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CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED BY WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS

A STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TIRUPUR CITY.

PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by

(XXXXXX)
Under the Guidance of
DT.B.USHA
(M.Sc, M.B.A, M.com, M.Phil, Ph.D)
POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF'MANAGEMENT SCItrNCE AND RESEARCH
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the m,vard of the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
OF
BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY, COIMBd.TORE.
POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND RESEARCH
Chinnakarai, Tirupur - 641605
2010 -2012

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS

CHAPTER PARTICULARS PAGE


NO. NO.

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF CHARTS

I INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY 1

1.2 PULL-PUSH FACTORS 3

1.3 PROBLEMS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS 3

1.4 NEED FOR THE STUDY 9

1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 10

II REVIEW OF LITERARTURE 12

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 18

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IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 24

V FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION 64

5.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 65

5.2 SUGGESTION 66

5.3 CONCLUSION 67

BIBILIOGRAPHY 70

APPENDIX 73

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

S.NO TITLE PAGE


NO.

1 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS 24

2 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS 26

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3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS 28

4 YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION 30

5 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS 32

6 TYPE OF FAMILY OF THE RESPONDENTS 34

7 RELIGION OF THE RESPONDENTS 36

8 CASTE OF THE RESPONDENTS 38

9 NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS IN THE FAMILY OF THE RESPONDENTS 40

9.A NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS ABOVE 58 YEARS OF AGE 42

9.B NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS BELOW 18 YEARS OF AGE 44


MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS
10 46
FAMILY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS
11 48
MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS OF THE RESPONDENTS
12 50

13 FINANCIAL PROBLEMS AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS FACED BY 52


WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR
KRUSKAL WALLIS H TEST
14 53

15 MARKETING PROBLEMS AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS FACED BY 54


WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

16 KRUSKAL WALLIS H TEST 55

S.NO TITLE PAGE


NO.
56
17 PRODUCTION PROBLEMS AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS FACED BY
WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

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18 KRUSKAL WALLIS H TEST 57

19 HEALTH PROBLEMS AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS FACED BY 58


WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

20 KRUSKAL WALLIS H TEST 59

21 WORK PLACE FACILITY PROBLEMS AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS 60


FACED BY WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

22 KRUSKAL WALLIS H TEST 61

23 WORK FAMILY CONFLICT AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS FACED BY 62


WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

24 KRUSKAL WALLIS H TEST 63

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LIST OF CHARTS

LIST OF CHARTS

S.NO. TITLE PAGE


NO.

1 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS 25

2 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS 27

3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS 29

4 YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION 31

5 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS 33

6 TYPE OF FAMILY OF THE RESPONDENTS 35

7 RELIGION OF THE RESPONDENTS 37

8 CASTE OF THE RESPONDENTS 39

9 NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS IN THE FAMILY OF THE 41


RESPONDENTS

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9.A NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS ABOVE 58 YEARS OF AGE 43

9.B NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS BELOW 18 YEARS OF AGE 45


MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS
10 47
FAMILY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS
11 49

CHAPTER-I

CHAPTER-I

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY

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Women Entrepreneurship is both about Women pose in society and the role of Women
Entrepreneurship in the same society. Women are faced with specific obstacles (such as family
responsibilities) that have to be overcome in order to give them access to the same opportunities
as men. Also, in some countries, women may experience obstacles with respect to holding
property and entering contracts. Increased participation of women in the labour force is a
prerequisite for improving the position of women in society and self-employed women.

Women Entrepreneurs may be defined as the women or a group of women who initiate,
organize and operate a business enterprise. Government of India has defined women
entrepreneurs as an enterprise owned and controlled by a women having a minimum financial
interest of 51 percent of the capital and giving at least 51 percent of employment generated in the
enterprise to women. Like a male entrepreneurs a women entrepreneur has many functions. They
should explore the prospects of starting new enterprise; undertake risks, introduction of new
innovations, coordination administration and control of business and providing effective
leadership in all aspects of business.

A DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

The word entrepreneur originates from the French word entrepreneur which means to
undertake. In a business context, it means to start a business. The Merriam Webster dictionary
presents the definition of an entrepreneur as an organizes, manages and assumes the risk of a
business or enterprise.

According to Peter Drucker, an Entrepreneur is one who always searches for change,
responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity. Entrepreneurs innovate and innovation is a
specific instrument of entrepreneurship. It creates resources because there is no such thing as a
resource until the human finds a use for something and endowse it with economic value.

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THE ROLE OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

Women Entrepreneur has been recognized during the last decade as an important
untapped source of economic growth. Women Entrepreneurs create new jobs for themselves and
others and by being different also provide society with different solutions to management,
organization and business problems as well as to the exploitation of Women Entrepreneurial
opportunities. However, they still represent a minority of all Women Entrepreneurs. Thus there
exists a market failure discriminating against Women possibility to become Women
Entrepreneurs and their possibility to become successful Women Entrepreneurs. This market
failure needs to be addressed by policy makers so that the economic potential of this group can
be fully utilized. While without a doubt the economic impact of women is substantial, we still
lack a reliable picture describing in detail that specific impact.

Women Entrepreneurship has been largely neglected both in society in general and in the
social sciences. Not only have women lower participation rates in Women Entrepreneurship than
men but they also generally choose to start and manage firms in different industries than men
tend to do. The industries (primarily retail, education and other service industries) chosen by
women are often perceived as being less important to economic development and growth than
high-technology and manufacturing.

1.2 PUSH-PULL FACTORS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS

Women in business are a recent phenomenon in India. By and large they had confide
themselves to petty business and tiny cottage industries. Women entrepreneurs engaged in
business due to push and pull factors. Which encourage women to have an independent
occupation and stands on their on legs. A sense towards independent decision-making on their
life and career is the motivational factor behind this urge. Saddled with household chores and
domestic responsibilities women want to get independence. Under the influence of these factors
the women entrepreneurs choose a profession as a challenge and as an urge to do some thing
new. Such situation is described as pull factors. While in push factors women engaged in
business activities due to family compulsion and the responsibility is thrust upon them.

1.3 PROBLEMS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS

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Women in India are faced many problems to get ahead their life in business. A few
problems can be detailed as;

1. The greatest deterrent to women entrepreneurs is that they are women. A kind of patriarchal
male dominant social order is the building block to them in their way towards business success.
Male members think it a big risk financing the ventures run by women.

2. The financial institutions are skeptical about the entrepreneurial abilities of women. The
bankers consider women loonies as higher risk than men loonies. The bankers put unrealistic and
unreasonable securities to get loan to women entrepreneurs. According to a report by the United
Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), "despite evidence that women's loan
repayment rates are higher than men's, women still face more difficulties in obtaining credit,"
often due to discriminatory attitudes of banks and informal lending groups (UNIDO, 1995b).

3. Entrepreneurs usually require financial assistance of some kind to launch their ventures - be it
a formal bank loan or money from a savings account. Women in developing nations have little
access to funds, due to the fact that they are concentrated in poor rural communities with few
opportunities to borrow money (Starcher, 1996; UNIDO, 1995a). The women entrepreneurs are
suffering from inadequate financial resources and working capital. The women entrepreneurs
lack access to external funds due to their inability to provide tangible security. Very few women
have the tangible property in hand.

4. Women's family obligations also bar them from becoming successful entrepreneurs in both
developed and developing nations. "Having primary responsibility for children, home and older
dependent family members, few women can devote all their time and energies to their business"
(Starcher, 1996, p. 8).The financial institutions discourage women entrepreneurs on the belief
that they can at any time leave their business and become housewives again. The result is that
they are forced to rely on their own savings, and loan from relatives and family friends.

