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Hana Asmat Askari

IM I -6th/11 AP
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Compiled Annotations
Bloom, G. A., A. S. Horton, P. McCrory, and K. M. Johnston. "Sports Psychology and
Concussion: New Impacts to Explore." Sports Psychology and Concussion: New Impats to
Explore (n.d.): 519-20. British Journal of Medicine, 2015. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.
<http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/38/5/516.full.pdf+html>.
This article talks about the psychological affect on athletes while they are injured. This
article also takes it a step further on how you may use psychological techniques to help assist in
the rehabilitation. When concerning concussions, athletes may be under pressure from their
coaches or from the media. Ways to decrease the pleasure level may consist in support groups
for athletes or peer modeling, this way athletes can feel less alone, and have people they can
relate to and exchange goals, tips, and support. Though this article is aimed towards professional
athletes, it may also be applied to young athletes who have pressure on them from their coaches,
parents, and peers.
Brenner, Joel S. Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes.
Rep. American Academy of Pediatrics, Sept. 2010. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.
<http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/119/6/1242.full.pdf>.
This article talks about the effect of overuse injuries on the health of adolescent athletes,
and their future athletic career. Veruse can be categorized into four stages: pain in the affected
area after physical activity, during the activity without restricting performance, during the
activity with restricting performance, and chronic pain during time of rest. This could be a cause
of growing bones in young athletes not being able to handle the same amount of stress of those
with mature adult bones. Overtraining and burnout may also cause injuries to worsen through
overuse, though it may also be caused by genetic biomechanical problems. In this article they
also explain how to handle tournaments and multi sport training. It is believed that constant
training can cause nutritional deficiencies, fatigue, and general burnout, leading pediatricians to
advise set time for adolescent athletes to rest, and when doing multiple sports, they should have
at least one season where they take a break to heal and focus more on academics. They end the
article with setting a goal for all adolescent athletes: to promote lifelong physical health. This
article give good tips on a healthy way to handle an adolescent athletes lifestyle so that their
training may not effect them on the field as well as off the field.
D'Agostino, R. B., P. A. Wolf, A. J. Belanger, and W. B. Kannel. "Stroke Risk Profile:
Adjustment for Antihypertensive Medication. The Framingham Study." Stroke Risk Profile:
Adjustment for Antihypertensive Medication. The Framingham Study. American Heart
Association, 1994. Web. 28 Aug. 2016.

This experiment used data from previous experiment on gender-specific appraisal


functions to judge antihypertensive medication. This experiment produced a new formula to
replace part of the old one, this replacement is called NEWHRXSBP replacing antihypertensive
variable and the SBP(systolic blood pressure) with the one equation. This Variable creates a
more accurate model of the outcome of use of antihypertensive medications, by taking out 3% of
the 4% error, and creating a better fit for the modeled data.

Edwards, Paul N. How to Read a Book, V5.0. Rep. University of Michigan School of
Information, n.d. Web.

This article's main focus is to teach the student how to get the most out of their reading
by comprehending the truly important. The author has devised an eleven stepped strategy on
how to do this, first by explaining time management, a fundamental tool important in whatever
you learn. The eleven step strategy starts with readers being aware of the purpose of the
reading, so that it would be easier for them to understand the context. Then the article
emphasizes the importance of knowing the meaning of the reading further in the next three steps,
but then focuses on what would seem to be the glue to the process; to read three times, each time
helping the reader gain full comprehension, by focusing on different aspects each time. The rest
of the article is focused on this golden rule of reading it three times, elaborating in the
importance of this idea plus time management. This article may prove critical when helping
retaining maximal information out of an article, book journal, etc.

Gladstone, David J., Esther Bui, Jiming Fang, Andreas Laupacis, M. Patrice Lindsay, Jack V. Tu,
Frank L. Silver, and Moria K. Kapral. "Potentially Preventable Strokes in High-Risk Patients
With Atrial Fibrillation Who Are Not Adequately Anticoagulated." Potentially Preventable
Strokes in High-Risk Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Who Are Not Adequately Anticoagulated.
American Heart Association, 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 05 Sept. 2016.

