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OBJECTIVE

i. To determine the reaction of two-span continuous beam.


ii. To determine the magnitude of the fixing moment in a
continuous beam.
RESULT

Left-Hand span of beam, LL = 460mm


Right-Hand span of the beam, RR = 470mm
Distance of load from left-hand support, XL = 230mm
Distance of load from the right-hand support, XR = 240mm

Table 1: Reaction At The Support


Load Load Support Reaction
On, L On, Experimental Theoretical
LR
N N Left, Middle Right, Left, Middle Right,
(RA) , (RA) (RC) (RA) , (RA) (RC)
N N N N N N
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 0.9 1.3 0.2 0.81 1.38 0.19
4 4 1.7 2.7 0.4 1.63 2.75 0.38
6 6 2.6 4.0 0.5 2.44 4.13 0.56
8 8 3.4 5.4 0.7 3.25 5.5 0.75
10 10 4.2 6.7 0.9 4.06 6.88 0.94
CALCULATION
Draw the beam and indicate the position and direction of load: Give all
important dimensions.

XL XR

Load on LL Load on LR

LL LR

1. Derive the reactions at the supports.

Example calculation for Experiment 2:

2N 2N

AA A I B I C CC

230mm 230mm 230mm 240mm

FaktorAgihan:

Sambunga A B C
n
Anggota AA AB BA BC CB CC
Fk=I/L 0 I/4603/ I/4603/ I/4703/ I/4703/ 0
4= 4= 4= 4=
3I/1840 3I/1840 3I/1880 3I/1880
FA 0 1 0.5 0.5 1 0
I /L
FA
= ( IL ) sambungan
3 I /1840
AB = 0+3 I /1840 = 1

3 I /1840
3 I /1840
BA = 3I 3I = 11040 I /3385600 = 0.5
( + )
1840 1840

Momen Hujung Terikat (MHT):

PL 2( 460)
MHT AB
= 8 = 8 = -115Nmm

PL 2( 460)
MHT BA
= 8 = 8 = 115Nmm

PL 2( 470)
MHT BC
= 8 = 8 = -117.5Nmm

PL 2(470)
MHT CB
= 8 = 8 = 117.5Nmm
Sambungan A B C
Anggota AB BA BC CB
FBS 0.5 0 0 0.5
FA 1 0.5 0.5 1
MHT -115 115 -117.5 117.5
Agihan 115 0 0 -117.5
BS 0 57.5 -58.75 0
Agihan 0 0 0 0
JumlahMome
n 0 172.5 -176.25 0
Jumlah Agihan Momen

Agihan = -( MHT/BS)sambungan FA

BS = Agihan FBS
Jumlah momen bagi sambungan:
M AB = 0Nmm
M BA = 172.5Nmm
M BC = -176.25Nmm
M CB = 0Nmm

Rentang AB:
2N

0 172.5Nmm

230mm 230mm
R Ay RBy 1

M A =0

(2 230) + 172.5 - RBy 1 (460)= 0

-460 RBy 1 = -632.5


RBy 1 = 1.375 N
F y =0

R Ay - 2 + RBy 1 = 0

R Ay - 2 + 1.375= 0
R Ay = 0.625 N

Rentang BC :

2N

176.25Nm 0
m
230mm 240mm
RBy 1 RCy

Mc =0
-176.25 + 470 RBy 2 - (2 240) = 0

470 RBy 2 = 656.25


RBy 2 = 1.396 N R By = RBy 1 + RBy 2 = 2.771 N

Fy =0

RBy 2 -2 + RCy = 0

1.396 2 + RCy = 0
RCy = 0.604 N
CONCLUSION

1. If the material of the beam is changed from steel to aluminum, how does
this effect the support reaction? Give reasons for your answer.

If the material of the beam is changed from steel to aluminum, the


support reaction will increase. This is because the aluminum is milder
than the steel. So, the more loading that is put to the beam will make it
overloaded and fail.

2. If a thinner beam is used, how does this effect the support reaction? Give
reasons for your answer.

If the thinner beam is used, the support reaction will also increase. This is
because the thinner beamis not stronger like thicker beam. So, the more
loading that is put to the beam will make it bending and fail.

3. How does the experimental reaction compare with theoretical?

Based on the percentage error that has been calculated, the experimental
reaction for the right and left support is over than the theoretical reaction.
At the middle support, the experimental reaction is less than the
theoretical reaction. This might happen because of the error in the
apparatus or the mistake that we have made during the experiment.

4. State the possible factors that might have influenced your results and
possible means of overcoming it.

Possible factors:
i. The load at the left and right is not been placed at the same time.
ii. The indicator reading is not zero when placing the load.
iii. The load hanger and the beam are not fixed and can moving.
iv. The measurement of distance between the load and the support is
not correct.
v. The indicator reading is not static when reading is taken.
Possible means:
i. Put the load at the left and right at the same time.
ii. Always press the tare button if the indicator reading is not zero
before placing the load.
iii. Tighten the screw tightly at all the support and the load hanger.
iv. Take the measurement carefully and correctly to avoid the error in
the experiment data.
v. Take the reading only if the indicator reading is stable and not
change anymore.