5. Indian women give more emphasis to family ties and relationships. Married women have to
make a fine balance between business and home. More over the business success is depends on

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the support the family members extended to women in the business process and management.
The interest of the family members is a determinant factor in the realization of women folk
business aspirations.

6. Another argument is that women entrepreneurs have low-level management skills. They have
to depend on office staffs and intermediaries, to get things done, especially, the marketing and
sales side of business. Here there is more probability for business fallacies like the intermediaries
take major part of the surplus or profit. Marketing means mobility and confidence in dealing with
the external world, both of which women have been discouraged from developing by social
conditioning. Even when they are otherwise in control of an enterprise, they often depend on
males of the family in this area.

7. The male - female competition is another factor, which develop hurdles to women
entrepreneurs in the business management process. Despite the fact that women entrepreneurs
are good in keeping their service prompt and delivery in time, due to lack of organisational skills
compared to male entrepreneurs women have to face constraints from competition. The
confidence to travel across day and night and even different regions and states are less found in
women compared to male entrepreneurs. This shows the low level freedom of expression.
8. Knowledge of alternative source of raw materials availability and high negotiation skills are
the basic requirement to run a business. Getting the raw materials from different souse with
discount prices is the factor that determines the profit margin. Lack of knowledge of availability
of the raw materials and low-level negotiation and bargaining skills are the factors, which affect
women entrepreneur's business adventures.

9. Knowledge of latest technological changes, know how, and education level of the person are
significant factor that affect business. The literacy rate of women in India is found at low level
compared to male population. Many women in developing nations lack the education needed to
spur successful entrepreneurship. They are ignorant of new technologies or unskilled in their use,
and often unable to do research and gain the necessary training (UNIDO, 1995b, p.1). Although
great advances are being made in technology, many women's illiteracy, strucutural difficulties,
and lack of access to technical training prevent the technology from being beneficial or even

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available to females ("Women Entrepreneurs in Poorest Countries," 2001). According to The


Economist, this lack of knowledge and the continuing treatment of women as second-class
citizens keeps them in a pervasive cycle of poverty ("The Female Poverty Trap," 2001). The
studies indicates that uneducated women do not have the knowledge of measurement and basic
accounting.

10. Low-level risk taking attitude is another factor affecting women folk decision to get into
business. Low-level education provides low-level self-confidence and self-reliance to the women
folk to engage in business, which is continuous risk taking and strategic cession making
profession. Investing money, maintaining the operations and ploughing back money for surplus
generation requires high risk taking attitude, courage and confidence. Though the risk tolerance
ability of the women folk in day-to-day life is high compared to male members, while in
business it is found opposite to that.

11. Achievement motivation of the women folk found less compared to male members. The low
level of education and confidence leads to low level achievement and advancement motivation
among women folk to engage in business operations and running a business concern.

12. Finally high production cost of some business operations adversely affects the development
of women entrepreneurs. The installation of new machineries during expansion of the productive
capacity and like similar factors dissuades the women entrepreneurs from venturing into new
areas.

DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS

Right efforts on from all areas are required in the development of women entrepreneurs
and their greater participation in the entrepreneurial activities. Following efforts can be taken
into account for effective development of women entrepreneurs.
1. Consider women as specific target group for all developmental programmes.

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2. Better educational facilities and schemes should be extended to women folk from government
part.

3. Adequate training programme on management skills to be provided to women community.

4. Encourage women's participation in decision-making.

5. Vocational training to be extended to women community that enables them to understand the
production process and production management.

6. Skill development to be done in women's polytechnics and industrial training institutes. Skills
are put to work in training-cum-production workshops.

7. Training on professional competence & leadership skill to be extended to women


entrepreneurs.

8. Training and counseling on a large scale of existing women entrepreneurs to remove


psychological causes like lack of self-confidence and fear of success.

9. Counseling through the aid of committed NGOs, psychologists, managerial experts and
technical personnel should be provided to existing and emerging women entrepreneurs.

10. Continuous monitoring and improvement of training programmes.

11. Activities in which women are trained should focus on their marketability and profitability.

12. Making provision of marketing and sales assistance from government part.

13. To encourage more passive women entrepreneurs the Women training programme should be
organised that taught to recognize her own psychological needs and express them.

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14. State finance corporations and financing institutions should permit by statute to extend purely
trade related finance to women entrepreneurs.

15. Women's development corporations have to gain access to open-ended financing.

16. The financial institutions should provide more working capital assistance both for small
scale venture and large scale ventures.

17. Making provision of micro credit system and enterprise credit system to the women
entrepreneurs at local level.

18. Repeated gender sensitization programmes should be held to train financiers to treat women
with dignity and respect as persons in their own right.

19. Infrastructure, in the form of industrial plots and sheds, to set up industries is to be provided
by state run agencies.

20. Industrial estates could also provide marketing outlets for the display and sale of products
made by women.

21. A Women Entrepreneur's Guidance Cell set up to handle the various problems of women
entrepreneurs all over the state.

22. District Industries Centres and Single Window Agencies should make use of assisting
women in their trade and business guidance.

23. Programmes for encouraging entrepreneurship among women are to be extended at local
level.

24. Training in entrepreneurial attitudes should start at the high school level through well-
designed courses, which build confidence through behavioral games.

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25. More governmental schemes to motivate women entrepreneurs to engage in small scale and
large-scale business ventures.

26. Involvement of Non Governmental Organizations in women entrepreneurial training


programmes and counseling.

1.4 NEED FOR THE STUDY

Entrepreneurship amongst women is a relatively recent Phenomenon, which is gradually


changing with the growing sensitivity of the roles, responsibilities and Economic status of
women in the society in general and family in particular. For women entrepreneurs, starting and
operating a business involves considerable risks and difficulties, because in the Indian social
Environment women has always lived as subordinate to men the government of India, increase in
the education levels of women and increased social awareness in respect of the role Women
plays in the society.

It is also a fact that more and more women are getting into the domain of entrepreneurial
activities. The efforts of Government of India through various welfare organizations, non-
Governmental agencies, Ministry of Commerce and Industry and hosts of other agencies have
started looking after and helping the efforts of women entrepreneurs. Industries being labour
intensive, have high potential in employment generation. Thus they serve as an antidote to the
widespread problems of disguised unemployment or underemployment stalking the urban and

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rural territory. It helps for the growth of cities, reduces growth of slums, social tensions and
atmospheric population.

This study discuss about the problems faced by the women entrepreneurs and the
opportunities that is favor for them to run the business successfully and play role in the society.

1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

1. To study the challenges and opportunities faced by women women entrepreneurs in running
their business.

2. To ascertain the financial, marketing and production constraints faced by women


entrepreneurs in their business.

3. To assess the health status and work place facilities of women entrepreneurs.

4. To ascertain the work-family conflicts faced by women entrepreneurs;

5. To suggest different remedial measures to help and accelerate women entrepreneurs to run
their business successful.

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CHAPTER-II

CHAPTER-II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Pooja Nayyar and et al(2007) conducted a study on hundred women entrepreneurs


selected through random and snowball sampling technique from four zones of Himachal
Pradesh. Nursing homes, boutiques, handloom units, beauty parlours carpet making units and

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general stores were the enterprises selected for study. The objectives of the endeavour were to
ascertain the financial, marketing and production constraints faced by women in their
enterprises; assessment of their health status, work place facilities and to develop guidelines for
becoming a successful entrepreneur. Poor location of unit, tough competition from larger and
established units, lack of transport facility, lack of rest and sleep and non-availability of raw
material were the significant problems faced by entrepreneurs. The factors causable to these
problems were; difficulty in affording own vehicle, not being popular, heavy schedule of work
and long working hours. Common entrepreneurial problems can be dealt by formulating self help
mutually aided groups. Support mechanism such as institutional credit need to be strengthened to
keep entrepreneurs aware about loaning schemes/credit facilities for further expansion.

