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BC Well Testing & Reporting

Requirements

Reservoir Engineering
BC Oil and Gas Commission
March 2013
Presentation Outline

1) Drilling & Production Regulations 3) Annual Pressure Surveys


Pressure Testing Requirements Minimum Test Requirements
Gas Well Flow Testing Requirements Annual Pressure Survey Tips
Application for Modification
2) Well Testing & Reporting What Pools Require Testing This
Year?
Pressure Tests
Test Types 4) Website Orientation
PST Survey Report Form
On-line Forms & Tables
Common Questions
Wellbore & Formation Gradients
Data Quality
Flow Tests
Test Types
Deliverability Test Report
Common Questions
Clean Up Flows & Underbalanced
Drilling
Drilling and Production Regulations
Pressure Test Regulations
4
Section 73 Reservoir Pressure Measurements:
73 (1) Subject to subsection (5), a well permit holder must ensure that the static bottom hole pressure of
each completed zone of each of the permit holder's oil or gas wells is measured before initial oil or gas
production.

(2) Subject to subsection (6), a well permit holder must ensure that the static bottom hole pressure of
each of the permit holder's producing pools and observation wells is measured once every calendar year.

(3) A well permit holder must report all static bottom hole pressures and the duration of the resulting shut-
in period to the commission within 60 days after the date on which the pressures were measured.

(4) A well permit holder must ensure that, when static bottom hole pressures are measured, the surveyed
wells remain shut-in until the reservoir pressure has been attained in the well bore or until sufficient data
are available to permit the calculation of the reservoir pressure and, in the latter case, details of the
reservoir pressure calculations are included in the report required under subsection (3).

(5) Subsection (1) does not apply with respect to a well completed in an unconventional zone listed in
Schedule 2 if the commission has released, under section 17 of the Oil and Gas Activities Act General
Regulation, well reports and well data that include a static bottom hole pressure measurement from the
same unconventional zone within a 4 km radius measured from the wellhead of the well.

(6) Subsection (2) does not apply with respect to a well completed in an unconventional zone listed in
Schedule 2.
Pressure Test Regulations Continued
5
Schedule 2 Unconventional Zones:

Field Zone Name Distance (m)


Horn River Muskwa-Otter Park 100
Horn River Evie 100
Helmet Muskwa-Otter Park 100
Helmet Evie 100
Liard Basin Besa River 100
Northern Montney Montney 150
Northern Montney Doig Phosphate-Montney 150
Heritage Montney 150
Altares Doig Phosphate-Montney 150
Town Montney 150
Deep Basin Cadomin 150
Deep Basin Nikanassin 150
AOF Regulations
6
Section 63 Gas Well Tests:
63 (1) Subject to subsection (3), before 6 months have elapsed after a permit
holder has first placed a gas well on production, the permit holder must flow
test the well and determine the absolute open flow potential if
(a) the well is producing from a pool with suspected water drive, or
(b) the well is classified as an exploratory outpost well or exploratory
wildcat well.

(2) A permit holder must submit to the commission, within 60 days of the date
on which the operation concluded, a detailed report of
(a) any gas well flow test,
(b) any cleanup flow that results in burnable gas to the surface, and
(c) any underbalanced drilling that results in burnable gas to the surface.

(3) Subsection (1) does not apply with respect to a well completed in an
unconventional zone listed in Schedule 2.
Well Testing and Reporting Pressure Tests
PST Test Types
8
Static Gradient (SG) Acoustic Well Sound (AWS)
requires sufficient shut-in time used on oil wells
recommend leaving gauges on may be single or multi shot (to confirm
bottom stop for 30-60 minutes static conditions or as build-up)
to verify stable pressure

Cullender & Smith (CS) Diagnostic Fracture Fall-Off


surface pressure (DFFO)
measurements performed under injection conditions
valid for dry gas wells often requires pressure transient
not accepted for initial pressure analysis (PTA)

