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March 09 Cover:Cover 2007 12/3/09 11:45 Page 1

NUMISMATIC
CIRCULAR March 2009 Volume CXVII Number 1

GK2652 Carian Satraps, Maussollos (377-353 BC), Tetradrachm 4,650

ANCIENT, BRITISH AND foreign coins, Contents


commemorative medals AND Further Thoughts on the Identifications of The C and
L Mints of Carausius and Allectus, AD 287-296
A Lunettes Penny from Loch Lomond and
a New Lunettes Moneyer for Alfred
NUMISMATIC BOOKS Malcolm Lyne
A Tibetan 5 Sho Coin, Dated 15-49 in Gold
5 William MacKay and Adrian Lyons
Lost City Tokens of Norwich, 1580
9
Wolfgang Bertsch 6 N. du Quesne Bird 10
Featuring the John Marshall Collection of Ancient Coins A Note on Henry I Type XV Semiotics of Celtic Coins VI Cunobelines Ship
Peter D. Spencer 6 Robert D. Van Arsdell 11
For all enquiries please contact:
Portraits of Greek Coinage R. J. Eaglen 8 BNS Bursaries 13
William MacKay A New Canterbury Type for Egbert of Wessex A Hoard of Late Seventh Century Copper Coins
Tel: 0207 563 4054 Email: wmackay@spink.com Rory Naismith 8 S. Bendall 13
Book Reviews 16
LONDON, THURSDAY 19 MARCH 2009
March 09 Cover:Cover 2007 5/3/09 11:57 Page 3

Books

I0738 I0739 I0740


[Ref. 4003] KRAUSE. Editor CUHAJ, G. S. World Paper
Money General Issues. 1368 1960. 12th Edition. Iola,
[Ref. 4016] BREINGAN, R. Scottish Transport Tokens. 2008. Quarto, pp.1228. Card covers, illustrated throughout
Gloucestershire, 2009. Octavo, pp. 128. Card covers, in black and white. Detailed descriptions and valuations
illustrated in black and white with 8 pages in colour. given in US dollars. Includes a pdf version of the catalogue
14.99 on DVD (PC and Mac compatible Adobe Acrobat Reader
required). 55.99

I0741 I0742 I0743

[Ref. 4009] JOKISCH, V. Emblems of Eminence. Munich, [Ref. 4018] MEVIUS, J. Speciale Catalogus van de
2008. Quarto, pp. 223. Casebound in cloth, gilt. Beautifully Nederlandse Munten van 1795 tot heden. Met ned. West-
illustrated throughout in colour. 75.00 indi ned. Oost-indi. Suriname Curaao ned. Antillen
Aruba Euromunten. Netherlands, 2009. Octavo, pp.
246. Card covers, illustrated throughout in black and white.
I0745 Values given in up to five grades in Euros. 11.30
I0744

I0746 I0747 [Ref. 4006] KRAUSE. Editors: BRUCE, C.R.; MICHAEL, T.


I0748 World Coins 1601-1700. 4th Edition. Iola, 2008. Quarto,
pp. 1439 plus advertisements. Card covers, illustrated [Ref. 4010] SELGIN, G. Good Money. Birmingham Button
throughout in black and white. Detailed descriptions and Makers, the Royal Mint, and the Beginnings of Modern
valuations given in US dollars. Includes a pdf version of the Coinage, 1775 1821. Private Enterprise and Popular
book on DVD (PC and Mac compatible Adobe Acrobat Coinage. Michigan, 2008. Octavo, pp. 345. Casebound in
Reader required). 55.99 cloth, gilt, paper jacket. 16 pages of colour illustrations.
Postage and Packing will be added 20.00

WE ARE ALWAYS INTERESTED IN PURCHASING INTERESTING IMPORTANT


SINGLE ITEMS OR COMPLETE NUMISMATIC LIBRARIES
I0749
PLEASE CONTACT: PHILIP SKINGLEY IN THE BOOK DEPARTMENT
I0750 I0751 Tel: 020 7563 4045 OR Email: pskingley@spink.com
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 3

Coins, Banknotes, Bonds & Shares, Medals, Stamps,


Numismatic Books and Autographs
AUCTION CALENDAR
2009
Stamps
7 April Great Britain Stamps & Postal History London 9007
16 April The V. T. Nathan Collection of Straits Settlements London 9023
17/18 April The William Ainsworth Collection Abraham Lincolns Image on United States
Postage Stamps New York Spink Shreve
29 April British Empire Stamps & Covers London 9011
29 April The James M. Minervino Collection of Extraordinary Quality United States Postage Stamps New York Spink Shreve
30 April Stamps London 9012
7 May Stamps & Covers of the World London 9013
8/9 May The Richard Collier Collection of Postally Used Stamps of the United States & the World New York Spink Shreve
3 June Stamps London 9015
4 June Important Stamps & Covers of the World London 9016
4/5 July Stamps of South East Asia Singapore 9018
15 July Great Britain Stamps & Postal History London 9020
16 July British Empire Stamps & Covers London 9021

Bonds and Shares


22/23 April Numismatic Collectors Series New York Spink Smythe
28 May Bonds & Share Certificates of the World London 9014

Coins
19 March The John Marshall Collection, Other Ancient, British, World Coins,
Commemorative Medals & Books London 9008
22/23 April Numismatic Collectors Series New York Spink Smythe
25 June Ancient, English & Foreign Coins & Commemorative Medals London 9017

Medals
23/24 April Orders, Decorations, Medals & Militaria London 9004/9024
23 July Orders, Decorations, Medals & Militaria London 9022

Banknotes
26/27 March World Banknotes London 9010
20/21 April The Herb & Martha Schingoethe Obsolete Currency Collection Part 17 New York Spink Smythe
22/23 April Numismatic Collectors Series New York Spink Smythe
25 June The Herb & Martha Schingoethe Obsolete Currency Collection Part 18 Memphis Spink Smythe
26/27 June Memphis Show Auction Memphis Spink Smythe
4/5 July Banknotes of South East Asia Singapore 9019

Autographs
22/23 April Numismatic Collectors Series New York

The above sale dates are subject to change

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4 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR Printed in England by Pardy & Son (Printers) Ltd Parkside, Ringwood, Hampshire BH24 3SF
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 5

The Numismatic Circular Published since 1892

March 2009 Volume CXVII Number 1 MILITVM or abbreviations thereof and have the clasped hands in
the horizontal plane. This coin, however, does not bear the
Contents MILITVM part of the inscription and appears to refer to an
agreement between Carausius and an organisation or someone
Further Thoughts on the Identifications of The C and other than the soldiers under his command, with a name
L Mints of Carausius and Allectus, AD 287-296 beginning with C.
Malcolm Lyne 5 The naval force or Classis created by Maximian from a variety
A Tibetan 5 Sho Coin, Dated 15-49 in Gold of units drawn from fleets elsewhere in the Empire to destroy
Wolfgang Bertsch 6 Frankish pirates plaguing the coasts of Britain and Gaul was a key
element in the success of the rebellion led by its renegade
A Note on Henry I Type XV commander and is a prime candidate for an organisation
Peter D. Spencer 6 represented by its initial letter. This so far unique coin may,
Portraits of Greek Coinage R. J. Eaglen 8 therefore, proclaim the loyalty of the British Fleet to Carausius.
A New Canterbury Type for Egbert of Wessex The break in the reverse legend occurs above the wrist of the
Rory Naismith 8 uppermost of the two clasped hands before the R of CONCORDIA.
This R is here rendered as II; a device more often used for E or A
A Lunettes Penny from Loch Lomond and on Carausius early coins. Breaks in coin legends usually occur
a New Lunettes Moneyer for Alfred where the image on the coin intrudes into them but this break is
William MacKay and Adrian Lyons 9 unusual in that the the image does not intrude into the legend
Lost City Tokens of Norwich, 1580 and a surplus letter I is present in the middle of the break directly
N. du Quesne Bird 10 above the wrist of the uppermost hand.
A mintmark C occurs in the exergue of the coin reverse directly
Semiotics of Celtic Coins VI Cunobelines Ship below the wrist of the lower clasped hand and it may be that the I
Robert D. Van Arsdell 11 above the wrist of the upper one and this C below the lower one
BNS Bursaries 13 refer to the hands of the Imperator and the Classis personnel
A Hoard of Late Seventh Century Copper Coins clasped in agreement. If the C in the exergue of the coin doubles
S. Bendall 13 up as both a mintmark and abbreviation for Classis, Baileys
suggestion will be correct.
Book Reviews 16 Williams, however, discusses Baileys hypothesis but comes to
Our list of numismatic items and books offered for sale the conclusion that it is unlikely. He points out that the temple site
follows on page 18 at Lydney in Monmouthshire has produced the highest
percentage of C marked Carausian coins from Britain, with other
Further Thoughts on the Identifications of high percentages coming from non-coastal sites at Lincoln,
The C and L Mints of Carausius and St.Albans, Aldborough, Kenchester, Catterick and Silchester.
It should be pointed out, however, that if the C mint had been
Allectus, AD 287-296 set up to pay the fleet, much of its output would have gone to pay
for supplies of timber and other raw materials for shipbuilding
Malcolm Lyne such as iron. Much of this timber and iron came from the Weald
before the mid-3rd century, as evidenced by CLBR stamped tiles
from many of the iron producing sites there. There appears to
have been a sharp fall-off in Wealden iron production after c.250;
perhaps brought about by the ravages of Frankish pirates in the
south-east of Britain or some other factor. It is believed that much
of this lost iron production was replaced by the output of mines in
the Forest of Dean during the Late Roman period: the use of
Speculation over the location of Carausius C mint has been rife Classis mint coinage to pay for iron and timber from that source
for the last 300 years or more: Colchester (Camulodunum/ would explain the exceptionally high percentage of C marked
Colonia)1, Bitterne (Clausentum)2, Catterick (Cataractonium)3 coins from nearby Lydney and possibly also the abnormally high
and Gloucester (Glevum)4 have all been proposed. Bailey numbers of Allectan quinari in the equally adjacent Rogiet hoard.
suggested that C stood for Classis5 and indicated a naval mint. The CL exergual mark of Allectus makes more sense as an
However, on the basis of the distribution of coins from the London abbreviation for Classis than as one for Colonia:7 the earlier MSCC
and C mints, Williams has pointed out that the latter do not show mark of Carausius presents more of a problem but the fleet that
any bias towards coastal sites, and believes that a naval mint is he seized had been formed by Maximian out of detachments from
unlikely6. a number of provincial fleets and may well have been given the
The answer to this conundrum may have been lying un- title of Classis Carausiana after its defection.
noticed for more than 100 years in the William C Boyd collection, Bailey8 also postulated that L may have stood for Legionensis
before its sale in 2005, and takes the form of the following not Londinium and Voetter9 believed that the coin dies marked L
antoninianus: and C were cut at a single centre. This would explain the
Obv. IMPCARAVSIVSPFAVG; bust radiate and draped right. occasional appearance of otherwise orthodox coins combining
Rev. CONCO I IIDIAC; clasped hands in vertical plane. the attributes of L and C marks in the forms of F/O/C and
Exergual mark C. 19/17mm. 4.59g. S/C/ML10. There are as yet, however, no known examples of
Baldwins Auction 42 (26/9/2005), 674. (Pl. 00, 1) obverse dies linking both L and C reverses.
At first glance, the reverse legend, coupled with the clasped Perhaps we should regard these so-called mints as one or
hands, looks like a garbled rendering of a CONCORDIA issue. more die-sinking centres supplying ready-to-use dies to where
Such clasped hands issues usually bear the legend CONCORDIA they were needed to strike coin for payment to fleet or army
Important Information for all Subscribers Please be advised of the following changes to The Numismatic Circular in
2009. The number of issues will be reduced from 6 to 5 and they will appear at the start of the months of March, May, July, MARCH 2009 5
September and December. The overall content will remain roughly the same, therefore no change in the subscription rate is
proposed as the costs of production and mailing have actually increased in recent times.
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 6

personnel or to where the metals for coining were mined. Possible a genuine Tibetan coin. A metal analysis and an examination of
evidence for the latter is provided by the 1907 hoard from Little the denticles around the edge may provide further evidence in
Ormes Head, which lies near copper mines known to have been support of the very dubious status of this coin.
exploited in Roman times. Approximately 700 coins were Had this coin been offered in the market about twenty years
originally found, of which up to 97% are of Carausius and exhibit ago, most experts would probably have described it as a
a large number of die links11. A possible spiked iron trussel lacking presentation piece produced in one of Tibet s mints, or a trial
its die was also included in the hoard, although this identification strike to test new minting machines imported from U.K.
is questioned by Williams12. At least 64 of the coins of Carausius
were overstruck on issues of earlier emperors and the 13
non-Carausian coins in the hoard may also have been intended
for this purpose. Well over 400 of the 575 surviving coins of
Carausius are unmarked and struck on the small, early flans of
the period AD 286-7: the marked issues in this hoard terminate
with the F/O/ML mark of AD 289/90 and the MCXXI mark of AD
290. It may be that the earliest insular base coinage of Carausius
was struck at the sources of much of its metal before distribution
to the fleet and army and that coins of other emperors suitable for
restriking or melting down were also sent there. 15-49. Weight: 9.65 g. Diam: 29.0 mm.
Footnotes:
1. RIC V, pp. 431-2; M. Lyne, Two New Coin Types for Carausius and
Allectus and their implications, NC 2000, pp. 291-2.
2. H. Mattingly, Carausius: his Mints and his Money System, Antiquity
(1945), pp. 122-4.
3. W. Stukeley, The Medallic History of Marcus Aurelius Valerius Carausius
(1757).
4. A. Burnet and J. Casey, A Carausian Hoard from Croydon, Surrey, and a
Note on Carausiuss Continental Possessions, BNJ (1984), pp. 10-20.
5. Bailey 1989, pp. 321-2.
6. Williams 2004, p. 44. 15-49. Weight: 8.39g. Diam: 28.7 mm.
7. Lyne 2000, p. 292.
8. C.J. Bailey, Some Notes on the Coinage of Carausius, NCirc 1989/10,
p. 321-2.
9. O. Voetter, Mnzen der rmischen Kaiser: Sammlung Gerin (1921),
discusssed further by Shiel 1977, p. 176; P. Gerin, Britische
Mnzsttten, NZ 10 (1917), pp. 48-50.
10. RIC V, nos 51, 98 and 305.
11. H.A. Seaby, A find of coins of Carausius from the Little Ormes Head, NC
1956, pp. 205-46.
12. Williams 2004, p. 77.

15-49. Weight: 9.21 g. Diam: 28.7 mm.


I have illustrated three genuine 5 sho silver coins, dated 15-49,
from my collection, which are closely related in style to this coin.
A Tibetan 5 Sho Coin, Dated 15-49 in Gold
Wolfgang Bertsch
A Note on Henry I Type XV
Peter D. Spencer
In the October 2005 issue of the Numismatic Circular David
A. Walker discussed a couple of coins that were offered for sale in
the February issue (Two Henry I Type XV Notes). The coins, both
Henry I type XV reverse die duplicates from the Pimprez hoard,
5 sho, dated 15-49 struck in AU? were listed as number HS1969 and number HS1970. Because of
Spinks, (Nov. 2008), wt. 15.85g, diameter 28 mm. weak striking in crucial areas, in each case there was doubt about
the moneyers name but the Spink cataloguer suggested that
This unrecorded Tibetan coin from a Chinese collection struck in Alvric might be the person responsible for their issue; the mint
what appears to be gold was recently brought to my attention by was given as Norwich, on the basis that the final letters on
Spinks. While its style is in keeping with genuine silver coins of HS1969 were DP and P on HS1970. However, the cataloguer also
the same type and date it is struck to a very high standard which said that an alternative reading could be CANDP (for
normally cannot be met with among genuine 5 sho silver coins Canterbury), where Aelfred has tentatively been identified as a
from Tibet. These are often struck slightly out of centre and moneyer for type XV from a coin in the P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton
frequently have some weakly struck areas. The diameter of the collection.
coin is slightly below the average diameter of genuine coins. Its In his discussion of the two coins Mr Walker pointed out that
high weight indicates that it is either struck in gold or some other NORD[PIC] is a Norwich mint signature found only on early
heavy metal or that its planchet is thicker than normal. pennies of Henry I, whereas NORP[IC] is used on later issues. As
I therefore think it very likely that the above illustrated coin is the mint signature was thought to end with DP Mr Walker
a modern Chinese forgery, produced with highly sophisticated attributed HS1969 and HS1970 to Canterbury in his summary
minting equipment. It may also qualify as nearly perfect replica of and listed the moneyer as Alvri(c)?
Important Information for all Subscribers Please be advised of the following changes to The Numismatic Circular in
6 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR 2009. The number of issues will be reduced from 6 to 5 and they will appear at the start of the months of March, May, July,
September and December. The overall content will remain roughly the same, therefore no change in the subscription rate is
proposed as the costs of production and mailing have actually increased in recent times.
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 7

