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Basics of Solar PV System 1

Basics of Solar PV System

Magdaleno M. Baclay, Jr.


Dr. Akio Shiota
Basics of Solar PV System 2

Basics of Solar PV System

Features of Solar PV System


Components of system
Type of System
SHS, BCS, Centralized PV
Basics of Solar PV System 3

Electricity from Solar Energy


PV Module converts Solar energy into Electricity(DC)

Less Solar Energy


Less Electricity
More Solar Energy
More Electricity

Power generation
changes daily

DC
Solar Energy PV Module Electricity
Input Conversion Output
Basics of Solar PV System 4

Solar PV System

Solar PV System consists of 4 components

4a. DC Appliances DC System


DC (DC Lights, DC TV)
3. PV Module 2. Charge Controller
(Power Generation) (Battery Protection) DC

4b. DC-AC Inverter


(Converts DC AC)
AC System
DC
Most Important
Key Device AC Appliances
in PV system AC (General Appliances)
1. Battery
(Storage of Electricity)
Basics of Solar PV System 5

Basic Components

PV Module
PV Module converts Solar energy into Electricity
Power generation is during daytime only
Long life for 20 years
Battery
Battery stores electricity
Mainly used during night time
Easily damaged if over discharged
Charge Controller
Charge controller protects battery from over charge and over discharge
DC-AC Inverter
Inverter converts DC to AC
Not necessary for DC system
AC system is more convenient for users, but less efficiency.
DC Light
DC fluorescent light (built-in inverter) is used for DC system
Basics of Solar PV System 6

Features of Solar PV system

Clean
No exhaust gas
No mechanical moving parts
Quiet
Less maintenance work
Fuel supply is not necessary
Very low running cost
Last resort to supply electricity
Can be installed where no other energy sources are available
Expensive and limited power supply
Small appliances use only
Battery problems
Most users/operators fail to maintain batteries
Most users abandon systems at the end of battery life
Basics of Solar PV System 7

Site selection

No other potential sources


No hydro potential, No wind potential
Solar PV system is the last resort where no other energy sources are available
Far away from Grid
Difficult areas to supply fuels during rain season
Need open space
No tall trees
No shadows between 8am till 4pm
Target group is mid-rich income level group
Make sure users can afford to replace battery every 2 3 years
Not recommended for low income group. They can NOT maintain the systems.
Requires lots of subsidies to maintain systems.
Systems are easily abandoned even a minor fault due to critical cash flow.
Not recommended to use electricity from PV system for livelihood activities.
Electricity from PV system is expensive and electricity do not generate income.
If electricity could generate income, no poor people exist in energized areas.
Basics of Solar PV System 8

SHS (Solar Home System)


SHS is Small, independent DC system
Most efficient and economical system
DC Fluorescent Lights are not easily available in local market

PV Panel
(50W)

Controller
(10A)
Fluorescent light
(12V DC 20W)
Compact Fluorescent light
Switch
(12V DC 11W)

Battery
(100Ah)

B/W TV Radio/Cassette player


(12V DC 15W) (12V DC 5W)
Basics of Solar PV System 9

SHS (AC)
AC system is convenient for users because of easy availability of appliances
Less efficient and higher cost than DC system

PV Panel
(100W) Inverter
( 12V DC 220V AC, 150W)

Controller
(10A)
Fluorescent light
(220V AC 20W)
Compact Fluorescent light
Switch
(220V AC 11W)

Battery
(100Ah)

B/W TV Radio/Cassette player


(220V AC 30W) (220V AC 5W)
Basics of Solar PV System 10

Mini Centralized System (~ 5kW)

Solar Energy Control of Charging


(Charge Controller) Converting DC to AC
(DC-AC Inverter)
Power Generation Load
(PV Array) (Lights, Radio, TV, etc.)
48V DC~ 96V DC

220V AC

Inexpensive system
Limited power consumption
Storage of Electricity
(Battery)
Basics of Solar PV System 11

Centralized System (10kW ~)

Control of Charging Converting DC to AC


(Charge Controller) (DC-AC Inverter)
Solar Energy

Power Generation Load


(PV Array) (Lights, Radio, TV, etc.)