This article is focused on the medication of Warfarin, believing that its under used and
can benefit a lot of high-risk stroke patients, who are not able to qualify for anticoagulation. The
researchers used the canadian stroke network as their main source of data on patience monitoring
the patients, resulting in those who had atrial fibrillation, with 60% disabling, and 20% ending in
fatal strokes. The preadmission medication for these were 40% Warfarin. Only 18% of patients
with known therapeutic international normalized took warfarin. Then coming to an end result
that Warfarin should be used on those and should also increase use of atrial fibrillation.

Halstead, Mark E., and Kevin D. Walter. Sport Concussion Assesment Tool 2. Rep.:612-615.
American Academy f Pediatrics, Sept. 2010. Web 16 Sept. 2016.
<http://periatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/126/3/597.full/pdf/>.

In this document, there is a Sport Concussion Assesment Tool used as a standardized


method of evaluating injured athletes for concussions. The assessment is a eight part test, where
first there is a list given of twenty-two symptoms that have to be scored on a scale of zero to six,
then subtracted by twenty-two, then a physical score to determine responsiveness and steadiness.
Next you are given the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), where the patient is tested on eye, verbal,
and motor response. The patient is then tested on the sideline assessment, two cognitive
assessments, balance examination, and a coordinate examination. These scores are all added up
and put on a chart to determine severity of the concussion. This would be very useful for general
knowledge on concussion examination for researching the effects of injury and care on
adolescent athletes.
Halstead, Mark E., and Kevin D. Walter. Sport-Related Concussion in Children and Adolescents.
Rep. American Academy of Pediatrics, Sept. 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2016.
<http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/126/3/597.full.pdf>.

In this Article they discuss concussions as an overall review. Sport-related concussion is


a common injury among adolescent athletes. It is also describes in the article as dangerous
because it has many signs that overlap with other medical conditions. It continues from there to
discuss progression and severity of concussions. The article states that if a concussion lasts
longer than thirty second it could indicate a more significant intracranial injury. To further
increase awareness of severities in concussions is that they do not normally, show up on CT
scans or MRIs. The authors also point out that what makes concussions so dangerous is that
they are not reported often enough, and adolescent players are often put on the field even after
they are injured. The authors recommend that athletes with concussions should rest, physically
and cognitively. If the concussion is sustained for a long period of time the athlete should be
evaluated by a specialist. According to the article, long-term effects of concussions, and safety
and efficacy of medications for sports related concussions are still unknown. Athletes may have
to sit out for several games, or a whole season, and in some cases they may have to have to retire
from collision sports. This article is helpful as to start out with basic diagnosis and to better
understandings of care and prognosis.

Kontos, Anthony P. Perceived Risk, Estimation of Ability and Injury Among Adolescent Sport
Participants. Perceived Risk, Risk Taking, Estimation of Ability and InjuryAmong Adolescent
Sport Participants. University of New Orleans, 15 Dec. 2003. Web. 18 Sept. 2016