Dr Rajeev Singh & Mr. Pramod Nagaich(2011) made the analyses to identify the major
problems of women entrepreneurs in Jabalpur city with the objectives of analyzing the various
problems faced by them. For women entrepreneurs," starting and operating a business involves
considerable risks and difficulties regarding obtaining lines on credit, problems in marketing
management, production, advertising and packaging and other socio-personal, managerial,
technical, Raw-material, Inventory, Financial and governmental assistance problems. By
suggesting the remedial measure which will help in the acceleration of women
entrepreneurship in the city.

Dr.G. Jayammal(2005) conducted the research study to analyse the problems of women
entrepreneurs with special reference to some selected units in Coimbatore District of the
state of Tamil Nadu .The main objective of the study has been to understand the socioeconomic
back-ground of women entrepreneurs, and their problems in running their enterprises efficiently
and profitably. All most all the women entrepreneurs irrespective of their education ,age, married
and the unmarried, caste, religion, type of organizations, ownership type, experience, amount
of capital investment , fixed assets have ranked the problem of finance as first in order

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followed by the problem relating to sales, competition from other sellers, purchase of raw
materials, technical problems and labour related problems.

Dr. D.K.Maheswar and et al() conduct the study to ascertain the factors in the
emergence of women entrepreneurs further study highlighted the major constraint and
challenges faced by women entrepreneur and opportunity available to them. At the end the paper
makes some suggestions for increase or promotion of women entrepreneurs and healthy growth
of women entrepreneurs in India. Women entrepreneurs need to be lauded for their increased
utilization of modern technology, increased investments, finding a niche in the export market,
creating a sizable employment for others and setting the trend for other women entrepreneurs in
the organized sector. Indian women business owners are changing the face of businesses of
today, both literally and figuratively. The dynamic growth and all indications are that it will
continue unabated. For more than a decade, the number of women-owned businesses has grown
at one-and-a-half to two times the rate of all businesses. Even more important, the expansion in
revenues and employment has far exceeded the growth in numbers.

Tulus Tambunan(2009) has been made the study with aims to examine recent
developments of women entrepreneurship in Asian developing countries. This issue is currently
very important since it is part of ongoing national efforts to alleviate poverty in developing
countries in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Greater opportunities for
women to become entrepreneurs (or to have better income paid jobs) will help much in poverty
reduction. .Methodologically, this study is based on data analysis and a review of recent key
literature. This paper focuses only on women entrepreneurs in small and medium enterprises.
The findings of this study show three main important facts. First, SMEs are of overwhelming
importance in the region, as they account, on average per country, for more than 95 percent of all
firms in all sectors. Second, the representation of women entrepreneurs is still relatively low
which can be attributed to factors such as low level of education, lack of capital, and cultural or
religious constraints. Third, most of women entrepreneurs in SMEs are from the category of
forced entrepreneurs seeking for better family incomes. This suggests that when women are
better educated and have better paid employment opportunities increase for women, the
participation of women as entrepreneurs in SMEs may decline.

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Dr Rana Zehra Masood(2011) made the analyses to concept of women entrepreneurs


in india; their traits in the business, the problems faced by them when they setup and
make some suggestions for future prospects for the development of women
entrepreneurs. In the era of liberalization, privatization and globalization along with
ongoing IT revolution, todays world is changing at asurprising pace. Political and
economic transformations appear to be taking place everywhere as countries convert
from command to demand economies, dictatorships moves toward democratic system
and monarchies build new civil institutions. These changes have created economic
opportunities for women who want to own and operate businesses.
Dr N. Vasugi(2007) had conducted the study which deals with garments marketing and
management. Fashion and garment industries is looked at as an industry of future. It also dealt
with the development of women entrepreneurs and their association on different garment
manufacturing activities and emerging possible opportunities in the cosmetic and global markets.

Kishor N. Choudhary and Dr. Arvind P.Rayalwar(2011) intends to highlight some


issues with reference to the strategic challenges and opportunities from a gender focus to analyze
the prospects of rural small and medium entrepreneurship for women. Women entrepreneurs
have been making a significant impact in all segments of the economy in India, However, it is
potentially empowering and liberating only if it provides women an opportunity to improve their
well-being and enhance their capabilities. On the other hand, if it is driven by distress and is low
public support than it may only increase a womens drudgery. The small and medium enterprises
led by women experiencing some major challenges and constraints.

R.Ganesan And Et Al(2002) holds strong particularly when such a strategy is being tried
on women. In the present context many of the theories dealing with entrepreneurship has seen a
divergence from practice. It is seen that many entrepreneurs are motivated on their own to start
their own enterprises. Many of these entrepreneurs actually do not receive any structured
entrepreneurial input. They learn the same through trial and error. Keeping these views on

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entrepreneurship, this article deals with the problems, which these self-motivated women
entrepreneurs con front, and then highlights the prospects and the future challenges. The article
establishes the role entrepreneurial training can play in making the ventures initiated by these
self-motivated women self-sustaining. The article identifies the concern areas of these women
who are in business and also proposes what kind of entrepreneurial training would be ideal. The
authors feel that when more women initiate businesses without such formal training, one should
prob ably then start investing resources into making them stand on their own. The article has also
identified certain special factors and problems women in business generally confront and the
gendered root of such problems. The suggestion is that these problems could be taken care of
through investing in building network and alliances.

Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi and et al (2010) Todays world is changing at a startling


pace. Political and economic transformations seem to be occurring everywhereas countries
convert from command to demand economies, dictatorships move toward democracy, and
monarchies build new civil institutions. These changes have created economic opportunities for
women who want to own and operate businesses. Today, women in advanced market economies
own more than 25% of all businesses and women-owned businesses in Africa, Asia, Eastern
Europe and Latin America are growing rapidly. This paper focuses on woman entrepreneur. Any
understanding of woman in global scene and especially in India, also the paper talks about the
status of woman entrepreneurs and the problems faced by them when they set up and managed
their own businesses in the competitive world of business environment.
Sujata Kumari and et al (2010) The study was undertaken with an objective to study
the problems of rural women entrepreneurs. It was conducted in the rural areas of Rajasthan with
60 rural women of whom half were engaged in entrepreneurial activity and half were not.
Interview method was used to collect data from women. Information on the entrepreneurial
problems was gathered and analyzed. The results of the study indicate lack of supportive
network, financial and marketing problems were the major problem areas for rural women
entrepreneurs and major demotivator for other women to initiate entrepreneurial activity.

Yang (2004) explained that there are three stages of economic development of women.
Stage 1: As family workers without wages, Stage 2: As the wife of the boss, Stage 3: As

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independent business owners. The availability of Internet at home in Asia has increased very
recently due to reduction in prices. Earlier it was not affordable for many household to have
internet connection. In rural areas it is not available at all and in urban areas, where it is
available, it is still treated as luxury. 1 means that for the first stage of economic Development of
women, it was not available. For the second stage, certainly it is available but not many women
are working in some of the Asian countries. At the third level, it is picking up as many Small and
Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are adopting ICT for better decision making and reaching globally.
(Yang, J. (2004). Free and Young- Programs for women Entrepreneurship: Women
entrepreneurship and ICT World Knowledge Forum, 2004, Seoul Korea.)