120V DC
~ 300V DC

220V AC

Storage of Electricity
(Battery)
Expensive system
High quality electricity
Basics of Solar PV System 12

Peak Load and Daily Power Consumption

Peak Load is a maximum load power (W) Peak Load does not mean
Power Consumption
Limited by Inverter Capacity
Daily Power Consumption is a total energy that is consumed in one day (Wh)
Limited by PV array capacity (Daily Power Generation)

Power Generation > Power Consumption


16.0 16.0

14.0
Daily Power Consumption = 79 kWh 14.0

12.0 12.0
Peak load = 10 kW
10.0 10.0
Load (kW)

8.0 8.0

6.0 6.0

4.0 4.0

2.0 2.0

0.0 0.0
00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00
Time
Basics of Electricity 13

Peak load and Daily Power consumption

Peak load is a maximum load power (W)


Daily Power consumption is a total energy that is consumed in one day (Wh)
System design must consider both
Peak load (W) and Daily Power consumption (Wh)
Capacity of Generator must be greater than Peak load (Micro hydro/Genset)
Capacity of DC/AC Inverter must be greater than Peak load (Battery based system)
16.0 16.0

14.0
Daily Power Consumption = 79 kWh 14.0

12.0 12.0
Peak load = 10 kW
10.0 10.0
Load (kW)

8.0 8.0

6.0 6.0

4.0 4.0

2.0 2.0

0.0 0.0
00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00
Time
Solar Energy 14

Solar Energy

Irradiance and Insolation


Peak Sun hours
Insolation pattern
Actual insolation data
No-Shade time
Solar Energy 15

Insolation

Irradiance : Intensity of Solar energy kW/m2


Insolation : Quantity of Solar energy kWh/m2
(Irradiation)
1.2
Max. Irradiance per day
1.0 ( 1.09 kW/m2)
0.8 Irradiance at 9:30 am
Irradiance (kW/m2)

( 0.8 kW/m2)
0.6
Insolation per day
0.4 ( 7.7 kWh/m2)
0.2

Sun Rise Sun Set


Solar Energy 16

Peak Sun Hours

Peak Sun Hours is used to calculate power generation of PV modules


Insolation Peak Sun Hours
( kWh/m2 per day ) ( hours per day at 1kW/m2 )

7.7 kWh/m2 7.7 h

Same Value 7.7 h


1.2

1.0 1 kW/m2
Irradiance (kW/m2)

Peak Sun
0.8
(Irradiance)
0.6
7.7 kWh/m2
0.4

0.2

Sun Rise Sun Set No particular clock time


Not a sunshine hours
Solar Energy 17

Daily Insolation

Solar Energy changes daily


Power Generation changes daily
Insolation
7.7 kWh/m2 5.4 kWh/m2 5.7 kWh/m2 3.3 kWh/m2 0.6 kWh/m2
Peak sun hours
7.7 h 5.4 h 5.7 h 3.3 h 0.6 h
Available power*
(@100Wp) 1.2
492 Wh 345 Wh 364 Wh 211 Wh 38 Wh

1.0
Irradiance (kW/m2)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Sunny Sunny Cloudy Cloudy Rain


*: at 100Wp SHS (PV efficiency 80%,
Battery efficiency 80%)
Solar Energy 18

Daily Insolation (Actual data)


Insolation (kWh/m2/day)
Puerto Princesa, 2003
8.0 Daily Monthly
Daily
7.0
Monthly
Max. 6.9

6.0 Max. 6.2


Insolation (kWh/m2)

5.0
Ave. 4.9
4.0 Min. 4.1

3.0

2.0

1.0 Min. 1.0

0.0
1/1 2/1 3/1 4/1 5/1 6/1 7/1 8/1 9/1 10/1 11/1 12/1
Solar Energy 19

Tilt Angle
The purpose of tilt angle
Optimize power generation throughout a year Minimum is 10 - 15
to avoid dust accumulation
How to optimize?
Increase power generation at low insolation month
Decrease power generation at high insolation month

Dec. Jun. Dec. Jun.