Figure 1 Figure 2
On 20th April 2008 a scattered hoard of Henry I type XV After checking again Harris list I noticed that the moneyer
pennies was discovered by members of the West Riding Detector Aelward or Aelfward is listed not only for Henry I type XV but also
Group. Two further visits to the find site brought the total number for Stephen type I. The source for this is two coins in the Prestwich
of coins found to 175. Not only is such a hoard unique for the hoard, which is another major find dating from the Norman
area (North Yorkshire) but it is also the first that has contained period that has never been comprehensively published. However,
only Henry I type XV and no earlier or later coins1. Harris refers to the Glendining sale on 13 November 1974 when
A total of 15 metal-detecting enthusiasts were involved in this two Stephen type I Norwich pennies were sold as Lot 121 and
very important find and before the individual batches of coins Lot 122; Peter Mitchell, who catalogued the coins, read the first
were handed over to the local Finds Liaison Officer for North as [AL]FPARD and the second as A[L]FPARD.
Yorkshire (Liz Andrews-Wilson). I managed to see most of them2. So, who is the moneyer on HS1969 and HS1970, 2461/LC
I did not have time to catalogue them all in detail but did list most from the Lincoln hoard, and the coin illustrated as Figure 1?
by mint and moneyer. One of the coins is of particular interest, as Harris was only aware of the coin from the Lincoln hoard and
it relates to Mr Walkers discussion of HS1969 and HS1970. It is listed the moneyer as Aelward or Aelfward. Having said this, he
always very difficult to identify die duplicates from scans or
photographs but the coin I listed as number 107 when gave the same two names for a type I coin of Stephen, on which
cataloguing the hoard does appear to be struck from the same the moneyers name reads ALFPARD. Therefore, according to
reverse die as the two coins offered for sale by Spink in the Harris, Alverd is simply a version of Aelward/Aelfward/Alfward.
February 2005 issue of the Numismatic Circular. Before handing I am not convinced that Harris is correct.
in this coin the finder photographed it3 and an enlarged image of Alfward is not a common name but a moneyer of that name is
the reverse is illustrated as Figure 1. As can be seen, the coin is on record for Henry I type X, XIII and XIV at Thetford, which is
half flat but the moneyers name and the end of the mint reasonably close to Norwich. Might this person have lost his
signature are both fairly clear. position at Thetford, through the purge thought to have taken
The first letter of the moneyers name is A; the second appears place around Christmas of 1124, and then gained a position at
to have received a few knocks but will be a letter L; this is followed nearby Norwich when Stephen came to the throne? If this was
by V and then a letter I had difficulty making out but is most the case then Alverd, the moneyer appearing on Henry I type XV,
probably an E; the next letter is only partly visible but Id interpret will be a different individual. I would suggest that the spelling of
it as R; the final letter is D. The D is followed by a faint colon and a this name is sufficiently different to make this a distinct possibility.
letter O, the latter being the first letter of the copulative. That Mr In conclusion, the cataloguer of HS1969 and HS1970 in the
Walker read the fifth letter of the moneyers name as a letter I is Numismatic Circular was correct in attributing the coins to
understandable, because of the flat area that followed on but it is Norwich but the recently discovered reverse die duplicate,
actually the upright of what is most probably a letter R. The together with the coin from the Lincoln hoard, prove that the
partial mint signature (RP) I interpret as the last two letters of
NORP, so the coin will have started its life at the Norwich mint. moneyer is not Alvric. However, the exact name of the moneyer is
In his comprehensive listing of moneyers working under the still open to question.
Norman kings, E. J. Harris has an official named Aelward or
Footnotes:
Aelfward at the Norwich mint during the time that Henry I type
1. A list of hoards containing coins of Henry I was published by Mark
XV was being struck4. This is based upon a coin in the Lincoln Blackburn as an appendix to Coinage and Currency under Henry I: A
(Melandry) hoard (1972), which has never been published in Review (Anglo-Norman Studies, 1990. pp. 49-80).
detail but the coins acquired from the hoard by the City and 2. The hoard was handed over to Liz Andrews-Wilson on 7 June. It has been
County Museum, Lincoln, are listed in SCBI 275. On looking up allocated the reference number 2008 T271 by the Treasure Registrar at
the relevant coin (reference number 2461/LC) I found that the the British Museum.
reverse legend had been read as +ALVERD ON NORP. In order to 3. The finder of this coin, Kevern George, was kind enough to provide me
confirm the reading, and to see if this penny might be a die with the enlarged image of the reverse, a copy of which was sent to
duplicate of the recently discovered coin and the two sold by Mr Walker.
Spink, I asked the City and County Museum if I could have 4. The moneyers of the Norman kings and the types they are known to
photographs of it. I eventually received enlarged images of the have struck, Seabys Coin and Medal Bulletin, April 1986, page 9.
coin6 and the reverse is illustrated as Figure 2. The obverse is in 5. Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles 27, Lincolnshire Collections, 1981, pp.
poor condition and the reverse not much better but enough detail 157-59. The list of coins is said to have been compiled by Miss M. M.
can be seen for me to be pretty certain that it is a die duplicate. Archibald.
6. My original request for photographs of the coin went astray but after
Crucially, the first two letters of the mint signature are very weak contacting Antony Lee, Valerie Chapman and Adam Daubney I
but their faint outlines indicate they are more likely to be a letter eventually received images of 2461/LC.
N followed by an O than any other combination. This would seem
to remove any possible doubt about the coin being from the
Norwich mint.

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Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 8

Portraits of Greek Coinage The type was issued at Issus (I), Mallus (M), Soli () and Tarsus
(T), but owing to the number of obverse die links it has long been
R. J. Eaglen suggested that the mint at Tarsus may at times have operated on
behalf of the other cities16.
26 Balacrus (Balakros) (333-328 BC) Soli had the dubious honour of spawning the term solecism
(), owing to the the inhabitants reputedly
ungrammatical speech17. The citys standing is, however,
Stater (or double siglos). Struck for Soli
somewhat redeemed as the birthplace of the stoic philosopher
Aratus (c. 315-239 BC)18 and of Chrysippus, a later leader of the
movement who died in 20719.

Footnotes:
1. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (OCD), edited by S. Hornblower and A.
Spawforth, 3rd edn revised (Oxford, 2003), pp.57-8; Barrington Atlas of
the Greek and Roman World, edited by R. T. A. Talbert (Oxford and
Princeton, 2000), Map 57, C3. Ancient estimates of the Persian forces
varied between 250,000 and 600,000. (Arrian, The Campaigns of
Alexander, translated by A. de Selincourt and revised by J. R. Hamilton)
Obverse Reverse (London, 1971), p.65.
2. D. R. Sear, Greek Coins and their Values (GCV) II (London, 1979),
Obv. Draped bust of Athena, turned slightly l., wearing triple- pp.514-5.
crested helmet, ornate pendant earring and beaded necklace. 3. OCD, p.1476.
Free-flowing locks of hair on each side of face. 4. Barrington Atlas, Map 66, F3.
5. Barrington Atlas, Map 66, G3.
6. Barrington Atlas, Map 66, F3.
Rev. Baal wearing himation, seated l. on throne decorated with 7. Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, 2.5.5. On the value of a talent, see J.
annulets; l. hand on thigh, r. holding upright a lotus tipped Melville Jones, A Dictionary of Ancient Greek Coins (London, 1986), p.223.
sceptre. To l. in field, bunch of grapes and, beyond, an ear of corn. 8. Arrian, 2.6.
Below stringer of throne, the letter (for Soli). 9. Arrian, 2.11.
10. Arrian, 2.12.
10.82g (23/24mm diameter). 11. Arrian, 2.12.
12. Sear, Greek Coins and their Values, II, p.515.
13. See, GCV 5653-5, p.515, where Sear suggests that the stater of this type
Authors collection. Ex Tkalec AG (Zurich), 29 February 2000, issued at Tarsus (T) and with an ivy leaf in the obverse field was issued in
173 and The New York Sale XIV, 10 January 2007, 130. the time of Arsames (334-3).
14. See C. M. Kraay and M. Hirmer, Coinage in the Greek World (New York)
Alexander the Great made his decisive move against the Persian Plate IV, 111, Plate 39, 112; G. K. Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins (London,
Empire of Darius III early in 334 BC, crossing the Hellespont into 1972), p.167 and illustration 400.
Asia Minor with 43,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry. By 15. I. Carradice and M. Price, Coinage in the Greek World (London, 1988),
p.110, note the mixing of Greek and local influences in the image of
November 333, having en route cut the prophetic Gordian Knot, Athena.
he advanced into Cicilia. There, at the north-eastern extremity of 16. B. V. Head, Historia Nummorum (Oxford, 1911), pp.731, 732.
the Mediterranean Sea, he routed a much larger Persian army at 17. Heroditus 4.117.
the battle of Issus1. 18. OCD, p.136.
At the time of the encounter the Persian satrap or governor 19. OCD, p.329.
of Cicilia was Arsames, who had only taken over from Mazaeus
(361-334) the previous year2. The centre of the satrapy was
Tarsus3, just off the coast some 75 miles north-west of Issus4.
Apart from these two cities there were also important centres at A New Canterbury Type for
Mallus5 and, beyond Tarsus along the coast, at Soli6, to which the
coin illustrated is assigned. Egbert of Wessex
Before engaging the Persian forces near Issus, Alexander had
entered Soli, established a garrison there and imposed a colossal Rory Naismith
fine of 200 talents - equivalent to 300,000 Attic tetradrachms -
upon the population for supporting Darius cause7. Shortly
afterwards he returned to Soli to celebrate the victories of his
allies further north and consented to the inhabitants continuing
their popular form of government8. After the battle of Issus,
during which Arsames was killed9, Alexander appointed (x2)
Balacrus, one of his royal guard, as satrap of Cicilia10. He also Obv. +H[ECBEARHT REX] around inner circle containing pellet.
waived the 50 talents still outstanding from the earlier fine
imposed upon Soli11. Rev. [+T]ID[BEARHT] around inner circle containing pellet.
In keeping with his sympathetic attitude towards local customs 0.47g, 270.
and institutions Alexander enabled Balacrus to continue issuing Found near Maidstone, Kent, May 2008 (EMC 2008.0217).
silver staters at the Persian weight standard of c. 11.00g12. The
obverse image of Baal, seated on a throne, was also retained but The fragment illustrated above came to light in May 2008, having
transferred to the reverse, the obverse being used to introduce the been found near Maidstone, Kent, by Mr Rob Parkes. All that is
facing bust of Athena wearing a triple-crested helmet13. This visible is a pellet within an inner circle on each face, with only a
image, most notably represented by Eukleidas tetradrachms at few letters remaining from the legend: +H on one side, ID on the
Syracuse late in the fifth century14 is transformed into a blend of other. On the basis of these remnants, it is possible to identify the
eastern and Greek influences15. Some of the obverse dies are of fragment as a specimen of the first Kentish coinage of Egbert,
inferior workmanship but others, such as that illustrated, are king of the West Saxons (80239), whose name was sometimes
accomplished, even if the goddess expression displays more rendered HECBEARHT, struck at Canterbury by the moneyer
whimsy than dignity. Tidbearht around 8258.
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The simple central design found on both faces of the fragment Scotland. Four coins of Burgred are known from the Talnotrie
is paralleled by the obverse of a rare type of Tidbearht (North find (1912)5 and a single example of Alfred, now lost, from
571), though both known specimens (from the Middle Temple Burghhead in Morayshire6. Of the Talnotrie coins one was also
hoard, now in the British Museum) have three or four wedges pierced. Other than the Scottish finds, pierced coins7 that have
arranged round a central pellet on the reverse. Other types are been found elsewhere seem associated with mounting on a
known with a similar design from East Anglia under thelstan weight. In this case the piercing is not central and was most likely
(c. 825c. 845) (e.g., North 448/1). However, this fragment is the to facilitate display of the coin. Alternatively the piercing could
first known coin to feature a single central pellet on both obverse have been intended to secure the coin on a thread or chain or to
and reverse. attach it to clothing for concealment. But as there is an almost
This strange-looking design, unusual for Anglo-Saxon pennies total absence of coins in Scotland during the late ninth century its
of this period, could represent a simple die-cutting error, with the rarity, value and novelty probably meant it was displayed.
wedges from the reverse omitted. However, there was considerable With many of these Lunettes pennies paid out by Mercia and
diversity in the design of coinage at Canterbury in this period, and Wessex as peace tributes to the Danish invaders between 868 and
it should probably be considered a deliberate new variant. 875/6, the presence of this example so far from Southern
The finder kindly donated the fragment to the Fitzwilliam England provides evidence for a chain of contact between
Museum, Cambridge, in June 2008. Western Scotland with the south perhaps in trade or as gifts. As
for dating the archaeological context from which this came, the
Lunettes coinage, although produced in very substantial
quantities over a period lasting more than twenty years,
A Lunettes Penny from Loch Lomond and completely disappears from the hoard record around 876/7 and is
never found with later types8. It may be that in the non-coin using
a New Lunettes Moneyer for Alfred peripheries of the Anglo-Saxon and Danish worlds this coin
might have remained in use after that.
William MacKay and Adrian Lyons
Our attention has been brought to two new finds which are
significant additions to the Corpus of the Lunettes coinage of
thelred I and Alfred the Great.

Fig 2. Alfred the Great Lunettes Penny, moneyer Ethelgar


The second coin, a Lunettes penny of Alfred the Great
(871-899) was recently acquired by one of the authors9. It seems
Fig 1. thelred I Penny from Loch Lomond, Scotland to have come from a recent small find said to have been located in
The first coin1, a Lunettes penny of thelred I of Wessex Suffolk10. Although only half the coin remains it is well preserved
(866-871), was found during an excavation undertaken by and weighs 0.55g. The obverse has a bust facing right with hair
Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division (GUARD) in a single line of crescents and a boldly cut double diadem. The
on the west side of Loch Lomond in Scotland. The coin, pierced, surviving part of the legend reads REX+AEL[BRED] leaving no
fragmentary and rather corroded, weighs 0.45g. The obverse has doubt that this is a coin of Alfred. The reverse type is Lunette
a neat, bonneted bust facing right. Part of the legend survives D (crooks) and the inscription reads RM[]/EEL[..]/NETA with
showing it would have read [REX+]AEELRED. The reverse is the NE ligate. The clear letter R in the top lunette is an overrun of
Lunettes type A with the closed Lunettes. The moneyers name is the moneyers name from the second line.
difficult to see, given the condition of the coin, but would seem to
read [..MON/[]BEA/[..]ETA.
The obverse style places the coin within the Lyons and MacKay
Wessex Regular Lunettes, variant i (Standard Bonnet 1). This is
the most frequently encountered of the four variants noted in this
Group. This variant was struck at Canterbury or possibly
elsewhere from Canterbury prepared dies2. The legend type is also
the most commonly found. The moneyers name is somewhat
problematic and is most likely Herebeald. An alternative might be
Elbere, one of the more prolific moneyers for thelred I. This
option is rejected as the central letter, which seems to be a B, is too
Fig 3. Reverse comparison, Ethelgar Alfred
central within the panel for this to fit with a reading of Elbere. Lunettes; right, Ethelgar, thelred I Lunettes.
Herebeald is preferred with a coin of this moneyer in the British
Museum (BMC 28)3 with the reading LDMON/HEREBEA/ETA. Of the Lunettes coinage moneyers known for Alfred whose
This provides the closest match with this coin. This moneyer was names include the initial element of Ethel- (Etheleah, Ethelstan,
one of the Canterbury/Kentish group of moneyers and is Ethelhere, Ethelmund, Ethelwulf, Ethered) none end with the
recorded for two other Lunettes coins of thelred I. He is also letter R. The only moneyer for whom this is the case in Ethelgar, a
known for the Inscribed Cross and Floriate issues for Aethelberht moneyer first recorded for thelred I by Pagan in 199111, known
and Lunettes issue of Alfred. then for a single example only. Lyons and MacKay12 recorded two
The find location of this coin is especially notable. It is the only examples, Ae3.14. and Ae3.15, one of which was the 1991 coin.
coin of thelred I to have been found in Scotland and, with the The case for this being a coin by this moneyer is further supported
exception of a possible Irish find4, the most distant from Wessex by two factors. Firstly Ethelgar was one of only five moneyers
yet recorded. It is however not the only Lunettes penny found in known to have struck the extremely rare Lunettes D reverse type
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2009. The number of issues will be reduced from 6 to 5 and they will appear at the start of the months of March, May, July, MARCH 2009 9
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for thelred I13 (Lyons and MacKay, Group 3, variant v), and this 3. Lyons AW and MacKay WA, BNJ 2007, thelred I Corpus, Ae2.75.
example is also Lunettes D. Secondly a comparison of the reverse 4. A coin of the moneyer Ethelred in the National Museum of Ireland which
of the Alfred coin with one of the thelred I Ethelgar coins (fig 3) Michael Dolley noted as coming from a find made in Leinster. But there
remains some doubt as to whether this is a genuine hoard or an
shows a remarkable similarity in die cutting style in the treatment antiquarian fantasy concocted from coins taken from England. See
of the letters. In fact the similarity is so close though they are Dolley, R.H.M., A Fourth Find of Ninth-Century Coins from Ireland?
not die duplicates - that the dies used were almost certainly cut by BNJ 36 p 32-35.
the same hands using the same tools. 5. See details at SCBI Edinburgh pp xiii, xxiii (hoard details) and coin
The emergence of a coin of Alfred by Ethelgar with such numbers 60 to 63. Number 60, a coin of Diga, is pierced twice and
similar style would seem to place the thelred I Lyons and patched.
MacKay variant v to the close of his reign ie 870-871, suggesting 6. See details at SCBI Edinburgh number 81.
7. The authors are aware of a recent find of Burgred pennies from Yorkshire
a slightly later date than previously proposed14. The thelred I which had also been pierced, in their case at the centre of the coin.
coin was noted as being of Irregular Wessex style (Group 3) with 8. The only exception to this, a London Monogram halfpenny found with
strong Mercian features present in the treatment of the bust. This the otherwise exclusively Lunettes Abbey Orchard, St Albans hoard
example of Alfred shares these characteristics reaffirming 1968, is currently being considered by Dr Marion Archibald in her hoard
Ethelgar as a Mercian rather than Wessex based moneyer. report.
In comparing the obverse of the two coins there are clear 9. Lyons via E-bay, August 2008.
differences between the thelred I and Alfred coins (fig. 4). Firstly 10. This comprised of three coins all fragments. In addition to this there was
a coin of Burgred by Guthmund and another of Alfred in conventional
the bust is executed with much less confidence with a clumsy Wessex style by Heremod.
11. Pagan HE, Two new coins in the name of thelred I and lfred of Wessex,
SNC Feb. 1991, p6.
12. Lyons AW and MacKay WA, BNJ, 2007, p113.
13. Known for only six examples out of an thelred I Lunettes corpus of
147 coins.
14. Lyons AW and MacKay WA, BNJ 2007, p92, where we suggested
868-870.
15. Pagan, SNC Feb. 1991, p6.