This articles primary purpose is to elaborate on research done to determine the correlation
between of risk taking, perceived risk taking, over-efficacy, previous injuries, and estimation of
ability/overestimation of ability, in relation to actual injuries. The trial had a total 260 subjects
(148 male, 112 female), with ages between 11 to 14, and a total of eighteen soccer teams, from
two soccer organizations. The same age and same sex teams competed against each other. Each
player had to answer 3 tests: Risk of Injury in Sport Scale (RISSc), Risk-Taking Behaviors
(RTB), and Estimation of Ability/Overestimation of Ability Test. The RISSc assessed on a six
point scale, one being unlikely, where they were given 24 scenarios, where they would rate if
they would take the risk. The RTB assessed on a four point scale where one was never, where
they would answer how often they would participate in a risk taking activity. In the last test, the
athlete had to rate their over-all skill compared to their peers on a rate of 1-5, where one is very
low. The coach was given the same question to answer for every player, than was used to
estimate overestimation of the athletes ability. The data collected in the first part of the trial was
used to see if there was any correlation in injury. Only 27out of 260 participants got injured,
none with multiple injuries. The Analysis resulted that perceived risks and risk taking were not
correlated, neither was risk taking and injury, and over-estimation of ability and risk taking.
Though estimation of ability, and overestimation of ability were positively related to previous
injuries, and previous injuries related to risk taking, were positive. Estimation of ability was also
positively correlated to risk taking. In deeper analysis they found those with low estimation and
average estimations of ability were 4.4 - 5.5 times more likely to get injured than those had high
estimations of ability. They also related that boys may psychologically underreport levels of
perceived risk, anxiety levels, give a high estimation, as it is socially more desirable and
considered as a masculine stereotype. This article is useful to understand psychological build ups
to injury, and to provoke the ideas of how to stop an injury before it occurs, and symptoms of
high risk athletes that prone to injury.
Lewandowki, Christopher A., Micheal Frankel, Thomas A. Tomsick, Joseph Broderick, James
Frey, Wayne Clark, Sidney Starkman, James Grotta, Judith Spilker, Jane Khoury, and Thomas
Brott. "Combined Intravenous and Intra-Arterial R-TPA Versus Intra-Arterial Therapy of Acute
Ischemic Stroke." Combined Intravenous and Intra-Arterial R-TPA Versus Intra-Arterial
Therapy of Acute Ischemic Stroke. American Heart Association, 1999. Web. 28 Aug. 2016.

The purpose of the research conducted was to test safety and provide data weather or not
combined intravenous(IV) and local intra-arterial(IA) therapy as compared to IV placebo and
local IA therapy is useful in treatment of ischemic stroke patients within three hour of onset
symptoms. In this experiment there were thirty five patients, seventeen were in combined
therapy and eighteen in IV placebo and local IA. Each subject was given a CT (before and
whenever needed) then given there IVs. After treatment arterial recanalization rates were tested,
the IV/IA group having better results then the placebo/IA group. There were not many
differences in results and was not considered an improvement for outcomes. The work presented
did prove to be effective.

