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Lecture 7-8

Raster-Based GIS Data

Characteristics of Raster
Geographic Data
Raster data: organized in layers, bands, themes,
overlays and multiple layers data.
Geographic space: divided into regular cells of
specific dimensions, Rows and columns numbers.
Best suited for continuous layer phenomenon:
temperature, pollution and contamination etc.
Representation of discrete objects: lakes, rivers,
raster cells with same attribute values
Remote sensing raster images: picture
element/pixels, spatial resolution, image depth,
image depth 1-8bits (2-256 levels of gray)
File formats of Raster data
Generic Raster file Formats: commonly used for RS
images, huge data files, ASCII file format and binary
format (floating point numbers)
Raster Data Interchange Format: facilitates to share
raster data between different GIS applications, Tagged
Image file format (TIFF), supported by numerous
softwares, GeoTIFF
Raster Data Compression Formats: compress large
data images, occupy small computer space, GIF, JPEG,
compression 5:1, 10:1 etc.
Remote Sensing Image Formats: stored in binary
formats, multiband data formats, BSQ, BIL and BIP
Raster-Based Data processing and
Digital Image Analysis
Digital Image Processing
Image Classification: resampling, edge
enhancement, geo-rectification, mosaicking
Raster-Based and Vector-Based Data
processing and Digital Image Analysis:
Layered raster data structure, interchangeable,
superimposition of vector data on raster data
(Fig 5.4)
Advantages and disadvantages of
Raster-Based GIS
Representation of different types of continuous
Faster computer processing
Fast display of surface data
Ability to handle large data basis
Complex problem solving
Disadvantages: limited scope in dealing with linear
features (streams. roads, coastlines, buildings) land
parcels and forests inventories etc.
Acquiring and Handling Raster
Geographic Data
Geographic data processing
- Input functions; restructuring, compilation and editing
- Analysis domain; logical operators, overlay operators
and geometric operators
- Output functions; results such as maps, graphs and
statistical reports
Acquisition of Raster Geographic Data
Raster data sets,
- Digital Orthoquadrangle (DOQ) images, Digital
Raster Graphics (DRG), Digital Elevation Models
Georeferencing Raster Data

Raster space and raster to world relationship

Image to Map rectification (Fig 5.6)
Spatial interpolation by coordinate Transformation
Attribute interpolation by resampling
Image to Image registration
One raster image to another raster image by
control points and resampling procedures
Image to image
- Attribute interpolation
by resampling
Figure 5.6
Preprocessing and Editing of
Raster Data
Geometric distortion and loss of image
Errors and deficiencies in Raster images
(Table 5.1)
Preprocessing of Raster data
1 Image rectification and restoration,
distortion and error removal
2 Raster data editing (Figs 5.8 and 5.9)
Raster data editing
Filling the holes and gaps
Edge smoothing
Speckle removal
Drawing and rasterization

Fig. 5.9
Mosaicking of Raster Images
Composite picture made by piecing together two or more
aerial and RS images.
Controlled mosaicking, by rectified aerial photographs
and ground control point
semi controlled mosaicking, combination of both
uncontrolled mosaicking, by visual matching of feature
locations, not accurate.
Histogram matching (Fig 5.10): gray scale image
balancing, stretching of images w.r.t base image for
uniform appearance
Feathering (Fig 5.11): blend or blur the seams b/w
mosaicked images, Edge feathering and cutline feathering
Raster-Based GIS Data Analysis
Data processing functions to derive spatial relationship
functions, patterns and trends that are implicit in the source
Local Operators
Raster data analysis based on point by point or cell by cell.
1- Reclassification (Fig 5.14): creation of new raster
layers by changing the attribute cell values on the input
layers through binary masking, classification reduction and
classification ranking
2- Overlay analysis (Fig 5.15&16): logical (i.e. AND, OR
and XOR) or arithmetic operators (i.e. Addition,
Subtraction and Division etc.)
Raster-Based GIS Data Analysis
Operations on Local Neighborhood (Fig 5.17): Also called
context or focal operators used for topological relationships of
adjacency b/w cells in the input raster layers to create new raster
Use of moving window (commonly 3x3)
Spatial aggregation: down sampling a large raster layer to
reduce it to smaller no of cells, no data compression, by
averaging, central cell and median methods (Fig 5.18)
Filtering: DIP function for image quality enhancement, degree of
brightness, spatial frequency, low pass and high filtering for
linear features, 3x3 window (kernel) (Fig.5.19)
Computation of slope and aspects: DEM data analysis
Buffering (Fig 5.24)
Viewshed analysis (Fig 5.25)
Output Functions of Raster Data
1. Presentation of graphics
2. Raster Data Conversion
Cartographic Modelling
Process of linking the primitive operations that
work on different raster layers in a logical
sequence to solve spatial problems
Example of prescriptive cartographic