Fig4. Obverse comparison, Ethelgar Alfred Lunettes; right, Lost City Tokens of Norwich, 1580
Ethelgar, thelred I Lunettes. N. du Quesne Bird
(thelred I coin, MacKay Colln. no.93/02, thelred I Corpus
ref. Ae3.14; Alfred coin, Lyons Colln.) In 1580 the Norwich Assembly ordained that to the end that the
dutyes for serching and sealing may the better be paied there shal be a
diadem at a steeper angle, weak eye and a single rather than number of tokens of 14 d and 12 d of leade.
double band of hair. Secondly the legend uses a common style for No such tokens have been found, but evidence of how they
Alfred, REX+AELBRED, whilst that on the Ethelgar coins of might have been struck survives in an earlier paragraph of the
thelred I reads +AEERED REX, a very rare style only found on same act, which relates to a new issue of cloth-seals, that theare
his Lunettes D pennies. In the past the thelred I Lunettes D coins may be appoynted an yron to be fixed in a blocke with a letter or syfer
have been proposed as posthumous issues, i.e. after April 87115. to be graven thereon to stryke the backsyde of the crowne seal
However the existence of two closely style linked coins is strong wherewith the same clothes shall be sealyd, and that syfer or letter to
evidence against this with new dies being used by this moneyer for be altered yerely at the comyng on of Mr. Maior, to the intent that it
issues for Alfred. This shows that the issues in this style for may be better appere and be knowne in what yeare the same clothes
thelred I predated Alfreds reign providing the strongest were sealid, as also what number of clothes shal be sealyd in every yere.
evidence yet that thelred I variant v issue is not posthumous. The first letter to be the A and so every yere the other letter of the
However there is one stylistic consistency between the two alphabet. If the tokens were to be dated in this way, presumably the
coins in the use of a double-banded diadem. All Wessex produced order for them would have mentioned this.
coins of Alfred can be clearly differentiated by the use of a single- The crown-seal mentioned must be the crowned rose of the
banded diadem in place of the double-banded found on all cloth-seals but it was certainly not peculiar to them, for it was
thelred Is coins. However Mercian-style coins of Alfred retain widely used on pewterware in the North Sea countries, on
the double-banded diadem. We believe it further supports our Norwich silverware, and on weights and measures, so may also
contention these coins emanated from a Mercian based centre of have been used on the tokens, as may the Norwich mark of a
production, possibly to the north east of London, working for the castle-over-lion, which also appears on silverware, or the crowned
Wessex kings during the period of disruption following the portcullis of the cloth-seals.
appearance of the Danish Great Army in Southern England from
868.
This coin will be included in a detailed study by the authors of
the Lunettes coinage of Alfred the Great published in the 2008
volume of the British Numismatic Journal, (BNJ 78).

Acknowledgements.
The authors would like to thank Andy Williams at Spink for help with
photography.
A drawing of a reconstructed cloth seal is shown, as are the
Footnotes.
1. Our thanks to Dr. Donal Bateson, Senior Curator of the Hunterian
relevant Norwich hallmarks. Lead tokens with such designs
Museum, University of Glasgow and Dr. Gavin MacGregor of GUARDS for found in East Anglia may be those of the 1580 record.
their permission to publish this coin. Picture courtesy of the Hunterian
Museum. Bibliography:
2. Lyons AW and MacKay WA, The coinage of thelred I, BNJ 2007, J. B. Caldecott (1943) in Num. Chron. 105-6
pp 71-118.

10 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 11

Semiotics of Celtic Coins VI


Cunobelines Ship
Robert D. Van Arsdell

Boat model with figure from Roos Carr (Poulson, 1840)


Figure 2
Most solar-boat images occur on Bronze Age rock art from
Scandinavia or other parts of the Continent15. This imagery is
much too early to argue a direct influence on V1989-1.
Furthermore, there is no solar disk on the boat.
Many Punic and Phoenician objects from the first millennium
BC carry ship images. Sailors used them in rituals to placate the
sea gods and assure safe voyages, according to a recent article16. A
golden ship model from Broighter in Ireland has been suggested
as either a solar-boat19 or a ritual object20. The Broighter ship dates
to the first century BC. A wooden model of a ship with people (fig.
2), found in Roos Carr, Holderness in 183621, has traditionally
been described as a ritual object. Radiocarbon analysis dates it to
the sixth century BC22. All these objects are closer in date to the
Cunobeline coin than the Scandinavian rock art.
These later images could support the idea that the ship denotes
a votive object. But the connotation that Cunobeline is invoking
the gods to protect his sailors isnt very convincing. The Victory
on the reverse, acting as an Amalgamation Switcher, suggests
Figure 1 something very different is intended.
By the early 1st century AD, the Victory on Roman denarii
It is perhaps too easy to see abstract images of ships on Celtic should have been a familiar image to the Britons, and its meaning
coins. Often, the claims for them are unconvincing. In a 19th known. The Victory, combined with the ship, suggests that the
century example, de la Tour inverted the obverse image of V69-1 imagery isnt religious. Instead, the Amalgamation Switch
(fig. 1) and described it as a boat1,2. Lengyel3 accepted de la Tours suggests that Cunobeline is circulating a piece of propaganda.
interpretation and suggested the image was a mythological boat The Victory changes the connotations of the ship to a ship
carrying the sun across the sky. Lengyel believed he spotted involved in some sort of personal accomplishment. There are many
another solar-boat on a coin of the Menap4,5. possibilities, but Roman writers at the time suggest two plausible
However, if you rotate these coins, it is easy to see other ones. The first is an incident recorded by Tacitus in which a
things6. Borlase7 suggested V69-1 had a tree with branches. Roman ship was blown off course in 16 AD and landed in
Evans8 thought he saw a fish, and Allen9, a lock of hair. Sills10 Britain23. The petty kings in Britain sent the Romans home
noted several possibilities, but thought an animal was useful for safely. Cunobelines Ship/Victory may be boasting of a diplomatic
describing parts of the image. He also suggested that on later feat surrounding this incident. The second possibility concerns
British derivatives the object morphed into a boar. In general, it Augustus plans for conquest in 25 BC recorded by Horace24 and
can be said that few proven ships appear on Celtic coins. Cassius Dio25. Although these plans were never carried out, the
The image on a Cunobeline bronze coin, however, is Britons may have prepared a naval force to counter the Roman
unmistakable (fig. 1). Muckelroy11 analyzed the ship on the threat. Cunobeline may have used the Ship/Victory image to
obverse of V1989-1 in detail, and McGrail12,13 added more insight. boast of the way he continued to hold the Romans at bay.
The ship is similar to the Venetic ships described Caesar14, and is A partial sememe for the first possibility, the Diplomatic Coup
clearly a large vessel and not a coracle. The reverse of the coin is diagrammed in fig 3. For the sake of simplicity, only the Warrior
carries a winged Victory advancing with a wreath. This image is Elites and Agricultural Elites are considered as target audiences.
somewhat unusual in that the Victory is wearing a short tunic Naturally, other groups in society should be added to complete the
and not the flowing gown seen on Roman denarii. A similar sememe. Because this is a bronze coin, it would have been seen by
Victory appears on another Cunobeline type, V1979-1 (fig. 1). non-elite members of society as well.
The Victory acts as an Amalgamation Switcher, modifying the The first Denotation and Connotations are the same for both
meaning of the ship. The Amalgamation Switch is important groups. The CVN acts as an Amalgamation Switcher simply
because it limits the range of plausible meanings for the imagery clarifying that Cunobeline is using his own resources in some
as a whole. maritime adventure. The Victory acts a second Amalgamation
One question is whether we can interpret the ship as the Switcher, leading to the Second Denotation a diplomatic coup of
mythological solar-boat in Lengyels work, or as a religious object some sort. Here, the assumption is that Cunobeline is one of the
of some sort. These ideas are plausible, but there are problems. pettyC kings and that he has returned the Romans troops in

MARCH 2009 11
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 12

Fig 3 - Partial Sememe of Ship/Victory as a Diplomatic Coup

First Second Third


Extension Circumstance Amalgamation Denotation &
Denotation & Denotation &
Selector Switcher Connotations
Connotations Connotations

D1 - Ship with CVN D3 - Diplomatic Coup D5 -Effective rule


Motive:
Warrior Victory C7 - Ruler is
solicit C3 - Ruler has
Elites C1 - Ruler is with SE  dealing
allegiance  improved
 using
 maritime
 resources
 relations
 with Rome
C4 - Prestige
} 

effectively
with Rome
C8 - Warrior Elites
 may benefit
goods on
 from diplomacy
offer
C9 - Appeal for
allegiance

Motive: D2 - Ship with CVN D4 - Diplomatic Coup D6 - Effective rule


Agricultural Victory
solicit C5 - Ruler has C10 - Ruler is
Elites C2 - Ruler is with SE
allegiance  dealing

}
 improved
 using  effectively
 relations
 maritime  with Rome
 with Rome
 resources
C6 - Agricultural C11 - Agricultural
 Elites have  Elites may
 opportunities  benefit from
 for trade  diplomacy
C12 - Appeal for
allegiance

Fig 4 - Partial Sememe of Ship/Victory as a Naval Defense

First Second Third


Extension Circumstance Amalgamation Denotation &
Denotation & Denotation &
Selector Switcher Connotations
Connotations Connotations

D1 - Ship with CVN D3 - Naval defense D5 -Effective rule


Motive:
Warrior Victory
solicit C3 - Ruler C7 - Ruler is
Elites C1 - Ruler is with SE

}
allegiance  continues to  dealing
 using  hold Rome  effectively
 naval  at bay  with Rome
 resources
C4 - Warriors
C8 - Appeal for
 protected
allegiance
 from Roman
 aggresion

Motive: D2 - Ship with CVN D4 - Naval defense D6 - Effective rule


Agricultural Victory
solicit C5 - Ruler C9 - Ruler is
Elites C2 - Ruler is with SE

}
allegiance  continues to  dealing
 using
 hold Rome  effectively
 naval
 at bay  with Rome
 resources
C6 - Agricultural C10 - Appeal for
 Elites  allegiance
 protected from
 invasion

12 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:50 Page 13

exchange for some sort of compensation. The Warrior Elites may 23. Tacitus, Annals, 2.24.
have expected Cunobeline to receive prestige goods. The 24. Horace, Odes and Epodes, Book 1 Ode 35, Book 3 Ode 5, Epode 7.
Agricultural Elites may have expected trade concessions to export 25. Casisius Dio, The Roman History, 53.22, 53.25.
their goods to the Continent. If any of these speculations hold 26. Hind, J.G.F., 1989, The Invasion of Britain in A.D. 43, An Alternative
Strategy for Aulus Plautius, Britannia, Vol. 20, pp. 1 21,
true, then the Third Denotation is that of an effective ruler, with
27. Hind, J.G.F., 2007, A. Plautius Campaign in Britain: An Alternative
appeals for allegiance. Reading of the Narrative in Cassius Dio (60.19.5 21.2), Britannia, Vol.
The partial sememe for the second possibility, the Naval 38, pp. 93 106.
Defense, is diagrammed in fig. 4. The First Denotations and
Connotations are the same, but the Victory works differently as
an Amalgamation Switcher. Here the Second Denotations and
Connotations are that Cunobelines use of ships has held the
Romans at bay, protecting all groups in society from Roman
aggression. It really doesnt matter whether the naval defense is BNS Bursaries For
actually working. If society believes it works, then the Third
Denotations and Connotations are conveyed that Cunobeline is The International Numismatic Congress
an effective ruler, dealing with Rome in a successful way. in Glasgow
There is the matter of an additional Amalgamation Switcher,
the SE about the Victory. Although this could be a blundered SC THE BRITISH NUMISMATIC SOCIETY is offering a
borrowed from Roman sources, it is too easy to claim a die-cutters number of bursaries to undergraduate or post
mistake. Many Celtic words beginning with S and E could provide
graduate students to attend the forthcoming
a plausible set of Denotations and Connotations but that is a job
for linguists. Thus a complete sememe diagram for the International Numismatic Congress to be held in
Ship/Victory remains elusive at this point. Glasgow from 31 August to 4 September 2009.
The Naval Defense interpretation, though highly Successful applicants should preferably have an
speculative, does offer a tantalizing thought. Although it has informed interest in one or more of the currencies
always been believed the Claudian invasion of 43 AD landed in issued or used in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland,
Kent, some recent thinking26,27 places it instead on the South coast
along the Solent. If Cunobeline maintained a naval defense along or in present or past British overseas territories over the
the Kentish coast, this would have been a factor in Roman last two millennia. This encompasses coins, tokens and
planning for the invasion. A landing along the Solent would have banknotes and extends to commemorative medals,
avoided the British ships, and taken advantage of the cooperation jettons and weights.
of a friendly Atrebatic ruler. The value of each bursary will be 400, to cover
Footnotes: conference fees, accommodation and meals and
1. De la Tour, 1892, Atlas des Monnaies Gauloises, pl. XXV, number 8611. contribute towards travel costs. To learn more about
2. Muret, Ernest and Chabouillet, M. A., 1889, Catalogue des Monnaies the conference visit the INC website at:
Gauloises de la Bibliotheque Nationale, p. 198.
3. Lengyel, Lancelot, 1954, Lart Gaulois dans les Medailles, p. 57, pl. XL, www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/inc-glasgow.
number 437.
4. Lengyel, Lancelot, 1954, ibid, pl. XL, number 436. To apply for a bursary please request an application
5. Lengyel, Lancelot, 1969, le Secret des Celtes, pp. 52 53. form by writing to the Secretary
6. Van Arsdell, R. D., 1989, Celtic Coinage of Britain, p. 73.
7. Borlase, William, 1769, Antiquities, Historical and Monumental, of the The British Numismatic Society,
County of Cornwall, p. 259. c/o The Department of Coins and Medals,
8. Evans, Sir John, 1864, Ancient British Coins, pp. 93 94, pl. E, numbers British Museum, Great Russell Street,
9 and 10.
9. Allen, D. F., 1958, The Origins of Coinage in Britain: A Reappraisal, in London WC1B 3DG
Frere, Sheppard, Problems of the Iron Age in Southern Britain, p. 111. or by emailing rkelleher@thebritishmuseum.ac.uk.
10. Sills, John, 2003, Gaulish and Early British Gold Coinage, p. 233.
11. Muckelroy, K., Haselgrove, C., and Nash, D, 1978, A Pre-Roman Coin Applications should be received by 30 June 2009.
from Canterbury and the Ship Represented on it, PPS. Vol. 44, p. 439.
12. McGrail, Sean, 1990, Boats and boatmanship in the late prehistoric
southern North Sea and Channel region, in McGrail Sean, Maritime
Celts, Frisians and Saxons, pp. 43 44.
13. McGrail, Sean, 1993, Prehistoric Seafaring in the Channel, in Scarre,
Chris, and Healy, Frances, Trade and Exchange in Prehistoric Europe,
pp. 204 206.
14. Caesar, J., The Gallic War, Book III, 13, Loeb Classical Library ed., p. 155.
15. Green, Miranda, 1991, The Sun-Gods of Ancient Europe.
16. Lopez-Bertran, M., Garcia-Ventura, A., and Krueger, M., 2008, Could
A Hoard of Late Seventh Century
You Take a Picture of My Boat, Please? The Use and Significance of
Mediterranean Ship Representations, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol.
Copper Coins
27, pp. 341 357.
17. Evans, A. J., 1897, On a votive deposit of Gold Objects found on the
S. Bendall
North-West Coast of Ireland, Archaeologia, vol. 55, pp. 392 393,
pl. XXI. In going through some old files the writer discovered photographs
18. Warner, R. B., 1991, The Broighter Hoard, in Moscati, S., et al, The of 33 late 7th century Constantinopolitan folles and half folles
Celts, p. 617. which represent a small hoard that passed through the hands of
19. Green, Miranda, 1991, op. cit., p. 40. A. H. Baldwin and Sons in the early to mid 1980s1. There were no
20. Simon, F. M., 2008, Images of Transition: the Ways of Death in Celtic notes giving weights or die axes accompanying the photographs
Hispania, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, pp. 56 59.
but since there are few recorded hoards of the copper coins of this
21. Poulson, G., 1841, The History and Antiquities of the Seigniory of
Holderness, pp. 99 101. period and the hoard contained a unique variety of a follis of the
22. Coles, B., 1990, Anthropomorphic Wooden Figures from Britain and second year of Justinian II, the writer thought these coins worth
Ireland, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, vol. 56, pp 315 333. recording despite the 25 year delay.