McCrory, P., A. Collie, V. Anderson, and G. Davis. "Can We Manage Sport Related Concussion
in Children the Same as in Adults?" Can We Manage Sport Related Concussion in Children the
Same as in Adults? British Journal of Sports Medication, 2004. Web. 25 Sept. 2016.
In this article they discuss the connection between sports related concussive injury in
childhood and adolescence can be scientifically managed. They discuss similarities, such as:
reduced speed of information Processing, poor attention, and impaired negative function, and
how these can affect day to day lives in work and school. Reasons as to why children are more
susceptible to major head injuries are because dependent physiological response to mechanical
stress, the differing geometry of the skull and brain, and the maturing stage of an adolescent
brain. Taking into in account the above, there must be modification to any assessment of
baseline/ post-injury cognitive function needs to factor in must factor in the normal maturation.
Based on research the authors recommend that from ages 16 and above should be subject to adult
tests, believing the brain should be mature by then. They also discuss use of protection gear and
how helmets do little damage prevention, but instead prevent maximum injury. They also talk
about genetic possibility of susceptibility to head injury. This Article gives good insight on the
effects concussions can give, and the severity of improper management. This may prove useful
in applying the psychological effects to the research on management outside the field effects on
athletes ability to perform on the field.
McCrory, P., W. Meeuwisse, K. Johnston, J. Dvorak, M. Aubry, M. Molloy, and R. Cantu.
"Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: The 3rd International Conference on Concussion
in Sport Held in Zurich, November 2008." Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: The
3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport Held in Zurich, November 2008. British
Journal of Sports Medication, 2009. Web. 25 Sept. 2016.
The focus of this paper is to establish the following: definition of a concussion,
evaluation, investigation, concussion management, modifying factors in management, and injury
prevention. Though all of the above is discussed, most of the article is relevant to concussion
management (and the modifying factors) and injury prevention. In concussion management they
believe in five stages of recovery; no activity, light aerobic exercise, sport specific exercise, non-
contact training, full contact practice, and return to play. In adult elite athletes it may be possible
or rapid return to play (RTP), but among young elite athletes it is best to take cautionary actions,
and be treated conservatively. The patient should also be under psychological management, and
to be evaluated to see signs of depression. Factors that may lead to long-term or permanent
symptoms should also be under consideration (modifying factors), this includes loss of
consciousness (LOC), amnesia, motor/ convulsive phenomena, and depression. The last major
topic discussed is injury prevention; they inquire about protective gear, and how they only reduce
the impact, but do not prevent the injury. They also discuss rule changes (to make games safer),
and reduction in aggression/ risk behavior. This helped elaborate on the previous article giving
more in depth research on the topic of management of concussions. This may prove useful in
applying the psychological effects to the research on management outside the field effects on
athletes ability to perform on the feild.
McCrory, P., W. Meeuwisse, K. Johnston, J. Dvorak, M. Aubry, M. Molloy, and B. Cantu.
"Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: The 3rd International Conference on Concussion
in Sport Held in Zurich, November 2012." Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: The 4th
International Conference on Concussion in Sport Held in Zurich, November 2012. British
Journal of Sports Medication. Web. 25 Sept. 2016.
This Article is the updated version of the third consensus meeting. In this article it starts
with redefining what a concussion is, remaining the same as in the third consensus meeting, but
the evaluation of a concussion has changed to using SCAT# as a source of assessment and use of
fMRI. They reestablish RTP protocol and readdress psychological effects, such as depression.
This is important to see the contrast of the third and fourth consensus meeting and statements,
and mark progresses made in new developments working towards finding new ways to treat
concussions more efficiently.

Smith, Wade S., Gene Snug, Sidney Starkman, Jeffery L. Saver, Chelsea S. Kidwell, Y. Pierre
Gobin, Helmi L. Lutsep, Gary M. Nesbit, Thomas Grobelyn, Marilyn M. Rymer, Isaac E.
Silverman, Randall T. Higashida, Ronald F. Budzik, and Micheal P. Marks. "Safety and Efficacy
of Mechanical Embolectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke." Safety and Efficacy of Mechanical
Embolectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke. American Heart Association, 16 June 2005. Web. 28
Aug. 2016.

The goal of this experiment was to prove that an embolectomy device can open an
occluded intracranial large vessel within eight hours of onset stroke symptoms, this was
prompted as an alternative strategy for those ineligible to use tPA. Approved by the FDA, this
experiment used adults with specific symptoms of an acute stroke (for safety purposes) and had
to get a eight or higher on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Before the procedure the
patient would need a cerebral angiography, then would be given intravenous(IV) heparin
(prevents blood clots from the brain), and then have a maximum of six passes with the device to
restore flow in the brain, if restored it is considered successful. At the end 46% had
revascularization concluding this as a success.
Sran, M. M. "To Treat or Not to Treat: New Evidence for the Effectiveness of Manual
Therapy." To Treat or Not to Treat: New Evidence for the Effectiveness of Manual Therapy (n.d.):
521-24. British Journal of Medicine, 2015. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.
<http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/38/5/516.full.pdf+html>.
In this article they explore the effectiveness of manual therapy in chronic lower back
pain, neck pain, and cervicogenic pain. They explain how manual therapy may only work on
specific people, and the amount of time, sessions, and weeks may be needed, though on average
it is recommended 30-45 min per session, for four to eight weeks. They believe manual therapy
may even significantly work better with combination therapy with psychological therapy. This
research may also lead to treatment towards thoracic pain and cervicobrachial pain. This is
useful in the research process to finding out the most sufficient way to take care of injuries to the
back, head, and neck for athletes, for quicker and more effective healing