Dr.N.V.Kavitha And Dr .P.Sai Rani (2011) makes an attempt to study the opportunities
and financial challenges of women entrepreneurs in Andhra Pradesh with an objective to
ascertain the financial and marketing constraints faced by women in their enterprise .The Scope
of study is restricted to few districts in Andhra Pradesh and small business units. The study was
carried on 100 women enterprises with the help of structured questionnaires and efforts were
made to cover all districts of Andhra Pradesh, with respect to small scale units with the help of
data available from ALEAP,(Association of lady entrepreneurs in Andhra Pradesh) and FAPCCI
(Federation of Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry)and at some places snow
ball sampling was also adopted. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and they
being tabulated taking educational qualification of the respondents, turnover of the enterprise,
year of establishment, and age of the respondents as variables.

CHAPTER-III

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CHAPTER-III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Research is the process of gathering and analysis of critical and relevant facts about any.
It is a way to systematically solve the search problem. The research is the process of defining
and redefining problems formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing
and evaluating data, making declarations and reaching conclusions and at last carefully testing to
determine whether they fit the hypothesis by Clifferd Woody.

The researcher also need to understand the assumptions underlying the various
techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not. The
advanced dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as A careful
investigation or enquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

RESEARCH DESIGN

A research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevant to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

The researcher has adopted Descriptive research design. Since, it describes the state of
affairs as it exists at present.

SAMPLE SIZE

A sample of 100 respondents was taken for the study. Sample size refers to the number of
respondents selected from the geographical area to constitute sample

SAMPLING UNIT:

Geographical Area : TIRUPUR

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SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The researcher had adopted the non-probability convenient sampling technique.


According to Dr Yates, There is no possibility of equal chance for the samples of all parent
population.

DATA COLLECTION

Data collection means the assembling for the purpose of particular investigation of
entirely new data, presumably not already available in published sources. The researcher should
keep in mind two types of data

1) Primary data
2) Secondary data

1) PRIMARY DATA

The primary data are those, which collected fresh for the first time and this to be original
in character. The primary data collected from the respondents through questionnaire.

2) SECONDARY DATA

The researcher collected the secondary data from Journals, Articles, Books, Websites, etc.

PERIOD OF THE STUDY

The period of the study was about 45 days.

TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS

The statistical tools used in this study are simple Percentage of respondents analysis,
kruskal Wallis analysis and Likert scale analysis.

A. SIMPLE PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS ANALYSIS

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Simple Percentage of respondents has been used to compare the relationship between
distributions of two or more items. In this study the Percentage of respondents analysis is used
to assess the socio economic profile of the consumers of Public Distribution System in Madurai.

B. KRUSKAL WALLIS TEST (H TEST):

H test is used to test the null hypothesis that k independent random samples come from
identical universes against the alternative hypothesis that the means of these universes are not
equal

g _ _
ni (ri r )2
i=1
K = (N-1) _______________
g g _ _
(ri r )2
i=1 j=1
Where ni is the number of observations in group i

rij is the rank of observation j in group i

N is the total number of observations across all groups

g
rij
_ j=1
r = _____
ni

_
r = (N+1) is the average of all the rij
Chi-square with k-1 (number of groups 1) degrees of freedom can be used to approximate the
significance level for the test.

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If null hypothesis is true then there is no difference between the sample means and each sample
has at least five items, then the sampling distribution of H can be approximated with a chi-square
distribution with (k-1) degrees of freedom. As such we can reject the null hypothesis at a given
level of significance if H value calculated, as stated above, exceeds the concerned table value of
chi-square.

C. LIKERT SCALE ANALYSIS

A Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs


questionnaires. It is the most widely used approach to scaling responses in survey research, such
that the term is often used interchangeably with rating scale, or more accurately the Likert-type
scale, even though the two are not synonymous. The scale is named after its inventor,
psychologist Rensis Likert.

Likert distinguished between a scale proper, which emerges from collective responses to
a set of items (usually eight or more), and the format in which responses are scored along a
range. Technically speaking, a Likert scale refers only to the former. The difference between
these two concepts has to do with the distinction Likert made between the underlying
phenomenon being investigated and the means of capturing variation that points to the
underlying phenomenon. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify
their level of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree-disagree scale for a series of
statements. Thus, the range captures the intensity of their feelings for a given item, while the
results of analysis of multiple items (if the items are developed appropriately) reveals a pattern
that has scaled properties of the kind Likert identified.

The format of a typical five-level Likert item is:

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1. Strongly disagree
2. Disagree

3. Neither agree nor disagree

4. Agree

5. Strongly agree

Likert scaling is a bipolar scaling method, measuring either positive or negative response to a
statement. Sometimes a four-point scale is used; this is a "forced choice" method since the
middle option of "Neither agree nor disagree" is not available.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The following are the limitations of the study. They are as follows;

1. The study is restricted to the Tirupur only.


2. Time and cost constraints are the other important factors.
3. Chances of personal bias while responding to the questionnaire especially for the
data such as family income, educational qualification, etc.

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CHAPTER-IV

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CHAPTER-IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

TABLE NO: 1

AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS

Age No of respondents Percentage of


respondents

21-30 years 29 29
31-40 years 44 44
41-50 years 24 24
Above51 years 3 3
Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011


INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 29 percent of the respondents belong to the age group of
21-30 years, 44 percent of the respondents belongs to the age group of 31-40 years, 24 percent of
the respondents belongs to the age group of 41-50 years and 3 percent of the respondents belongs
to the age group of above 51 years of age.

INFERENCE:

Majority (73 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are between the age group of 21-40
years.

CHART NO: 1

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AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE NO: 2

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MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

Marital status No of respondents Percentage of


respondents

Single 23 23
Married 67 67
Widow 1 1
Divorce/Separated 9 9
Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 23 percent of the respondents are unmarried, 67 percent of
the respondents are married, 1 percent of the respondents are widow and 9 percent of the
respondents are divorce/separated.

INFERENCE:

Majority (67 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are get married.

CHART NO: 2

MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

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TABLE NO: 3

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

Age No of Respondents Percentage of


respondents

SSLC 24 24

HSC 11 11

UG DEGREE 57 57

PG DEGREE 8 8

Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 29 percent of the respondents belong to the age group of
21-30 years, 44 percent of the respondents belongs to the age group of 31-40 years, 24 percent of
the respondents belongs to the age group of 41-50 years and 3 percent of the respondents belongs
to the age group of above 51 years of age.

INFERENCE:

Majority (57 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were finished their UG Degree.

CHART NO: 3

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EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE NO: 4

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YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION

Years Percentage of
No. of Organizations
respondents

Before 1996 6 6
1997-2000 7 7
2001-2004 33 33
2005-2008 42 42
Above 2009 12 12
Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 6 percent of the women entrepreneurs started their
business organizations before 1996, 7 percent of the business organizations were started between
1997-2000, 33 percent of the business organizations were started between 2001-2004, 42 percent
of the business organizations were started between 2005-2008 and 12 percent of the business
organizations were started after 2009.

INFERENCE:

Majority (75 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were started their business
organization between the years of 2001-2008.

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CHART NO: 4

YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONS

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TABLE NO: 5

YEARS OF EXPERIANCE OF THE RESPONDENTS

Years No of respondents Percentage of


respondents

Upto 1 year 1 1

2-5 years 48 48
6-8 years 31 31
9-12 years 8 8
Above 12 years 12 12
Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 1 percent of the respondents having the experience of
below 1 year, 48 percent of the respondents experience of 2-5 years, 31 percent of the
respondents having the experience of 6-8 years, 8 percent of the respondents are having the
experience of 9-12 years and 12 percent of the respondents are having above 12 years of
experience.

INFERENCE:

Majority (48 percent) of the women entrepreneurs having the experience between 2 to 5
years.