MARCH 2009 13
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:51 Page 14

1 2 3

5 6
4

8 9

11
12
10

14
13 15

16 18
17

19 21 22
20

24 26
23 25
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:51 Page 15

27
28 29 30

33
32
31

Justinian II, First reign, 685-695 Although superficially this coin appears to be dated year 1, it is
possible to see a second I on the edge of the flan to the right of the
Folles one that is clearly visible. The cross springs directly from the
1. Year 2; officina A. Unpublished variety. crown and does not rest on a semi-circle. The emperors features
MIB III -; DO -. are mature being bearded and moustachioed. However Justinians
2, 3, 5-7 and 9. Year 2; off. A. features on the folles of year 2 vary considerably. On coin 2 the
8. Year 2; off. B. emperor appears younger with a wider face and no moustache
11 14. Year 2; off E. while on no. 14 he appears more mature and not dissimilar to his
4, 10. Year 2; uncertain off. appearance on coin 1.
15. Year 9; uncertain off. Despite the lack of obverse legend the portrait is obviously that
16. Uncertain year; off. E. of Justinian II. There is no trace of a cross above the regnal date
17. Uncertain year and off. but there is a trace of a line below extending from the bottom
right of the M. The bust of Justinian wearing a cuirass is
Half folles unrepresented on any other coins of the reign, even on his earliest
solidi3 but is, apart from the crown, quite like that of Constantine
18 20, 22, 25. Year 2; off. . IV on his extremely rare three-quarter folles (DO 84; MIB 82).
21. Year 2; off. E. Interestingly, Hahn noted three half folles of year 1 (MIB III, 46;
23, 24, 26. Year 2; uncertain off. DO 19), one in the ANS, one in DO and one in the Fitzwilliam
27 Year 4; uncertain off. museum while there is another in a private collection. None are
28. Uncertain year; off. . struck on quartered flans of folles of Constantine IV (see below)
29 30. Uncertain year and off. but appear to be overstruck on earlier round coins, that in the
Fitzwilliam possibly on a follis of Constans II. On all these four
Leontius, 695-698 coins Justinian wears a chlamys and not a cuirass as on this new
follis.
Folles There is another follis that has been attributed to the first year
31. Uncertain year; off. . of Justinian IIs reign that appeared in auction a few years ago
32. Uncertain year; off. B. (fig. A) citing the Berk specimen4. It was poorly struck on an
earlier coin and the details of the emperors costume are not clear
Half follis and the only visible I of the date is closer to the M than the left
33. Year 1; off. . hand one on coin 1, leaving plenty of room for a second I. It is not
struck from the same dies as coin 1 and, since coin 1 is not a follis
Although the first coin in this hoard was unrecognised by the of year 1, it is unlikely that fig. A is either.
writer at the time the hoard passed through the hands of It is obvious that a decision was made at the very start of the
reign of Justinian II to reduce the size and weight of the copper
Baldwins, it was published as a unique follis of year 1 by Harlan coins to half that of those of Constantine IV but it is strange that
Berk in 1986, albeit only by a line drawing and without so few coins were struck in the first year for which only rare half
comment2. folles exist and these with the emperor wearing a chlamys.
Obv. Illegible legend. Bearded and moustachioed bust facing, Many of Justinian IIs folles are struck on specially prepared
wearing crown and cuirass; in r. hand, globus cruciger. flans rather than on earlier coins which would have been half-
folles of Constantine IV as no. 5 may have been. There were few
Rev. Large M flanked by ANNO / II, horizontal line below; above other earlier coins of the requisite size (early and late folles of
M, cross; below, A; in ex., CON. Heraclius but no Constantinopolitan coins of Constans II) which

MARCH 2009 15
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:51 Page 16

would have been available. CNG considered that fig A was With few exceptions it seems that the bulk of the folles were
overstruck on a follis of Justinian I which seems unlikely. Both struck in officinae A and E and the half folles, apart from year two
folles illustrated in the BN catalogue, the two in the DO catalogue when all ten officinae operated, generally from officinae and E
and 14 of the 30 in this hoard (nos. 2, 3, 6-9 -13) as well as three although some copper coins were struck in officinae B and but
specimens in a private collection shown to the writer, all of year 2, these appear to be very rare although the reason for this is quite
are all struck on round newly prepared flans and not overstruck uncertain.
on earlier coins although nos. 4, 5 and 14 - 17 in this hoard were. It is obvious, for reasons that escape us, that the bulk of
Were all folles dated year 2 actually struck in that year? As Justinian IIs copper coinage was struck in his second year with
noted, the portraits vary considerably. Of the folles of Justinian II possibly no folles in his first year while all copper coins other than
in this hoard where the dates are visible 13 were struck in year 2 those of year 2 are very rare. This hoard contains only one follis
and one in year 9. Hahn only knew of folles of years 2, 9 and 10. and one half follis later than year two, only two out of 24 where
In view of the current lack of folles of years 3 8 and the varying the date is visible, despite the fact that the halves are commoner
portraits of Justinian on the folles of year 2, is it possible that the than the folles and are known for all years and the hoard
folles of this year continued to be struck in succeeding years?5 deposited in the reign of Leontius. It would be well nigh
Many of the half folles also appear to have been struck on impossible to estimate the comparative rarity of the annual issues
earlier coins. The undertypes can either be quartered large folles of folles of year 2 if indeed they continued to be struck in the
of Constantine IV (nos 19 and 25-27), his dekanummia or even succeeding seven years.
pentanummia (DO 20d.1) and earlier round coins of a
comparable size which would have been much commoner6. The Footnotes:
1. The bulk, if not all, of these coins were sold to Harlan J. Berk and some of
shape of the flans of no. 22 and DO 20c suggest that their them may be traceable in his catalogues of the time but see footnote 5.
undertypes were folles of Constans II some of which appear to 2. Harlan J. Berk, Eastern Roman Successors to the Roman Sestertius,
have been cast in strips since they have two curved and two Chicago 1986, no. 752A.
opposing straight sides (Constans II,DO 64a.1 and 66d.1). 3. MIB III, 1; DO 1b. On his earliest solidi Justininian II is depicted as a
However, so many of Justinian IIs half folles are struck on juvenile (DO 1) on the copper coinage he never appears so young. Is it
quartered flans of Constantine IVs folles that this procedure possible that it was intended that the general populace, who might
might be considered standard but the statistics suggest otherwise. seldom see a solidus, should be shown a more mature emperor at the
beginning of the reign?
Of the half folles of Justinian IIs second year in this hoard six are 4. CNG sale 61, 25 Sept. 2002, lot 2259. It is not struck from the same dies
struck on newly prepared round flans and only three on as coin no. 1.
quartered flans. Of those with undetermined dates all are struck 5. It does not appear possible to date the folles by their weights. A private
on newly prepared flans although no. 27, a coin of year four, is collector has provided information on four specimens in his collection, all
struck on a quartered flan. Of the 13 half folles in the Dumbarton apparently struck on newly prepared flans. One of year nine, the coin
Oaks catalogue, illustrated or described, the specimen of year 1 is published by Hahn as MIB III, 44.3 ( uncertain off.), weighs only 4 gm. as
might be expected. On the other hand, his three coins of year two weigh
struck on a round flan, possibly on an earlier coin, while of the six 10.5 gm (off. A), 9.85 gm. (off. E) and 5.67 gm (off A). All the effigies of
of year 2, four are struck on round flans, presumably newly Justinian II on these three coins are bearded and moustachioed. The last
prepared (one coin being described as double struck, not of these three folles is no. 3 in this hoard and its ticket, in the writers
overstruck) while two are overstruck on coins of Constantine IV, hand, seems to indicate that it was probably acquired by Baldwins in
one on a dekanummium and one on a pentanummium. The two 1986. Folles of year two with a younger effigy as on nos. 2 and 3 in this
half folles of year 37 and the single specimens of years 4, 5, 6 and hoard are comparatively rare.
10 are all apparently struck on quartered folles of Constantine IV. 6. Of the 12 half folles in the above private collection the single coin of year
1 and one of year 2 (both of off. ) were overstruck on dekanummia of
Of these 13 half folles only six, but all later than year 2, are struck Constantine IV. Another two coins of year 2 (also both of off. ) were
on quartered folles of the previous reign. struck on earlier coins, one on a round coin and one on a quartered follis
If the majority of the half folles of years 1 and 2 had been of Constantine IV. Two halves of year 6 (offs. A and ) were both
struck on quartered flans it might be suggested that on overstruck on earlier round coins while the two halves of year 9 (offs. A
Constantine IVs death there remained in the mint a stock of and E) were overstruck on quartered folles of the previous reign.
unissued folles but not only do the majority of Justinians early 7. In fact DOC 21b appears not to be an issue of year three but of year seven
half folles appear to be struck on round flans but quartered flans with the date UII, not III.
8. The use of quarterered folles of Constantine IV as flans no doubt
continued to be utilised in the later years of Justinian IIs first accounts for the rarity of these folles today.
reign which indicates that the mint obtained a steady but not
sufficient supply of Constantine IVs folles throughout the reign
despite the fact that they were presumably demonetized8. By what
mechanism the mint recovered copper coins of earlier reigns the
writer is at a loss to explain since taxes had to be paid in gold Book Reviews
coins. Designing Change: The Art of Coin Design
The distribution of the coins in this hoard by year and officina Edited by Kevin Clancy. Published by the Royal Mint.
letter is of some interest. In MIB III Hahn only knew of folles of Available from Spink. Price 19.99 + postage.
Justinian II for years 2 (officinae A and E), year 9 (off. E) and year
10 (off. A). In year 10 a new type depicting Justinian standing was For numismatists there is little more
issued, a type that does not appear in this hoard which Hahn fun to be had than criticising
notes was struck in officina . The DO collection contains six modern coin designs, and many
folles of Justinian, all of year 2, of which three are from officina A modern coins are very easy to
and three from officina E. This hoard has produced a follis of criticise. Coin collectors are probably
officina B for year 2 (no. 8) but it is very obvious that the majority conservative by nature, as are most
of folles were struck in officinae A and E. of the public, when it comes to
While the folles appear to be known for only three years of innovation in new coin issues. Do
Justinian IIs first reign, the half folles are known for every year you remember the furore when the
(see footnote 7) although all but those of year 2 are very rare. 50 pence replaced the ten shilling
Hahn notes specimens for every officina from A to E for the half note, or when the sixpence was
folles of year 2. In other years they tend to be only struck in demonetised? Designing Change is
officinae and E. In year 10 the half folles with a bust of a book written to accompany an
Justinian are noted for officina (MIB 44) although the half folles exhibition at the British Museum
of the same year with a standing figure of Justinian from officina called Designing Change: Coins of
B (MIB 47). Elizabeth II. The exhibition runs

16 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Editorial:Editorial 5/3/09 11:51 Page 17

until February 2009. The book is chiefly about the work of the new data has been a boon to many of the statistical and
Royal Mint Advisory Committee and the new set of designs by Matt distribution studies featured in the book, and yet, as Anna
Dent for the coinage. The design of each coin forms part of a larger Gannon notes, more coins does not necessarily lead to more solid
motif, rather like pieces of a jigsaw that fit together to form a larger conclusions; sceattas have an uncanny ability to raise as many
picture. That concept is bold, striking, innovative and above all questions as they answer when new types and specimens are
controversial. The figure of Britannia has disappeared from our found.
coinage and Wales is absent from the Royal Arms altogether. One This book is almost a one-stop-shop for new research on early
wonders how appropriate it is to use a Royal symbol of the United medieval coinage. It contains a group of case studies, a wider
Kingdom when the future of the union is perhaps in question. analysis of early medieval society, economy and politics, as well as
This book is an uncritical look at coin design in the present a gazetteer for recent and not so recent finds. The major themes of
monarchs reign. The reader will not see reference to the infamous the book are the use of this wealth of new data to investigate
Churchill Crown or the many commemoratives which are instantly distribution of sceattas such as in Newman and Op den Veldes
forgettable. There are however very informative articles on design papers covering East Anglia and the Netherlands respectively.
related topics such as heraldry, Christopher Ironside and the Hodges offers new insights into the role of emporia and coin use
designs for the decimal coinage, and the work of the Advisory based upon the new data of the last twenty years. New sceatta
Committee. Some of the most interesting comments are by the types are highlighted by Abramson and an iconographical theme
former President of the Royal Mint Advisory Committee who in his runs through Gannons work on Series K and Woods interesting
foreword comments on the problems of having different artists paper on the cult of the cross on coins and in Northumbria.
work on the obverse and reverse; as the design on one side has an Archaeological excavations from Ribe are covered by Feveile,
influence on the design on the other. This problem could be made emphasising the uses of stratified finds, and a productive site in
worse if a third person was responsible for the lettering. The former
Essex is discussed by Bonser & Carter. A paper on the linguistics of
sceattas and stycas is given by Shaw, but it is very technical and
President is His Royal Highness, The Duke of Edinburgh who had perhaps pitched at a more specialist audience than a volume on
the challenging role of trying to get a census from a committee of early medieval coinage will reach. The range of approaches
experts from different fields. certainly gives a broad picture of current research and future
Coins are not designed by committees, they are designed by issues to be addressed.
artists, whose best work is done justice by excellent photography in An artificial divide which has traditionally hindered the study
this book. The images of the new coins look just as appealing as the of numismatics has been that between academic researchers and
photographs of older examples of the designers art. The those involved in the coin trade. Abramson has shown that data
illustrations from the nations heraldic coins showing changes in from auctions and sales lists, which are used by so many
Royal Arms are stunning. It is not coins that are illustrated, but also numismatists as basic data, can be grouped and catalogued as a
the designers. It is also interesting to look at their drawings and useful academic venture in its own right and the catalogue of
plaster models of designs. CNGs Beowulf collection and Patrick Finns sceattas index will
I suspect that Britannia will soon return to the current series. hopefully serve generations of students.
The public will never be satisfied with changes anymore than we In addition to these catalogues, SEMC also glimpses into the
collectors will be. This book will be of interest to any numismatist often hidden world of numismatic methodology, which it seems
whatever series they collect. There are not many books on coins as every new researcher must learn from scratch. Methodologies
art and this is a fascinating book on design. Perhaps it is fitting to such as die studies and practical uses of die estimates are
close with a comment from the former Secretary to the Advisory highlighted in papers by Op Den Velde and Pol which will be of
Committee who is reported to have said, To those of you who interest not only to sceatta-enthusiasts but to the wider
would complain of the designs which it recommend[ed], I would numismatic community as a model for research. Presenting
say that you should see all the others. numismatic findings is all very well, but by understanding the
DAVID PICKUP way in which numismatics is performed, the health of the
discipline can only be improved and our techniques used
competently and accurately by researchers from other disciplines.
Two Decades of Discovery: Studies in Early Medieval Coinage, This book is a long-overdue update on the state of sceatta
Volume 1, edited by Tony Abramson. Woodbridge, 2008. 204pp. studies in the UK and Europe which contains a variety of papers
covering specific case studies, catalogues of data drawn from
Photographs and drawings within text. auctions and dealers lists, as well as a wider perspective on the
Available from Spink. Price 40 + postage. society which produced these magnificently perplexing little
coins. Blackburn implores us to build our historical theories on a
The two decades of the title refers to the time which has elapsed sound basis of numismatic research, and I hope SEMC is one of
since the last major symposium and publication on early many tools that can enable numismatic, archaeological and
medieval coins, so it was about time sceattas were the subject of a historical researchers to do just that.
dedicated volume once more. The MEGAN GOOCH
Cambridge International Sceatta
Symposium in 2006 was the first Related books and periodicals generally available.
such meeting of interested parties Abramson, T., 2006, Sceattas: An Illustrated Guide, Great Dunham
since the Oxford Symposium and Gannon, A., 2003, The Iconography of Early Anglo-Saxon Coinage, Sixth to
accompanying volume in the early Eighth Centuries, Oxford
1980s1, and many of the same Metcalf, D.M., 1993-4, Thrymsas and Sceattas in the Ashmolean Museum,
contributors as well as new 3 vols, London
researchers were able to present Rigold, S. E., 1977, The Principal Series of English Sceattas, BNJ 47,
their latest thoughts and findings in pp.21-30
this volume, which has been Rigold, S. E., 1960, Two Primary Series of Sceattas, BNJ 30, pp.6-53
published with admirable speed after
the 2006 meeting by the efforts of Footnotes:
editor Tony Abramson. 1. D. Hill and D.M. Metcalf (eds), 1984, Sceattas in England and on the
Since the Oxford volume was Continent: the seventh Oxford Symposium on Coinage and Monetary History
published there have been great (British Archaeological Reports, British Series 128), Oxford
advances in our knowledge of
sceattas and thrymsas. The
fortuitous growth in single finds of sceattas is a result of the
popularity of metal detecting as a hobby twinned with projects
such as the Portable Antiquities Scheme which has encouraged
responsible and more accurate reporting of finds. The wealth of

MARCH 2009 17
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:52 Page 18

The Numismatic Circular Published since 1892

A list of Ancient, British and Foreign Coins, Tokens, Medals and Numismatic Books
Offered for sale at fixed prices
Greek
Please be aware that payment made by
VISA or MASTERCARD now carries an additional charge of 2%,
no surcharge is applied on Debit cards

GK2632 Sicily, Selinos (c.460-440 BC), Didrachm (8.43g), Herakles right,


wielding club in subduing the Cretan bull, EINONTIO, rev. HYA, the river
god Hypsas standing half left, holding phiale over serpent-entwined altar
in his right hand, and a branch in left, selinon leaf and heron on right
(SNG ANS 704, obv. die, 705 rev. die), toned, about VF 700

GK2628 Calabria, Tarentum (c.280-272 BC), Stater (6.62g), helmeted but


otherwise naked warrior on horseback right, holding two lances and shield in
left hand, spearing downwards with right hand, [E]Y behind, TP/ATO
below, rev. TAPA, Taras astride dolphin left, holding Nike and cornucopia,
thunderbolt behind, OY to left (Vlasto 713; SNG Copenhagen 874), good
metal, about EF 495