(Low Insolation) (High Insolation) (Low Insolation) (High Insolation)

Loss Loss

South Horizontal South Tilted

Low insolation High insolation Low insolation High insolation


Lower Higher Higher Lower

Not Optimized Optimized


Solar Energy 20

Example of effect by various tilt angle

Recommended tilt angle is 10 - 15 facing to equator


Too much tilt angle reduces the energy.

Total Irradiat ion 0 10


30 60
5.00
-10
4.50

4.00 A verage
Total Irradiation vs Tiltangle M ax
3.50 5.00 M in
Irradiation (kW h/m 2/d)

4.50
3.00
4.00

Irradiation (kW h/m 2)


2.50 3.50

3.00
2.00
2.50
1.50 2.00

1.00 1.50

1.00
0.50
0.50

0.00 0.00
Jan Feb M ar A pr M ay Jun Jul A ug S ep O ct N ov D ec -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30
M onth T iltangle (degree)

Example at Cebu
Solar Energy 21

No-Shade Time

7.7 kWh/m2 6.9 kWh/m2 5.7 kWh/m2


Irradiance (kW/m2)

1.2
1.0
0.8
Insolation
0.6
0.4
0.2

Sun rise Sun set 8 am 4 pm 9 am 3 pm


Irradiance (kW/m2)

1.2 7.7 h 6.9 h 5.7 h


1.0
0.8
0.6 Peak sun hours
0.4 100% 90% 74%
0.2

Ideal Acceptable May cause lack of power


(or needs more design margin)
PV Module 22

PV Module

Role of PV module
Type of PV module
I-V Curve
Voc, Isc, Vmp, Imp, Wp
Always obtain data sheet.
Output Power No datasheet, No quality
Protection Diodes
PV Module 23

Role of PV Module
PV module converts solar energy into electricity
Most reliable component in solar PV system (lasts over 20 years)
PV module consists of solar cells, front grass, frame, terminal box etc.
- Power generation part in PV module is Solar cell.
- Solar cell breaks easily and is sensitive to humidity.
Structural diagram
5. Frame
1. Solar cell
2. Front grass 6. Seal material

3. Encapsulation sheet 4. Back sheet 7. Terminal box


*EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) *Electrical insulation
*Resistance to water and UV light *Moisture resistance
PV Module 24

Type of PV Module
Three types of PV module are used for power system generally.
Crystalline type have been used and proven its reliability
Efficiency of unit cell is not the matter of concern
Whatever the cell efficiency, the output of a PV module is rated as Wattage
Dimension of PV module is larger if low efficiency cells are used
Amorphous PV module is almost double of size compare to crystalline PV module
One PV module has 36 series connected cells (for 12V system)
PV Module 25

I - V Curve
Unlike the other power generation devices, output voltage varies
Output current depends on what output voltage is used
Output power depends on what output voltage is used
Max. output power (rated Wp) is available only at Vmp point under STC
4.00 100.0
I-V Curve
Isc (Short circuit current)
90.0
3.50

80.0
3.00 Pm
(Max. Power Point) 70.0
Imp (Max. power current)
2.50
60.0
Current (A)

Power (W)
2.00 50.0

1.50
Power Curve 40.0

(Open circuit
30.0
voltage)
1.00
Voc 20.0
Vmp
0.50
(Max. power voltage) 10.0

0.00 0.0
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Voltage (V)
PV Module 26

Output of PV Module

Higher temperature reduces output voltage


approx. 2.2 mV / C per Cell
approx. 80 mV / C per 36-cell PV module
Higher irradiance increases output current
Rated output (Wp) does not mean actual output power at the site
Maximum power (P = I x V) depends on Irradiance (I) and Temperature (V)
Maximum power changes approx. 0.5 % / C,
100Wmp at 25 C 85Wmp at 55 C

