C(00>8* F"* 7")* (?50* ?* %010%07/0* #"&7);* * <" ?* #3>80* 07)0%8* )(0* />"/J* "1* )(0* !ON* /"37)0%9* C(&>0* )(0
380* "70* 8078"%* )"* '070%?)0* )C"* 8&'7?>89* )(0* 8#?/0* &8 "3)#3)* 5?>30* &8* c* "%* (&'(0%;* * <(&8* &8* ?* %083>)* "1* )(0
2
100FH?/J* )"* )(0* >"?F* 07?H>09* >"?F&7'* ?* H&7?%$* _\H&) !LN* "3)#3)8* C&>>* H0* 80)* /"%%0/)>$* )"* )(0* E0%"* #"8&)&"7;
%0#%0807)?)&"7* "1* E0%";* * <(0* 8?40* %080)* "//3%8* "7* )(0 <(&8* &8* ?>8"* 8("C7* &7* =&'3%0* _;* * <(0* /"78)?7)* />"/J
!LN*/"37)0%*1"%*?7$*"3)#3)*5?>30*"1*,*"%*(&'(0%; 1%0G307/$* /?7* H0* 80)* )"* /"&7/&F0* C&)(* )(0* 1%0G307/$* "1
)(0* !ON* #&/J3#* C(00>* F3%&7'* 07'&70* 8)?%)&7';* * <(&8* C&>>
:7* ?7$* /?80* "1* &7&)&?>* /"7F&)&"789* )(0* 7?)3%?>* /"37)&7'* "1 5?%$*C&)(*8)?%)0%8*?7F*07'&708*?7F*&8*H08)*40?83%0F*C&)(
)(0* #3>808* 1%"4* )(0* !ON* #&/J3#* C(00>* C&>>* )%&''0%* )(0 ?7* "8/&>>"8/"#0;* * <(0* /"78)?7)* 1%0G307/$* />"/J* /?7* H0
%080)* )(0* "3)#3)8* )"* E0%";* * :7* "70* "1* 7&70* /?8089* )(0 &4#>0407)0F* 38&7'* ?* ddd* )&40%;* * <(&8* 804&/"7F3/)"%* &8
8&'7?>8*)"*)(0*6!L*C&>>*H0*/"%%0/)*&7*&F07)&1$&7'*/?48(?1) 0110/)&50>$* &4#>0407)0F* H$* &78)?>>&7'* ?* #")07)&"40)0%
?7F* /%?7J8(?1)* #"8&)&"7* ?)* 8)?%)3#* C&)("3)* 8&'7?> H0)C007* #&78* 1"3%* ?7F* 80507* "%* 80507* ?7F* )C"* "1* )(0
/"7F&)&"7&7';**<(&8*?>"70*&8*37?//0#)?H>0*?7F*378?10;**27 ddd*)&40%;**<(0*1%0G307/$*"1*)(0*"3)#3)*"1*)(0*ddd*)&40%
?8$7/(%"7"38*%080)*C&>>*/"%%0/)*)(&8*#%"H>04; &8*F0)0%4&70F*H$*)(0*1">>"C&7'*1"%43>?e

******=%0G307/$*f*[;__**a*ghV[*i*,*S*@V,Aj*S*!

*<(&8*C&>>*C?8)0*?)*)(0*4?S&434*"70*07'&70*%05">3)&"7*)"
/?>&H%?)0*)(0*/"37)0%8*H01"%0*)(0* 8&'7?>8* ?%0* 807)* )"* )(0
6!L;

=:]DV6*,\*=&%8)*!"37)0%*1"%*6!L*N3>80*]070%?)&"7

=:]DV6*_\*<&4&7'*P&?'%?4*1"%*6?/(*V05">3)&"7

!TZ!BD.:TZ

:7* /"7/>38&"79* )(0* 8&4#>0* /&%/3&)* 0S#>?&70F* ?H"50* /"3>F


H0*/"78)%3/)0F*?)*>"C*/"8)*&7*8("%)*"%F0%*C&)("3)*4?J&7'
40/(?7&/?>* 4"F&1&/?)&"78* )"* ?7* 07'&70* )(?)* (?8* ?>%0?F$
H007* F08&'70F* )"* 0S?/)&7'* 8)?7F?%F8;* * <(0* 0>0/)%"7&/
/"4#"707)8* &7/>3F0* )(%00* /"37)0%* /(&#89* "70* ddd* )&40%
?7F*"70*>"'&/*2ZP*'?)0;*<(0*380*"1*8"40*84?>>*/&%/3&)%$
)"* 0>&4&7?)0* 40/(?7&/?>* /"4#>0S&)$* &8* )(0* #3%#"80* "1
?3)"4")&50*0>0/)%"7&/8;**^(&>0*10C*8">3)&"78*?%0*#0%10/)9
)(&8* "70* /"4H&708* 8&4#>&/&)$* ?7F* 1%3'?>&)$9* ?7F* &8
=:]DV6*W\*.0/"7F*!"37)0%*1"%*6!L*N3>80*]070%?)&"7 )(0%01"%0*?))%?/)&50;