Pressure Gauge (PG) Drill Stem Test (DST)


bottom hole pressure okay for initial pressure if valid
measurements
build-up or fall-off tests
often requires pressure
transient analysis (PTA)
Reservoir Pressure Survey Test (PST) Report Form
9
Each pressure test submitted
requires a completed PST
Report form
download form and
instructions off the OGC
website

A complete PST package


should include:
raw pressure data
PTA analysis (where reqd)
details of all reservoir pressure
calculations including
extrapolations, assumptions,
etc.
Common PST Questions/Errors
10
Shut-in time must be reported! If SI time not listed on wireline report, please
determine. N/A or EXT are not valid SI times!
Only require one (complete) hardcopy of each PST package to be submitted to
the Victoria office.
If a SG immediately follows a build-up test, it is not necessary to submit two PST
summary forms. All data can be included on one PST form.
Its not necessary to extrapolate pressure data from recorder RD to MPP, but its
ok if you do.
For directional or horizontal wells, please report run depths in true vertical depth
(TVD). Watch the depth units... TVD or MD depths are often misquoted on
wireline reports.
Please use the Comments box on the PST Summary Form to convey additional
information which is useful in understanding the data.
The BC Way
OGC does not use a defined maximum rate of pressure increase
(kPa/hr) in its determination of a stabilized pressure test.
OGC does not define the required length of shut-in time for
pressure tests.
Wellbore & Formation Gradients
11
Typical Fluid Gradients
Gas: 0.02 2.5 kPa/m
Oil: 5.2 8.5 kPa/m
Water: 9.8 12.5 kPa/m

9 8 1 6 5

** Please report gradients that are representative of the actual fluid!


Non-Representative Wellbore Gradients
12
Example #1 - Gas reservoir with non-representative wellbore gradient:

When a change in gradient data is seen on a


SG test, it is often indicative of a liquid level
encountered in the wellbore.

However this gradient information may not be


not be representative of the liquid, as in this
example.

In this case, use best judgement to determine


the type of liquid (utilizing production data, test
notes, history of well, etc) and report the
appropriate gradient as the wellbore gradient
on the PST summary form.

For example, water would be ~ 9.8 kPa/m and


oil estimated with 7.5 kPa/m.

However, be careful of Bottom-Up static


gradient tests as these can report odd
gradient data on the bottom stop.

Remember to re-calculate LL based on the


appropriate gradients.
Uncertain Formation Gradients
13
Example #1 - Gas reservoir but no gas gradient seen on SG test:

Formation gradients represent the primary


produced fluid (gas, oil) from a zone.
Although not directly measured, SG data
collected within the wellbore can often be
used to determine the formation gradient.

To estimate a formation gradient where


wellbore gradient data is not representative of
the formation fluid (as in this example):
1) Use previous well test data if
available
2) Use offsetting well data from the same
pool, or
3) For gas formations, use data from the
Estimated Gas Gradients by Pressure
Range Table (available on our website).
For oil wells, assume 7.5kPa/m.
Data Quality
14

Pressures are used for pool mapping, well classification,


and reserves. The 2012 Regulation changes for the
unconventional areas greatly reduces pressure testing
requirements. Quality of testing is replacing quantity.
Accurate testing and reporting is important. Collecting
quality data is our goal.
Well Testing and Reporting Flow Tests
AOF Test Types
16

Single Point (SP) Flow after Flow (FAF)

Multi Point (MP) Clean Up (CU)*

4 Point Modified Under Balanced Drilling*


Isochronal (FMPI)
Well Deliverability Test Report Form
17
Each stand-alone flow test
submitted requires a completed
Well Deliverability Test Report
form
download form and instructions off
the OGC website