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CHART NO: 5

YEARS OF EXPERIANCE OF THE RESPONDENTS

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TABLE NO: 6

TYPE OF FAMILY

Family Type
No of Percentage of
respondents respondents

Nuclear 71 71

Joint Family 29 29

Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that 71 percent of the respondents are from nuclear family and
29 percent of the respondents from joint family.

INFERENCE:

Majority (71 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were from the nuclear family type.

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CHART NO: 6

FAMILY TYPE OF THE RESPONDENTS

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TABLE NO: 7

RELIGION OF THE RESPONDENTS

Religion No of Respondents Percentage of


respondents

Hindu 88 88

Muslim 5 5
Christian 5 5
Others 2 2
Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTREPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 88 percent of the respondents belong to Hindu,
5 percent of the respondents belong to Muslim, 5 percent of the respondents belongs to Christian
and 2 percent of the respondents belongs to the other religion.

INFERENCE:

Majority (88 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are from the Hindu religion.

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CHART NO: 7

RELIGION OF THE RESPONDENTS

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TABLE NO: 8

CASTE

Caste No of Respondents Percentage of


respondents

BC 20 20

MBC 54 54
SC/ST 14 14
FC 4 4
OTHERS 8 8
Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTREPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 20 percent of the respondents belong to BC, 54
percent of the respondents belong to MBC, 14 percent of the respondents belong to SC/ST, 4
percent of the respondents belong to the FC, and 8 percent of the respondents belong to other
caste.

INFERENCE:

Majority (54 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are belong to the MBC caste.

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CHART NO: 8

CASTE OF THE RESPONDENTS

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TABLE NO: 9

TOTAL NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS IN THE FAMILY

Number Of No of Respondents Percentage of


Dependent respondents

1 2 2

2 35 35

3 57 57

4 6 6

Total 100 100


Source:
estimates based on the field survey, 2011
INTERPRETATION:
The above table shoes that, 2 percent of the respondent family has only 1 dependent, 35
percent of the respondent family has 2 dependents, 57 percent of the respondent family has 3
dependents and 6 percent of the respondent family has 4 dependents in their family.

INFERENCE:

Majority (57 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were having the three numbers of
dependents in their family.

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CHART NO: 9

TOTAL NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS IN THE FAMILY

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TABLE NO: 9.A

NO OF DEPENDENTS ABOVE 58 YEARS

No Of Dependent No of Percentage of
above 58 Years respondents respondents

1 20 62.5

2 12 37.5

Total 100 100.0

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table shoes that, 62.5 percent of the respondent family has only 1dependent
above 58 years of age and 37.5 percent of the respondent family has 2 dependents in their family
with above 58 years of age.

INFERENCE:

Majority (62.5 percent) of the Respondents were having the single dependent with above
58 years of age.

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CHART NO: 9.A

NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS WITH ABOVE 58 YEARS OF AGE

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TABLE NO: 9.B

NO OF DEPENDENTS WITH BELOW 18 YEARSOF AGE

No Of Dependent No of Percentage of
Below 18 Years Respondents respondents

1 37 69.8

2 16 30.2

Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table shoes that, 69.8 percent of the respondent family has only 1dependent
below 18 years of age and 30.2 percent of the respondent family has 2 dependents in their family
with above 1s8 years of age.

INFERENCE:

Majority (69.8 percent) of the Respondents were having the single dependent with below
18 years of age.

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CHART NO: 9.B

NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS WITH BELOW 18 YEARS OF AGE

TABLE NO: 10

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MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS

Monthly Income No of Respondents Percentage of


respondents

Below 6000 22 22

6001-12000 41 41

12001-18000 28 28

18001-24000 5 5

Above 24001 4 4

Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 22 percent of the respondent having the monthly income
of below 6000, 41 percent of the respondent having the monthly income between 6001-12000,
28 percent of the respondent having the monthly income between 12001-18000, 5 percent of
the respondent having the monthly income between 18001-24000, and 4 percent of the
respondent having the monthly income of above 24001.

INFERENCE:

Majority (69 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are having their monthly income
between Rs 6001-18000.

CHART NO: 10

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MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS

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TABLE NO: 11

FAMILY INCOME

Family Income No of Respondents Percentage of


respondents

Below 15000 8 8

15001-25000 39 39
25001-35000 28 28
35001-45000 18 18
Above 45001 7 7
Total 100 100

Source: estimates based on field survey, 2011

INTERPRETATION:
The above table indicates that, 8 percent of the respondent having the family income of
below 15000, 39 percent of the respondent having the family income between 15001-25000, 28
percent of the respondent having the family income between 25001-35000, 18 percent of the
respondent having the family income between 35001-45000, and 7 percent of the respondent
having the family income of above 45001.

INFERENCE:

Majority (67 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were having their family income

between Rs 15001-35000.

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CHART NO: 11

FAMILY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE NO: 12

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MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS - SCORES OBTAINED

PUSH FACTORS

CODE FACTORS SCORE RANK


I Push factors
1 Death Of Bread Winner 22.6 4

2 Sudden Fall In Family Income 32.6 2

3 Permanent Inadequacy In Income Of 24.4 3


The Family
4 To Improve Standard Of Living 47.8 1

II Pull factors

1 Womens Desire To Evaluate Their 54.7 1


Talent
2 To Utilize Their Free Time And 38.4 2
Education
3 Need And Perception Of Womens 36.7 3
Liberation, Equity, Etc
4 To Gain Recognition, Importance And 34.0 4
Social Status
5 To Get Economic Independence 24.5 5

Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011

The push factors which motivated women to undertake job were to improve standard of
living, sudden fall in family income, permanent inadequacy in income of the family and
death of bread winner. The scores assigned for these factors were 47.8 points, 32.6 points, 24.4
points and 22.6 points respectively.

The pull factors which motivated women to undertake job were womens desire to
evaluate their talent, to utilize their free time and education, need and perception of womens
liberation, equity, etc, to gain recognition, importance and social status and to get economic

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independence. The scores assigned for these factors were 54.7 points, 38.4 points, 36.7 points,
34 points and 24.5 points respectively.

TABLE NO: 13

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Financial Problems and Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs

Financial Problems And Garment Beauty Depart Fashion Checkin


Factors sector parlour mental Designing g center
stores
Non availability Of Long 3.95 3.85 4.05 4.0 3.95
Term Finance

Regular And Frequent Need 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.7 4.95


Of Working Capital
Long Procedure To Avail 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8
Financial Help

High Cost Of Living 3.25 3.05 3.15 3.25 3.45

Too Many Dependents 4.3 4.3 4.25 4.25 4.35

Mean Score 4.02 3.94 4.03 4.0 4.1

Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011

The level of satisfaction that women experienced from their job are determined on the basis of
mean score of all the statements of respondents, which came out to be 4.02 for garment sector,
3.94 for beauty parlour, 4.03 for departmental stores, 4 for fashion designing and 4.1 for
checking center.

Irrespective of the type of business the women entrepreneurs faced common problem based on
the dependents in their family (score above 4.2 points) and long procedure to avail financial help
(score above 3.7 points). Non availability of long term finance was the other problem faced by
entrepreneurs of departmental store and Fashion Designing (score above 4 points).

To find out whether there exist any significant difference in the level of problems faced by
women entrepreneurs in different profession; Kruskal Wallis H test was applied. The null
hypothesis tested was

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Ho: There was no significant difference in the level of problems faced by women entrepreneurs
in different profession
Ha: Level of problem differed.

TABLE NO: 14

Variability in the level of problem


;Kruskal Wallis H test
Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011
Variable H Value Degrees Of Chi-square at 5 Inference
Freedom percent level
Financial .232 4 9.488 Accept Ho
Problems and
Causative
Factors
The table shows that the women did not differ significantly on various issues related to the level
of problem they experienced in their job.