Tishby, O., Turel, M., Gumpel, O., Pinus, U., & al, e. (2001). Help-seeking attitudes among
israeli adolescents. Adolescence, 36(142), 249-64. Retrieved from
http://libproxy.howardcc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/195932990?
accountid=35779

This article focuses on the psychological difference between male and female
adolescents interactions with their doctors. This is done through a qualitative research where
the adolescents answer a questionnaire about their comfortability in communication with
their doctors. From this article there were distinct differentiations between their behaviors,
with doctors. Females tended to be less comfortable with doctors and more comfortable with
communicating with their friends, and males were more acceptable to communicate with their
doctors and less accepting with their friends. When asked why they felt that way, it had been
because of body image. This article can benefit this researcher in focusing on reasons to why
adolescents feel the way they do, and can possibly lead to a conclusion as to ho the
communication gap can be closed.

Tse, Cheryl, Margaret Sahhar, Jane = Wallace, and Rony E. Ducan. ""There's a Whole
Different Way of Working with Adolescets": Interviews with Australian Genetic Counselors
About Their Experiences with Adolescent Clients." (n.d.): n. pag. National Society of
Genetic Counselors, 25 Nov. 2012. Web. 8 Dec. 2016.

This article focuses on the relationship between medical professionals and their
adolescent patients. This is done through a qualitative research where eleven genetic
counselors are interviewed to get an accurate description of their patients. The interviews
was transcribed and then topics that emerged were categorized into seven themes to how to
better communicate with adolescents. The themes consisted of adolescents being recognized
as a 1. distinct client group, 2. characterized by their cognitive capacity, knowledge and
communication, and to adjust to those characteristics, 3. strategies for working with
adolescents, such as adjusting language used to appeal to them, 4. keeping confidentiality, 5.
controlled parental involvement, topics 6 and 7 related to benefits and effectiveness of
working with adolescents. This article can benefit this researcher in focusing on effective
strategies used to communicate with adolescents, but only themes one through five would
benefit this researcher's goal to better understand the adolescents point of view.

Wagner, Tony. "Rigor." (2008): 20-24. Print.

This article is about examining the preparedness of young adults, leaving school, and
going into the workforce. He achieves this by having a string of interviews with executives,
CEOs and, businessman. He than proceeds to study individual classroom. He classifies seven
key characteristics that are expected to be shown in the workplace, but are lacked by the new
generation; these consist in critical thinking, collaborating adaptability, entrepreneurialism,
oral/w written communication, analyzing, and finally curiosity. These are to be backed up by
anecdotes from some college, and career ready, G/T courses, that lack these characteristics. He
than contrasts them with a class that exhibits all these characteristics, as an example for public
school administration to follow by. This can be applied to help researchers exemplify leadership
and confidence when researching and interacting with peers, and those ranked higher than them
in experience.

Woodgate, R. L. (1998). Health professionals caring for chronically ill adolescents:


Adolescents' perspectives. Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses, 3(2), 57-68. Retrieved
from http://libproxy.howardcc.edu/login?
url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/195766706?accountid=35779
This article focuses on the relationship between medical professionals and their
adolescent patients. This is done through a qualitative research through interviews with
several patients in private hospitals and patient holmes. The interviews was transcribed and
then topics that emerged were categorized into eight themes to how adolescents want to be
treated and how they feel they could better improve their relationship with their healthcare
providers. The themes consisted of adolescents being 1. treated like a person, 2. to be
understood, 3. not to be treated differently just because they are sick, 4. they want
encouragement, 5. not to be forced into any treatments, 6. to be told all their options, and 7.
they want a rapport with their doctors, to keep away anxiety, 8. be completely informed.
This article can benefit this researcher in focusing on effective strategies used to
communicate with adolescents, as well as the demand for their confidential right. Though
most of the themes over-lap, themes three, five, six, and eight would benefit this researcher's
goal to better understand the adolescents point of view when it comes to confidentiality.