1000W/m2
25C
5.00 5.00 5.00

46W 1200W/m2 1200W/m2, 60C 56W


50W 67W
4.00 4.00 4.00
55W 1000W/m2, 25C 55W
1000W/m2

Current (A)
3.00 800W/m2 , 45C
Current (A)

Current (A)

3.00 3.00 800W/m2 55W


25C

2.00 2.00 2.00 40W


45C 43W
60C
1.00 1.00 1.00

0.00 0.00 0.00


0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00

Voltage (V) Voltage (V) Voltage (V)


PV Module 27

Characteristic of I-V curve


I-V curve changes depending on temperature
Temperature Voc(t) = Voc + a ( t 25 )
0 25 50 75 100 [C]
a = -2.2 [mV/C] x Number of cells

7
Voc(t) = ?
6 t = 75 C , 36cells, Voc = 21.7 [V]
5
Current (A]

4 Voc(75) = Voc + a ( 75 25 )
3
= 21.7 0.0022 * 36 * 50
2
= 17.74 [V]
1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Voltage (V]
Voc(t) Voc
PV Module 28

Characteristic of I-V curve


I-V curve changes depending on irradiance

Irradiance Isc(irr) = Isc x irr / 1.0


(irr : irradiance [kW/m2] )
PV
Isc : Short circuit current at STC
8
Isc
7
Isc(0.8) = ?
6
Isc(irr)
5 Isc = 7.5 [A], irr = 0.8 [kW/m2]
Current (A]

3 Isc(0.8) = Isc x 0.8 / 1.0


2 = 7.5 x 0.8
1
= 6.0 [A]
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Voltage (V]
PV Module 29

Series & Parallel Connection

15A 720W

10A 640W

5A
PV module
80W

21V 63V 84V

4 modules in series by 2 strings in parallel 3 modules in series by 3 strings in parallel

Circuit
drawing
PV Module 30

Operation point

Output voltage and current of PV module shall be on I-V curve


Case 1: Connection of load Case 2: Connection of battery
I I
A A

PV V R PV V Vbat

Vbat=12V Vbat=14V
8 R=2W 8

7 7

6 6
R=5W
Current [A]

Current [A]
5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
Voltage [V] Voltage [V]
PV Module 31

Output Power

Output from PV module


(DC Electricity)

4.0 kWh/m2/day
Loss 20%
(dust, heat, etc.)

4 h/day x 150W x 0.8 = 480 Wh/day


Peak Sun hours Rated output Output efficiency Available PV Power
of PV module of PV module
PV Module 32

Bypass Diodes & Blocking Diodes

1.0 kW/m2 , 50C


8

Current (A)
4

0
0 5 10 15 20
Voltage (V)
Battery 33

Battery

Role of Battery Always obtain data sheet.


Profile of charging and discharging No datasheet, No quality
Specific gravity, Voltage
Charging efficiency
Cycle life and Depth of Discharge
Capacity
Maintenance
Electrolyte : to keep Level
to prevent Stratification
Electrode : to prevent Sulfation
Cell Voltage : to keep Equal cell voltage
Proper size
Series and Parallel Connection
Battery 34

Type of Lead-acid Batteries


HVD, LVD are Forget about the terms Deep Cycle type and Shallow Cycle type .
example only These will confuse you. The operation of solar PV system is shallow cycle operation.
Automotive Type Industrial Type
Flooded (Liquid) Available Available
Need to top up distilled water Low cost Durable
Durable Acceptable for small application Wide range of capacity
Relatively strong against overcharge Limited range of capacity (~150Ah) ( ~2000Ah, 2V unit )
(HVD ~14.4V) LVD: ~11.7V , HVD: ~14.4V LVD: ~11.5V , HVD: ~14.4V

Maintenance free (Liquid)


Easy to handle
Available Available
Weak against over charge
Acceptable for small application Recommended for small application
Need to use lower HVD than flooded
Good for maintenance free system Good for maintenance free system
type (~14.1V)
Need good charge controller to avoid Need good charge controller to avoid
No boost charging
overcharge overcharge
Limited range of capacity (~150Ah)
LVD: ~11.7V , HVD: ~14.1V LVD: ~11.5V , HVD: ~14.1V