TABLE NO: 15

Marketing Problems and Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

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Marketing Problems And Garment Beauty Departm Fashion Checking


Factors Sector Parlour ental Designing Center
Stores
Lack Of Demand In Local 3.75 3.45 4.05 3.65 3.7
Market

Tough Competition From 4.5 4.35 4.4 4.45 4.5


Larger And Established Units
Poor Location Of Shop 4.5 4.15 4.65 4.1 4.5

Lack Of Transport Facility 3.1 3.35 3.15 3.05 3.35

Lack Of Marketing Center 3.45 3.0 3.45 3.25 3.4

Inadequate Bus Facility 2.95 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.75

Difficulty In Affording Own 3.25 3.5 3.2 3.8 3.3


Vehicle
Not Being Popular 4.2 4.2 4.45 4.15 4.3

Mean Score 3.7125 3.6 3.7813 3.669 3.725

Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011

The level of satisfaction that women experienced from their job are determined on the basis of
mean score of all the statements of respondents, which came out to be 3.7125 for garment sector,
3.6 for beauty parlour, 3.7813 for departmental stores, 3.669 for Fashion Designing and 3.725 for
checking center.

Irrespective of the type of business the women entrepreneurs faced common problem based on
the tough competition from the larger and established units (score above 4.35 points) and poor
location of shop (score above 4.1 points) and difficulty in affording own vehicle (score above 3.2
points). Inadequate bus facility was the other problem faced by entrepreneurs of beauty parlour
and checking center (score above 2.75 points).

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To find out whether there exist any significant difference in the level of problems faced by
women entrepreneurs in different profession; Kruskal Wallis H test was applied. The null
hypothesis tested was
Ho: There was no significant difference in the level of problems faced by women entrepreneurs
in different profession
Ha: Level of problem differed.

TABLE NO: 16

Variability in the level of problem


;Kruskal Wallis H test
Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011
Variable H Value Degrees Of Chi-square at 5 Inference
Freedom percent level
Financial .440 4 9.488 Accept Ho
Problems and
Causative
Factors
The table shows that the women did not differ significantly on various issues related to the level
of problem they experienced in their job.

TABLE NO: 17

Production Problems and Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

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Production Problems And Garment Beauty Depart Fashion Checking


Factors Sector Parlour mental Designing Center
Stores
Non Availability Of Raw 3.85 3.6 4.1 3.85 3.95
Materials
Non Availability Of Machine 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.65
Or Equipment
Training Facility 2.85 2.8 2.95 3.05 2.7

Repairing Facility 2.4 2.95 2.45 2.65 3.0

Non Availability Of Labour 4.5 4.7 4.55 4.7 4.65

Non Availability Of 3.45 4.15 3.65 4.1 3.6


Shop/Place
Workers Shirk Work 2.5 2.95 2.45 2.8 2.75

High Cost Of Required 4.8 4.1 4.65 4.0 4.15


Machine Or Equipment
Overcrowded Area 3.2 3.15 3.15 3.1 3.05

Non Availability Of Persons 2.45 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.5


For Machine Repair
Mean Score 3.38 3.46 3.435 3.475 3.4

Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011

The level of satisfaction that women experienced from their job are determined on the basis of
mean score of all the statements of respondents, which came out to be 3.38 for garment sector,
3.46 for beauty parlour, 3.435 for departmental stores, 3.475 for Fashion Designing and 3.4 for
checking center.

Irrespective of the type of business the women entrepreneurs faced common problem based on
the non availability of labour (score above 4.5 points) and high cost of required machines and
equipments (score above 4.0 points) and non availability of shop/place and non availability of
raw materials (score above 3.6 points). Non availability of persons for machine repair was the

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other problem faced by entrepreneurs of garment sector and departmental store (score above 2.4
points).

To find out whether there exist any significant difference in the level of problems faced by
women entrepreneurs in different profession; Kruskal Wallis H test was applied. The null
hypothesis tested was
Ho: There was no significant difference in the level of problems faced by women entrepreneurs
in different profession
Ha: Level of problem differed.

TABLE NO: 18

Variability in the level of problem


;Kruskal Wallis H test
Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011
Variable H Value Degrees Of Chi-square at 5 Inference
Freedom percent level
Financial .316 4 9.488 Accept Ho
Problems and
Causative
Factors
The table shows that the women did not differ significantly on various issues related to the level
of problem they experienced in their job.

TABLE NO: 19

Health Problems and Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

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Health Problems And Garment Beauty Depart Fashion Checking


Factors Sector Parlour mental Designing Center
Stores
Back Ache 4.2 3.8 4.2 3.9 3.7

Eye-Strain 3.15 3.5 3.25 3.3 2.95

Tension 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.9 3.75

Fatigue 2.9 3.15 2.85 2.7 2.95

Problems Of Joints 4.2 3.95 4.15 4.1 3.75

Respiratory Problems 2.0 2.75 2.15 2.45 2.75

Head Ache 4.4 4.25 4.1 4.35 4.2

Body Ache 4.1 3.8 4.15 3.9 3.75

Blood Pressure 2.3 2.7 2.1 2.85 2.25

Gastric Trouble 1.7 2.2 1.5 2.05 2.05

Lack Of Rest And Sleep 4.4 4.7 4.75 4.6 4.75

Heavy Schedule 5.0 4.5 4.95 4.5 4.55

Uncomfortable Working 3.95 3.5 2.9 4.2 3.9


Posture
Mean Score 3.55 3.5885 3.4538 3.6 3.4846

Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011


The level of satisfaction that women experienced from their job are determined on the
basis of mean score of all the statements of respondents, which came out to be 3.55 for garment
sector, 3.5885 for beauty parlour, 3.4538 for departmental stores, 3.6 for Fashion Designing and
3.4846 for checking center.

Irrespective of the type of business the women entrepreneurs faced common problem based on
head ache (score above 4.1 points) and heavy schedule of work (score above 4.5 points) and lack
of rest and sleep (score above 4.4 points). Gastric trouble was the other problem faced by
entrepreneurs of garment sector departmental store (score above 1.5 points).

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To find out whether there exist any significant difference in the level of problems faced by
women entrepreneurs in different profession; Kruskal Wallis H test was applied. The null
hypothesis tested was
Ho: There was no significant difference in the level of problems faced by women entrepreneurs
in different profession
Ha: Level of problem differed.

TABLE NO: 20

Variability in the level of problem


;Kruskal Wallis H test
Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011
Variable H Value Degrees Of Chi-square at 5 Inference
Freedom percent level
Financial .458 4 9.488 Accept Ho
Problems and
Causative
Factors
The table shows that the women did not differ significantly on various issues related to the level
of problem they experienced in their job.

TABLE NO: 21

Work Place Facility Problems and Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

Work Place Facility Garment Beauty Depart Fashion Checking


Problems And Factors Sector Parlour mental Designing Center
Stores
Space 3.15 4.15 3.25 3.65 3.4

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Natural Light 2.8 3.05 2.65 3.1 3.1

Artificial Light 2.35 2.6 2.3 2.55 2.55

Ventilation 3.0 3.1 2.75 3.05 2.85

Water 2.3 3.5 2.45 3.05 3.25

Lack Of Sufficient Area 4.55 4.4 4.65 4.3 4.35


For Business
Air Pollution 3.35 3.4 1.65 3.0 2.85

Water Storage 2.9 3.05 2.85 2.9 2.8

Less Entrance For Natural 1.85 2.55 1.7 2.6 2.25


Light
Mean Score 2.9167 3.3111 2.6944 3.133 3.0444

Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011

The level of satisfaction that women experienced from their job are determined on the basis of
mean score of all the statements of respondents, which came out to be 2.9167 for garment sector,
3.3111 for beauty parlour, 2.6944 for departmental stores, 3.133 for Fashion Designing and
3.0444 for checking center.