A complete package should


include:
complete set of field notes (or daily
production notes for in-line tests)
AOF calculations (for exploratory and
water drive wells only)
Sandface & Wellhead
Extended & Stabilized Rates
gas analysis
raw pressure data
PTA analysis (where reqd)
completed PST report form
Common AOF Questions/Errors
18
AOF tests are for gas wells only and only if the well is producing from a pool with
suspected waterdrive or for wells classified as Exploratory Outpost or Exploratory
Wildcat.
An AOF test is required within six months of a well being placed on initial
production. That does not (necessarily) mean within six producing months.
Once a well reports initial production, the clock is running.
In-line flow testing acceptable, avoids flaring.
If submitting an in-line flow test, please report only recent cumulative production
for zone.
Please indicate if gas produced during test was flared or conserved by checking
the appropriate box on the Deliverability form!
Single point tests acceptable, prefer multi-point
For low productivity zones, typically < 20 e3m3/d, then wellhead AOF only is
sufficient.
Remember to include a copy of the field notes (or corresponding production data
for in-line flows)
Must report all well deliverability tests.
Clean-Up Flows
19

For stand-alone clean-up flows where gas flaring occurs,


report volumes and rates on Deliverability form, noting it as a
CU TEST TYPE

If clean-up is immediately prior to and part of AOF test, do not


submit separate Deliverability form. Simply include clean up
volumes and report rates as a CU RATE
Underbalanced Drilling
20

For underbalanced drilling with significant gas flaring, please


submit a copy of the drilling field notes and a Deliverability
Report Form indicating test type as UBD.

On the form note only the NET gas rates and volumes
produced during drilling.
Annual Pool Pressure Survey
Minimum Annual Pressure Test Requirements
22
Minimum number of annual pressure tests for a(n):

Gas Pool = 25% of total wells in pool or,


50% of producing wells
(whichever is less)

Oil Pool = 25% of producing wells in pool


*These percentages represent a policy guideline only. In some cases a lesser number of tests
may be adequate, and staff may be consulted on individual cases.

*Unconventional wells in Schedule 2 areas do not require annual pressure testing.

*For all other pools, the OGC rounds up to the next whole number when calculating the
minimum number of pressure tests required. This means that single well pools need to be
tested annually unless otherwise approved.
Annual Pressure Survey Tips
23

Select wells that offer good pool coverage.


Plant shutdowns are an excellent time to collect annual pressure
survey data, often facilitating adequate SI time and no lost
production.
Suspended wells are also good test candidates.
Annual testing applies within the calendar year.
Initial pressure tests for development wells can be applied to the
minimum annual pool testing requirements.
The OGC may order additional tests other than the outlined
minimum.
Modification of Initial or Annual Pool Pressure Test Requirements

24
Where adequate pressure history exists, wells have low productivity, and/or there are few remaining
reserves in a pool, exemption from initial pressure testing or annual pressure testing of a pool may
be granted.

The assigned coordinating operator of a pool


may apply to have the annual pressure testing
requirement modified for that pool.

A list of assigned coordinating operators is


available on our website.

A modified testing interval of two or more years,


or a total exemption, may be granted.

The operator must provide sufficient


information to substantiate their request for
modification.

An application guideline is available on our


website as a reference.
What Pools Require Testing This Year?
25
Is the pool producing?

no yes

Is the pool listed in:


Pressure survey Pools with Non-Annual Pressure
NOT required. Survey Approval (Table 1)*?
(* available from the OGC website)

no yes

Table will specify either:


Annual pressure
a) the frequency of testing & which
survey required.
calendar year the next tests are due or,
b) that the pool is exempt from annual
pressure testing.
Pools with Non-Annual Pressure Survey Approval (Table 1)
26

This image is
page 1 of 5.
Please see our
website for the
complete table.
Coordinating Operators (Table 2)
27

Coordinating Operators have been


assigned to certain large multi-
operator pools for the purpose of
assisting in the collection of annual
pressure survey data. These
operators draft the testing schedule
for the pools but individual operators
are still responsible for ensuring
testing requirements are met. This
table can be found on our website.
Website Orientation
http://www.bcogc.ca/
Questions?

Please contact: Melanie McKinnon


Well Test Analyst
(250) 419-4433
melanie.mckinnon@bcogc.ca

or visit

www.bcogc.ca