Maintenance free (Gel)


Sealed Available
Easy to handle Recommended for small application
Weak against over charge Good for maintenance free system
Need to use lower HVD than flooded
N/A Need good charge controller to avoid
type (~14.1V) overcharge
No boost charging LVD: ~11.5V, HVD: ~14.1V
Limited range of capacity (~150Ah)
Battery 35

Profile of Battery Voltage

Voltage is always different at each stage


Voltage
Battery 36

Charging Efficiency

Battery can store electricity


However, there is a loss around 20%

Energy used for charging Obtained energy as discharge

100 Wh 80 % of 100 Wh 80 Wh

Loss 20%
Battery 37

Cycle Life

Shallow cycle operation prolong cycle life


Higher operating temperature reduces cycle life
Life becomes half every 10 C higher than 20 C
6 years at 20 C 3 years at 30 C 1.5 years at 40 C

0
10
2000
20
Depth of Discharge (%)

1400
30
40
700
50
60
70
400
80
90
100
0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250
Cycle Life
Battery 38

Battery Capacity

Batteries should come with data sheet


Always READ data sheet
No data sheet means substandard battery
Capacity at each discharge rates shall be indicated
Capacity is larger at longer discharge rate in same battery
Low discharge current Longer usage hours
One by one load (less current) is recommended
Switch on many loads at same time (more current) reduces usage
hours
Battery 39

How to read Capacity

A : 960Ah at 24h discharge rate [ 960Ah (C/24) ]


= Can draw 40A for 24hours till voltage becomes 1.85V/cell
B : 1200Ah at 120h discharge rate [ 1200Ah (C/120) ]
= Can draw 10A for 120hours till voltage becomes 1.85V/cell

Discharge rate
Duration of
discharge (hours)
Final voltage
Discharge is
Model No. stopped at this
voltage (Empty)

Capacity at each
A B discharge rate
(Ah)
Battery 40

Battery Capacity v.s. Discharge Rate

Discharge rate vs Capacity (VARTA 10 OPzS 1000)

1800
96h 120h 240h
1600
1400 48h
24h 72h

Capacity (Ah)
1200
1000 10h
800 5h
600
1h
400
200
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Discharge Rate (hours)

Capacity depends on Discharge rate


Battery 41

Maintenance of Electrolyte
( To keep Level )

Loss of Electrolyte occurs during operation


Water component Decrease
Acid component No change
To keep Electrolyte Level, Dry up, Adding unsuitable water
Compensate decreased water component are
Add distilled water ONLY Major Cause of DAMAGE
Do NOT add acid

Loss of Electrolyte Add distilled water ONLY


Do not exceed Max level
(Loss of Water component)
Max Max

Min acid acid acid acid acid acid acid Min


acid acid
acid acid acid
acid acid acid
acid acid acid
acid acid acid
acid acid acid
acid acid acid

acid acid acid acid acid acid acid


acid acid
acid acid acid
Battery 42

Maintenance of Electrolyte
( To Prevent Stratification )

Acid tend to accumulate in bottom area (Stratification)


To prevent Stratification,
Boost charging to mix electrolyte by bubbling
Shake battery to mix electrolyte (small battery only)

acid acid acid


acid acid
acid
acid
acid acid acid acid
acid
acid acid
acid acid acid acid
acid Boost charging to acid
acid Bubbling
acid
Homogeneous produce bubbles acid acid
acid
acid

Shaking
acid
acid acid
acid
acid acid
3cm
acid
acid acid acid acid acid acid
Lift one side to shake
Stratification
Battery 43

Maintenance of Electrode
( To Prevent Sulfation )

Sulfation occurs during discharge, it reverts the state during charging


When over discharged and/or left uncharged, sulfation develop crystals
Crystallized sulfation covers surface of electrode permanently
Active area of electrode is reduced Less capacity
To prevent Sulfation,
Do NOT over discharge
Do NOT leave battery uncharged Major Cause of
Charge battery immediately after discharge Short Life
Battery shall be fully charged daily