Irrespective of the type of business the women entrepreneurs faced common problem based on
the lack of sufficient area for business (score above 4.3 points) and space (score above 3.15
points). Less entrance for natural light was the other problem faced by entrepreneurs of garment
sector and departmental store (score above 1.7 points).

To find out whether there exist any significant difference in the level of problems faced by
women entrepreneurs in different profession; Kruskal Wallis H test was applied. The null
hypothesis tested was
Ho: There was no significant difference in the level of problems faced by women entrepreneurs
in different profession
Ha: Level of problem differed.

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TABLE NO: 22

Variability in the level of problem


;Kruskal Wallis H test
Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011
Variable H Value Degrees Of Chi-square at 5 Inference
Freedom percent level
Financial 5.264 4 9.488 Accept Ho
Problems and
Causative
Factors
The table shows that the women did not differ significantly on various issues related to the level
of problem they experienced in their job.

TABLE NO: 23

Work Family Conflict and Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

Work Family Conflict Garment Beauty Depart Fashion Checking


And Factors Sector Parlour mental Designing Center
Stores
Dual Responsibility 4.7 4.8 4.75 4.65 4.7

Incapability To Attend To 4.65 4.5 4.45 4.4 4.8


Domestic Work

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Time For Education Of 4.7 4.65 4.5 4.45 4.4


Children
High Responsibility 4.95 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.75

To Spend More Time For 4.65 4.55 4.4 4.6 4.7


The Family

Mean Score 4.73 4.64 4.58 4.56 4.67

Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011

The level of satisfaction that women experienced from their job are determined on the basis of
mean score of all the statements of respondents, which came out to be 4.73 for garment sector,
4.64 for beauty parlour, 4.58 for departmental stores, 4.56 for Fashion Designing and 4.67 for
checking center.

Irrespective of the type of business the women entrepreneurs faced common problem based on
the dual responsibility of the women entrepreneurs (score above 4.65 points) and time for
education of children (score above 4.4 points). To spend more time for the family was the other
problem faced by entrepreneurs of garment sector and departmental store (score above 4.4
points).

To find out whether there exist any significant difference in the level of problems faced by
women entrepreneurs in different profession; Kruskal Wallis H test was applied. The null
hypothesis tested was
Ho: There was no significant difference in the level of problems faced by women entrepreneurs
in different profession
Ha: Level of problem differed.

TABLE NO: 24

Variability in the level of problem


;Kruskal Wallis H test

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Source: estimation based on field survey, 2011


Variable H Value Degrees Of Chi-square at 5 Inference
Freedom percent level
Financial 3.672 4 9.488 Accept Ho
Problems and
Causative
Factors
The table shows that the women did not differ significantly on various issues related to the level
of problem they experienced in their job.

CHAPTER-V

CHAPTER-V

5.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


Majority (73 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are between the age group of 21-40
years.

Majority (67 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are get married.

Majority (57 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were finished their UG Degree.

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Majority (75 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were started their business
organization between the years of 2001-2008.

Majority (48 percent) of the women entrepreneurs having the experience between 2 to 5
years.

Majority (71 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were from the nuclear family type.

Majority (88 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are from the Hindu religion.

Majority (54 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are belong to the MBC caste.

Majority (57 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were having the three numbers of
dependents in their family.

Majority (62.5 percent) of the Respondents were having the single dependent with above
58 years of age.

Majority (69.8 percent) of the Respondents were having the single dependent with below
18 years of age.

Majority (69 percent) of the women entrepreneurs are having their monthly income
between Rs 6001-18000.

Majority (67 percent) of the women entrepreneurs were having their family income

between Rs 15001-35000.

5.2 SUGGESTIONS
(1) The women an entrepreneur have felt necessity of, proper sheds and plots", financial
subsidies and "availability of raw materials and adequate and proper transport facilities etc. It is
assumed that these factors are needed to be considered mostly by the government and funding
agencies for various purposes.
(2) There are many problems in relation to guidance as stated by the women entrepreneurs. The
concentration of marketing problems and production problems were found to be of serious
nature, which may also be rectified by using the parameters associated to this study.

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(3) Women entrepreneurs have also communicated several financial problems in relation to
price-fluctuations, non-availability of loan and funds and their release in time. Attention of the
government as well as the voluntary organizations should be drawn in rectifying these problems
by making liberal assistance and gearing up the various facilities for enhancement of the status of
enterprises.
(4) Finally on the basis of the study, several problems were faced with government assistance,
which involves proper policy to help small entrepreneurs, red-tapism, non availability of
guidance and advisory service in time, etc.
(5) Obviously, these factors need to be considered in re-framing and re-organizing
Entrepreneurial Development Programmes (EDPs) in the country, which will not only benefit the
entrepreneurs but will be in the largest interest of the region and country, in achieving higher
productivity and prosperity.
The women should learn to analyze the different and small factors in business field like
how to get raw materials of good quality at a cheap rate, how to negotiate and what are the
discount facilities available. They should not allow anybody to cheat them in anyway, for being
women. The women should not take emotional feelings in business. They should prove that they
possess high management skills and courage, ready to take risk and ability to solve problems.

The women entrepreneurs may have to leave the family and make business tours. They
may have to travel alone or with others, stay in a new place. The family should not put any
restriction and help them to look after the family in their absence. The women should not lose
hope if they face failure, in spite of taking many efforts. They should not give up even if the loss
is more. They should try to come up successfully again.

5.3 CONCLUSION

This research work is a rewarding exercise to the researcher to gain more knowledge on
the role of women entrepreneurs. It is concluded that most of the women entrepreneurs are facing
the constraints in aspects of financial, marketing, production, health, work place facility
problems and work family conflicts. All most all the women entrepreneurs are irrespective of
their education ,age, marital status, caste, religion, type of organizations, ownership type,
experience, amount of capital investment in their business.
The major problems faced by women entrepreneurs are

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Financial Problems: Finance is a most important aspect of any business. Non-availability of


long-term finance, regular and frequent need of working capital and long procedure to avail
financial help were found to be the financial problems faced by respondents based on the
multiple responses given by them Non availability of long-term finance was found to be a
problem faced by women entrepreneurs.

Marketing Problems: During the process of marketing of products women entrepreneurs faced
certain problems viz. poor location of shop, lack of transport facility and tough competition from
larger and established units. There was a significant difference in the problems faced by
entrepreneurs. Difficulty in affording own vehicle was a major factor causing marketing
problem.

Production Problems: Production problems faced by maximum respondents were non


availability of raw material. Non-availability of raw material was one of the reasons to the slow
growth of women entrepreneurs. Other production problems were non-availability of machine or
equipment, lack of training facility and non availability of labour. Major causable factors leading
to production problems were high cost of required machine or equipment.

Health Problems: Major health problems faced by women entrepreneurs were tension,
backache, eyestrain fatigue and headache by most of the respondents respectively. Women
respondents faced the problem of feeling fatigued after returning home. Causable factors were
lack of rest and sleep and heavy schedule.

Work Place Problems: The work place facility problems faced were viz. inadequate work place
for water, less entrance for natural light and improper space for work. Women entrepreneurs
faced the problem of lack of proper places. Work place problems were faced by maximum
respondents. Causable factors were water shortage, less entrance for natural light and lack of
sufficient area for business.

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Major problems faced by women entrepreneurs were poor location of unit, tough
competition from larger and established units because in all the enterprises work was done
manually so it was very tough to compete with those enterprises in which electrical equipments
and big machineries were used. Other problems were lack of transport facility, lack of time for
household work, non-availability of raw material, heavy schedule and lack of time for rest and
sleep leading to mental tension and fatigue. The factors causable to these problems were
difficulty in affording own vehicle, product not being popular, heavy schedule of work and long
job hours.