GK2633 Sicily, Syracuse (c.474-470 BC), Tetradrachm (16.97g),


charioteer driving quadriga right, Nike flying right above to crown horses,
rev. YPAKOION, head of Arethusa right, wearing beaded taenia, four dolphins
swimming around (SNG ANS 101; Randazzo 408), toned, VF 770

GK2629 Lucania, Thurium (c.400-350 BC), Stater (7.14g), head of Athena


right, wearing crested helmet ornamented with Skylla, rev. OYPIN, bull
butting right, fish in ex. (cf. SNG ANS 1017ff), toned, an attractive VF 520

GK2634 Thrace, Apollonia Pontika (c.450-400 BC), Drachm (3.36g), anchor


with crayfish and A below tines, rev. gorgoneion (SNG BM 153), obverse
slightly off centre, well centred gorgon, good VF/EF 165

GK2630 Lucania, Velia (c.290-275 BC), Didrachm (6.99g), head of Athena


left, wearing crested helmet ornamented with griffin, IE in linear frame
behind, rev. lion attacking stag left (Williams 553; SNG ANS 1399ff), toned,
good VF/VF 425

GK2635 Thrace, Byzantium (c.340-320 BC), Drachm (5.35g), heifer stepping


left on dolphin, ligatured Y above, rev. incuse square of mill-sail pattern
(SNG BM 21-33), reverse a little off centre, EF 160

GK2631 Sicily, Messana (c.425-421 BC), Tetradrachm (16.96g), the nymph


Messana driving slow biga of mules right, Nike flying right above to crown
horses, two dolphins in ex., rev. MEANION, hare leaping right, dolphin right GK2636 Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos (323-281 BC), Stater (8.53g),
below (Caltabiano 499), toned, VF 1,850 uncertain mint, diademed head of Alexander the Great right, with horn of
Ammon, rev. BAIE YIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike and
leaning left elbow on shield at her side, a spear resting behind, monogram on
left (Muller -), toned, EF 2,850

18 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
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GK2637 Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II (359-336 BC), Tetradrachm


(14.47g), Pella, laureate head of Zeus right, rev. IIOY, boy on horse GK2643 Thessaly, Larissa (c.340 BC), Didrachm (12.10g), head of the
walking right, holding palm-branch, kantharos below (Le Rider 334; nymph Larissa three-quarters facing left, hair in ampyx, rev. API--AIN,
SNG ANS 401), finest style, toned, EF 2,250 bridled horse pacing right (BMC 55), cabinet tone, good VF 1,800

GK2644 Thessaly, Larissa (c.356-342 BC), Drachm (6.02g), head of the


nymph Larissa three-quarters facing left, hair in ampyx, rev. API/AIN,
GK2638 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), horse in process of standing up or lying down, right (Lorber, phase L-III, 51;
Tetradrachm (17.23g), Amphipolis, lifetime issue, head of young Herakles SNG Oxford 3882), beautiful style, well centred, good VF 650
right, wearing lions skin, rev. BAIE AEANPOY, Zeus enthroned left,
holding eagle and sceptre, Macedonian helmet on left (Price 113), EF 650

GK2645 C. Greece, Opuntian Lokris (c.369-338 BC), Stater (12.10g), head of


Demeter right, her hair wreathed with corn, and with an ornamented band
below hair at back of neck, rev. OONTIN, Ajax, son of Oileus, advancing
right, naked but for helmet, holding sword and shield ornamented with
GK2639 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), palmette and griffin, a broken spear on ground below (SNG Cop. 42;
Tetradrachm (17.17g), Kallatis c.250-225 BC, head of young Herakles right, ex Sothebys 22, 1970, lot 145), lovely cabinet tone, almost EF/good VF
wearing lions skin, rev. BAIE AEANPOY, Zeus enthroned left, holding 2,950
eagle and sceptre, monogram and K on left, ear of barley in ex. (Price 933),
light graze on edge, good EF/EF 550

GK2640 Macedon, Terone (c.424-422 BC), Tetrobol (2.19g), oinoche,


T-E, rev. incuse square divided in four and with granulated surfaces
(Hardwick, Studies Price, group IV; SNG Cop 337), almost EF 260 GK2646 Euboia, Karystos (c.235-200 BC), Didrachm (7.14g), laureate
male head right, rev. KAPYTIN, Nike driving galloping biga left, holding
out palm-branch, trident-head in circle before her (Wallace, Essays Robinson,
pl.26, III-3), broad flan, scarce, VF/almost VF 800

GK2641 Thessalian League (196-146 BC), Double Victoriatus (6.31g), head


of Zeus right wearing oak-wreath, rev. EA-N, Athena Itonia advancing
right, brandishing spear and holding shield, magistrates AMOOI and IOENI
(cf. BMC 7), almost EF 160

GK2647 Kingdom of Bithynia, Nikomedes III (128-94 BC), Tetradrachm


(16.16g), diademed head right, rev. BAIE EIANOY NIKOMHOY, Zeus
standing left, crowning kings name with wreath and holding sceptre; eagle,
monogram and date COP (year 176 = 123/2 BC) on left (De Callatay p.54),
obverse surface lightly porous, VF 480

GK2642 Thessaly, Larissa (c.435-400 BC), Drachm (6.00g), Thessalian youth


right, trailing cloak and petasos, grasping horns of bull to wrestle it to the
ground, rev. AP/IA, free horse prancing right, all in incuse square
(Herrmann group III, F), cabinet tone, good VF-almost EF 500

MARCH 2009 19
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:52 Page 20

GK2654 Kingdom of Syria, Seleukos I (312-281 BC), Tetradrachm (17.14g),


Seleucia c.296/295 BC, laureate head of Zeus right, rev. BAIE EEYKOY,
GK2648 Kingdom of Pergamum, Attalos I (241-187 BC), Tetradrachm Athena in quadriga of elephants right, brandishing spear and holding shield,
(16.82g), head of Philetairos right, wearing laurel-wreath and diadem anchor above, before (SC 130(6); cf. Newell, ESM, 33), unusually fine, EF
combined, rev. IETAIPOY, Athena enthroned left, crowning name with 2,500
wreath and leaning left elbow on shield at her side, a spear resting behind
her, leaf far left, A before, bow behind (cf. Westermark V. XLI-R3), almost EF
650

GK2649 Kingdom of Lydia, time of Croesus (c.561-546 BC), Siglos (5.22g),


foreparts of lion and bull confronted, rev. two incuse punches of slightly
different sizes side-by-side (cf. Rosen 663-665), good VF 550 GK2655 Kingdom of Syria, Seleukos I (312-281 BC), Tetradrachm (17.06g),
Susa, from 295 BC, laureate head of Zeus right, rev. BAIE EEYKOY,
Athena in biga of elephants right, brandishing spear and holding shield,
anchor above, I in circle and bee before (SC 177(6); cf. Newell, ESM, 326
and 327), magnificent reverse, rare, VF/EF 1,750

GK2650 Caria, Knidos (c.465 BC), Drachm (6.22g), forepart of lion right,
rev. head of Aphrodite right, her hair bound by diadem and in queue down
neck, within incuse square (cf. Cahn 72A and 75, and SNG Finland 130),
well centred, toned, good very fine 620

GK2656 Phoenicia, Tyre (112/111 BC), Shekel (14.31g), laureate head of


Melqarth right, rev. TYPOY IEPA KAI AYOY, eagle standing left, right talon on
beak of galley, palm-branch over far wing, club and date EI on left, ZB on right
(BMC 81 var.), cabinet tone, EF 375
GK2651 Caria, Knidos (c.250-210 BC), Tetrobol (2.31g), diademed head of
Artemis right, bow and quiver at shoulder, rev. KNIIN EIENH either side of
tripod (SNG Cop. 283), toned, about EF 100

GK2657 Phoenicia, Arados (66/65 BC), Tetradrachm (15.04g), turreted,


veiled and draped bust of Tyche right, rev. APAIN, Nike standing left, holding
GK2652 Carian Satraps, Maussollos (377-353 BC), Tetradrachm (15.11g), aplustre and palm-branch, date 9, Phoenician letter and A, all within
laureate head of Apollo facing, his gaze slightly right, rev. MAYO, laurel-wreath (BMC 269), toned, good VF 200
Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding double axe (labrys) and spear
(cf. BMC 3), the head of Apollo is a masterpiece of Greek art, toned, Zeus head
not fully struck up, EF/good VF 4,650

GK2658 Palestine, Askalon (62/61 BC), Tetradrachm (12.48g), diademed


head of Antiochos VIII or Ptolemy XIII right, rev. AKANITN [IEPA] AYTO,
GK2653 Cilicia, Kelenderis (c.380-370 BC), Stater (10.38g), naked rider eagle standing left, palm-branch over far wing, date LMA (year 41) on left,
holding whip and seated sideways on horse left, from which he is about to monogram between legs (cf. BMC p.107,18, Spaer, Essays Mildenberg, 50-52),
dismount, below, rev. KE, goat kneeling left, head turned back slightly off centre, metal flaws behind head and at edge, otherwise good metal, a
(SNG France 47), a most pleasing example, toned, EF 1,000 most interesting and rare issue, good F/ VF 330

20 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:52 Page 21

GK2665 Hasmoneans,Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC), Prutah, lily, Hebrew


GK2659 Kingdom of Egypt, Berenike I or II (mid 3rd cent. BC), Didrachm legend Yehonatan the King, rev. anchor within circle, traces of Greek
(6.31g), Cyrene, diademed head right, rev. BAIIH BEPENIKH, legend (Hendin 467; AJC , Group A), scarce, almost VF 80
club, monogram on left, trident-head on right, all within wreath
(Svoronos 318 var. the legend beginning on right, unlike those published),
rare, good silver for this mostly base issue, good VF 475

GK2666 Hasmoneans, Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC), star of eight rays


surrounded by diadem, Hebrew between rays Yehonatan the King,
rev. anchor, traces of Greek legend (Hendin 469; AJC, Group Ca), VF/good F
45

GK2660 Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy VI (180-145 BC), Tetradrachm


(14.07g), Alexandria, diademed head of Ptolemy I right, rev. BAIE
TOEMAIOY, eagle standing left on thunderbolt (SNG Cop. 267), toned, about
EF 450

Jewish GK2667 Hasmoneans, Antigonus Mattathias (40-37 BC), 21mm, cornucopia


tied with ribbons, vine leaf and grapes hanging, traces of Hebrew
Mattatayah the High Priest, rev. traces of BACIEC ANTIONOY within wreath
(Hendin 482; AJC, Group V), F/fair 90

(x2)
GK2661 Under Persian rule (pre 333 BC), Hemiobol (.39g), head of the
Persian king right, wearing crown, rev. falcon with spread wings, traces of
Hebrew YHD (Yehud) on right (Hendin 429; AJC 9), obverse a little off centre
(unsurprisingly for such a tiny coin), VF 350 GK2668 Herod Antipas (4 BC-AD 40), Quarter unit, Tiberias, reed, date LK
(year 24 = AD 20) in field, HP TETPAPXOY, rev. TIBE/PIAC within wreath
(Hendin 511; AJC 3), scarce, almost VF 240

(x2)
GK2662 Under Egyptian rule (post 333 BC), Quarter Obol (.19g), diademed
head of Ptolemy I right, rev. eagle with spread wings, half turned left, traces
of Hebrew YHDH (Yehudah) on left (Hendin 438; AJC 116), tiny edge chip,
almost VF 330 GK2669 Herod Philip (4 BC-AD 34), 19mm, laureate head of Tiberius right,
laurel-branch before, rev. EI IIOY TETPAPXOY KTIC, tetrastyle temple with
date L (year 34 = AD 30/31) between columns (Hendin 538; AJC 11), rare,
good F/VF 350

GK2663 Hasmoneans, John Hyrcanus I (135-104 BC), Prutah, struck in


name of Antiochos VII of Syria, lily, rev. BAIE ANTIOXOY EYEPETOY, anchor,
illegible date, but 132-130 BC (Hendin 451; AJC 1-3), VF 80
GK2670 Roman Procurators, Marcus Ambibulus (AD 9-12), Prutah, palm
tree, date LM (year 40 = AD 10) in field, rev. [KAI]CAPOC, ear of barley (Hendin
637; AJC 4), good VF 60

GK2664 Hasmoneans, Judah Aristobulus (104-103 BC), Prutah, double


cornucopia with pomegranate between horns, rev. Hebrew Yehuda the
High Priest and the Council of the Jews within wreath (Hendin 465; AJC,
group Ja), obverse a little off centre, VF 88 GK2671 Roman Procurators, Valerius Gratus (AD 15-26), Prutah, three lilies
in bloom, date L (year 3 = AD 16) in field, rev. IOY/IA (Julia Livia, Tiberius
mother) within wreath (Hendin 642; AJC 12), almost VF 70

MARCH 2009 21
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:52 Page 22

GK2672 Roman Procurators, Pontius Pilate (AD 26-36), Prutah, three bound
ears of barley, traces of IVLIA KAICAPOC, rev. TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC and date (year GK2679 The Jewish War (AD 66-70), Prutah, amphora, Hebrew year 2
16 = AD 29), simpulum (libation ladle) (Hendin 648; AJC 21), about VF 60 (= AD 67/8), rev. vine leaf on branch, Hebrew the freedom of Zion
(Hendin 661; AJC 12), good VF 60

GK2673 Roman Procurators, Pontius Pilate (AD 26-36), Prutah, lituus,


traces of TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC, rev. date LIZ (year 17 = AD 30) within wreath
(Hendin 649; AJC 23), good F-almost VF 60
GK2680 The Jewish War (AD 66-70), Eighth Shekel, chalice, Hebrew to the
redemption of Zion, rev. lulav between two etrogs, Hebrew year 4
(= AD 69/70) (Hendin 670; AJC 30), good VF/VF 185

Roman
GK2674 Roman Procurators, Antonius Felix (AD 52-59), Prutah, two crossed All struck at Rome unless otherwise indicated.
oblong shields and two crossed spears, [NEPW K]AV KAICAP, rev. BPIT
(Britannicus, son of the emperor Claudius), palm tree, date LI KAI (year 14 of
Caesar = AD 54), (Hendin 652; AJC 29), VF 55

RM3954 M. Herennius (c.108-107 BC), Denarius, diademed head of Pietas


GK2675 Roman Procurators, Porcius Festus (AD 59-62), Prutah, palm right, PIETAS, rev. M. HERENNI, Amphinomus striding right, carrying his father
branch, KAICAPOC and date LE (year 5 = Ad 58/9), rev. NEP/WNO/C within on his shoulders, E sideways on right (Cr. 308/1b; Syd. 567a), EF 175
wreath tied at bottom with X (Hendin 653; AJC 35), VF 60

GK2676 Agrippa I (AD 37-44), 23mm, Tiberias, 40/41, laureate head of RM3955 L. Farsuleius Mensor (c.75 BC), Denarius, diademed and draped
Caligula left, rev. Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right (Hendin 549; bust of Libertas right, S.C under chin, MENSOR before, pileus and IXXIII,
AJC 2), illegible legends but very rare, Fair 200 rev. Roma in biga right, assisting togate figure to mount the chariot, scorpion
below horses, FARSVLEI in ex. (Cr. 392/1a; Syd. 789a), toned, almost EF 250

GK2677 Agrippa I (AD 37-44), Prutah, three ears of barley, date


(year 6 = 41/2) in field, rev. APIA BACIEWC, umbrella-like canopy RM3956 M. Plaetorius Cestianus (c.69 BC), Denarius, young male head
(Hendin 553; AJC 11), VF 45 (Bonus Eventus) right, winged caduceus behind, rev. M. PLAETORI CEST EX S C,
winged caduceus (Cr. 405/5; Syd. 807), toning, lustrous, EF 320

GK2678 The Jewish War (AD 66-70), Shekel (14.17g), Omer cup with RM3957 M. Plaetorius Cestianus (c. 67 BC), Denarius, bust of Vacuna right,
pearled rim, Hebrew date year 2 (= AD 69/70) above, and shekel of wearing crested helmet, bow and quiver at shoulder, cornucopia below chin,
Israel, rev. three pomegranates on stem with pearl at base, Hebrew CESTIANVS S.C, rev. M PLAETORIVS [M F A]ED CVR, eagle on thunderbolt, head left
Jerusalem the holy (Hendin 659; AJC 8), toned, EF 1,350 (Cr. 409/1; Syd. 809), reverse slightly off centre, almost EF 145

22 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:52 Page 23

RM3958 Julius Caesar, Denarius, mint moving with Caesar, 49-48 BC, RM3965 Caligula (AD 37-41), Denarius, 40, laureate head right, [C CAESAR
elephant right, trampling serpent, CAESAR in ex., rev. simpulum, aspergillum, AV]G PON M TR POT III COS III, rev. S P Q R / P P / OB C S in three lines within oak-wreath
boar-headed axe, and apex priestly implements (Cr. 443/1; Syd. 1006), (RIC 28; C. 21), slightly oval flan, so some obverse legend off flan, good VF
porous surfaces, VF 285 2,600

RM3959 Julius Caesar, Denarius, Spain, c.46-45 BC, diademed head of Venus
right, Cupid at shoulder, rev. CAESAR, trophy of Gallic arms with a female and
a male captive at base (Cr. 468/1; Syd. 1014; Sear, Imperators, 58), toned, RM3966 Galba (AD 68-69), Denarius, laureate head right, IMP SER GALBA
small bankers mark in left field of obverse, VF 185 CAESAR AVG, rev. SALVS GEN HVMANI, female standing left, right foot on helmet,
sacrificing from patera over altar on left and holding rudder (RIC 211;
C. 238), light graze on cheek under tone, VF-good VF 360