:Z<6VZ2B*!BT!O I-PBLFG'MOQ'BJ8

2*80#?%?)0*/"37)0%*C&>>*/"37)*)(0*#3>808*1%"4*?*/"78)?7) <(0* ?3)("%8* C"3>F* >&J0* )"* )(?7J* <0%%$* k* N?)%&/&?


1%0G307/$* &7)0%7?>* />"/J;* * ^(07* )(0* 7&7)(* )"")(* #3>80* &8 U"C0%4?79*1"%*)(0&%*07/"3%?'0407)*k*83##"%)*&7*4?J&7'
&7#3)*&7)"*)(0*!ON*/"37)0%9*&)*&8*?>8"*)%?##0F*H$*?*>?)/(; )(&8*C"%J*#"88&H>0;**2*(0?%)10>)*)(?7J8*?>8"*&8*0S)07F0F*)"
:1* )(0* 70S)* #3>80* 1%"4* )(0* !ON* #&/J3#* C(00>* &8* 7") )(0* [```\,---* B?C%07/0* <0/(7">"'&/?>* D7&50%8&)$
?%%&5&7'* C&)(&7* )(%00* #3>808* "1* )(0* /"78)?7)* />"/J9* )(0 ="%43>?*.26*<0?4;
?8$7/(%"7"38* %080)8* C&>>* H0* ?/)&5?)0F* ?7F* )(0* !ON* ?7F

3
-LBJI-J

l308)&"78* ?7F* /"4407)8* /"7/0%7&7'* )(&8* #?#0%* ?7F* &)8


/"7)07)8*/?7*H0*F&%0/)0F*)"e

P%;* U?F&(* m?C?F* ?)e* * m2^2PnB<D;6PD;* P%;* m?C?F* &8


)(0* B<D* =.26* 1?/3>)$* ?F5&8"%* ?7F* ?* #%"1088"%* "1
40/(?7&/?>* 07'&700%&7'* ?)* B?C%07/0* <0/(7">"'&/?>
D7&50%8&)$;

P%;*Z?H&>*K?/(04*?)e**K2!K6Ln>)3;0F3;*P%;*K?/(04*&8
)(0* /""%F&7?)"%* "1* )(0* 6!6* N%"M0/)8* ?7F* ?* #%"1088"%* "1
0>0/)%&/?>* ?7F* /"4#3)0%* 07'&700%&7'* ?)* B?C%07/0
<0/(7">"'&/?>*D7&50%8&)$;

^&>>&?4*<;*U"C0%4?7*?)e*U&>>U"C0%4?7n>""J84?%);/"4

m?70))0*B0080*?)e**mBc_-d`n>)3;0F3

.?8?*!&E4&/*?)e**.!c_IdcnB<D;6PD

L%;* U"C0%4?79* L&88* B00809* ?7F* L%;* !&E4&/* ?%0


37F0%'%?F3?)0* 8)3F07)8* &7* )(0* U?/(0>"%b8* "1* ./&07/0
6>0/)%&/?>* 67'&700%&7'* N%"'%?4* ?)* B?C%07/0
<0/(7">"'&/?>*D7&50%8&)$9*?7F*?>8"*404H0%8*"1*)(0*,---
="%43>?*.26*)0?4;

K'R'K'B-'8

[; Z0>8"79* Y&/)"%* N;* * oP&'&)?>* B"'&/* !&%/3&)* 27?>$8&8* k


P08&'7o**N%07)&/0*K?>>9*[``d**:.UZ*-\[W\_IWc`_\c

,; Z?)&"7?>* .04&/"7F3/)"%* [```* F?)?* H""J9* C0H8&)0


CCC;7?)&"7?>;/"4;

W; [``d* B<D* =.26* <0?49* Q[``d* ="%43>?* =26* =&7?>


V0#"%)9R* B?C%07/0* <0/(7">"'&/?>* D7&50%8&)$9
."3)(1&0>F9*L&/(&'?7;

_; [```* B<D* =.26* <0?49* Q* [```* ="%43>?* .26* =&7?>


V0#"%)9R* B?C%07/0* <0/(7">"'&/?>* D7&50%8&)$9
."3)(1&0>F9*L&/(&'?7;