Specific gravity : High Specific gravity : Low Specific gravity : Low

Over Discharged
Discharge Left Uncharged
acid acid acid acid acid acid acid acid acid
acid acid
acid acid acid
acid acid acid
acid
acid

acid
acid acid acid
Charge acid
acid
X acid
acid

Revert Point of No Return


Sulfation Sulfation
(non-crystal/soft crystalline lead sulfate) (Hard crystalline lead sulfate)
Battery 44

Overuse
Electricity is generated by PV modules
Battery only stores electricity
Daily power consumption should be less than generated power
Daily power consumption is limited by PV module size and insolation
Battery capacity is not the matter
Overuse
[Generated available power] < [Power consumption]
Overuse occurs
Poor insolation (Cloudy, rain)
Larger Load (Additional load, longer usage hours)
How can I check overuse?
Case A : Charge controller does not show Full state during a day
- Accidental overuse. Cloudy or Rain, Special TV program, Party, etc.
- Reduce load usage time in half for a day
May need larger
Case B : Charge controller cut off load PV module
- Daily overuse. Battery is empty.
- Reduce load usage time in half till C/C shows Full state ( at least for a week )
Battery 45

Battery Size VS Over Use

Larger battery capacity allows shallower cycle operation Prolong cycle life
Larger battery capacity becomes disadvantage when over used

Battery is too large compare to PV size


50Wp, 50Ah 50Wp, 120Ah
25% Over use Normal use 25% Over use Normal use
Daily overuse (25% more
than Power generation)
100.0
100.0

80.0
80.0
State of Charge (%)

State of Charge (%)


60.0
60.0
50% loaduse
50% Saving
50% load
50% Saving use
saving by user saving by user
40.0 40.0

Load Accidental overuse Load Power


disconnect
out
by
disconnect
Power out
Charge controller
20.0 by Charge 20.0

controller Daily overuse (25% more


than Power generation) Not fully charged for long period Sulfation
0.0 0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Days Days
Charge Controller 46

Charge Controller

Always obtain data sheet.


Role of Charge controller No datasheet, No quality

Type of PV control
Set point voltage
Connecting sequence
Charge Controller 47

Functions of Charge Controller

Role of Charge controller


Charge controller protects batteries from Overcharge and Over discharge
Charge controller does NOT control/regulate current and voltage.
Over charge protection : Example of 12V system
Sense battery voltage
Battery voltage is high (fully charged, ~14.4V : High Voltage Disconnect, HVD)
Disconnect PV module from battery ( Stop Charging )
While battery voltage is not high (not fully charged, below 13.5V : High Voltage Reconnect, HVR)
Always connect PV module to battery ( Normal status for charging )
Over discharge protection :
Sense battery voltage
While battery voltage is not Low (ordinary status, above 12.5V : Low Voltage Reconnect, LVR)
Always connect Load to battery ( Normal status for discharging )
Battery voltage is Low (close to empty, below 11.5V : Low Voltage Disconnect, LVD)
Disconnect Load from battery ( Stop Discharging )
Charge Controller 48

Type of Charge Controller

Over charge protection :


Series Type : PV is disconnected as Open
Shunt Type : PV is disconnected as Shorted
PWM Type : PV is disconnected as Open/Shorted after controlling SW
Over discharge protection : Load is disconnected (open)

Series type : PV is Open Shunt type : PV is Shorted

Whats this?
Charge Controller 49

Type of Charge Controller

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) Type


Frequent switching on/off sequence (~100Hz ~) allow effective charging
Average current from PV is reduced and Voltage is kept to setting value.
(Pulse control)
Series and Shunt type charge controller are commercially available.

PWM type : SW is controlled for keeping the voltage .