RM3960 Cassius and Lentulus Spinther (42 BC), Denarius, Smyrna (?), tripod
surmounted by cortina (cauldron) and two small laurel-branches, a fillet
hanging on either side, C. CASSI IMP, rev. LENTVLVS SPINT, jug (capis) and lituus
(Cr. 500/1; Syd. 1308; Sear, Imperators, 219), EF 2,600
RM3967 Vitellius (AD 69), Denarius, laureate head right, A VITELLIVS GERM IMP
AVG TR P, rev. LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding
pileus and sceptre (RIC 105; C. 47), light surface erosion, good VF 420

RM3961 Brutus and Lentulus Spinther (42 BC), Denarius, Smyrna(?), axe,
simpulum and sacrificial knife, BRVTVS, rev. LENTVLVS SPINT, jug (capis) and
lituus (Cr. 500/7; Syd. 1310; Sear, Imperators, 198), EF 1,750

RM3968 Vespasian (AD 69-79), Denarius, 69/70, laureate head right, IMP
CAESAR VESPASI[ANVS AVG], rev. IVDAEA in ex., Jewess seated right in mournful
attitude at foot of trophy (RIC, 2nd ed., 2; C. 226), almost VF/good F 200

RM3962 Augustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Spain, c.19 BC, bare head
right, CAESAR AVGVSTVS, rev. SIGNIS RECEPTIS above and below S P Q R around shield
inscribed CL. V, legionary eagle on left, standard on right (RIC 86a; C. 265),
good VF 350

RM3969 Vespasian (AD 69-79), Denarius, 73, laureate head right, IMP CAES
VESP AVG CENS, rev. PONT[IF M]AXIM, Vespasian seated right on curule chair,
holding sceptre and branch (RIC, 2nd ed., 546; C. 387), reverse slightly off
centre, EF 200

RM3963 Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) and Julia, Denarius, moneyer C. Marius
Tromentina, 13 BC, bare head of Augustus right, lituus behind, AVGVSTVS,
rev. C. MARIVS TRO, draped bust of Julia as Diana right, quiver at her shoulder
(RIC 403; C. 1), rare, traces of mounting, toned, VF 1,650

RM3970 Vespasian (AD 69-79), As, 76, laureate head right, IMP CAESAR VESP
AVG COS VII, rev. VICTORIA AVGVSTI, S C, Victory walking right, foot on prow,
holding wreath and palm-branch (RIC 584; C. 605), dark patina, EF 460
RM3964 Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) and Tiberius, Denarius, Lugdunum, AD
13/14, laureate head of Augustus right, CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE,
rev. TI CAESAR AVG [F TR P]OT XV, bare head of Tiberius right (RIC 226; C. 2;
RCV 1737), very rare, remarkable portrait of Tiberius, high point of Augustus
head not fully struck up, otherwise EF 2,950

MARCH 2009 23
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:52 Page 24

RM3971 Vespasian (AD 69-79), Tetradrachm, Antioch, 73/4, laureate head


right, AYTOKPAT KAIA OYEAIANOY, rev. ETOY IEPOY, eagle standing left, wings RM3977 Hadrian (AD 117-138), Cistophorus, Ephesus 132-134, laureate
spread (Prieur 116), small edge split, good VF 140 head right, HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, rev. DIANA EPHESIA, cult statue of Diana
Ephesia with stags either side (BMC 525), overstruck, almost VF 300

RM3972 Julia, daughter of Titus, Denarius, 80-81, diademed, draped bust


right, hair in queue, IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, rev. VENVS AVGVST, Venus, low-
slung drapery round loins, standing right, seen from behind, leaning on
column, holding spear and helmet (RIC 388; C. 14), cabinet tone, almost EF RM3978 Hadrian (AD 117-138), 24mm, Gaza, 131/2, draped bust right,
1,100 rev. Tyche standing left, holding sceptre and cornucopia, heifer at her side,
Gaza symbol on right (SNG ANS 917; BMC 35), almost VF 100

RM3973 Nerva (AD 96-98), Denarius, 97, laureate head right, IMP NERVA CAES
AVG P M TR P COS III P P, rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing half left, holding RM3979 Sabina, wife of Hadrian, Denarius, 136, diademed and draped bust
pileus and sceptre (RIC 19; C. 113; ex Hildyard colln), toned, excellent right, hair in queue, SABINA AVGVSTA, rev. VENERI GENETRICI, Venus standing half
portrait, EF/good VF 375 right, holding apple and drawing fold of drapery from shoulder (RIC 396;
C. 73), toned, good VF/VF 170

RM3974 Trajan (AD 98-117), Denarius, 112-117, laureate head right,


drapery on shoulder, IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, rev. S P Q R OPTIMO RM3980 Divus Antoninus Pius (AD 161), Denarius, under M. Aurelius,
PRINCIPI, ALIM ITAL in ex., Annona standing facing, holding corn-ears and bare head right, DIVVS ANTONINVS, rev. CONSECRATIO, eagle standing half right,
cornucopia, child on left, holding roll (RIC 243; C. 9), cabinet tone, about EF head left (RIC 429; C. 154; ex Bonhams 5, 3/81, lot 318), toned, EF 160
195

RM3981 Marcus Aurelius (AD 161-180), Denarius, 176-180, laureate head


RM3975 Hadrian (AD 117-138), Denarius, 117, laureate, draped and right, M ANTONINVS AVG, rev. COS III P P, Mars standing right, holding spear and
cuirassed bust right, IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC, rev. PARTHIC DIVI shield (RIC 418; C. 147), toned, good VF 130
TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P, PA-X in field, Pax standing left, holding branch and
cornucopia (RIC 1013; C. 1013; ex Glens 24/5/78, lot 143), cabinet tone,
almost EF 200

RM3982 Pertinax (AD 193), Denarius, laureate head right, IMP CAES P HELV
PERTIN AVG, rev. PROVID DEOR COS II, Providentia standing left, both arms raised
towards star (RIC 10A; C. 40), toned, almost EF/good VF 1,200

RM3976 Hadrian (AD 117-138), Denarius, 125-128, laureate head right,


HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, rev. COS III, Genius standing half left, holding patera over
altar on left, and cornucopia (RIC 173; C. 335), toned, EF 200

24 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
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RM3989 Trebonianus Gallus (AD 251-253), Antoninianus, Milan, radiate,


draped and cuirassed bust right, IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG, rev. VIRTVS AVGG,
RM3983 Septimius Severus (AD 193-211), 24mm, Gaza, 195/6, laureate Virtus standing half right, holding spear and resting left hand on shield at
bust right, rev. AZA, Io and Tyche standing, facing each other, clasping side (RIC 76; C. 133), unusual portrait, about EF 50
hands, Gaza symbol between, date GNC below (BMC 123), about VF 120

RM3990 Carausius (usurper in Britain AD 287-293), Denarius (3.73g), RSR


RM3984 Julia Domna and Geta, Denarius, 201, draped bust of Julia right, (London?) mint, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, IMP CARAVSIVS P F
IVLIA AVGVSTA, rev. P. SEPT GETA CAES PONT, bare-headed, draped bust of Geta right AVG, rev. ADVENTVS AVG, Carausius on horseback left, his right hand raised, RSR
(RIC 571; Hill 473; C. 1), rare, toned, EF 850 in ex. (RIC 535; cf. Shiel 5 and 8), scratches from cleaning visible under
magnification, rare, good VF 2,400

RM3985 Diadumenian (AD 218), Denarius, as Caesar, 217-218, bare-


headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES,
rev. PRINC IVVENTVTIS, prince standing half left, head right, holding standard
and sceptre, two standards on right (RIC 102; C. 3b), good EF 650 RM3991 Galeria Valeria, wife of Galerius, Follis, Serdica, 307/8, diademed
and draped bust on crescent right, GAL VALERIA AVG, rev. VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus
standing half left, holding apple and raising fold of drapery, star on left, on
right, SM.SD in ex. (RIC 42), EF 195

RM3986 Aquilia Severa, 2nd wife of Elagabalus, Denarius, 221, draped bust
right, IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG, rev. CONCORDIA, Concordia standing half left,
sacrificing from patera over lighted altar, and holding double cornucopia, star
on right (RIC 226; C. 2), scarce, good EF 520 RM3992 Constantine I (AD 307-337), Follis, London, 324/5, laureate head
right, CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, rev. PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, turreted gateway, star above,
PLON in ex. (RIC 293), EF 50

RM3987 Orbiana, wife of Severus Alexander, Denarius, 225, diademed and


draped bust right, SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, rev. CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia
seated left, holding patera and double cornucopia (RIC 319; C. 1), scarce, EF RM3993 Helena, mother of Constantine, Follis, Trier, 327/8, diademed,
500 mantled bust right, FL HELENA AVGVSTA, rev. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas
standing left, veiled, holding branch and raising fold of drapery, STRE in ex.
(RIC 515), very sharp, EF 85

RM3988 Gordian II (AD 238), Denarius, laureate, draped and cuirassed


right, IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, rev. PROVIDENTIA AVGG, Providentia standing
left, legs crossed, leaning on column and holding wand over globe at her feet RM3994 Decentius Caesar (AD 350-353), Centenionalis, Lugdunum, 351/2,
and cornucopia (RIC 1; C. 5), rare, EF/about EF 2,500 bare-headed, cuirassed bust right, D N DECENTIVS NOB CAES, rev. VICTORIAE DD NN
AVG ET CAE, two Victories holding between them a wreath inscribed VOT / V /
MVLT / X, SP / RSLG in field and ex. (Bastien 177; C. 33), exceptional, good EF
220

MARCH 2009 25
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 26

EG04 Early uninscribed, Stater, 5.29g, British H, North-east coast type,


RM3995 Honorius (AD 393-423), Solidus (4.40g), Ravenna, 402-406, pearl- reduced weight issue, devolved head of Apollo right, rev. horse left, pellet
diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N HONORI-VS P F AVG, below (VA 804; S.29), bold VF 650
rev. VICTORI-A AVGGG, Honorius standing right, holding labarum and Victory on
globe, trampling on captive on right, R-V in field, CONOB in ex. (RIC 1287;
C. 44), good VF 450

EG05 Atrebates, Verica, Stater, 5.28g, COM.F in tablet, rev. horseman right hold
spear, VIR above, REX below (VA 500; S.120), bold VF 750
RM3996 Theodosius II (AD 408-450), Solidus (4.48g), Constantinople,
425-429, armoured facing bust wearing pearl-diademed helmet, holding
spear over shoulder, and shield, D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, rev. SALVS REI-PVBLICAE,
Theodosius and Valentinian III seated facing, both nimbate and each holding
a mappa and a cross, star above, CONOB in ex. (RIC 237; Hahn 23a), lustrous
almost EF/good VF 440

EG06 Iceni, Early uninscribed, Stater, 5.48g, Freckenham type, trefoil on


cross, rev. horse right, wheel above and below (VA 626-7; S.428), VF / EF
with lustre 1,200
RM3997 Valentinian III (AD 425-455), Tremissis (1.37g), Constantinople,
425-429, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N VALENTINIANVS P
F AVG, rev. VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory walking three-quarters right, head left,
holding wreath and cross on globe, CONOB in ex. (RIC 251; Hahn 47), good VF
225

English Gold

EG07 Edward III (1327-77), Noble, 7.63g, Fourth coinage, pre-Treaty, series Gb-
EG01 Celtic, pre coinage era, Double Ring Money, 6.59g, conjoined bands, c/Gd, London, small annulet, rev. small E at centre, annulet to right of lis at
open with blunt ends (VA 1-3), good VF 800 top of cross, saltire stops, m.m. cross 3 (N.1180/1181; S.1490), about VF
1,350

EG02 Early uninscribed, Gallo Belgic A, Ambiani, Stater, 7.27g, Large flan
type, naturalistic laureate head of Apollo, rev. horse left, stylized charioteer
behind, below (Mack 3; VA 1-2; S.2), light mark in hair on obverse, otherwise EG08 Henry V (1413-22), Noble, 6.88g, Class C, London, mullet by sword arm,
well centred on a broad flan, good VF, a lovely example of this very rare type no marks on rudder, broken annulet on side of ship, rev. quatrefoil in second
5,750 quarter, m.m. pierced cross with pellet centre (N.1371; S.1742), bold VF, nice
portrait 2,200
Ex Clarendon, lot 460

EG03 Early uninscribed, Gallo-Belgic E, Ambiani, Stater, 6.19g, plain, rev.


horse right, pellet below (Mack 27; VA 50; S.11), well centred, red tone, bold
VF 375 EG09 Henry V, Quarter Noble, 1.35g, Class C, London, broken annulet to left and
mullet to right of shield, m.m. plain cross (N.1382; S.1756), good Fine 350

26 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
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EG15 James I, Quarter-laurel, 2.17g, third coinage, fourth bust, beaded inner
circles on obv., m.m. trefoil (N.2119; S.2642B), light tone, good VF, excellent
portrait 675

EG10 Henry VI, first reign (1422-61) Noble, 6.96g, Annulet issue, London,
annulet by sword arm, rev. reads IBMT, m.m. lis (Schneider -; N.1414;
S.1799), face of King a little soft, otherwise almost EF, rare error reading IBMT
2,000
Ex Pulham Hoard, lot 78 and Clarendon, lot 491

EG16 Charles I (1625-49), Tower, Unite, 8.73g, Group B, second bust, m.m.
castle (N.2148; S.2687), from some what worn dies, nevertheless well struck,
good VF 1,650

EG11 Edward IV, first reign (1461-70), Ryal, 7.70g, light coinage, London, large
trefoils in spandrels, rev. ends, IBA, m.m. - / crown (Schneider 358 obv. / -
rev.; N.1549; S.1950), a most handsome example struck on a broad flan, about
EF, rare thus 3,500

EG17 The Commonwealth (1649-60), Unite, 8.88g, 1653, m.m. sun (N.2715;
S.3208), almost EF, rare thus 5,750

EG12 Henry VII (1485-1509), Angel, 5.11g, type IV, m.m. grey hounds head
(N.1697; S.2185), from ring mount, about Fine, scarce 775

EG18 Charles II (1660-85), Unite, 9.03g, second hammered issue, with mark of
value, m.m. crown (N.2754; S.3304), red golden tone, pleasing VF 3,750

EG13 James I (1603-25), Unite, 9.63g, second coinage, fourth bust, m.m.
escallop (N.2084; S.2619), about VF, good portrait 1,250

EG19 James II (1685-88), Guinea, 1686, second bust (MCE 126; S.3402), bold
VF 1,650

EG14 James I, Laurel, 8.92g, third coinage, fourth bust, small ties, m.m lis
(N.2114; S.2638B), VF 1,250

MARCH 2009 27
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 28

EG20 William III (1694-1702), Guinea, 1700, second bust (MCE 184; S.3460), EG27 George III, Guinea, 1786, fourth bust (MCE 390; S.3728), lustrous, EF
almost EF with lustre, 3,850 775

EG21 Anne (1702-14), after Union, Guinea, 1713, third bust (MCE 225; EG28 George III, Guinea, 1793, fifth bust (MCE 397; S.3729), good VF 400
S.3574), surface marks, otherwise almost EF 1,750

EG22 Anne, after Union, Half-Guinea, 1714 (MCE 237; S.3575), EF, some lustre EG29 George III, Guinea, 1798, fifth bust (MCE 402; S.3729), nearly EF 500
under light tone 2,000

EG23 George I (1714-27), Guinea, 1726, fifth bust, plain (MCE 261; S.3633), EF
2,750 EG30 Edward VII (1901-10), matt proof Two Pounds, 1902 (S.3968), virtually as
struck 475

EG24 George II (1727-60), Guinea, 1746, intermediate head (MCE 321; EG31 Edward VII, matt proof Sovereign, 1902 (S.3969), virtually as struck 240
S.3678A), almost EF, scarce 2,850

EG25 George II, Half-Guinea, 1755, old head (MCE 363; S.3685), EF, some lustre
1,250

EG32 George V (1910-36), proof Crown, 1935, in gold, Jubilee issue, raised edge
(Linecar and Stone 47; Davies 1651; ESC 379; S.4050), a couple of very light
hairlines, otherwise as struck, very rare 23,500
With contemporary letters signed by R. A. Johnson, Deputy Master and Comptroller of the Mint, and
associated paperwork giving details of the recipients in the ballot for the issue of the 25 specimens offered
to the public.