For effective sustainable development and technology transfer for women entrepreneurs
proper training based on scientific inputs, Suitable product ideas, product identification, market
survey, project formulation and necessary approvals from the government at the right time with
less legal formalities, soft recovery rules are of utmost importance.

Finance should be made available to women entrepreneurs at a reduced rate of interest.


Collateral security should be done away with in the case of women applicant of small-scale
industry. Margin money for women entrepreneurs should not be more than ten percent. The
procedures and formalities of bank should be simplified and the required documents should be
minimized. Moreover all the documents shall be in the regional language.

At the district level, a separate womens organization can be formed so as to help women
entrepreneurs in fulfilling their requirements of financial assistance, marketing aid, obtaining
subsides, concessions, technical know-how, raw material assistance, conduct of market surveys
to asses the feasibility counseling, follow up guidance etc..

The women are expected to spend more time for the family and more responsibilities are
thrust on them so that they cannot even think of doing any business. The family members should
understand them and give way for continuing their efforts for becoming and being a woman
entrepreneur. The family members may hesitate to invest money in business started by woman or
permit to avail bank loan. Sometimes, all the property may be in the name of male persons and

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they may not be ready to put security for availing a bank loan. Woman should find a solution for
the opposition in the family for doing a business and try to get full moral and financial support
from them. The women should not be treated as supplementary income providers.

BIBILIOGRAPHY

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BIBILIOGRAPHY

BOOKS REFERRED
Hisrich, R.D., The women entrepreneurs, characteristics, skills, problems and
prescriptions for success", in the Art & Science of Entrepreneurship (Mass Ballinger
Publishing Co.).,2009
Anil Agarwal (1984), "Environmental Change and Women in India," Samayasakthi, Vol.
1, 1984, p. 27.
Bashier, Seema (2002). Attitude towards Women Entrepreneurs in J&K. Women
Entrepreneurship- A Futuristic Outlook (2002): Government College for Women,
Srinagar, J&K.
Bhattacharjee, S. K. and Akhouri, M. M. P. (1975). Profile of a small industry
entrepreneur. SEMDE, 2 (1): pp 73-86.
Ganesan,S., Status of Women Entrepreneurs in India, New Delhi, Kanishka,
2003, VI, 176 p., ISBN 81-7391-561-X.
Patel, AR (1995): Entrepreneurship and small business development for women.
Kurukshetra, 43 (11): 65-68.
Pestonje DM and Udai Pareek (Eds) (1997). Studies in organizational stress and
coping. Jaipur, Rawat publication.
Sobha Rani, B., Koteswara Rao, D., Perspectives on Women Entrepreneurship,
The Icfai Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 16-27,
December 2007

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Das K (2007). SMEs in India: Issues and Possibilities in Times of Globalisation, in


Hank Lim (ed.), Asian SMEs and Globalization, ERIA Research Project Report 2007
No.5, March, ERIA, Bangkok.
Dhaliwal S (1998). Silent contributors: Asian female entrepreneurs and women in
business. Women's Studies International Forum, 21(5): 463-474.
Dhameja SK, Bhatia BS, Saini JS (2002). Problems and constraints of women
entrepreneurship, in D.D. Sharma and S.K. Dhameja (eds.). Women and Rural
Entrepreneurship, Chandigarh: Abhishek Publications).
Dhillon P (1998). Women Entrepreneurs: Problems and Prospects, New
Delhi: Blaze Publishers and Distributors.
Kishor N. Choudhary and Dr. Arvind P.Rayalwar(2011)Variorum Multi- Disciplinary e-
Research Journal Vol.-01, Issue-III, February 2011.

Boserup, E. (1989), Women's Role in Economic Development: Earthscan, London.

Sinclair, M.T. (1991), Women, Work and Skill: Economic Theories and Feminist
Perspectives.

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APPENDIX

APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED BY WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS:

A STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TIRUPUR CITY.

1. Name of the Organization:

2. Personal Information:

A) Name:

B) Age:

C) Marital Status: ( ) Single ( ) Married ( ) Widow

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( ) Divorce/Separated

D) Education:

E) Year of Establishment:

F) Years of Experience:

G) Type of the Family: ( ) Nuclear ( ) Joint Family

H) Religion: ( ) Hindu ( ) Muslim ( ) Christian ( ) Others

I) Caste: ( ) BC ( ) MBC ( ) SC/ST ( )FC ( )Others

J) Family Background:

S.No Name Relation Sex Age Education Occu- Monthly


Ship (Years) Completed Doing Pation Income
(Rs)

3. Motivational Factors to Take Up a Job:

1) Push Factors

Code Factors Rank


1 Death Of Bread Winner

2 Sudden Fall In Family Income

Permanent Inadequacy In
3 Income Of The Family

To Improve Standard Of
4 Living

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Others(Specify)
5

2) Pull Factors

Code Factors Rank


1 Womens Desire To Evaluate
Their Talent

2 To Utilize Their Fue Time And


Education

3 Need And Perception Of


Womens Liberation,
Equity,Etc

4 To Gain Recognition,
Importance And Social Status

To Get Economic
5 Independence

Others (Specify)
6

4. Financial Problems and Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

SA- Strongly Agree A-Agree AVG-Average DA-Disagree

SDA-Strongly Disagree

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S.No Problems And Factors SA A AVG DA SDA


I Problems
1 Availability Of Long Term Finance

2 Regular And Frequent Need Of Working


Capital

3 Long Procedure To Avail Financial Help

II Factors
1 High Cost Of Living

2 Too Many Dependents To Support

5. Marketing Problems And Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

S.No Problems And Factors SA A AVG DA SDA


I Problems
1 Lack Of Demand In Local Market

2 Tough Competition From Larger And


Established Units

3 Poor Location Of Shop

4 Lack Of Transport Facility

5 Lack Of Marketing Center

II Factors

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1 Inadequate Bus Facility

2 Difficulty In Affording Own Vehicle

3 Not Being Popular

6. Production Problems And Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

S.No Problems And Factors SA A AVG DA SDA


I Problems
1 Non Availability Of Raw Materials

2 Non Availability Of Machine Or Equipment

Training Facility
3
Repairing Facility
4
Non Availability Of Labour
5
Non Availability Of Shop/Place
6
Workers Shirk Work
7

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Factors
II High Cost Of Required Machine Or
1 Equipment

Overcrowded Area
2
Non Availability Of Persons For Machine
3 Repair

7. Health Problems And Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

S.No Problems And Factors SA A AVG DA SDA


I Problems
1 Back Ache

2 Eye-Strain

3 Tension

4 Fatigue

5 Problems Of Joints

6 Respiratory Problems

7 Head Ache

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8 Body Ache

9 Blood Pressure

10 Gastric Trouble

II Factors
1 Lack Of Rest And Sleep

2 Heavy Schedule

3 Uncomfortable Working Posture

8. Work Place Facility Problems And Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

S.No Problems And Factors SA A AVG DA SDA


I Problems
1 Space

2 Natural Light

3 Artificial Light

4 Ventilation

5 Water
II Factors
1 Lack Of Sufficient Area For Business

2 Air Pollution

3 Water Storage

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4 Less Entrance For Natural Light

9. Work Family Conflict And Causative Factors Faced By Women Entrepreneurs:

S.No Problems And Factors SA A AVG DA SDA


I Problems
1 Dual Responsibility

2 Incapability To Attend To Domestic Work

Time For Education Of Children


3

II Factors
1 High Responsibility

2 To Spend More Time For The Family

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