Average current : I

VBat: terminal voltage of battery


VBat = V0 + I x R V0: Excitation voltage
I : Charging current
R: Internal resistance of battery
Charge Controller 50

Status of C/C (Series type)


Over charge Protection
When Battery voltage reached full (HVD), PV is disconnected
When Battery voltage decreased to HVR, PV is reconnected
Over discharge protection
When Battery voltage decreased beyond LVD, Load is disconnected
When Battery voltage recovered above LVR, Load is reconnected
Very important to know the status of C/C when monitoring/Troubleshooting
Charge Controller 51

Status of C/C (Shunt type)


Over charge Protection
When Battery voltage reached full (HVD), PV is shorted
When Battery voltage decreased to HVR, PV is reconnected
Over discharge protection
When Battery voltage decreased beyond LVD, Load is disconnected
When Battery voltage recovered above LVR, Load is reconnected

Off On Off On Off On Off


Switch

HVD 14.4
B
A
A'
HVR 13.0

LVR 12.5

Same voltage but different stage


of PV connection
LVD 11.5

Switch
On Off On
Charge Controller 52

Status of C/C (PWM type)


Over charge Protection
When Battery voltage reached full (HVD), SW is controlled
When Battery voltage decreased, SW is ON (No HVR)
Over discharge protection
When Battery voltage decreased beyond LVD, Load is disconnected
When Battery voltage recovered above LVR, Load is reconnected

On Control On Control On
Switch

HVD 14.4

A'
13.0

LVR 12.5

Same voltage but different stage


of PV connection
LVD 11.5

Switch
On Off On
Charge Controller 53

Set point voltages

Set point voltages are slightly different with each model


Choose right set point voltage with battery
Temperature compensation is necessary (built-in)
Approx. -3mV / C per cell
Approx. -0.18V at 12V battery when 10 C increased
For accurate control, Voltage drop between Battery and Charge
Controller shall be minimized (<0.1V, <0.05V per line)
Use proper model of charge controller (LVD) Use proper model of charge controller (HVD)
for each types of batteries for each types of batteries

Set Point Automotive Deep Cycle Deep Cycle


@ 20 C (Flooded) (Flooded) (Maintenance free)

HVD 14.4 14.4 14.1


HVR 13.0 13.0 13.0
LVR 12.6 12.6 12.6
LVD 11.7 11.5 11.5
Values are reference ONLY
Charge Controller 54

Connecting Sequence

Connecting / Disconnecting cables to C/C,


First Battery, Last Battery is the rule of the thumb

Connecting Sequence Disconnecting Sequence

Battery PV Load Load PV Battery


First Battery Last Battery

If battery is not connected,


high voltage (18-21V) of PV
module may damage
PV Load Load (Max input is ~14.5V)

Battery
DC Light 55

DC Lights
For SHS and BCS, DC lights are necessary
Available power is very limited
Electricity is very precious
High efficiency lights are necessary
Type of DC Lights
DC Fluorescent Light
Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL)
Cold Cathode Fluorescent Light (CCFL)
Halogen Light
LED
DC Light 56

Compact Fluorescent Light

Typical DC light used in SHS and BCS

There is a built-in inverter that converts 12 V DC into some hundreds volts of AC.

The fluorescent lights need AC. The device used in DC fluorescent light inverts DC into AC.
Sometimes the inverter is called ballast. However, original meaning of ballast is the device normally used in
conventional AC fluorescent light. It is a sort of choke coil. It does not change DC to AC.
Inspection & Monitoring 57

Parameters to be measured at monitoring

Battery Voltage Vcbat , Vbat


Battery Current Ibat (Positive = Charging, Negative = Discharging
PV Voltage Vcpv , Vpv
PV Current Ipv
Load Voltage Vcld , Vld
Load Current Ild
Vpv

Ipv Ild
Vcpv Vcld
C/ C Vld
Vcbat
Vpv and Vld are normally difficult to measure
You must evaluate the status of the system with
Ibat
these parameters
Do NOT disconnect components
You must understand the relations among
Do NOT measure Isc / Voc of PV module Vbat
parameters
Battery Pay attention to the direction of current flow
58

Thank you