EG26 George III (1760-1820), Guinea, 1785, fourth bust (MCE 389; S.3728),
reddish tone, good VF / VF 500

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Milled Copper
TWOPENCE

MC3480 George IV, proof Penny, 1826, in bronzed copper, plain saltire (Peck
1423; S.3823), a couple of very light contact marks, otherwise toned, as struck
475

MC3476 George III (1760-1820), proof Twopence, 1797, in bronzed copper, late
Soho, ship with Union flag on reverse, light flaws (Peck 1068 KT2; S.3776), a
few very minor spots in fields, otherwise toned, with considerable brilliance, as
struck 800
PENNIES

MC3481 William IV (1830-37), Penny, 1837 (Peck 1460; S.3845), VF, scarce
150

MC3477 George III, proof Penny, 1797, in bronzed copper, late Soho, ship with
ensign on reverse, waves crested with foam (Peck 1118 KT 16; S.3777), toned
with underlying brilliance, as struck 575
Ex Norweb collection, lot 559

MC3482 Victoria (1837-1901), pattern Penny, 1860, in bronze, by J. Moore,


crowned head left, VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITT: REG: F: D:, rev. Britannia seated
left, date below, ONE PENNY (Fr. 863; Peck 2135), light colourful tone, as struck,
rare and choice 575

MC3478 George III, proof Penny, 1806, in bronzed copper, late Soho, brooch
with ten jewels, parallel lines below Britannias left hand on reverse (Peck
1328 KP 32; S.3780), some very light marks on reverse otherwise toned,
virtually as struck 300

MC3483 Victoria, Penny, 1889, wreath of 14 leaves (Fr.128 dies 13 + N;


S.3.954), uncirculated and lustrous 180

MC3479 George IV (1820-30), Penny, 1826, plain saltire (Peck 1422; S.3823),
a couple of marks on face, light tone, EF 175
MC3484 Victoria, Penny, 1895, normal tide (Fr.141 dies 1 + B; S.3961),
uncirculated and lustrous 75

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HALFPENNIES

MC3490 George I (1714-27), Dump Halfpenny, 1718 (Peck 774; S.3659), toned,
nearly EF 450
MC3485 Charles II (1660-85), Halfpenny, 1673 (Peck 510; S.3393), worn
reverse die exhibiting flaws, otherwise toned, pleasing VF 250

MC3491 George III (1760-1820), Halfpenny, 1799, five incuse gunports


MC3486 William and Mary (1688-94), tin Halfpenny, 1691 / 92, error dated (Peck 1248; S.3778), good EF, some lustre 75
1691 in exergue and 1692 on edge (Peck 575; S.3449), good VF with traces
of original colour, very rare error 1,350

MC3492 William IV (1830-37), Halfpenny, 1837 (Peck 1465; S.3847), good EF,
some lustre 140
MC3487 William and Mary, copper Halfpenny, 1694 (Peck 602; S.3452), toned,
good VF 325

MC3493 Victoria (1837-1901), Halfpenny, 1854 (Peck 1542; S.3949), virtually


uncirculated, considerable lustre 75

MC3488 William III (1694-1702), Halfpenny, 1696, first issue (Peck 641;
S.3554), weakly struck at 2 oclock on obverse and near date on reverse, otherwise
about EF with hints of lustre 475

MC3494 Victoria, bronze Halfpenny, 1860, beaded border (S.3956), about as


struck, lustrous 100

MC3489 William III, Halfpenny, 1697, first issue, no stop after TERTIVS
(Peck 650*; S.3554), weakly struck at base of bust and on Britannias head on
reverse, otherwise almost EF / good VF, rare 425

MC3495 Victoria, Halfpenny, 1887 (S.3956), about as struck, considerable lustre


75

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FARTHINGS

MC3502 Victoria (1837-1901), Half-Farthing, 1839 (Peck 1590; S.3951), good


EF, traces of lustre 75
MC3496 Anne (1702-14), pattern Farthing, 1714, in copper, draped bust right,
ANNA REGINA, rev. Britannia seated left, date below, BRITANNIA (Peck 743 obv. 3,
THIRD-FARTHINGS
rev. E; S.3625), toned, nearly EF, scarce 950

MC3503 George IV (1820-30), Third-Farthing, 1827 (Peck 1453; S.3827), good


EF, traces of lustre, scarce 100

MC3497 George I (1714-27), Farthing, 1721, second issue (Peck 822; S.3659),
flaw on edge at one oclock on reverse, otherwise nearly EF 300

MC3504 Victoria (1837-1901), Third-Farthing, 1844 (Peck 1606; S.3952), good


EF with lustre 125

Ireland
The Bobly Collection of coinage of the Great Rebellion.
MC3498 George II (1727-60), Farthing, 1734, young bust (Peck 861; S.3720),
softly struck on Britannias head otherwise a strong EF, traces of lustre, scarce Formed over the past fifty years this collection contains many of the key rarities
325 of this fascinating and difficult series.

MC3499 George II, Farthing, 1746, old bust (Peck 876; S.3722), good EF, with
lustre 275

IR300 Charles I (1625-49), Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1642,


Inchiquin money, Crown, 29.24g, irregular flan stamped with 19 dwt :
8 GR both sides (DF 271; S.6532), toned, Fine to nearly VF, very rare 5,000
Bought Baldwin, 1998

MC3500 George III (1760-1820), Farthing, 1771 (Peck 909; S.3775), good EF
with lustre 275

HALF-FARTHINGS

IR301 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1642, Inchiquin money,
Halfcrown, 14.35g, irregular flan stamped with 9dw 16GR (DF 277A;
S.6533), pierced and plugged in a very skilful manner, toned, bold VF, very rare
1,750
Ex Dysson Perrins collection
MC3501 George IV (1830-37), proof Half-Farthing, 1830, in bronzed copper, Bought Baldwin, 1968
helmet to base of legend (Peck 1452; cf. S.3826), spot on reverse, otherwise as
struck, very rare 350

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IR302 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, third issue, Dublin money,
Halfcrown, 14.98g, irregular flan, stamped with value, S II. D VI, both sides
(DF 287; S.6543), a most attractive example, toned, good VF, extremely rare for IR306 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
this denomination 9,000 Halfcrown, 14.95g, crowned CR, triangle between, rev. value (DF 293;
Ex Whitaker, Clark and Lingford collections S.6545), typical obverse die flaws for this issue, about VF 800
Bought Baldwin, 1973

IR307 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Shilling, 5.35g, crowned CR, pellet between and after, rev. value (DF 297;
S.6546), die flay on obverse, toned, bold VF 575
Bought from a private collector, 1968

IR303 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Crown, 29.88g, crowned CR, rev. value (DF 289; S.6544), some old light
scratches in centre of reverse, toned, VF 1,100
Bought Seaby, 1971

IR308 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Shilling, 5.33g, crowned CR, pellet between, rev. value (DF 297; S.6546),
toned Fine / Fair 200
Bought from a private collector, 1962

IR304 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Crown, 29.44g, crowned CR, crown with high arches, small diamond and
pellets between, rev. value (DF 291; S.6544), toned, good Fine to nearly VF,
scarce variety 1,000
Ex Parsons collection IR309 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Bought Baldwin, 1970
Sixpence, 3.04g, crowned CR, high arched crown, pellet between, two
additional pellets either side of crown, rev. value in large letters (cf. DF.300;
S.6547), toned, pleasing good VF, rare 475
Ex Spink sale 117, lot 407

IR310 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Sixpence, 2.58g, crowned CR, thick letters, faint pellet between, rev. value in
large letters (DF 301; S.6547), thick flan, toned, Fine 200
IR305 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money, Bought from a private collector, 1965
Halfcrown, 14.88g, crowned CR, pellet between, rev. value (DF 292; S.6545),
toned, bold VF 1,000
Bought from a private collector, 1965

32 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 33

IR317 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
IR311 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money, Threepence, 1.42g, crowned CR, pellet between, rev. value (DF 309; S.6549),
Sixpence, 2.99g, crowned CR, thick letters, faint pellet between, rev. value in toned, nearly VF, scarce 350
small letters (DF 300; S.6547), thick flan, struck from the same obverse die as Bought from a private collector, 1965
last but showing flaws, toned, Fine 200
Bought Seaby, 1971

IR318 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Twopence, 0.89g, crowned CR, rev. value (DF 311; S.6550), pierced and
plugged, otherwise good Fine, very rare 275
Bought from a private collector, 1965

IR312 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Sixpence, 2.74g, crowned CR, ornate letters, rev. value in large letters (DF
302; S.6547), thin flan, toned, nearly VF 275
Bought Baldwin, 1970

IR319 After the execution of Charles I, in the name of Charles II, issued 1649,
IR313 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money, Dublin money, Halfcrown, 13.38g, crown, CAR II DG MAG BRIT, rev. value, FRA ET
Sixpence, 2.76g, crowned CR, ornate letters, rev. value in small letters (DF HYB REX (DF 337; S.6554), not struck up in parts as usual, otherwise toned, good
302; S.6547), struck from gilt plate, thin flan, good Fine, very rare 400 Fine, extremely rare 5,250
Bought Seaby, 1971 Bought Spink, 1972

IR314 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Groat, 1.96g, crowned CR, high arched crown, pellet between, rev. value in
large letters (DF 303; S.6548), toned, nearly Fine 150 IR320 Charles I, Issues of the Confederate Catholics, Kilkenny, Halfpenny, 3.70g,
Bought Seaby, 1962 crown and two sceptres, rev. crowned harp between CR (DF 263; S.6555),
well struck, good fine 650
Bought Baldwin, 1971

IR315 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Groat, 1.71g, crowned CR, pellet between, rev. value in thin letters (DF 304;
S.6548), traces of original plate pattern reverse, Fine, very rare 275
Bought B.J. Dawson, 2003
IR321 Charles I, Issues of the Confederate Catholics, Kilkenny, Halfpenny, 3.48g,
crown and two sceptres, rev. crowned harp between CR (DF 263; S.6555),
well struck, good fine 650
Bought C. Denton, 2003

IR316 Charles I, Coinages of the Lords Justice, issue of 1643, Ormond money,
Groat, 1.82g, crowned CR, rev. value in large letters (DF 305?; S.6548), about
Fine 150
Bought Walter Allen, 1972

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Irish Hammered and Milled

IR327 Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Penny, 1.26g, Group B.1/a, in the name of


Sihtric, as Long cross type of thelred II, Dublin mint signature, SIHTRC REXE
DYFLII, rev. FMEMN MO DYFLI (DF 5; S.6103), toned, nearly EF, rare 2,250
IR322 Charles I, Issues of the Confederate Catholics, Blacksmiths, Halfcrown,
14.46g, cross on housings, m.m. cross potent / harp (DF 335; S.6557), mark
before King, toned, nearly VF for issue 1,750
Bought Baldwin, 1969

IR328 Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Penny, 1.67g, Group B.2/a variety, in the name of
thelred, blundered reverse legend, lRED REX AIGO, rev. EILREF
[inverted]SFIIONII (DF 13; S.6107), peck marked, bold VF, very rare 1,450
This coin is struck from the same obverse die as lot 1074, Viking collection, Spink sale 150 the reverse of
which had a clear Dublin mint signature, moneyer Faremin.

IR323 Charles I, Issues of the Confederate Catholics? Rebel money, Halfcrown,


13.36g, cross potent, rev. value, m.m. star on obverse (DF 315; S.6559),
toned, almost VF, extremely rare 13,500
Ex Gibbs collection
Bought from a private collector, 1965
IR329 Hiberno-Norse, Phase II, Penny, 1.04g, Group A.3/c, blundered name of
Sihtric and reverse legend, as Long cross type, two pellets in front of bust,
cross behind, pellet in angles of reverse (DF 23 same dies as coin illustrated;
S.6125), light tone, good VF, scarce 850

IR324 Local issues from the southern Cities of Refuge, Cork, Sixpence, 2.11g,
1647, octagonal flan, CORK date below, rev. value (DF 329; S.6561A), weakly
struck in part, otherwise toned, good VF, very rare 2,850
Bought Spink, 1967
IR330 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.89g, Group A/a, Long cross and hands
type, no added symbol (DF 24; S.6132), light tone, about EF 450

IR331 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.91g, Group A/a, Long cross and hands
IR325 Local issues from the Southern Cities of Refuge, Cork, Farthing, 3.09g,
type, no added symbols (DF 24; S.6132), toned, good VF 425
rectangular flan, CORK, rev. castle (DF 331; S.6562A), from official dies, almost
Fine, very rare 2,000
Bought Spink, SNC April 1986, item 2504
For a specimen with the same obverse die see Important Irish Coins from a Private Collection, DNW, 19
June 2008, lot 90

IR332 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 1.10g, Group A/a, Long cross and hands
type, no added symbols (DF 24; S.6132), attractively toned, nearly EF 450

IR326 Local issues from the Southern Cities of Refuge, Youghal, Farthing, 2.77g,
1646, square flan, Y.T bird above, date below, rev. ship right (DF 319;
S.3565), attractive light green patina, good Fine, very rare 2,750
Bought Spink, SNC April 1986, item 2501

IR333 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.96g, Group A/a, Long cross and hands
type, no added symbols (DF 24; S.6132), attractively toned, EF 475

34 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
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IR334 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.79g, Group A/b, Long cross and hands
type, extra pellet in one quarter of reverse (DF 24; S.6132), attractively toned,
good VF 475 IR341 Edward IV (1461-83), Groat, 2.13g, light cross and pellets coinage,
Waterford, G on breast, saltire in two quarters of reverse (DF 134; S.6349),
good VF 425

IR335 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.76g, Group A/c, Long cross and hands
type, extra pellets in opposite quarters of reverse (DF 24; S.6132), attractively
toned, nearly EF 450 IR342 Edward IV, St Patrick Farthing, 0.88g, mitred Saints head facing,
PATRICVS, rev. cross, roses and suns in alternative angles, SALVATOR (DF 100;
S.6402), nearly VF for issue, very rare 2,200
Ex Professor de Wit collection

IR336 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.80g, Group A/b, Long cross and hands
type, cross pomme in one quarter of reverse (DF 24; S.6132), attractively
toned, nearly EF 475

IR343 Henry VII (1485-1509), Groat, 1.99g, early three crowns issue, Dublin,
reads DOMINVS hYBERNIE both sides (DF 183; S.6415), weak in parts, otherwise
good Fine to nearly VF 250

IR337 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.86g, Group C/a, Long cross and hands
type, annulet and pendants on neck, no additional marks on reverse (DF 24;
S.6132), weakly struck on obverse, nearly VF, scarce 400

IR338 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.93g, Group D/a, Long cross and hands IR344 Henry VII, Groat, 2.06g, late portrait issue, class IA, Dublin, arched
type, hand behind bust, no additional marks on reverse (DF 24; S.6132), peck crown, broken tressure, rev. cross patte (DF 194; S.6455), weak in parts,
marks, nearly VF, scarce 450 toned, nearly VF 325

IR339 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.98g, Group D/a, Long cross and hands
type, pellet behind bust, no additional marks on reverse (DF 24; S.6132),
attractively toned, good VF 425
IR345 Henry VII, Groat, 1.72g, late portrait issue, class IIC, Dublin, open crown,
saltires on cusps of tressure, rev. cross fourche (DF 198; S.6460), Fine, scarce
250

IR340 Hiberno-Norse, Phase V, Penny, 0.64g, Group A/c, obverse as Long cross
type of thelred II, with annulets and pendant on and behind bust, rev. as
Short cross type of Cnut (DF 28/29; S.6142), minor chipping to rim at 7
oclock, otherwise toned, nearly VF, very rare 1,250
Ex, Spink sale 23, lot 111 and Viking collection, lot 1137

IR346 Henry VII, Groat, 1.77g, late portrait issue, class III, Dublin, flat open
crown, rev. cross fourche (DF 200; S.6464), toned, VF, good portrait 375

MARCH 2009 35
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 36

IR347 Henry VIII (1509-47), Groat, 2.51g, third harp issue, Dublin, with title IR355 Charles II (1660-85), Farthing, St Patricks coinage, King David playing
hIBERNIE REX, m.m. rose (DF 209; S.6481), nearly VF 125 harp, rev. St. Patrick (DF 342; S.6569), Fair 175

IR356 Charles II, Halfpenny, 1681, Armstrong and Legges coinage, large
lettering (DF 353; S.6574), slightly off centre, VF 150
IR348 Elizabeth (1558-1603), billon Shilling, 8.98g, base issue, Tower, reads
REGINA, m.m. rose (DF 239; S.6503), minor edge splits, almost VF, scarce thus
950
Spink, 22 August 2003

IR349 Elizabeth, billon Groat, 2.96g, base issue, Tower, reads REGI (DF 246;
S.6504), pleasing VF 375

IR350 Elizabeth, Shilling, 4.29g, 1561, second issue, Tower, reads REGI,
m.m. harp (DF 247; S.6505), slightly double struck on reverse, toned, nearly VF
500
IR351 - No lot IR357 Charles II, Halfpenny, 1682, small lettering (DF 354; S.6575), about VF
125

IR358 Charles II, proof Halfpenny, 1681, struck in silver, small lettering
IR352 Elizabeth, base Shilling, 5.74g, third issue, Tower, m.m. star (DF 252; (DF 355; S.6575), minor edge knock, toned, good VF, very rare 2,750
S.6507), irregular edge, otherwise nearly EF, with lustre 475 Ex La Riviere, lot 156

IR359 Charles II, Halfpenny, 1683, small lettering (DF 358; S.6575), toned, VF
IR353 James I (1603-25), Shilling, 4.46g, first coinage, Tower, first bust, m.m. 150
bell (DF 259; S.6512), good Fine 125

IR360 James II (1685-91), Halfpenny, 1686 (DF 363; S.6576), toned, about VF
150
IR354 James I, Shilling, 4.33g, second coinage, Tower, third bust, m.m. martlet
(DF 261; S.6515), light crease, toned, Fine 100

36 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 37

IR367 George III (1760-1820), Voce Populi, Halfpenny, type 6 (DF 571), almost
VF for issue 225
IR361 James II, Gunmoney Halfcrown, 1689, August, large size, reads AUGT:
(DF 376; S.6759B), good VF 150

Scottish

SC0734 David I (1124-53), Penny, period A, as Stephens Watford type, in name


of David, Edinburgh, Derind, DAVID REX, rev. DERIND: ON: EDEN: (cf. Burns Figs.
IR362 James II, Gunmoney Halfcrown, 1689, February, large size, reads FEB: 24C and 28 obv.; St. plate 1.5; S.5003), nearly VF with clear legends and
(DF 387; S.6579K), metal flaws, nearly EF 200 portrait, very rare 4,000
Possibly the earliest coin with an Edinburgh mint signature

SC0735 Alexander III (12-92), Penny, first coinage, type III, Edinburgh?, Alex,
IR363 James II, Gunmoney Shilling, 1689, January, large size, reads JAN (DF 425; rev. ALEX O [ ] (S.5043), reverse off centre, otherwise toned, good Fine 150
S.6581M), weak in part of legend, otherwise EF 175

SC0736 Alexander III, Halfpenny, second coinage, two mullets of six points on
reverse (S.5061), toned, about VF 225

IR364 James II, Gunmoney Shilling, 1689, September, large size, reads SEP
(DF 414; S.6581D), bold VF 80

SC0737 John Baliol (1292-96), Penny, rough issue, Berwick, four mullets of six
points on reverse (S.5065), reverse slightly off centre, otherwise toned, VF 295

IR365 William and Mary (1688-94), Halfpenny, 1692 (DF 494; S.6597), VF
175

SC0738 John Baliol, Halfpenny, 0.60g, smooth issue, two mullets of six points on
reverse (S.5074), somewhat off centre, toned, nearly VF, scarce 325

IR366 William and Mary (1688-94), Halfpenny, 1694 (DF 497; S.6597), toned,
about good VF 175
SC0739 David II (1329-71), Penny, 1.05g, second coinage, type C, Edinburgh,
older head (S.5118), weakly struck in part, otherwise VF 250

MARCH 2009 37
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 38

SC0746 James V (1513-42), Groat, 2.79g, second coinage, type IV, Edinburgh,
SC0740 Robert II (1371-90), Groat, 3.58g, Edinburgh, star at base of sceptre, trefoil stops (S.5379), toned, good VF 500
trefoils in tressure (S.5131), irregular flan, toned, VF 200

SC0747 Mary (1542-67), billon Bawbee, 1.59g, Edinburgh, plain saltire


(S.5432), full coin, bold VF 125

SC0741 Robert III (1390-1406), Groat, 2.50g, heavy coinage, second issue,
Edinburgh, with trefoils on cusps (S.5166), toned, bold VF 300

SC0742 Robert III, billon Halfpenny, 0.49g, heavy coinage, second issue, Perth
(S.5188), striking split, Fine, very rare 425
Ex Murray collection, lot 1891

SC0748 James VI (1567-1625), before accession to English throne, Thistle Dollar


or Two Merks, 22.43g, 1579 over 78, second coinage (S.5480), weak in
centre of obverse Fair / Fine, very rare, the over date unrecorded 1,250

SC0743 James II (1437-60), Groat, 3.53g, second coinage, class II, Edinburgh,
m.m. crown (S.5233), well struck coin, toned, good VF, scarce 950
Ex LaRiviere collection, lot 55

SC0749 James VI, Thirty Shillings, 22.56g, 1582, fourth coinage (S.5487),
lightly smoothed behind king, otherwise an well struck example, toned, good VF
1,500

SC0744 James III (1460-83), Groat, 2.48g, third coinage, light issue, Berwick,
m.m. cross patte (S.5276), toned, pleasing VF, rare 1,150

SC0745 James IV (1483-1513), billon Plack, 2.26g, type IV, Edinburgh, reads SC0750 James VI, Twenty Shillings, 14.91g, 1582, fourth coinage (S.5489),
IACOBVS 4, Roman lettering both sides (S.5351), weak in parts of legends, nearly blank filing on obverse, otherwise toned, well struck, bold VF 1,200
EF, some lustre 150

38 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Listings:Layout 1 7/3/09 09:56 Page 39

SC0751 James VI, after accession to English throne, Thirty Shillings, 14.87g,
type 1, English arms in first and fourth quarters (S.5501), some light scratches SC0756 Charles II, Four Merks, 1674, type III, F below bust (Dodd 6; S.5605),
behind King, otherwise toned, good VF, excellent portrait 500 good Fine to nearly VF for issue, pleasing and rare 1,050
Ex Colin Adams collection, lot 819

SC0752 James VI, Turner or Twopence, 2.26g, type I, issue of 1614, reads
FRANCIE etc (S.5523), Fine / VF 80 SC0757 Charles II, Merk, 1669, type II, thistle below bust, pellet and colon stops
(Dodd 20; S.5611), bold Fine 150

SC0758 Charles II, Merk, 1672, type II, thistle below bust, pellet and colon stops
(Dodd 23; S.5611), toned, VF for issue, scarce 325

SC0753 Charles I (1625-49), Thirty Shillings, 14.79g, third coinage, type III,
Falconers second issue, F by horses foot, smooth ground, lozenges over
crown, m.m. thistle (S.5555), struck from worn dies, slight adjustment marks on
King, toned, VF 275

SC0759 Charles II, Merk, 1673, type II, thistle below bust, reads BRA for BRI on
reverse (Dodd 24; S.5611), a bold Fine, very rare error 450

SC0754 Charles I, Twelve Shillings, 5.82g, third coinage, type I, Briots issue,
m.m. B (S.5558), most attractively toned, good VF 450

SC0760 Charles II, Merk, 1675, type II, F below bust, colon stop after DEI
(Dodd 27; S.5612), toned, good Fine, rare 350

SC0755 Charles II (1649-85), first coinage, Four Merks, 1670, type II, thistle
below bust (Dodd 4; S.5605), weakly struck on part of reverse, otherwise bold SC0761 Charles II, Half Merk, 1670, type II, thistle below bust, no stops on
Fine, rare 800 obverse (Dodd 37; S.5614), toned, nearly VF for issue, very rare error 325

MARCH 2009 39
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 40

SC0762 Charles II, Half Merk, 1671, type II, thistle below, straight ribbon behind
head (Dodd 38; S.5614), toned, almost VF for issue 225
SC0768 Charles II, Quarter Dollar, 1680 (Dodd 56; S.5620), light tone, nearly VF,
scarce 250

SC0763 Charles II, Half Merk, 1671, type II, thistle below, curly ribbon behind
head (Dodd 38; S.5614), slightly off centre, toned, almost VF for issue 225

SC0769 Charles II, Eighth Dollar, 1676 (Dodd 60; S.5622), toned, nearly VF
175

SC0764 Charles II, Half Merk, 1675, type III, F below bust (Dodd 41; S.5616),
toned, Fine, scarce 125

SC0770 Charles II, Eighth Dollar, 1680 (Dodd 64; S.5622), nearly Fine, scarce
150

SC0771 Charles II, Sixteenth Dollar, 1677 (Dodd 67; S.5624), attractively toned,
VF 250
SC0765 Charles II, second coinage, Dollar, 1679 (Dodd 44; S.5618), toned, minor
edge knock, almost Fine 300

SC0772 Charles II, Turner or Twopence, issue of 1663, type I, crowned CR,
rev. thistle, m.m. cross of pellets (Dodd 78; S.5625), toned, a really good VF,
scarce 150

SC0766 Charles II, Dollar, 1682 (Dodd 47; S.5618), minor edge knocks, nearly
Fine 250

SC0773 James VII (1685-89), Forty Shillings, 1688, QVARTO, reads IACOBUS (Dodd
91; S.5640), toned, nearly Fine, very rare date 175

SC0767 Charles II, Quarter Dollar, 1679, (Dodd 55; S.5620), light tone, nearly
VF, very rare date 325

40 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 41

SC0774 James VII, Ten Shillings, 1687 (Dodd 92; S.5641), toned, about Fine
140
SC0779 William and Mary, Forty Shillings, 1694, SIXTO (Dodd 108; S.5654),
light adjustment marks at base of shield, toned, pleasing VF, rare date 575

SC0780 William and Mary, Ten Shillings, 1691, small 10, GRATIA, Scottish crown
on reverse (Dodd 114; S.5659), toned, almost VF 275
SC0775 William and Mary (1689-94), Sixty Shillings, 1692, TERTIO (Dodd 96;
S.5642), traces of under type on reverse, light tone, nearly VF, scarce 900

SC0781 William and Mary, Ten Shillings, 1691, large 10, GRATIA, Scottish crown
on reverse (Dodd 114; S.5659), toned, Fine 140

SC0776 William and Mary, Sixty Shillings, 1692, TERTIO (Dodd 96; S.5642), Fine,
scarce 395
SC0782 William and Mary, Five Shillings, 1694 (Dodd 120; S.5665), toned, bold
Fine 125

SC0777 William and Mary, Forty Shillings, 1691, SECVNDO (Dodd 101; S.5648),
toned, pleasing VF, scarce 550 SC0783 William II (1694-1702), Forty Shillings, 1695, OCTAVO (Dodd 139;
S.5680), toned, Fine 175

SC0778 William and Mary, Forty Shillings, 1693, QVARTO (Dodd 105; S.5652), SC0784 William II, Forty Shillings, 1696, OCTAVO (Dodd 140; S.5681), small dig
light adjustment mark behind busts, toned, pleasing bold VF, scarce 575 below bust, light graffiti by shield, otherwise toned, good Fine, rare date 250

MARCH 2009 41
Listings:Layout 1 5/3/09 11:53 Page 42

Islamic
Please find illustrated items on inside front cover.
I0738 Murabitid (Almoravid), Yusuf bin Tashufin (1087-1106), Dinar,
4.10g, Agmat, AH495 (Hazard 68; A.464), VF 525
I0739 Murabitid (Almoravid), Yusuf bin Tashufin, Dinar, 3.58g, Agmat,
AH498 (Hazard 71; A.464), a little crimped, VF 500
I0740 Murabitid (Almoravid), Ali bin Yusuf (1106-1142), Dinar, 4.09g,
Agmat, AH502 (Hazard 154; A.466), polished, VF 495
I0741 Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb (1658-1707), Mohur, Dar ul-Sultanate
SC0785 William II, Twenty Shillings, 1696, stop after date (Dodd 146; S.5686), Lahore, AH1108, ry.40 (KM.315.31), VF 350
toned, nearly VF 375 I0742 Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb, Mohur, 10.95g, Dar ul-Aman Multan,
AH1071, ry.3 (KM.315.35), EF 425
PROVENANCE: Noble Numismatics, Sale #50, 1996, Lot 1908
I0743 Mughal Empire, Farrukhsiyar (1713-19), Mohur, 10.97g, Dar ul-
Sultante Lahore, AH1128, ry.5 (KM.375), about EF 375
I0744 Mughal Empire, Farrukhsiyar, Mohur, 10.86g, Shahjahanabad,
AH1127, ry.4 (KM.390.30), about EF 350
I0745 Mughal Empire, Muhammad Shah, (1720-48), Mohur, 10.89g, Dar
ul-Sultanate Lahore, ry.10 (KM.438.15), F 250
I0746 India, Mughal Empire, Shah Alam II (1759-1806), Mohur, 10.70g,
Dar ul-Khilafat Shahjahanabad, AH(12)02, ry.29, rev, hami din legend with
parasol (KM.719), VF 550
SC0786 William II, Twenty Shillings, 1698, 8 over 7 (Dodd 149; S.5686), toned, This coin must either have been struck between January and August 1788, when Shah Alam was
emperor, or have been an anonymous issue of the Rohilla rebel Ghulam Qadir Khan, who later installed
good Fine or better, rare 250 Bedar Bakht as a short-lived emperor. This Hegira date/regnal year combination is not listed in Krause for
Shahjahanabad, but see KM.738 for a mohur of this date/year combination as an issue of Bedar Bakht
struck at Saharanpur (Ahmadabad).
I0747 India, Awadh State, in the name of Shah Alam II (1759-1806),
Mohur, 10.57g, Muhammadabad Banaras (Lucknow), AH1222, fixed ry. 26
(KM.105), VF 375
I0748 India, Baroda, Sayaji Rao III (1875-1938), Mohur, 6.25g, VS1959
(1902) (KM.39), ex-mount, about EF 475
I0749 East India Company, Bengal Presidency, second milled issue (1793),
2 -Mohur, 3.01g, Murshidabad, fixed date AH1204, ry.19, edge, oblique milled
1

(Pr.73; KM.100), VF 135


SC0787 William II, Ten Shillings, 1695 (Dodd 151; S.5687), toned, bold Fine
150 I0750 British India, Queen Victoria, Mohur, 11.58g, 1875, Calcutta mint,
first currency issue, with V on bust (Pr.13; KM.480), two letters engraved
under date, small tooled area in field right of bust, good VF 800
I0751 Afghanistan, Durrani, Shah Zaman, (1793-1801), 2-Rupees, Dar ul-
Sultanate Kabul (AH1213), yr.6 (1798) (KM.444), good F 150
I0752 Afghanistan, Durrani, Mahmud Shah (second reign 1808-17), Rupee,
Derajat, AH1238 (KM.373), good VF 35
I0753 Afghanistan, Amanullah (1919-29), 5-Rupees, AH1322 (KM.843), F
25
I0754 Afghanistan, Amanullah, 5-Rupees, AH1324 (KM843), light obverse flan
inperfection near edge between 1 and 3 oclock, good F 25
SC0788 William II, Ten Shillings, 1698, 8 over 7 (Dodd 154; S.5687), metal I0755 Afghanistan, Amanullah, 5-Rupees, AH1326 (KM843), good F 25
flaws on reverse, Fine 125

Important Information
for all Subscribers
SC0789 William II, Five Shillings, 1697, inverted die axis (Dodd 158; S.5688), Please be advised of the following changes to The
good Fine to nearly VF 175 Numismatic Circular in 2009. The number of issues
will be reduced from 6 to 5 and they will appear at the
start of the months of March, May, July, September and
December. The overall content will remain roughly the
same, therefore no change in the subscription rate is
proposed as the costs of production and mailing have
SC0790 Anne (1702-14), Five Shillings, 1705, reads ANNA DEI GRATIA (Dodd 178;
actually increased in recent times.
S.5702), toned, VF 200

SC0791 Anne, Five Shillings, 1705, 5 over 4, reads AN D G M BR FR & HIB REG (Dodd
180; S.5704), toned, EF, very rare thus 450

42 NUMISMATIC CIRCULAR
March 09 Cover:Cover 2007 5/3/09 11:57 Page 3

Books

I0738 I0739 I0740


[Ref. 4003] KRAUSE. Editor CUHAJ, G. S. World Paper
Money General Issues. 1368 1960. 12th Edition. Iola,
[Ref. 4016] BREINGAN, R. Scottish Transport Tokens. 2008. Quarto, pp.1228. Card covers, illustrated throughout
Gloucestershire, 2009. Octavo, pp. 128. Card covers, in black and white. Detailed descriptions and valuations
illustrated in black and white with 8 pages in colour. given in US dollars. Includes a pdf version of the catalogue
14.99 on DVD (PC and Mac compatible Adobe Acrobat Reader
required). 55.99

I0741 I0742 I0743

[Ref. 4009] JOKISCH, V. Emblems of Eminence. Munich, [Ref. 4018] MEVIUS, J. Speciale Catalogus van de
2008. Quarto, pp. 223. Casebound in cloth, gilt. Beautifully Nederlandse Munten van 1795 tot heden. Met ned. West-
illustrated throughout in colour. 75.00 indi ned. Oost-indi. Suriname Curaao ned. Antillen
Aruba Euromunten. Netherlands, 2009. Octavo, pp.
246. Card covers, illustrated throughout in black and white.
I0745 Values given in up to five grades in Euros. 11.30
I0744

I0746 I0747 [Ref. 4006] KRAUSE. Editors: BRUCE, C.R.; MICHAEL, T.


I0748 World Coins 1601-1700. 4th Edition. Iola, 2008. Quarto,
pp. 1439 plus advertisements. Card covers, illustrated [Ref. 4010] SELGIN, G. Good Money. Birmingham Button
throughout in black and white. Detailed descriptions and Makers, the Royal Mint, and the Beginnings of Modern
valuations given in US dollars. Includes a pdf version of the Coinage, 1775 1821. Private Enterprise and Popular
book on DVD (PC and Mac compatible Adobe Acrobat Coinage. Michigan, 2008. Octavo, pp. 345. Casebound in
Reader required). 55.99 cloth, gilt, paper jacket. 16 pages of colour illustrations.
Postage and Packing will be added 20.00

WE ARE ALWAYS INTERESTED IN PURCHASING INTERESTING IMPORTANT


SINGLE ITEMS OR COMPLETE NUMISMATIC LIBRARIES
I0749
PLEASE CONTACT: PHILIP SKINGLEY IN THE BOOK DEPARTMENT
I0750 I0751 Tel: 020 7563 4045 OR Email: pskingley@spink.com
March 09 Cover:Cover 2007 12/3/09 11:45 Page 1

NUMISMATIC
CIRCULAR March 2009 Volume CXVII Number 1

GK2652 Carian Satraps, Maussollos (377-353 BC), Tetradrachm 4,650

ANCIENT, BRITISH AND foreign coins, Contents


commemorative medals AND Further Thoughts on the Identifications of The C and
L Mints of Carausius and Allectus, AD 287-296
A Lunettes Penny from Loch Lomond and
a New Lunettes Moneyer for Alfred
NUMISMATIC BOOKS Malcolm Lyne
A Tibetan 5 Sho Coin, Dated 15-49 in Gold
5 William MacKay and Adrian Lyons
Lost City Tokens of Norwich, 1580
9
Wolfgang Bertsch 6 N. du Quesne Bird 10
Featuring the John Marshall Collection of Ancient Coins A Note on Henry I Type XV Semiotics of Celtic Coins VI Cunobelines Ship
Peter D. Spencer 6 Robert D. Van Arsdell 11
For all enquiries please contact:
Portraits of Greek Coinage R. J. Eaglen 8 BNS Bursaries 13
William MacKay A New Canterbury Type for Egbert of Wessex A Hoard of Late Seventh Century Copper Coins
Tel: 0207 563 4054 Email: wmackay@spink.com Rory Naismith 8 S. Bendall 13
Book Reviews 16
LONDON, THURSDAY 19 MARCH 2009